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/* File IO for GNU Emacs.
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   Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1993, 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.  */

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#include <config.h>
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#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
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#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h>
#endif

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#if !defined (S_ISLNK) && defined (S_IFLNK)
#  define S_ISLNK(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFLNK)
#endif

#if !defined (S_ISREG) && defined (S_IFREG)
#  define S_ISREG(m) (((m) & S_IFMT) == S_IFREG)
#endif

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#ifdef VMS
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#include "vms-pwd.h"
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#else
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#include <pwd.h>
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#endif

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#ifdef MSDOS
#include "msdos.h"
#include <sys/param.h>
#endif

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#include <ctype.h>
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#ifdef VMS
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#include "vmsdir.h"
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#include <perror.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <string.h>
#endif

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#include <errno.h>

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#ifndef vax11c
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extern int errno;
#endif

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extern char *strerror ();
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#ifdef APOLLO
#include <sys/time.h>
#endif

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#ifndef USG
#ifndef VMS
#ifndef BSD4_1
#define HAVE_FSYNC
#endif
#endif
#endif

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#include "lisp.h"
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#include "intervals.h"
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#include "buffer.h"
#include "window.h"

#ifdef VMS
#include <file.h>
#include <rmsdef.h>
#include <fab.h>
#include <nam.h>
#endif

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#include "systime.h"
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#ifdef HPUX
#include <netio.h>
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#ifndef HPUX8
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#ifndef HPUX9
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#include <errnet.h>
#endif
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#endif
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#endif
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#ifndef O_WRONLY
#define O_WRONLY 1
#endif

#define min(a, b) ((a) < (b) ? (a) : (b))
#define max(a, b) ((a) > (b) ? (a) : (b))

/* Nonzero during writing of auto-save files */
int auto_saving;

/* Set by auto_save_1 to mode of original file so Fwrite_region will create
   a new file with the same mode as the original */
int auto_save_mode_bits;

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/* Alist of elements (REGEXP . HANDLER) for file names 
   whose I/O is done with a special handler.  */
Lisp_Object Vfile_name_handler_alist;

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/* Functions to be called to process text properties in inserted file.  */
Lisp_Object Vafter_insert_file_functions;

/* Functions to be called to create text property annotations for file.  */
Lisp_Object Vwrite_region_annotate_functions;

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/* Nonzero means, when reading a filename in the minibuffer,
 start out by inserting the default directory into the minibuffer. */
int insert_default_directory;

/* On VMS, nonzero means write new files with record format stmlf.
   Zero means use var format.  */
int vms_stmlf_recfm;

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/* These variables describe handlers that have "already" had a chance
   to handle the current operation.

   Vinhibit_file_name_handlers is a list of file name handlers.
   Vinhibit_file_name_operation is the operation being handled.
   If we try to handle that operation, we ignore those handlers.  */

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static Lisp_Object Vinhibit_file_name_handlers;
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static Lisp_Object Vinhibit_file_name_operation;
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Lisp_Object Qfile_error, Qfile_already_exists;

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Lisp_Object Qfile_name_history;

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Lisp_Object Qcar_less_than_car;

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report_file_error (string, data)
     char *string;
     Lisp_Object data;
{
  Lisp_Object errstring;

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  errstring = build_string (strerror (errno));
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  /* System error messages are capitalized.  Downcase the initial
     unless it is followed by a slash.  */
  if (XSTRING (errstring)->data[1] != '/')
    XSTRING (errstring)->data[0] = DOWNCASE (XSTRING (errstring)->data[0]);

  while (1)
    Fsignal (Qfile_error,
	     Fcons (build_string (string), Fcons (errstring, data)));
}
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close_file_unwind (fd)
     Lisp_Object fd;
{
  close (XFASTINT (fd));
}
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/* Restore point, having saved it as a marker.  */

restore_point_unwind (location)
     Lisp_Object location; 
{
  SET_PT (marker_position (location));
  Fset_marker (location, Qnil, Qnil);
}
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Lisp_Object Qexpand_file_name;
Lisp_Object Qdirectory_file_name;
Lisp_Object Qfile_name_directory;
Lisp_Object Qfile_name_nondirectory;
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Lisp_Object Qunhandled_file_name_directory;
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Lisp_Object Qfile_name_as_directory;
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Lisp_Object Qcopy_file;
Lisp_Object Qmake_directory;
Lisp_Object Qdelete_directory;
Lisp_Object Qdelete_file;
Lisp_Object Qrename_file;
Lisp_Object Qadd_name_to_file;
Lisp_Object Qmake_symbolic_link;
Lisp_Object Qfile_exists_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_executable_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_readable_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_symlink_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_writable_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_directory_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_accessible_directory_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_modes;
Lisp_Object Qset_file_modes;
Lisp_Object Qfile_newer_than_file_p;
Lisp_Object Qinsert_file_contents;
Lisp_Object Qwrite_region;
Lisp_Object Qverify_visited_file_modtime;
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Lisp_Object Qset_visited_file_modtime;
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DEFUN ("find-file-name-handler", Ffind_file_name_handler, Sfind_file_name_handler, 2, 2, 0,
  "Return FILENAME's handler function for OPERATION, if it has one.\n\
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Otherwise, return nil.\n\
A file name is handled if one of the regular expressions in\n\
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`file-name-handler-alist' matches it.\n\n\
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If OPERATION equals `inhibit-file-name-operation', then we ignore\n\
any handlers that are members of `inhibit-file-name-handlers',\n\
but we still do run any other handlers.  This lets handlers\n\
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use the standard functions without calling themselves recursively.")
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  (filename, operation)
    Lisp_Object filename, operation;
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{
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  /* This function must not munge the match data.  */
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  Lisp_Object chain, inhibited_handlers;
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  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);

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  if (EQ (operation, Vinhibit_file_name_operation))
    inhibited_handlers = Vinhibit_file_name_handlers;
  else
    inhibited_handlers = Qnil;
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  for (chain = Vfile_name_handler_alist; XTYPE (chain) == Lisp_Cons;
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       chain = XCONS (chain)->cdr)
    {
      Lisp_Object elt;
      elt = XCONS (chain)->car;
      if (XTYPE (elt) == Lisp_Cons)
	{
	  Lisp_Object string;
	  string = XCONS (elt)->car;
	  if (XTYPE (string) == Lisp_String
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	      && fast_string_match (string, filename) >= 0)
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	    {
	      Lisp_Object handler, tem;

	      handler = XCONS (elt)->cdr;
	      tem = Fmemq (handler, inhibited_handlers);
	      if (NILP (tem))
		return handler;
	    }
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	}
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      QUIT;
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    }
  return Qnil;
}

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DEFUN ("file-name-directory", Ffile_name_directory, Sfile_name_directory,
  1, 1, 0,
  "Return the directory component in file name NAME.\n\
Return nil if NAME does not include a directory.\n\
Otherwise return a directory spec.\n\
Given a Unix syntax file name, returns a string ending in slash;\n\
on VMS, perhaps instead a string ending in `:', `]' or `>'.")
  (file)
     Lisp_Object file;
{
  register unsigned char *beg;
  register unsigned char *p;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (file, 0);

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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = Ffind_file_name_handler (file, Qfile_name_directory);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qfile_name_directory, file);

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#ifdef FILE_SYSTEM_CASE
  file = FILE_SYSTEM_CASE (file);
#endif
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  beg = XSTRING (file)->data;
  p = beg + XSTRING (file)->size;

  while (p != beg && p[-1] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
	 && p[-1] != ':' && p[-1] != ']' && p[-1] != '>'
#endif /* VMS */
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#ifdef MSDOS
	 && p[-1] != ':'
#endif
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	 ) p--;

  if (p == beg)
    return Qnil;
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#ifdef MSDOS
  /* Expansion of "c:" to drive and default directory.  */
  if (p == beg + 2 && beg[1] == ':')
    {
      int drive = (*beg) - 'a';
      /* MAXPATHLEN+1 is guaranteed to be enough space for getdefdir.  */
      unsigned char *res = alloca (MAXPATHLEN + 5);
      if (getdefdir (drive + 1, res + 2)) 
	{
	  res[0] = drive + 'a';
	  res[1] = ':';
	  if (res[strlen (res) - 1] != '/')
	    strcat (res, "/");
	  beg = res;
	  p = beg + strlen (beg);
	}
    }
#endif
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  return make_string (beg, p - beg);
}

DEFUN ("file-name-nondirectory", Ffile_name_nondirectory, Sfile_name_nondirectory,
  1, 1, 0,
  "Return file name NAME sans its directory.\n\
For example, in a Unix-syntax file name,\n\
this is everything after the last slash,\n\
or the entire name if it contains no slash.")
  (file)
     Lisp_Object file;
{
  register unsigned char *beg, *p, *end;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (file, 0);

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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = Ffind_file_name_handler (file, Qfile_name_nondirectory);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qfile_name_nondirectory, file);

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  beg = XSTRING (file)->data;
  end = p = beg + XSTRING (file)->size;

  while (p != beg && p[-1] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
	 && p[-1] != ':' && p[-1] != ']' && p[-1] != '>'
#endif /* VMS */
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#ifdef MSDOS
	 && p[-1] != ':'
#endif
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	 ) p--;

  return make_string (p, end - p);
}
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DEFUN ("unhandled-file-name-directory", Funhandled_file_name_directory, Sunhandled_file_name_directory, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return a directly usable directory name somehow associated with FILENAME.\n\
A `directly usable' directory name is one that may be used without the\n\
intervention of any file handler.\n\
If FILENAME is a directly usable file itself, return\n\
(file-name-directory FILENAME).\n\
The `call-process' and `start-process' functions use this function to\n\
get a current directory to run processes in.")
  (filename)
    Lisp_Object filename;
{
  Lisp_Object handler;

  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = Ffind_file_name_handler (filename, Qunhandled_file_name_directory);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qunhandled_file_name_directory, filename);

  return Ffile_name_directory (filename);
}

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char *
file_name_as_directory (out, in)
     char *out, *in;
{
  int size = strlen (in) - 1;

  strcpy (out, in);

#ifdef VMS
  /* Is it already a directory string? */
  if (in[size] == ':' || in[size] == ']' || in[size] == '>')
    return out;
  /* Is it a VMS directory file name?  If so, hack VMS syntax.  */
  else if (! index (in, '/')
	   && ((size > 3 && ! strcmp (&in[size - 3], ".DIR"))
	       || (size > 3 && ! strcmp (&in[size - 3], ".dir"))
	       || (size > 5 && (! strncmp (&in[size - 5], ".DIR", 4)
				|| ! strncmp (&in[size - 5], ".dir", 4))
		   && (in[size - 1] == '.' || in[size - 1] == ';')
		   && in[size] == '1')))
    {
      register char *p, *dot;
      char brack;

      /* x.dir -> [.x]
	 dir:x.dir --> dir:[x]
	 dir:[x]y.dir --> dir:[x.y] */
      p = in + size;
      while (p != in && *p != ':' && *p != '>' && *p != ']') p--;
      if (p != in)
	{
	  strncpy (out, in, p - in);
	  out[p - in] = '\0';
	  if (*p == ':')
	    {
	      brack = ']';
	      strcat (out, ":[");
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      brack = *p;
	      strcat (out, ".");
	    }
	  p++;
	}
      else
	{
	  brack = ']';
	  strcpy (out, "[.");
	}
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      dot = index (p, '.');
      if (dot)
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	{
	  /* blindly remove any extension */
	  size = strlen (out) + (dot - p);
	  strncat (out, p, dot - p);
	}
      else
	{
	  strcat (out, p);
	  size = strlen (out);
	}
      out[size++] = brack;
      out[size] = '\0';
    }
#else /* not VMS */
  /* For Unix syntax, Append a slash if necessary */
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#ifdef MSDOS
  if (out[size] != ':' && out[size] != '/')
#else
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  if (out[size] != '/')
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#endif
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    strcat (out, "/");
#endif /* not VMS */
  return out;
}

DEFUN ("file-name-as-directory", Ffile_name_as_directory,
       Sfile_name_as_directory, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return a string representing file FILENAME interpreted as a directory.\n\
This operation exists because a directory is also a file, but its name as\n\
a directory is different from its name as a file.\n\
The result can be used as the value of `default-directory'\n\
or passed as second argument to `expand-file-name'.\n\
For a Unix-syntax file name, just appends a slash.\n\
On VMS, converts \"[X]FOO.DIR\" to \"[X.FOO]\", etc.")
  (file)
     Lisp_Object file;
{
  char *buf;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (file, 0);
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  if (NILP (file))
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    return Qnil;
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = Ffind_file_name_handler (file, Qfile_name_as_directory);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qfile_name_as_directory, file);

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  buf = (char *) alloca (XSTRING (file)->size + 10);
  return build_string (file_name_as_directory (buf, XSTRING (file)->data));
}

/*
 * Convert from directory name to filename.
 * On VMS:
 *       xyzzy:[mukesh.emacs] => xyzzy:[mukesh]emacs.dir.1
 *       xyzzy:[mukesh] => xyzzy:[000000]mukesh.dir.1
 * On UNIX, it's simple: just make sure there is a terminating /

 * Value is nonzero if the string output is different from the input.
 */

directory_file_name (src, dst)
     char *src, *dst;
{
  long slen;
#ifdef VMS
  long rlen;
  char * ptr, * rptr;
  char bracket;
  struct FAB fab = cc$rms_fab;
  struct NAM nam = cc$rms_nam;
  char esa[NAM$C_MAXRSS];
#endif /* VMS */

  slen = strlen (src);
#ifdef VMS
  if (! index (src, '/')
      && (src[slen - 1] == ']'
	  || src[slen - 1] == ':'
	  || src[slen - 1] == '>'))
    {
      /* VMS style - convert [x.y.z] to [x.y]z, [x] to [000000]x */
      fab.fab$l_fna = src;
      fab.fab$b_fns = slen;
      fab.fab$l_nam = &nam;
      fab.fab$l_fop = FAB$M_NAM;

      nam.nam$l_esa = esa;
      nam.nam$b_ess = sizeof esa;
      nam.nam$b_nop |= NAM$M_SYNCHK;

      /* We call SYS$PARSE to handle such things as [--] for us. */
      if (SYS$PARSE(&fab, 0, 0) == RMS$_NORMAL)
	{
	  slen = nam.nam$b_esl;
	  if (esa[slen - 1] == ';' && esa[slen - 2] == '.')
	    slen -= 2;
	  esa[slen] = '\0';
	  src = esa;
	}
      if (src[slen - 1] != ']' && src[slen - 1] != '>')
	{
	  /* what about when we have logical_name:???? */
	  if (src[slen - 1] == ':')
	    {			/* Xlate logical name and see what we get */
	      ptr = strcpy (dst, src); /* upper case for getenv */
	      while (*ptr)
		{
		  if ('a' <= *ptr && *ptr <= 'z')
		    *ptr -= 040;
		  ptr++;
		}
	      dst[slen - 1] = 0;	/* remove colon */
	      if (!(src = egetenv (dst)))
		return 0;
	      /* should we jump to the beginning of this procedure?
		 Good points: allows us to use logical names that xlate
		 to Unix names,
		 Bad points: can be a problem if we just translated to a device
		 name...
		 For now, I'll punt and always expect VMS names, and hope for
		 the best! */
	      slen = strlen (src);
	      if (src[slen - 1] != ']' && src[slen - 1] != '>')
		{ /* no recursion here! */
		  strcpy (dst, src);
		  return 0;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {		/* not a directory spec */
	      strcpy (dst, src);
	      return 0;
	    }
	}
      bracket = src[slen - 1];

      /* If bracket is ']' or '>', bracket - 2 is the corresponding
	 opening bracket.  */
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      ptr = index (src, bracket - 2);
      if (ptr == 0)
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	{ /* no opening bracket */
	  strcpy (dst, src);
	  return 0;
	}
      if (!(rptr = rindex (src, '.')))
	rptr = ptr;
      slen = rptr - src;
      strncpy (dst, src, slen);
      dst[slen] = '\0';
      if (*rptr == '.')
	{
	  dst[slen++] = bracket;
	  dst[slen] = '\0';
	}
      else
	{
	  /* If we have the top-level of a rooted directory (i.e. xx:[000000]),
	     then translate the device and recurse. */
	  if (dst[slen - 1] == ':'
	      && dst[slen - 2] != ':'	/* skip decnet nodes */
	      && strcmp(src + slen, "[000000]") == 0)
	    {
	      dst[slen - 1] = '\0';
	      if ((ptr = egetenv (dst))
		  && (rlen = strlen (ptr) - 1) > 0
		  && (ptr[rlen] == ']' || ptr[rlen] == '>')
		  && ptr[rlen - 1] == '.')
		{
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		  char * buf = (char *) alloca (strlen (ptr) + 1);
		  strcpy (buf, ptr);
		  buf[rlen - 1] = ']';
		  buf[rlen] = '\0';
		  return directory_file_name (buf, dst);
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		}
	      else
		dst[slen - 1] = ':';
	    }
	  strcat (dst, "[000000]");
	  slen += 8;
	}
      rptr++;
      rlen = strlen (rptr) - 1;
      strncat (dst, rptr, rlen);
      dst[slen + rlen] = '\0';
      strcat (dst, ".DIR.1");
      return 1;
    }
#endif /* VMS */
  /* Process as Unix format: just remove any final slash.
     But leave "/" unchanged; do not change it to "".  */
  strcpy (dst, src);
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  if (slen > 1 
      && dst[slen - 1] == '/'
#ifdef MSDOS
      && dst[slen - 2] != ':'
#endif
      )
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    dst[slen - 1] = 0;
  return 1;
}

DEFUN ("directory-file-name", Fdirectory_file_name, Sdirectory_file_name,
  1, 1, 0,
  "Returns the file name of the directory named DIR.\n\
This is the name of the file that holds the data for the directory DIR.\n\
This operation exists because a directory is also a file, but its name as\n\
a directory is different from its name as a file.\n\
In Unix-syntax, this function just removes the final slash.\n\
On VMS, given a VMS-syntax directory name such as \"[X.Y]\",\n\
it returns a file name such as \"[X]Y.DIR.1\".")
  (directory)
     Lisp_Object directory;
{
  char *buf;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (directory, 0);

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  if (NILP (directory))
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    return Qnil;
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = Ffind_file_name_handler (directory, Qdirectory_file_name);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qdirectory_file_name, directory);

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#ifdef VMS
  /* 20 extra chars is insufficient for VMS, since we might perform a
     logical name translation. an equivalence string can be up to 255
     chars long, so grab that much extra space...  - sss */
  buf = (char *) alloca (XSTRING (directory)->size + 20 + 255);
#else
  buf = (char *) alloca (XSTRING (directory)->size + 20);
#endif
  directory_file_name (XSTRING (directory)->data, buf);
  return build_string (buf);
}

DEFUN ("make-temp-name", Fmake_temp_name, Smake_temp_name, 1, 1, 0,
  "Generate temporary file name (string) starting with PREFIX (a string).\n\
The Emacs process number forms part of the result,\n\
so there is no danger of generating a name being used by another process.")
  (prefix)
     Lisp_Object prefix;
{
  Lisp_Object val;
  val = concat2 (prefix, build_string ("XXXXXX"));
  mktemp (XSTRING (val)->data);
  return val;
}

DEFUN ("expand-file-name", Fexpand_file_name, Sexpand_file_name, 1, 2, 0,
  "Convert FILENAME to absolute, and canonicalize it.\n\
Second arg DEFAULT is directory to start with if FILENAME is relative\n\
 (does not start with slash); if DEFAULT is nil or missing,\n\
the current buffer's value of default-directory is used.\n\
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Path components that are `.' are removed, and \n\
path components followed by `..' are removed, along with the `..' itself;\n\
note that these simplifications are done without checking the resulting\n\
paths in the file system.\n\
An initial `~/' expands to your home directory.\n\
An initial `~USER/' expands to USER's home directory.\n\
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See also the function `substitute-in-file-name'.")
     (name, defalt)
     Lisp_Object name, defalt;
{
  unsigned char *nm;
  
  register unsigned char *newdir, *p, *o;
  int tlen;
  unsigned char *target;
  struct passwd *pw;
#ifdef VMS
  unsigned char * colon = 0;
  unsigned char * close = 0;
  unsigned char * slash = 0;
  unsigned char * brack = 0;
  int lbrack = 0, rbrack = 0;
  int dots = 0;
#endif /* VMS */
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#ifdef MSDOS	/* Demacs 1.1.2 91/10/20 Manabu Higashida */
  int drive = -1;
  int relpath = 0;
  unsigned char *tmp, *defdir;
#endif
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (name, 0);

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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = Ffind_file_name_handler (name, Qexpand_file_name);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
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    return call3 (handler, Qexpand_file_name, name, defalt);
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  /* Use the buffer's default-directory if DEFALT is omitted.  */
  if (NILP (defalt))
    defalt = current_buffer->directory;
  CHECK_STRING (defalt, 1);

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  /* Make sure DEFALT is properly expanded.
     It would be better to do this down below where we actually use
     defalt.  Unfortunately, calling Fexpand_file_name recursively
     could invoke GC, and the strings might be relocated.  This would
     be annoying because we have pointers into strings lying around
     that would need adjusting, and people would add new pointers to
     the code and forget to adjust them, resulting in intermittent bugs.
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     Putting this call here avoids all that crud.

     The EQ test avoids infinite recursion.  */
  if (! NILP (defalt) && !EQ (defalt, name)
      /* This saves time in a common case.  */
      && XSTRING (defalt)->data[0] != '/')
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    {
      struct gcpro gcpro1;

      GCPRO1 (name);
      defalt = Fexpand_file_name (defalt, Qnil);
      UNGCPRO;
    }

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#ifdef VMS
  /* Filenames on VMS are always upper case.  */
  name = Fupcase (name);
#endif
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#ifdef FILE_SYSTEM_CASE
  name = FILE_SYSTEM_CASE (name);
#endif
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  nm = XSTRING (name)->data;
  
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#ifdef MSDOS
  /* firstly, strip drive name. */
  {
    unsigned char *colon = rindex (nm, ':');
    if (colon)
      if (nm == colon)
	nm++;
      else
	{
	  drive = tolower (colon[-1]) - 'a';
	  nm = colon + 1;
	  if (*nm != '/')
	    {
	      defdir = alloca (MAXPATHLEN + 1);
	      relpath = getdefdir (drive + 1, defdir);
	    }
	}	
  }
#endif

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  /* If nm is absolute, flush ...// and detect /./ and /../.
     If no /./ or /../ we can return right away. */
  if (
      nm[0] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
      || index (nm, ':')
#endif /* VMS */
      )
    {
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      /* If it turns out that the filename we want to return is just a
	 suffix of FILENAME, we don't need to go through and edit
	 things; we just need to construct a new string using data
	 starting at the middle of FILENAME.  If we set lose to a
	 non-zero value, that means we've discovered that we can't do
	 that cool trick.  */
      int lose = 0;

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      p = nm;
      while (*p)
	{
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	  /* Since we know the path is absolute, we can assume that each
	     element starts with a "/".  */

	  /* "//" anywhere isn't necessarily hairy; we just start afresh
	     with the second slash.  */
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	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '/'
#ifdef APOLLO
	      /* // at start of filename is meaningful on Apollo system */
	      && nm != p
#endif /* APOLLO */
	      )
	    nm = p + 1;
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	  /* "~" is hairy as the start of any path element.  */
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	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
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	  /* "." and ".." are hairy.  */
	  if (p[0] == '/'
	      && p[1] == '.'
	      && (p[2] == '/'
		  || p[2] == 0
		  || (p[2] == '.' && (p[3] == '/'
				      || p[3] == 0))))
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	    lose = 1;
#ifdef VMS
	  if (p[0] == '\\')
	    lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/') {
	    /* if dev:[dir]/, move nm to / */
	    if (!slash && p > nm && (brack || colon)) {
	      nm = (brack ? brack + 1 : colon + 1);
	      lbrack = rbrack = 0;
	      brack = 0;
	      colon = 0;
	    }
	    slash = p;
	  }
	  if (p[0] == '-')
#ifndef VMS4_4
	    /* VMS pre V4.4,convert '-'s in filenames. */
	    if (lbrack == rbrack)
	      {
		if (dots < 2)	/* this is to allow negative version numbers */
		  p[0] = '_';
	      }
	    else
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	      if (lbrack > rbrack &&
		  ((p[-1] == '.' || p[-1] == '[' || p[-1] == '<') &&
		   (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>')))
		lose = 1;
#ifndef VMS4_4
	      else
		p[0] = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  /* count open brackets, reset close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == '[' || p[0] == '<')
	    lbrack++, brack = 0;
	  /* count close brackets, set close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>')
	    rbrack++, brack = p;
	  /* detect ][ or >< */
	  if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && (p[1] == '[' || p[1] == '<'))
	    lose = 1;
	  if ((p[0] == ':' || p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == ':' && (colon || slash))
	    /* if dev1:[dir]dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    if (brack)
	      {
		nm = brack + 1;
		brack = 0;
	      }
	    /* if /pathname/dev:, move nm to dev: */
	    else if (slash)
	      nm = slash + 1;
	    /* if node::dev:, move colon following dev */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] == ':')
	      colon = p;
	    /* if dev1:dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] != ':')
	      {
		nm = colon + 1;
		colon = 0;
	      }
	  if (p[0] == ':' && !colon)
	    {
	      if (p[1] == ':')
		p++;
	      colon = p;
	    }
	  if (lbrack == rbrack)
	    if (p[0] == ';')
	      dots = 2;
	    else if (p[0] == '.')
	      dots++;
#endif /* VMS */
	  p++;
	}
      if (!lose)
	{
#ifdef VMS
	  if (index (nm, '/'))
	    return build_string (sys_translate_unix (nm));
#endif /* VMS */
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#ifndef MSDOS
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	  if (nm == XSTRING (name)->data)
	    return name;
	  return build_string (nm);
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#endif
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	}
    }

  /* Now determine directory to start with and put it in newdir */

  newdir = 0;

  if (nm[0] == '~')		/* prefix ~ */
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    {
      if (nm[1] == '/'
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#ifdef VMS
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	  || nm[1] == ':'
#endif				/* VMS */
	  || nm[1] == 0)	/* ~ by itself */
	{
	  if (!(newdir = (unsigned char *) egetenv ("HOME")))
	    newdir = (unsigned char *) "";
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#ifdef MSDOS
	  dostounix_filename (newdir);
#endif
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	  nm++;
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#ifdef VMS
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	  nm++;			/* Don't leave the slash in nm.  */
#endif				/* VMS */
	}
      else			/* ~user/filename */
	{
	  for (p = nm; *p && (*p != '/'
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#ifdef VMS
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			      && *p != ':'
#endif				/* VMS */
			      ); p++);
	  o = (unsigned char *) alloca (p - nm + 1);
	  bcopy ((char *) nm, o, p - nm);
	  o [p - nm] = 0;

	  pw = (struct passwd *) getpwnam (o + 1);
	  if (pw)
	    {
	      newdir = (unsigned char *) pw -> pw_dir;
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#ifdef VMS
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	      nm = p + 1;	/* skip the terminator */
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#else
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	      nm = p;
#endif				/* VMS */
	    }
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	  /* If we don't find a user of that name, leave the name
	     unchanged; don't move nm forward to p.  */
	}
    }
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  if (nm[0] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
      && !index (nm, ':')
#endif /* not VMS */
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#ifdef MSDOS
      && drive == -1
#endif
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      && !newdir)
    {
      newdir = XSTRING (defalt)->data;
    }

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#ifdef MSDOS
  if (newdir == 0 && relpath)
    newdir = defdir; 
#endif
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  if (newdir != 0)
    {
      /* Get rid of any slash at the end of newdir.  */
      int length = strlen (newdir);
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      /* Adding `length > 1 &&' makes ~ expand into / when homedir
	 is the root dir.  People disagree about whether that is right.
	 Anyway, we can't take the risk of this change now.  */
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#ifdef MSDOS
      if (newdir[1] != ':' && length > 1)
#endif
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      if (newdir[length - 1] == '/')
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	{
	  unsigned char *temp = (unsigned char *) alloca (length);
	  bcopy (newdir, temp, length - 1);
	  temp[length - 1] = 0;
	  newdir = temp;
	}
      tlen = length + 1;
    }
  else
    tlen = 0;
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  /* Now concatenate the directory and name to new space in the stack frame */
  tlen += strlen (nm) + 1;
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#ifdef MSDOS
  /* Add reserved space for drive name.  */
  target = (unsigned char *) alloca (tlen + 2) + 2;
#else
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  target = (unsigned char *) alloca (tlen);
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#endif
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  *target = 0;

  if (newdir)
    {
#ifndef VMS
      if (nm[0] == 0 || nm[0] == '/')
	strcpy (target, newdir);
      else
#endif
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	file_name_as_directory (target, newdir);
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    }

  strcat (target, nm);
#ifdef VMS
  if (index (target, '/'))
    strcpy (target, sys_translate_unix (target));
#endif /* VMS */

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  /* Now canonicalize by removing /. and /foo/.. if they appear.  */
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  p = target;
  o = target;

  while (*p)
    {
#ifdef VMS
      if (*p != ']' && *p != '>' && *p != '-')
	{
	  if (*p == '\\')
	    p++;
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[0] == p[1] + 2)
	/* brackets are offset from each other by 2 */
	{
	  p += 2;
	  if (*p != '.' && *p != '-' && o[-1] != '.')
	    /* convert [foo][bar] to [bar] */
	    while (o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<')
	      o--;
	  else if (*p == '-' && *o != '.')
	    *--p = '.';
	}
      else if (p[0] == '-' && o[-1] == '.' &&
	       (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>'))
	/* flush .foo.- ; leave - if stopped by '[' or '<' */
	{
	  do
	    o--;
	  while (o[-1] != '.' && o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<');
	  if (p[1] == '.')	/* foo.-.bar ==> bar*/
	    p += 2;
	  else if (o[-1] == '.') /* '.foo.-]' ==> ']' */
	    p++, o--;
	  /* else [foo.-] ==> [-] */
	}
      else
	{
#ifndef VMS4_4
	  if (*p == '-' &&
	      o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<' && o[-1] != '.' &&
	      p[1] != ']' && p[1] != '>' && p[1] != '.')
	    *p = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#else /* not VMS */
      if (*p != '/')
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if (!strncmp (p, "//", 2)
#ifdef APOLLO
	       /* // at start of filename is meaningful in Apollo system */
	       && o != target
#endif /* APOLLO */
	       )
	{
	  o = target;
	  p++;
	}
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      else if (p[0] == '/'
	       && p[1] == '.'
	       && (p[2] == '/'
		   || p[2] == 0))
	{
	  /* If "/." is the entire filename, keep the "/".  Otherwise,
	     just delete the whole "/.".  */
	  if (o == target && p[2] == '\0')
	    *o++ = *p;
	  p += 2;
	}
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      else if (!strncmp (p, "/..", 3)
	       /* `/../' is the "superroot" on certain file systems.  */
	       && o != target
	       && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))
	{
	  while (o != target && *--o != '/')
	    ;
#ifdef APOLLO
	  if (o == target + 1 && o[-1] == '/' && o[0] == '/')
	    ++o;
	  else
#endif /* APOLLO */
	  if (o == target && *o == '/')
	    ++o;
	  p += 3;
	}
      else
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#endif /* not VMS */
    }

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#ifdef MSDOS
  /* at last, set drive name. */
  if (target[1] != ':')
    {
      target -= 2;
      target[0] = (drive < 0 ? getdisk () : drive) + 'a';
      target[1] = ':';
    }
#endif

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  return make_string (target, o - target);
}
#if 0
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/* Changed this DEFUN to a DEAFUN, so as not to confuse `make-docfile'.
DEAFUN ("expand-file-name", Fexpand_file_name, Sexpand_file_name, 1, 2, 0,
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  "Convert FILENAME to absolute, and canonicalize it.\n\
Second arg DEFAULT is directory to start with if FILENAME is relative\n\
 (does not start with slash); if DEFAULT is nil or missing,\n\
the current buffer's value of default-directory is used.\n\
Filenames containing `.' or `..' as components are simplified;\n\
initial `~/' expands to your home directory.\n\
See also the function `substitute-in-file-name'.")
     (name, defalt)
     Lisp_Object name, defalt;
{
  unsigned char *nm;
  
  register unsigned char *newdir, *p, *o;
  int tlen;
  unsigned char *target;
  struct passwd *pw;
  int lose;
#ifdef VMS
  unsigned char * colon = 0;
  unsigned char * close = 0;
  unsigned char * slash = 0;
  unsigned char * brack = 0;
  int lbrack = 0, rbrack = 0;
  int dots = 0;
#endif /* VMS */
  
  CHECK_STRING (name, 0);

#ifdef VMS
  /* Filenames on VMS are always upper case.  */
  name = Fupcase (name);
#endif

  nm = XSTRING (name)->data;
  
  /* If nm is absolute, flush ...// and detect /./ and /../.
     If no /./ or /../ we can return right away. */
  if (
      nm[0] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
      || index (nm, ':')
#endif /* VMS */
      )
    {
      p = nm;
      lose = 0;
      while (*p)
	{
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '/'
#ifdef APOLLO
	      /* // at start of filename is meaningful on Apollo system */
	      && nm != p
#endif /* APOLLO */
	      )
	    nm = p + 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '.'
	      && (p[2] == '/' || p[2] == 0
		  || (p[2] == '.' && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))))
	    lose = 1;
#ifdef VMS
	  if (p[0] == '\\')
	    lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/') {
	    /* if dev:[dir]/, move nm to / */
	    if (!slash && p > nm && (brack || colon)) {
	      nm = (brack ? brack + 1 : colon + 1);
	      lbrack = rbrack = 0;
	      brack = 0;
	      colon = 0;
	    }
	    slash = p;
	  }
	  if (p[0] == '-')
#ifndef VMS4_4
	    /* VMS pre V4.4,convert '-'s in filenames. */
	    if (lbrack == rbrack)
	      {
		if (dots < 2)	/* this is to allow negative version numbers */
		  p[0] = '_';
	      }
	    else
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	      if (lbrack > rbrack &&
		  ((p[-1] == '.' || p[-1] == '[' || p[-1] == '<') &&
		   (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>')))
		lose = 1;
#ifndef VMS4_4
	      else
		p[0] = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  /* count open brackets, reset close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == '[' || p[0] == '<')
	    lbrack++, brack = 0;
	  /* count close brackets, set close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>')
	    rbrack++, brack = p;
	  /* detect ][ or >< */
	  if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && (p[1] == '[' || p[1] == '<'))
	    lose = 1;
	  if ((p[0] == ':' || p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == ':' && (colon || slash))
	    /* if dev1:[dir]dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    if (brack)
	      {
		nm = brack + 1;
		brack = 0;
	      }
	    /* if /pathname/dev:, move nm to dev: */
	    else if (slash)
	      nm = slash + 1;
	    /* if node::dev:, move colon following dev */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] == ':')
	      colon = p;
	    /* if dev1:dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] != ':')
	      {
		nm = colon + 1;
		colon = 0;
	      }
	  if (p[0] == ':' && !colon)
	    {
	      if (p[1] == ':')
		p++;
	      colon = p;
	    }
	  if (lbrack == rbrack)
	    if (p[0] == ';')
	      dots = 2;
	    else if (p[0] == '.')
	      dots++;
#endif /* VMS */
	  p++;
	}
      if (!lose)
	{
#ifdef VMS
	  if (index (nm, '/'))
	    return build_string (sys_translate_unix (nm));
#endif /* VMS */
	  if (nm == XSTRING (name)->data)
	    return name;
	  return build_string (nm);
	}
    }

  /* Now determine directory to start with and put it in NEWDIR */

  newdir = 0;

  if (nm[0] == '~')		/* prefix ~ */
    if (nm[1] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
	|| nm[1] == ':'
#endif /* VMS */
	|| nm[1] == 0)/* ~/filename */
      {
	if (!(newdir = (unsigned char *) egetenv ("HOME")))
	  newdir = (unsigned char *) "";
	nm++;
#ifdef VMS
	nm++;			/* Don't leave the slash in nm.  */
#endif /* VMS */
      }
    else  /* ~user/filename */
      {
	/* Get past ~ to user */
	unsigned char *user = nm + 1;
	/* Find end of name. */
	unsigned char *ptr = (unsigned char *) index (user, '/');
	int len = ptr ? ptr - user : strlen (user);
#ifdef VMS
	unsigned char *ptr1 = index (user, ':');
	if (ptr1 != 0 && ptr1 - user < len)
	  len = ptr1 - user;
#endif				/* VMS */
	/* Copy the user name into temp storage. */
	o = (unsigned char *) alloca (len + 1);
	bcopy ((char *) user, o, len);
	o[len] = 0;

	/* Look up the user name. */
	pw = (struct passwd *) getpwnam (o + 1);
	if (!pw)
	  error ("\"%s\" isn't a registered user", o + 1);

	newdir = (unsigned char *) pw->pw_dir;

	/* Discard the user name from NM.  */
	nm += len;
      }

  if (nm[0] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
      && !index (nm, ':')
#endif /* not VMS */
      && !newdir)
    {
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      if (NILP (defalt))
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	defalt = current_buffer->directory;
      CHECK_STRING (defalt, 1);
      newdir = XSTRING (defalt)->data;
    }

  /* Now concatenate the directory and name to new space in the stack frame */

  tlen = (newdir ? strlen (newdir) + 1 : 0) + strlen (nm) + 1;
  target = (unsigned char *) alloca (tlen);
  *target = 0;

  if (newdir)
    {
#ifndef VMS
      if (nm[0] == 0 || nm[0] == '/')
	strcpy (target, newdir);
      else
#endif
      file_name_as_directory (target, newdir);
    }

  strcat (target, nm);
#ifdef VMS
  if (index (target, '/'))
    strcpy (target, sys_translate_unix (target));
#endif /* VMS */

  /* Now canonicalize by removing /. and /foo/.. if they appear */

  p = target;
  o = target;

  while (*p)
    {
#ifdef VMS
      if (*p != ']' && *p != '>' && *p != '-')
	{
	  if (*p == '\\')
	    p++;
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[0] == p[1] + 2)
	/* brackets are offset from each other by 2 */
	{
	  p += 2;
	  if (*p != '.' && *p != '-' && o[-1] != '.')
	    /* convert [foo][bar] to [bar] */
	    while (o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<')
	      o--;
	  else if (*p == '-' && *o != '.')
	    *--p = '.';
	}
      else if (p[0] == '-' && o[-1] == '.' &&
	       (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>'))
	/* flush .foo.- ; leave - if stopped by '[' or '<' */
	{
	  do
	    o--;
	  while (o[-1] != '.' && o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<');
	  if (p[1] == '.')	/* foo.-.bar ==> bar*/
	    p += 2;
	  else if (o[-1] == '.') /* '.foo.-]' ==> ']' */
	    p++, o--;
	  /* else [foo.-] ==> [-] */
	}
      else
	{
#ifndef VMS4_4
	  if (*p == '-' &&
	      o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<' && o[-1] != '.' &&
	      p[1] != ']' && p[1] != '>' && p[1] != '.')
	    *p = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#else /* not VMS */
      if (*p != '/')
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if (!strncmp (p, "//", 2)
#ifdef APOLLO
	       /* // at start of filename is meaningful in Apollo system */
	       && o != target
#endif /* APOLLO */
	       )
	{
	  o = target;
	  p++;
	}
      else if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '.' &&
	       (p[2] == '/' || p[2] == 0))
	p += 2;
      else if (!strncmp (p, "/..", 3)
	       /* `/../' is the "superroot" on certain file systems.  */
	       && o != target
	       && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))
	{
	  while (o != target && *--o != '/')
	    ;
#ifdef APOLLO
	  if (o == target + 1 && o[-1] == '/' && o[0] == '/')
	    ++o;
	  else
#endif /* APOLLO */
	  if (o == target && *o == '/')
	    ++o;
	  p += 3;
	}
      else
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#endif /* not VMS */
    }

  return make_string (target, o - target);
}
#endif

DEFUN ("substitute-in-file-name", Fsubstitute_in_file_name,
  Ssubstitute_in_file_name, 1, 1, 0,
  "Substitute environment variables referred to in FILENAME.\n\
`$FOO' where FOO is an environment variable name means to substitute\n\
the value of that variable.  The variable name should be terminated\n\
with a character not a letter, digit or underscore; otherwise, enclose\n\
the entire variable name in braces.\n\
If `/~' appears, all of FILENAME through that `/' is discarded.\n\n\
On VMS, `$' substitution is not done; this function does little and only\n\
duplicates what `expand-file-name' does.")
  (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
  unsigned char *nm;

  register unsigned char *s, *p, *o, *x, *endp;
  unsigned char *target;
  int total = 0;
  int substituted = 0;
  unsigned char *xnm;

  CHECK_STRING (string, 0);

  nm = XSTRING (string)->data;
  endp = nm + XSTRING (string)->size;

  /* If /~ or // appears, discard everything through first slash. */

  for (p = nm; p != endp; p++)
    {
      if ((p[0] == '~' ||
#ifdef APOLLO
	   /* // at start of file name is meaningful in Apollo system */
	   (p[0] == '/' && p - 1 != nm)
#else /* not APOLLO */
	   p[0] == '/'
#endif /* not APOLLO */
	   )
	  && p != nm &&
#ifdef VMS
	  (p[-1] == ':' || p[-1] == ']' || p[-1] == '>' ||
#endif /* VMS */
	  p[-1] == '/')
#ifdef VMS
	  )
#endif /* VMS */
	{
	  nm = p;
	  substituted = 1;
	}
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#ifdef MSDOS
      if (p[0] && p[1] == ':')
	{
	  nm = p;
	  substituted = 1;
	}
#endif /* MSDOS */
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    }

#ifdef VMS
  return build_string (nm);
#else

  /* See if any variables are substituted into the string
     and find the total length of their values in `total' */

  for (p = nm; p != endp;)
    if (*p != '$')
      p++;
    else
      {
	p++;
	if (p == endp)
	  goto badsubst;
	else if (*p == '$')
	  {
	    /* "$$" means a single "$" */
	    p++;
	    total -= 1;
	    substituted = 1;
	    continue;
	  }
	else if (*p == '{')
	  {
	    o = ++p;
	    while (p != endp && *p != '}') p++;
	    if (*p != '}') goto missingclose;
	    s = p;
	  }
	else
	  {
	    o = p;
	    while (p != endp && (isalnum (*p) || *p == '_')) p++;
	    s = p;
	  }

	/* Copy out the variable name */
	target = (unsigned char *) alloca (s - o + 1);
	strncpy (target, o, s - o);
	target[s - o] = 0;
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#ifdef MSDOS
	strupr (target); /* $home == $HOME etc.  */
#endif
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	/* Get variable value */
	o = (unsigned char *) egetenv (target);
	if (!o) goto badvar;
	total += strlen (o);
	substituted = 1;
      }

  if (!substituted)
    return string;

  /* If substitution required, recopy the string and do it */
  /* Make space in stack frame for the new copy */
  xnm = (unsigned char *) alloca (XSTRING (string)->size + total + 1);
  x = xnm;

  /* Copy the rest of the name through, replacing $ constructs with values */
  for (p = nm; *p;)
    if (*p != '$')
      *x++ = *p++;
    else
      {
	p++;
	if (p == endp)
	  goto badsubst;
	else if (*p == '$')
	  {
	    *x++ = *p++;
	    continue;
	  }
	else if (*p == '{')
	  {
	    o = ++p;
	    while (p != endp && *p != '}') p++;
	    if (*p != '}') goto missingclose;
	    s = p++;
	  }
	else
	  {
	    o = p;
	    while (p != endp && (isalnum (*p) || *p == '_')) p++;
	    s = p;
	  }

	/* Copy out the variable name */
	target = (unsigned char *) alloca (s - o + 1);
	strncpy (target, o, s - o);
	target[s - o] = 0;
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#ifdef MSDOS
	strupr (target); /* $home == $HOME etc.  */
#endif
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	/* Get variable value */
	o = (unsigned char *) egetenv (target);
	if (!o)
	  goto badvar;

	strcpy (x, o);
	x += strlen (o);
      }

  *x = 0;

  /* If /~ or // appears, discard everything through first slash. */

  for (p = xnm; p != x; p++)
    if ((p[0] == '~' ||
#ifdef APOLLO
	 /* // at start of file name is meaningful in Apollo system */
	 (p[0] == '/' && p - 1 != xnm)
#else /* not APOLLO */
	 p[0] == '/'
#endif /* not APOLLO */
	 )
	&& p != nm && p[-1] == '/')
      xnm = p;
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#ifdef MSDOS
    else if (p[0] && p[1] == ':')
	xnm = p;
#endif
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  return make_string (xnm, x - xnm);

 badsubst:
  error ("Bad format environment-variable substitution");
 missingclose:
  error ("Missing \"}\" in environment-variable substitution");
 badvar:
  error ("Substituting nonexistent environment variable \"%s\"", target);

  /* NOTREACHED */
#endif /* not VMS */
}

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/* A slightly faster and more convenient way to get
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   (directory-file-name (expand-file-name FOO)).  */
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Lisp_Object
expand_and_dir_to_file (filename, defdir)
     Lisp_Object filename, defdir;
{
  register Lisp_Object abspath;

  abspath = Fexpand_file_name (filename, defdir);
#ifdef VMS
  {
    register int c = XSTRING (abspath)->data[XSTRING (abspath)->size - 1];
    if (c == ':' || c == ']' || c == '>')
      abspath = Fdirectory_file_name (abspath);
  }
#else
  /* Remove final slash, if any (unless path is root).
     stat behaves differently depending!  */
  if (XSTRING (abspath)->size > 1
      && XSTRING (abspath)->data[XSTRING (abspath)->size - 1] == '/')
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    /* We cannot take shortcuts; they might be wrong for magic file names.  */
    abspath = Fdirectory_file_name (abspath);
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#endif
  return abspath;
}

barf_or_query_if_file_exists (absname, querystring, interactive)
     Lisp_Object absname;
     unsigned char *querystring;
     int interactive;
{
  register Lisp_Object tem;
  struct gcpro gcpro1;

  if (access (XSTRING (absname)->data, 4) >= 0)
    {
      if (! interactive)
	Fsignal (Qfile_already_exists,
		 Fcons (build_string ("File already exists"),
			Fcons (absname, Qnil)));
      GCPRO1 (absname);
      tem = do_yes_or_no_p (format1 ("File %s already exists; %s anyway? ",
				     XSTRING (absname)->data, querystring));
      UNGCPRO;
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      if (NILP (tem))
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	Fsignal (Qfile_already_exists,
		 Fcons (build_string ("File already exists"),
			Fcons (absname, Qnil)));
    }
  return;
}

DEFUN ("copy-file", Fcopy_file, Scopy_file, 2, 4,
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  "fCopy file: \nFCopy %s to file: \np\nP",
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  "Copy FILE to NEWNAME.  Both args must be strings.\n\
Signals a `file-already-exists' error if file NEWNAME already exists,\n\
unless a third argument OK-IF-ALREADY-EXISTS is supplied and non-nil.\n\
A number as third arg means request confirmation if NEWNAME already exists.\n\
This is what happens in interactive use with M-x.\n\
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Fourth arg KEEP-TIME non-nil means give the new file the same\n\
last-modified time as the old one.  (This works on only some systems.)\n\
A prefix arg makes KEEP-TIME non-nil.")
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  (filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists, keep_date)
     Lisp_Object filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists, keep_date;
{
  int ifd, ofd, n;
  char buf[16 * 1024];
  struct stat st;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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