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;;; subr.el --- basic lisp subroutines for Emacs
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;; Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1992, 1994, 1995, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003,
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;;   2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Maintainer: FSF
;; Keywords: internal

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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 3, or (at your option)
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;; any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the
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;; Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
;; Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
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;;; Commentary:

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;;; Code:
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(defvar custom-declare-variable-list nil
  "Record `defcustom' calls made before `custom.el' is loaded to handle them.
Each element of this list holds the arguments to one call to `defcustom'.")

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;; Use this, rather than defcustom, in subr.el and other files loaded
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;; before custom.el.
(defun custom-declare-variable-early (&rest arguments)
  (setq custom-declare-variable-list
	(cons arguments custom-declare-variable-list)))
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(defmacro declare-function (fn file &optional arglist fileonly)
  "Tell the byte-compiler that function FN is defined, in FILE.
Optional ARGLIST is the argument list used by the function.  The
FILE argument is not used by the byte-compiler, but by the
`check-declare' package, which checks that FILE contains a
definition for FN.  ARGLIST is used by both the byte-compiler and
`check-declare' to check for consistency.

FILE can be either a Lisp file (in which case the \".el\"
extension is optional), or a C file.  C files are expanded
relative to the Emacs \"src/\" directory.  Lisp files are
searched for using `locate-library', and if that fails they are
expanded relative to the location of the file containing the
declaration.  A FILE with an \"ext:\" prefix is an external file.
`check-declare' will check such files if they are found, and skip
them without error if they are not.

FILEONLY non-nil means that `check-declare' will only check that
FILE exists, not that it defines FN.  This is intended for
function-definitions that `check-declare' does not recognize, e.g.
`defstruct'.

To specify a value for FILEONLY without passing an argument list,
set ARGLIST to `t'.  This is necessary because `nil' means an
empty argument list, rather than an unspecified one.

Note that for the purposes of `check-declare', this statement
must be the first non-whitespace on a line, and everything up to
the end of FILE must be all on the same line.  For example:

\(declare-function c-end-of-defun \"progmodes/cc-cmds.el\"
                  \(&optional arg))

For more information, see Info node `elisp(Declaring Functions)'."
  ;; Does nothing - byte-compile-declare-function does the work.
  nil)
75

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;;;; Basic Lisp macros.
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(defalias 'not 'null)

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(defmacro noreturn (form)
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  "Evaluate FORM, expecting it not to return.
If FORM does return, signal an error."
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  `(prog1 ,form
     (error "Form marked with `noreturn' did return")))

(defmacro 1value (form)
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  "Evaluate FORM, expecting a constant return value.
This is the global do-nothing version.  There is also `testcover-1value'
that complains if FORM ever does return differing values."
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  form)

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(defmacro def-edebug-spec (symbol spec)
  "Set the `edebug-form-spec' property of SYMBOL according to SPEC.
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Both SYMBOL and SPEC are unevaluated.  The SPEC can be 0, t, a symbol
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\(naming a function), or a list."
  `(put (quote ,symbol) 'edebug-form-spec (quote ,spec)))

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(defmacro lambda (&rest cdr)
  "Return a lambda expression.
A call of the form (lambda ARGS DOCSTRING INTERACTIVE BODY) is
self-quoting; the result of evaluating the lambda expression is the
expression itself.  The lambda expression may then be treated as a
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function, i.e., stored as the function value of a symbol, passed to
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`funcall' or `mapcar', etc.
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ARGS should take the same form as an argument list for a `defun'.
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DOCSTRING is an optional documentation string.
 If present, it should describe how to call the function.
 But documentation strings are usually not useful in nameless functions.
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INTERACTIVE should be a call to the function `interactive', which see.
It may also be omitted.
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BODY should be a list of Lisp expressions.

\(fn ARGS [DOCSTRING] [INTERACTIVE] BODY)"
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  ;; Note that this definition should not use backquotes; subr.el should not
  ;; depend on backquote.el.
  (list 'function (cons 'lambda cdr)))

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(defmacro push (newelt listname)
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  "Add NEWELT to the list stored in the symbol LISTNAME.
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This is equivalent to (setq LISTNAME (cons NEWELT LISTNAME)).
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LISTNAME must be a symbol."
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  (declare (debug (form sexp)))
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  (list 'setq listname
	(list 'cons newelt listname)))
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(defmacro pop (listname)
  "Return the first element of LISTNAME's value, and remove it from the list.
LISTNAME must be a symbol whose value is a list.
If the value is nil, `pop' returns nil but does not actually
change the list."
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  (declare (debug (sexp)))
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  (list 'car
	(list 'prog1 listname
	      (list 'setq listname (list 'cdr listname)))))
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(defmacro when (cond &rest body)
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  "If COND yields non-nil, do BODY, else return nil.
When COND yields non-nil, eval BODY forms sequentially and return
value of last one, or nil if there are none.

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\(fn COND BODY...)"
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  (declare (indent 1) (debug t))
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  (list 'if cond (cons 'progn body)))
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(defmacro unless (cond &rest body)
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  "If COND yields nil, do BODY, else return nil.
When COND yields nil, eval BODY forms sequentially and return
value of last one, or nil if there are none.

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\(fn COND BODY...)"
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  (declare (indent 1) (debug t))
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  (cons 'if (cons cond (cons nil body))))
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(defvar --dolist-tail-- nil
  "Temporary variable used in `dolist' expansion.")

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(defmacro dolist (spec &rest body)
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  "Loop over a list.
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Evaluate BODY with VAR bound to each car from LIST, in turn.
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Then evaluate RESULT to get return value, default nil.

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\(fn (VAR LIST [RESULT]) BODY...)"
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  (declare (indent 1) (debug ((symbolp form &optional form) body)))
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  ;; It would be cleaner to create an uninterned symbol,
  ;; but that uses a lot more space when many functions in many files
  ;; use dolist.
  (let ((temp '--dolist-tail--))
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    `(let ((,temp ,(nth 1 spec))
	   ,(car spec))
       (while ,temp
	 (setq ,(car spec) (car ,temp))
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	 ,@body
	 (setq ,temp (cdr ,temp)))
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       ,@(if (cdr (cdr spec))
	     `((setq ,(car spec) nil) ,@(cdr (cdr spec)))))))
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(defvar --dotimes-limit-- nil
  "Temporary variable used in `dotimes' expansion.")

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(defmacro dotimes (spec &rest body)
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  "Loop a certain number of times.
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Evaluate BODY with VAR bound to successive integers running from 0,
inclusive, to COUNT, exclusive.  Then evaluate RESULT to get
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the return value (nil if RESULT is omitted).

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\(fn (VAR COUNT [RESULT]) BODY...)"
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  (declare (indent 1) (debug dolist))
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  ;; It would be cleaner to create an uninterned symbol,
  ;; but that uses a lot more space when many functions in many files
  ;; use dotimes.
  (let ((temp '--dotimes-limit--)
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	(start 0)
	(end (nth 1 spec)))
    `(let ((,temp ,end)
	   (,(car spec) ,start))
       (while (< ,(car spec) ,temp)
	 ,@body
	 (setq ,(car spec) (1+ ,(car spec))))
       ,@(cdr (cdr spec)))))
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(defmacro declare (&rest specs)
  "Do not evaluate any arguments and return nil.
Treated as a declaration when used at the right place in a
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`defmacro' form.  \(See Info anchor `(elisp)Definition of declare'.)"
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  nil)
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;;;; Basic Lisp functions.

(defun ignore (&rest ignore)
  "Do nothing and return nil.
This function accepts any number of arguments, but ignores them."
  (interactive)
  nil)

(defun error (&rest args)
  "Signal an error, making error message by passing all args to `format'.
In Emacs, the convention is that error messages start with a capital
letter but *do not* end with a period.  Please follow this convention
for the sake of consistency."
  (while t
    (signal 'error (list (apply 'format args)))))

;; We put this here instead of in frame.el so that it's defined even on
;; systems where frame.el isn't loaded.
(defun frame-configuration-p (object)
  "Return non-nil if OBJECT seems to be a frame configuration.
Any list whose car is `frame-configuration' is assumed to be a frame
configuration."
  (and (consp object)
       (eq (car object) 'frame-configuration)))

(defun functionp (object)
  "Non-nil if OBJECT is any kind of function or a special form.
Also non-nil if OBJECT is a symbol and its function definition is
\(recursively) a function or special form.  This does not include
macros."
  (or (and (symbolp object) (fboundp object)
	   (condition-case nil
	       (setq object (indirect-function object))
	     (error nil))
	   (eq (car-safe object) 'autoload)
	   (not (car-safe (cdr-safe (cdr-safe (cdr-safe (cdr-safe object)))))))
      (subrp object) (byte-code-function-p object)
      (eq (car-safe object) 'lambda)))

;;;; List functions.
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(defsubst caar (x)
  "Return the car of the car of X."
  (car (car x)))

(defsubst cadr (x)
  "Return the car of the cdr of X."
  (car (cdr x)))

(defsubst cdar (x)
  "Return the cdr of the car of X."
  (cdr (car x)))

(defsubst cddr (x)
  "Return the cdr of the cdr of X."
  (cdr (cdr x)))
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(defun last (list &optional n)
  "Return the last link of LIST.  Its car is the last element.
If LIST is nil, return nil.
If N is non-nil, return the Nth-to-last link of LIST.
If N is bigger than the length of LIST, return LIST."
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  (if n
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      (let ((m 0) (p list))
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	(while (consp p)
	  (setq m (1+ m) p (cdr p)))
	(if (<= n 0) p
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	  (if (< n m) (nthcdr (- m n) list) list)))
    (while (consp (cdr list))
      (setq list (cdr list)))
    list))
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(defun butlast (list &optional n)
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  "Return a copy of LIST with the last N elements removed."
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  (if (and n (<= n 0)) list
    (nbutlast (copy-sequence list) n)))
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(defun nbutlast (list &optional n)
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  "Modifies LIST to remove the last N elements."
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  (let ((m (length list)))
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    (or n (setq n 1))
    (and (< n m)
	 (progn
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	   (if (> n 0) (setcdr (nthcdr (- (1- m) n) list) nil))
	   list))))
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(defun delete-dups (list)
  "Destructively remove `equal' duplicates from LIST.
Store the result in LIST and return it.  LIST must be a proper list.
Of several `equal' occurrences of an element in LIST, the first
one is kept."
  (let ((tail list))
    (while tail
      (setcdr tail (delete (car tail) (cdr tail)))
      (setq tail (cdr tail))))
  list)

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(defun number-sequence (from &optional to inc)
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  "Return a sequence of numbers from FROM to TO (both inclusive) as a list.
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INC is the increment used between numbers in the sequence and defaults to 1.
So, the Nth element of the list is \(+ FROM \(* N INC)) where N counts from
zero.  TO is only included if there is an N for which TO = FROM + N * INC.
If TO is nil or numerically equal to FROM, return \(FROM).
If INC is positive and TO is less than FROM, or INC is negative
and TO is larger than FROM, return nil.
If INC is zero and TO is neither nil nor numerically equal to
FROM, signal an error.

This function is primarily designed for integer arguments.
Nevertheless, FROM, TO and INC can be integer or float.  However,
floating point arithmetic is inexact.  For instance, depending on
the machine, it may quite well happen that
\(number-sequence 0.4 0.6 0.2) returns the one element list \(0.4),
whereas \(number-sequence 0.4 0.8 0.2) returns a list with three
elements.  Thus, if some of the arguments are floats and one wants
to make sure that TO is included, one may have to explicitly write
TO as \(+ FROM \(* N INC)) or use a variable whose value was
computed with this exact expression.  Alternatively, you can,
of course, also replace TO with a slightly larger value
\(or a slightly more negative value if INC is negative)."
  (if (or (not to) (= from to))
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      (list from)
    (or inc (setq inc 1))
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    (when (zerop inc) (error "The increment can not be zero"))
    (let (seq (n 0) (next from))
      (if (> inc 0)
          (while (<= next to)
            (setq seq (cons next seq)
                  n (1+ n)
                  next (+ from (* n inc))))
        (while (>= next to)
          (setq seq (cons next seq)
                n (1+ n)
                next (+ from (* n inc)))))
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      (nreverse seq))))
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(defun copy-tree (tree &optional vecp)
  "Make a copy of TREE.
If TREE is a cons cell, this recursively copies both its car and its cdr.
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Contrast to `copy-sequence', which copies only along the cdrs.  With second
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argument VECP, this copies vectors as well as conses."
  (if (consp tree)
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      (let (result)
	(while (consp tree)
	  (let ((newcar (car tree)))
	    (if (or (consp (car tree)) (and vecp (vectorp (car tree))))
		(setq newcar (copy-tree (car tree) vecp)))
	    (push newcar result))
	  (setq tree (cdr tree)))
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	(nconc (nreverse result) tree))
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    (if (and vecp (vectorp tree))
	(let ((i (length (setq tree (copy-sequence tree)))))
	  (while (>= (setq i (1- i)) 0)
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	    (aset tree i (copy-tree (aref tree i) vecp)))
	  tree)
      tree)))
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;;;; Various list-search functions.
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(defun assoc-default (key alist &optional test default)
  "Find object KEY in a pseudo-alist ALIST.
ALIST is a list of conses or objects.  Each element (or the element's car,
if it is a cons) is compared with KEY by evaluating (TEST (car elt) KEY).
If that is non-nil, the element matches;
then `assoc-default' returns the element's cdr, if it is a cons,
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or DEFAULT if the element is not a cons.
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If no element matches, the value is nil.
If TEST is omitted or nil, `equal' is used."
  (let (found (tail alist) value)
    (while (and tail (not found))
      (let ((elt (car tail)))
	(when (funcall (or test 'equal) (if (consp elt) (car elt) elt) key)
	  (setq found t value (if (consp elt) (cdr elt) default))))
      (setq tail (cdr tail)))
    value))
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(make-obsolete 'assoc-ignore-case 'assoc-string)
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(defun assoc-ignore-case (key alist)
  "Like `assoc', but ignores differences in case and text representation.
KEY must be a string.  Upper-case and lower-case letters are treated as equal.
Unibyte strings are converted to multibyte for comparison."
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  (assoc-string key alist t))
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(make-obsolete 'assoc-ignore-representation 'assoc-string)
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(defun assoc-ignore-representation (key alist)
  "Like `assoc', but ignores differences in text representation.
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KEY must be a string.
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Unibyte strings are converted to multibyte for comparison."
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  (assoc-string key alist nil))
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(defun member-ignore-case (elt list)
  "Like `member', but ignores differences in case and text representation.
ELT must be a string.  Upper-case and lower-case letters are treated as equal.
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Unibyte strings are converted to multibyte for comparison.
Non-strings in LIST are ignored."
  (while (and list
	      (not (and (stringp (car list))
			(eq t (compare-strings elt 0 nil (car list) 0 nil t)))))
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    (setq list (cdr list)))
  list)
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(defun assq-delete-all (key alist)
  "Delete from ALIST all elements whose car is `eq' to KEY.
Return the modified alist.
Elements of ALIST that are not conses are ignored."
  (while (and (consp (car alist))
	      (eq (car (car alist)) key))
    (setq alist (cdr alist)))
  (let ((tail alist) tail-cdr)
    (while (setq tail-cdr (cdr tail))
      (if (and (consp (car tail-cdr))
	       (eq (car (car tail-cdr)) key))
	  (setcdr tail (cdr tail-cdr))
	(setq tail tail-cdr))))
  alist)

(defun rassq-delete-all (value alist)
  "Delete from ALIST all elements whose cdr is `eq' to VALUE.
Return the modified alist.
Elements of ALIST that are not conses are ignored."
  (while (and (consp (car alist))
	      (eq (cdr (car alist)) value))
    (setq alist (cdr alist)))
  (let ((tail alist) tail-cdr)
    (while (setq tail-cdr (cdr tail))
      (if (and (consp (car tail-cdr))
	       (eq (cdr (car tail-cdr)) value))
	  (setcdr tail (cdr tail-cdr))
	(setq tail tail-cdr))))
  alist)

(defun remove (elt seq)
  "Return a copy of SEQ with all occurrences of ELT removed.
SEQ must be a list, vector, or string.  The comparison is done with `equal'."
  (if (nlistp seq)
      ;; If SEQ isn't a list, there's no need to copy SEQ because
      ;; `delete' will return a new object.
      (delete elt seq)
    (delete elt (copy-sequence seq))))

(defun remq (elt list)
  "Return LIST with all occurrences of ELT removed.
The comparison is done with `eq'.  Contrary to `delq', this does not use
side-effects, and the argument LIST is not modified."
  (if (memq elt list)
      (delq elt (copy-sequence list))
    list))
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;;;; Keymap support.
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(defmacro kbd (keys)
  "Convert KEYS to the internal Emacs key representation.
KEYS should be a string constant in the format used for
saving keyboard macros (see `edmacro-mode')."
  (read-kbd-macro keys))

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(defun undefined ()
  (interactive)
  (ding))

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;; Prevent the \{...} documentation construct
;; from mentioning keys that run this command.
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(put 'undefined 'suppress-keymap t)

(defun suppress-keymap (map &optional nodigits)
  "Make MAP override all normally self-inserting keys to be undefined.
Normally, as an exception, digits and minus-sign are set to make prefix args,
but optional second arg NODIGITS non-nil treats them like other chars."
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  (define-key map [remap self-insert-command] 'undefined)
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  (or nodigits
      (let (loop)
	(define-key map "-" 'negative-argument)
	;; Make plain numbers do numeric args.
	(setq loop ?0)
	(while (<= loop ?9)
	  (define-key map (char-to-string loop) 'digit-argument)
	  (setq loop (1+ loop))))))

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(defun define-key-after (keymap key definition &optional after)
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  "Add binding in KEYMAP for KEY => DEFINITION, right after AFTER's binding.
This is like `define-key' except that the binding for KEY is placed
just after the binding for the event AFTER, instead of at the beginning
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of the map.  Note that AFTER must be an event type (like KEY), NOT a command
\(like DEFINITION).

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If AFTER is t or omitted, the new binding goes at the end of the keymap.
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AFTER should be a single event type--a symbol or a character, not a sequence.
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Bindings are always added before any inherited map.
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The order of bindings in a keymap matters when it is used as a menu."
  (unless after (setq after t))
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  (or (keymapp keymap)
      (signal 'wrong-type-argument (list 'keymapp keymap)))
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  (setq key
	(if (<= (length key) 1) (aref key 0)
	  (setq keymap (lookup-key keymap
				   (apply 'vector
					  (butlast (mapcar 'identity key)))))
	  (aref key (1- (length key)))))
  (let ((tail keymap) done inserted)
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    (while (and (not done) tail)
      ;; Delete any earlier bindings for the same key.
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      (if (eq (car-safe (car (cdr tail))) key)
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	  (setcdr tail (cdr (cdr tail))))
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      ;; If we hit an included map, go down that one.
      (if (keymapp (car tail)) (setq tail (car tail)))
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      ;; When we reach AFTER's binding, insert the new binding after.
      ;; If we reach an inherited keymap, insert just before that.
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      ;; If we reach the end of this keymap, insert at the end.
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      (if (or (and (eq (car-safe (car tail)) after)
		   (not (eq after t)))
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	      (eq (car (cdr tail)) 'keymap)
	      (null (cdr tail)))
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	  (progn
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	    ;; Stop the scan only if we find a parent keymap.
	    ;; Keep going past the inserted element
	    ;; so we can delete any duplications that come later.
	    (if (eq (car (cdr tail)) 'keymap)
		(setq done t))
	    ;; Don't insert more than once.
	    (or inserted
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		(setcdr tail (cons (cons key definition) (cdr tail))))
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	    (setq inserted t)))
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      (setq tail (cdr tail)))))

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(defun map-keymap-sorted (function keymap)
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  "Implement `map-keymap' with sorting.
Don't call this function; it is for internal use only."
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  (let (list)
    (map-keymap (lambda (a b) (push (cons a b) list))
                keymap)
    (setq list (sort list
                     (lambda (a b)
                       (setq a (car a) b (car b))
                       (if (integerp a)
                           (if (integerp b) (< a b)
                             t)
                         (if (integerp b) t
                           ;; string< also accepts symbols.
                           (string< a b))))))
    (dolist (p list)
      (funcall function (car p) (cdr p)))))
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(defun keymap-canonicalize (map)
  "Return an equivalent keymap, without inheritance."
  (let ((bindings ())
        (ranges ()))
    (while (keymapp map)
      (setq map (map-keymap-internal
                 (lambda (key item)
                   (if (consp key)
                       ;; Treat char-ranges specially.
                       (push (cons key item) ranges)
                     (push (cons key item) bindings)))
                 map)))
    (setq map (funcall (if ranges 'make-keymap 'make-sparse-keymap)
                       (keymap-prompt map)))
    (dolist (binding ranges)
      ;; Treat char-ranges specially.
      (define-key map (car binding) (cdr binding)))
    (dolist (binding (prog1 bindings (setq bindings ())))
      (let* ((key (car binding))
             (item (cdr binding))
             (oldbind (assq key bindings)))
        ;; Newer bindings override older.
        (if oldbind (setq bindings (delq oldbind bindings)))
        (when item                      ;nil bindings just hide older ones.
          (push binding bindings))))
    (nconc map bindings)))

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(put 'keyboard-translate-table 'char-table-extra-slots 0)

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(defun keyboard-translate (from to)
  "Translate character FROM to TO at a low level.
This function creates a `keyboard-translate-table' if necessary
and then modifies one entry in it."
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  (or (char-table-p keyboard-translate-table)
      (setq keyboard-translate-table
	    (make-char-table 'keyboard-translate-table nil)))
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  (aset keyboard-translate-table from to))

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;;;; Key binding commands.
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(defun global-set-key (key command)
  "Give KEY a global binding as COMMAND.
COMMAND is the command definition to use; usually it is
a symbol naming an interactively-callable function.
KEY is a key sequence; noninteractively, it is a string or vector
of characters or event types, and non-ASCII characters with codes
above 127 (such as ISO Latin-1) can be included if you use a vector.
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Note that if KEY has a local binding in the current buffer,
that local binding will continue to shadow any global binding
that you make with this function."
  (interactive "KSet key globally: \nCSet key %s to command: ")
  (or (vectorp key) (stringp key)
      (signal 'wrong-type-argument (list 'arrayp key)))
  (define-key (current-global-map) key command))
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(defun local-set-key (key command)
  "Give KEY a local binding as COMMAND.
COMMAND is the command definition to use; usually it is
a symbol naming an interactively-callable function.
KEY is a key sequence; noninteractively, it is a string or vector
of characters or event types, and non-ASCII characters with codes
above 127 (such as ISO Latin-1) can be included if you use a vector.
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The binding goes in the current buffer's local map,
which in most cases is shared with all other buffers in the same major mode."
  (interactive "KSet key locally: \nCSet key %s locally to command: ")
  (let ((map (current-local-map)))
    (or map
	(use-local-map (setq map (make-sparse-keymap))))
    (or (vectorp key) (stringp key)
	(signal 'wrong-type-argument (list 'arrayp key)))
    (define-key map key command)))
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(defun global-unset-key (key)
  "Remove global binding of KEY.
KEY is a string or vector representing a sequence of keystrokes."
  (interactive "kUnset key globally: ")
  (global-set-key key nil))
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(defun local-unset-key (key)
  "Remove local binding of KEY.
KEY is a string or vector representing a sequence of keystrokes."
  (interactive "kUnset key locally: ")
  (if (current-local-map)
      (local-set-key key nil))
  nil)

;;;; substitute-key-definition and its subroutines.

(defvar key-substitution-in-progress nil
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  "Used internally by `substitute-key-definition'.")
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(defun substitute-key-definition (olddef newdef keymap &optional oldmap prefix)
  "Replace OLDDEF with NEWDEF for any keys in KEYMAP now defined as OLDDEF.
In other words, OLDDEF is replaced with NEWDEF where ever it appears.
Alternatively, if optional fourth argument OLDMAP is specified, we redefine
in KEYMAP as NEWDEF those keys which are defined as OLDDEF in OLDMAP.

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If you don't specify OLDMAP, you can usually get the same results
in a cleaner way with command remapping, like this:
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  \(define-key KEYMAP [remap OLDDEF] NEWDEF)
\n(fn OLDDEF NEWDEF KEYMAP &optional OLDMAP)"
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  ;; Don't document PREFIX in the doc string because we don't want to
  ;; advertise it.  It's meant for recursive calls only.  Here's its
  ;; meaning

  ;; If optional argument PREFIX is specified, it should be a key
  ;; prefix, a string.  Redefined bindings will then be bound to the
  ;; original key, with PREFIX added at the front.
  (or prefix (setq prefix ""))
  (let* ((scan (or oldmap keymap))
	 (prefix1 (vconcat prefix [nil]))
	 (key-substitution-in-progress
	  (cons scan key-substitution-in-progress)))
    ;; Scan OLDMAP, finding each char or event-symbol that
    ;; has any definition, and act on it with hack-key.
    (map-keymap
     (lambda (char defn)
       (aset prefix1 (length prefix) char)
       (substitute-key-definition-key defn olddef newdef prefix1 keymap))
     scan)))

(defun substitute-key-definition-key (defn olddef newdef prefix keymap)
  (let (inner-def skipped menu-item)
    ;; Find the actual command name within the binding.
    (if (eq (car-safe defn) 'menu-item)
	(setq menu-item defn defn (nth 2 defn))
      ;; Skip past menu-prompt.
      (while (stringp (car-safe defn))
	(push (pop defn) skipped))
      ;; Skip past cached key-equivalence data for menu items.
      (if (consp (car-safe defn))
	  (setq defn (cdr defn))))
    (if (or (eq defn olddef)
	    ;; Compare with equal if definition is a key sequence.
	    ;; That is useful for operating on function-key-map.
	    (and (or (stringp defn) (vectorp defn))
		 (equal defn olddef)))
	(define-key keymap prefix
	  (if menu-item
	      (let ((copy (copy-sequence menu-item)))
		(setcar (nthcdr 2 copy) newdef)
		copy)
	    (nconc (nreverse skipped) newdef)))
      ;; Look past a symbol that names a keymap.
      (setq inner-def
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	    (or (indirect-function defn t) defn))
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      ;; For nested keymaps, we use `inner-def' rather than `defn' so as to
      ;; avoid autoloading a keymap.  This is mostly done to preserve the
      ;; original non-autoloading behavior of pre-map-keymap times.
      (if (and (keymapp inner-def)
	       ;; Avoid recursively scanning
	       ;; where KEYMAP does not have a submap.
	       (let ((elt (lookup-key keymap prefix)))
		 (or (null elt) (natnump elt) (keymapp elt)))
	       ;; Avoid recursively rescanning keymap being scanned.
	       (not (memq inner-def key-substitution-in-progress)))
	  ;; If this one isn't being scanned already, scan it now.
	  (substitute-key-definition olddef newdef keymap inner-def prefix)))))
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;;;; The global keymap tree.
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;;; global-map, esc-map, and ctl-x-map have their values set up in
;;; keymap.c; we just give them docstrings here.

(defvar global-map nil
  "Default global keymap mapping Emacs keyboard input into commands.
The value is a keymap which is usually (but not necessarily) Emacs's
global map.")

(defvar esc-map nil
  "Default keymap for ESC (meta) commands.
The normal global definition of the character ESC indirects to this keymap.")

(defvar ctl-x-map nil
  "Default keymap for C-x commands.
The normal global definition of the character C-x indirects to this keymap.")

(defvar ctl-x-4-map (make-sparse-keymap)
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  "Keymap for subcommands of C-x 4.")
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(defalias 'ctl-x-4-prefix ctl-x-4-map)
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(define-key ctl-x-map "4" 'ctl-x-4-prefix)

(defvar ctl-x-5-map (make-sparse-keymap)
  "Keymap for frame commands.")
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(defalias 'ctl-x-5-prefix ctl-x-5-map)
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(define-key ctl-x-map "5" 'ctl-x-5-prefix)

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;;;; Event manipulation functions.

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;; The call to `read' is to ensure that the value is computed at load time
;; and not compiled into the .elc file.  The value is negative on most
;; machines, but not on all!
(defconst listify-key-sequence-1 (logior 128 (read "?\\M-\\^@")))
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(defun listify-key-sequence (key)
  "Convert a key sequence to a list of events."
  (if (vectorp key)
      (append key nil)
    (mapcar (function (lambda (c)
			(if (> c 127)
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			    (logxor c listify-key-sequence-1)
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			  c)))
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	    key)))
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(defsubst eventp (obj)
  "True if the argument is an event object."
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  (or (and (integerp obj)
	   ;; Filter out integers too large to be events.
	   ;; M is the biggest modifier.
	   (zerop (logand obj (lognot (1- (lsh ?\M-\^@ 1)))))
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	   (characterp (event-basic-type obj)))
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      (and (symbolp obj)
	   (get obj 'event-symbol-elements))
      (and (consp obj)
	   (symbolp (car obj))
	   (get (car obj) 'event-symbol-elements))))

(defun event-modifiers (event)
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  "Return a list of symbols representing the modifier keys in event EVENT.
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The elements of the list may include `meta', `control',
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`shift', `hyper', `super', `alt', `click', `double', `triple', `drag',
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and `down'.
EVENT may be an event or an event type.  If EVENT is a symbol
that has never been used in an event that has been read as input
in the current Emacs session, then this function can return nil,
even when EVENT actually has modifiers."
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  (let ((type event))
    (if (listp type)
	(setq type (car type)))
    (if (symbolp type)
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        ;; Don't read event-symbol-elements directly since we're not
        ;; sure the symbol has already been parsed.
	(cdr (internal-event-symbol-parse-modifiers type))
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      (let ((list nil)
	    (char (logand type (lognot (logior ?\M-\^@ ?\C-\^@ ?\S-\^@
					       ?\H-\^@ ?\s-\^@ ?\A-\^@)))))
	(if (not (zerop (logand type ?\M-\^@)))
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	    (push 'meta list))
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	(if (or (not (zerop (logand type ?\C-\^@)))
		(< char 32))
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	    (push 'control list))
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	(if (or (not (zerop (logand type ?\S-\^@)))
		(/= char (downcase char)))
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	    (push 'shift list))
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	(or (zerop (logand type ?\H-\^@))
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	    (push 'hyper list))
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	(or (zerop (logand type ?\s-\^@))
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	    (push 'super list))
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	(or (zerop (logand type ?\A-\^@))
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	    (push 'alt list))
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	list))))

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(defun event-basic-type (event)
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  "Return the basic type of the given event (all modifiers removed).
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The value is a printing character (not upper case) or a symbol.
EVENT may be an event or an event type.  If EVENT is a symbol
that has never been used in an event that has been read as input
in the current Emacs session, then this function may return nil."
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  (if (consp event)
      (setq event (car event)))
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  (if (symbolp event)
      (car (get event 'event-symbol-elements))
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    (let* ((base (logand event (1- ?\A-\^@)))
	   (uncontrolled (if (< base 32) (logior base 64) base)))
      ;; There are some numbers that are invalid characters and
      ;; cause `downcase' to get an error.
      (condition-case ()
	  (downcase uncontrolled)
	(error uncontrolled)))))
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(defsubst mouse-movement-p (object)
  "Return non-nil if OBJECT is a mouse movement event."
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  (eq (car-safe object) 'mouse-movement))
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(defsubst event-start (event)
  "Return the starting position of EVENT.
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If EVENT is a mouse or key press or a mouse click, this returns the location
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of the event.
If EVENT is a drag, this returns the drag's starting position.
The return value is of the form
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   (WINDOW AREA-OR-POS (X . Y) TIMESTAMP OBJECT POS (COL . ROW)
    IMAGE (DX . DY) (WIDTH . HEIGHT))
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The `posn-' functions access elements of such lists."
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  (if (consp event) (nth 1 event)
    (list (selected-window) (point) '(0 . 0) 0)))
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(defsubst event-end (event)
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  "Return the ending location of EVENT.
EVENT should be a click, drag, or key press event.
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If EVENT is a click event, this function is the same as `event-start'.
The return value is of the form
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   (WINDOW AREA-OR-POS (X . Y) TIMESTAMP OBJECT POS (COL . ROW)
    IMAGE (DX . DY) (WIDTH . HEIGHT))
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The `posn-' functions access elements of such lists."
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  (if (consp event) (nth (if (consp (nth 2 event)) 2 1) event)
    (list (selected-window) (point) '(0 . 0) 0)))
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(defsubst event-click-count (event)
  "Return the multi-click count of EVENT, a click or drag event.
The return value is a positive integer."
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  (if (and (consp event) (integerp (nth 2 event))) (nth 2 event) 1))
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;;;; Extracting fields of the positions in an event.
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(defsubst posn-window (position)
  "Return the window in POSITION.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
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  (nth 0 position))

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(defsubst posn-area (position)
  "Return the window area recorded in POSITION, or nil for the text area.
POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (let ((area (if (consp (nth 1 position))
		  (car (nth 1 position))
		(nth 1 position))))
    (and (symbolp area) area)))

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(defsubst posn-point (position)
  "Return the buffer location in POSITION.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (or (nth 5 position)
      (if (consp (nth 1 position))
	  (car (nth 1 position))
	(nth 1 position))))

(defun posn-set-point (position)
  "Move point to POSITION.
Select the corresponding window as well."
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  (if (not (windowp (posn-window position)))
      (error "Position not in text area of window"))
  (select-window (posn-window position))
  (if (numberp (posn-point position))
      (goto-char (posn-point position))))
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(defsubst posn-x-y (position)
  "Return the x and y coordinates in POSITION.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
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  (nth 2 position))

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(defun posn-col-row (position)
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  "Return the nominal column and row in POSITION, measured in characters.
The column and row values are approximations calculated from the x
and y coordinates in POSITION and the frame's default character width
and height.
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For a scroll-bar event, the result column is 0, and the row
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corresponds to the vertical position of the click in the scroll bar.
POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (let* ((pair   (posn-x-y position))
	 (window (posn-window position))
	 (area   (posn-area position)))
    (cond
     ((null window)
      '(0 . 0))
     ((eq area 'vertical-scroll-bar)
      (cons 0 (scroll-bar-scale pair (1- (window-height window)))))
     ((eq area 'horizontal-scroll-bar)
      (cons (scroll-bar-scale pair (window-width window)) 0))
     (t
      (let* ((frame (if (framep window) window (window-frame window)))
	     (x (/ (car pair) (frame-char-width frame)))
	     (y (/ (cdr pair) (+ (frame-char-height frame)
				 (or (frame-parameter frame 'line-spacing)
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                                     ;; FIXME: Why the `default'?
				     (default-value 'line-spacing)
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				     0)))))
	(cons x y))))))

(defun posn-actual-col-row (position)
  "Return the actual column and row in POSITION, measured in characters.
These are the actual row number in the window and character number in that row.
Return nil if POSITION does not contain the actual position; in that case
`posn-col-row' can be used to get approximate values.
POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (nth 6 position))
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(defsubst posn-timestamp (position)
  "Return the timestamp of POSITION.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
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  (nth 3 position))
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(defsubst posn-string (position)
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  "Return the string object of POSITION.
Value is a cons (STRING . STRING-POS), or nil if not a string.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (nth 4 position))

(defsubst posn-image (position)
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  "Return the image object of POSITION.
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Value is a list (image ...), or nil if not an image.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (nth 7 position))

(defsubst posn-object (position)
  "Return the object (image or string) of POSITION.
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Value is a list (image ...) for an image object, a cons cell
\(STRING . STRING-POS) for a string object, and nil for a buffer position.
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POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (or (posn-image position) (posn-string position)))

(defsubst posn-object-x-y (position)
  "Return the x and y coordinates relative to the object of POSITION.
POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (nth 8 position))

(defsubst posn-object-width-height (position)
  "Return the pixel width and height of the object of POSITION.
POSITION should be a list of the form returned by the `event-start'
and `event-end' functions."
  (nth 9 position))

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;;;; Obsolescent names for functions.

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(define-obsolete-function-alias 'window-dot 'window-point "22.1")
(define-obsolete-function-alias 'set-window-dot 'set-window-point "22.1")
(define-obsolete-function-alias 'read-input 'read-string "22.1")
(define-obsolete-function-alias 'show-buffer 'set-window-buffer "22.1")
(define-obsolete-function-alias 'eval-current-buffer 'eval-buffer "22.1")
(define-obsolete-function-alias 'string-to-int 'string-to-number "22.1")
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(make-obsolete 'char-bytes "now always returns 1." "20.4")
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(defun insert-string (&rest args)
  "Mocklisp-compatibility insert function.
Like the function `insert' except that any argument that is a number
is converted into a string by expressing it in decimal."
  (dolist (el args)
    (insert (if (integerp el) (number-to-string el) el))))
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(make-obsolete 'insert-string 'insert "22.1")
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(defun makehash (&optional test) (make-hash-table :test (or test 'eql)))
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(make-obsolete 'makehash 'make-hash-table "22.1")
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;; Some programs still use this as a function.
(defun baud-rate ()
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  "Return the value of the `baud-rate' variable."
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  baud-rate)
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(make-obsolete 'baud-rate "use the `baud-rate' variable instead." "before 19.15")
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;; These are used by VM and some old programs
(defalias 'focus-frame 'ignore "")
(make-obsolete 'focus-frame "it does nothing." "22.1")
(defalias 'unfocus-frame 'ignore "")
(make-obsolete 'unfocus-frame "it does nothing." "22.1")
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(make-obsolete 'make-variable-frame-local "use a frame-parameter instead." "22.2")
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;;;; Obsolescence declarations for variables, and aliases.
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(make-obsolete-variable 'redisplay-end-trigger-functions 'jit-lock-register "23.1")
(make-obsolete 'window-redisplay-end-trigger nil "23.1")
(make-obsolete 'set-window-redisplay-end-trigger nil "23.1")

(make-obsolete 'process-filter-multibyte-p nil "23.1")
(make-obsolete 'set-process-filter-multibyte nil "23.1")

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(make-obsolete-variable 'directory-sep-char "do not use it." "21.1")
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(make-obsolete-variable
 'mode-line-inverse-video
 "use the appropriate faces instead."
 "21.1")
(make-obsolete-variable
 'unread-command-char
 "use `unread-command-events' instead.  That variable is a list of events
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to reread, so it now uses nil to mean `no event', instead of -1."
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 "before 19.15")
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;; Lisp manual only updated in 22.1.
(define-obsolete-variable-alias 'executing-macro 'executing-kbd-macro
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  "before 19.34")
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(defvaralias 'x-lost-selection-hooks 'x-lost-selection-functions)
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(make-obsolete-variable 'x-lost-selection-hooks
			'x-lost-selection-functions "22.1")
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(defvaralias 'x-sent-selection-hooks 'x-sent-selection-functions)
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(make-obsolete-variable 'x-sent-selection-hooks
			'x-sent-selection-functions "22.1")
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(