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Copyright (C) 2001-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end of the file for license conditions.
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Calc is an advanced desk calculator for GNU Emacs.
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"Calc"  Copyright (C) 1990-1993, 2001-2013 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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Written by:
	Dave Gillespie
	c/o Synaptics, Inc.
	2698 Orchard Parkway
	San Jose CA 95134
	daveg@synaptics.com, uunet!synaptx!daveg
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Currently maintained by:
     Jay Belanger <jay.p.belanger@gmail.com>

From the introduction to the manual:

  "Calc" is an advanced calculator and mathematical tool that runs as
  part of the GNU Emacs environment.  Very roughly based on the HP-28/48
  series of calculators, its many features include:

    * Choice of algebraic or RPN (stack-based) entry of calculations.

    * Arbitrary precision integers and floating-point numbers.

    * Arithmetic on rational numbers, complex numbers (rectangular and
      polar), error forms with standard deviations, open and closed
      intervals, vectors and matrices, dates and times, infinities,
      sets, quantities with units, and algebraic formulas.

    * Mathematical operations such as logarithms and trigonometric functions.

    * Programmer's features (bitwise operations, non-decimal numbers).

    * Financial functions such as future value and internal rate of return.

    * Number theoretical features such as prime factorization and
      arithmetic modulo M for any M.

    * Algebraic manipulation features, including symbolic calculus.

    * Moving data to and from regular editing buffers.

    * "Embedded mode" for manipulating Calc formulas and data directly
      inside any editing buffer.

    * Graphics using GNUPLOT, a versatile (and free) plotting program.

    * Easy programming using keyboard macros, algebraic formulas,
      algebraic rewrite rules, or extended Emacs Lisp.


Calc is written entirely in Emacs Lisp, for maximum portability.

I am anxious to hear about your experiences using Calc.  Send mail to
"jay.p.belanger@gmail.com".  A bug report is most useful if you include the
exact input and output that occurred, any modes in effect (such as the
current precision), and so on.  If you find Calc is difficult to operate
in any way, or if you have other suggestions, don't hesitate to let me
know.  If you find errors (including simple typos) in the manual, let
me know.  Even if you find no bugs at all I would love to hear your
opinions.


Summary of changes to "Calc"
------- -- ------- --  ----

For changes in Emacs 23.1 and later, see the main Emacs NEWS file.

Version 2.1:

* New matrix mode for square matrices.  Improved handling of
  non-commutative products.

* New functions: powerexpand and ldiv.

* Added new functions: sec, csc, cot, sech, csch, coth.

* 0^0 now evaluates to 1.

* Added a new language mode for LaTeX.

* Calc now tries to use an appropriate language mode in embedded mode.

* Calc now restores original modes when leaving embedded mode.

* User settable variables which are not set with keystrokes are now
  customizable.

* Made ~/.calc.el the default Calc settings file.

* Miscellaneous updates and bugfixes.


Version 2.02f:

 * Fixed a bug which broke `I', `H', `K' prefix keys in recent Emacs.

 * Fixed a bug in calc.texinfo which prevented "make tex2" from working.

 * Updated `C-y' (calc-yank) to understand Emacs 19 generalized kill ring.

 * Added a copy of "calccard.tex", the Calc quick reference card.


Version 2.02e:

 * Fixed an installation bug caused by recent changes to `write-region'.


Version 2.02d:

 * Fixed a minor installation problem with a Emacs 19.29 byte-compiler bug.

 * Removed archaic "macedit" package (superseded by "edmacro").


Version 2.02c:

 * Patch to port Calc to Lucid Emacs 19; still works with GNU 18 and GNU 19.

 * Fixed a bug that broke `C-x C-c' after Calc graphics had been used.


Version 2.02b:

 * Minor patch to port Calc to GNU Emacs 19.  Will be superseded by Calc 3.00.


Version 2.02:

 * Revamped the manual a bit; rearranged some sections.

 * Added marginal notes for Key/Function Index refs in printed manual.

 * Changed `M-# r' to deal more gracefully with blank lines.

 * Made reductions like `V R +' and `M-# :' considerably faster.

 * Improved parsing and display of cases like "[a + b]".

 * Added `t +' and `t -' for doing business date arithmetic.

 * Added "syntax tables," the opposite of compositions.

 * Added another Rewrites Tutorial exercise.

 * Added the "vmatches" function.

 * Added the `Modes' variable and `m g' command.

 * Improved `u s' to cancel, e.g., "11 mph hr / yd" to get a number.

 * Added "quick units" commands "u 0" through "u 9".

 * Moved `M-%' to calc.el to avoid autoloading problems.

 * Added `M-=' during algebraic entry, acts like `RET ='.

 * Made `LFD' prevent evaluation when finishing a calc-edit command.

 * Changed calc-store commands to use `t .' mode for trail display.

 * Improved integrator to understand forms involving "erf".

 * Fixed parser to make sense of "[1....1e2]" input.

 * Fixed FORTRAN parser to treat a(i,j) as a_i_j if a is declared matrix.

 * Got rid of some version number stamps to reduce size of patches.

 * Fixed a bug in defmath treating "<=" and ">=" predicates.

 * Fixed a bug in which Calc crashed multiplying two date forms.

 * Fixed a bug in line breaker that crashed for large, nested formulas.

 * Fixed a bug using ` to edit string("foo").

 * Fixed a bug where `M-# y' in Big mode copied stack level number.

 * Fixed a bug where `g O' used wrong default directory, no completion.

 * Fixed a bug where "foo_bar(i)" parsed in C mode but showed as foo#bar.

 * Fixed several bugs where large calculations got "computation too long."


Version 2.01:

 * Added percentage commands `M-%', `b %', and `c %'.

 * Changed Big mode to force radix-10 in superscripts.

 * Improved display of fractions in various language modes.

 * Changed `a n' to work properly with equations and inequalities.

 * The problem with cross references to Index nodes in TeX has been fixed.

 * Fixed a bug where recursive esc-maps make calc-ext/-aent unloadable.

 * Fixed a bug in `M-# k', then `OFF' right away, with fresh Emacs.

 * Fixed a bug in which "S_i_j" was formatted wrong after `j s'.

 * Fixed a bug in which `h k u c' positioned cursor on wrong line.

 * Fixed a bug where `z ?' crashed if `z %' was defined.

 * Fixed a bug in `j O' (calc-select-once-maybe).

 * Fixed "make private" not to ask "Delete excess versions" and crash.


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Version 2.00:

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 * First complete posting of Calc since 1.01.

 * Most parts of Calc have seen changes since version 1.07.  See
   section "New for Calc 2.00" in the manual for a summary.

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 * Changed to compile calc-macs/-maint, to allow "cp *.elc new-dir".

 * Improved calc-describe-bindings to avoid showing redundant ESC maps.


Version 2.00 beta 3:

 * Removed version numbers from most .el files to reduce size of patches.

 * Added a "calc-version" command.

 * Changed `M-# ? ?' to allow for modified describe-function.

 * Changed date parser to accept "Sept" as an alternative for "Sep".

 * Inhibited answers to exercise from showing up in table of contents.

 * Changed Makefile to say "texindex calc.[cfkptv]?" to avoid "calc.el".

 * Fixed up the Makefile in various other ways.

 * Rearranged banner at top of `h h' command's output.

 * Changed "make summary" to print "Calc Summary" on the title page.

 * Added "IntegSimpRules".

 * Added `M-# :', `M-# _', and `M-# Z' options.

 * Changed `^' to evaluate "[-3..-1]^-2" properly.

 * Improved `f g' to give symbolic answers for, e.g., 101:2 and -3:2.

 * Fixed a bug where `h k RET' didn't find the right place on the page.

 * Fixed a bug that formatted "x*(y ? a : b)" as "x y ? a : b".

 * Fixed a bug where defmath translated (< x 0) as (math-posp x)!

 * Fixed a bug that prevented quick-calc from working sometimes.

 * Fixed the `z ?' bug again (maybe this time for good?).

 * Fixed a bug in which `V ^' (vint) was just plain wrong, wrong, wrong!

 * Scanned for and fixed remaining bugs relating to autoloading.


Version 2.00 beta 2:

 * Changed "make info" to try "make texinfo" if "makeinfo" not found.

 * Changed to "New for Calc 2.00"; texinfo.tex chokes on apostrophes.

 * Added List Tutorial Exercise 14 (just in case there weren't enough!).

 * Added a discussion of the `Z F' command to the Programming Tutorial.

 * Improved `H a f' not to lose info if input is partially pre-factored.

 * Improved simplification of expressions like sqrt(3) + 3^3:2.

 * Changed Big mode to omit "*" in expressions like 2 sqrt(3) 5^3:4.

 * Replaced European date format D/M/Y with D.M.Y.

 * Changed `a N' and `a X' to consider the endpoints of the interval.

 * Fixed a bug where TeX mode made c*(1+a/b) look like a function call.

 * Fixed a bug formatting top-level evalto's while using selections.

 * Fixed a bug that caused `z ?' to crash.

 * Fixed a bug where `Z F' broke for argument names "t" and "nil".

 * Fixed several bugs relating to autoloading.


Version 2.00 beta 1:

 * Added "What's new in Calc 2.00" to the manual (summary of info below).

 * Added support for many GNUPLOT 3.0 features.

 * Tweaked the Makefile and calc-compile a bit more.

 * Modified to work with Zawinski's/Furuseth's optimizing byte compiler.

 * Modified Calc to garbage-collect less often (raised gc-cons-threshold).

 * Changed quick-calc to avoid autoloading so many parts of Calc.

 * Changed Calc subfiles to work properly if not byte-compiled.

 * Renamed `M-# s' to `M-# j', made `M-# s' be equivalent to `h s'.

 * Changed calc-quit to avoid reapportioning space among other windows.

 * Added `M-DEL' (calc-pop-above) key, to DEL as LFD is to RET.

 * Added `{' and `}' to scroll vertically, analogous to `<' and `>'.

 * Added `m t' for "total" algebraic mode.

 * Added `d , \' option to group digits with "\,".

 * Improved support of "prime" accent in "eqn" language mode.

 * Changed macedit's read-kbd-macro to accept a string argument in Lisp.

 * Changed calc-check-defines to use a more concise run-hooks linkage.

 * Changed auto-why mode not to say [w=more] if next msg is not urgent.

 * Made `a d' able to differentiate "a?b:c" and "a_i" formulas.

 * Changed probability dist. functions to work with `a f' and `a d'.

 * Added special constants "phi" and "gamma".

 * Added "poly" function, simpler cousin of "gpoly".

 * Added "pdeg", "plead", "pcont", "pprim"; cleaned up "pdiv" and "pgcd".

 * Added `a p' command for polynomial interpolation.

 * Added `a I' command for numerical integration; made IntegLimit variable.

 * Added `a f' to factor polynomials; moved old `a f' to `a "'.

 * Added `a a' to do partial fraction decompositions.

 * Improved `a i' to integrate many more kinds of formulas.

 * Modified `a P' to find numerical roots of high-degree polynomials.

 * Modified `c 0' through `c 9' to convert int-valued floats to integers.

 * Made sinh, arctanh, etc., expandable into exps/logs by `a f'.

 * Added more algebraic simplifications having to do with logs and exps.

 * Changed `s s', `s t', `s x', `s l' to accept an equation at prompt.

 * Changed `s i' not to store Decls if its value is the default, [].

 * Changed `s i' to store in `d O' language mode if in Normal or Big mode.

 * Rearranged `V M'/`V R' matrix mapping modes.

 * Added <#1+#2> notation for lambda expressions.

 * Extended `b l' and other binary shifts to have a 2-argument version.

 * Changed `u c' and `u t' to give unitless result for unitless input.

 * Changed sqrt(1-cos(x)^2)-to-sin(x) to be an unsafe simplification.

 * Improved simplification of sqrts, e.g., sqrt(a^2 x + a^2 y).

 * Changed solver to treat (x-a)(x-b)(x-c) more intelligently.

 * Changed Pascal language mode to use "$FFFF" for hexadecimal numbers.

 * Added support for non-decimal display of floats.

 * Changed `p' to refresh stack display if current float format uses it.

 * Changed Big mode to use subscript notation for log10(x), log(x,b), r#nnn.

 * Changed Big mode to format deriv(u,x) and tderiv(u,x) as du/dx.

 * Changed Big mode to format integ(1/x,x) as "dx/x" instead of "1/x dx".

 * Added "tty" output type for graphics commands.

 * Documented Calc's random number generation algorithm in the manual.

 * Fixed a bug involving having "(setq calc-timing t)" in .emacs.

 * Fixed a bug that incorrectly parsed "|x| - 1" in TeX mode.

 * Fixed bugs and made improvements in `a R' when widening the guess.

 * Fixed a bug that where `a S' didn't solve (x - a)^2 = (x - b)^2.

 * Fixed a bug that sometimes crashed `a P' on systems of equations.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented `b p' (calc-pack-bits) from working.

 * Fixed some bugs in which certain functions didn't get autoloaded.

 * Fixed a bug in which the date <1/1/13> was incorrectly parsed.

 * Fixed a bug which prevented `j D' from expanding (a+b)/c.

 * Fixed a bug in solver: bad inverses for sinh and cosh.

 * Fixed a bug in math-possible-signs that failed for x*0.

 * Fixed a bug where sqrt(-a) was rewritten sqrt(a)*i even if a<0.

 * Fixed a bug in line breaker when first "word" of line was too long.

 * Worked around a makeinfo bug that handled @end group/@group badly.


Version 2.00 alpha 3:

 * Changed logic for locating component .elc files to be even smarter.

 * Changed "make install" to "make compile"; added different "make install".

 * Improved "make compile" to check file dates and compile only when needed.

 * Made output of "make compile" in batch mode more compact and readable.

 * Replaced "Quick Overview" in manual with "Demonstration of Calc".

 * Changed to use keymaps for dispatching M-# and h prefix keys.

 * Added TAGS target to the Calc Makefile.

 * Removed most doc strings from functions; new help commands are better.

 * Got rid of some crufty "fset" calls that were cluttering the code.

 * Split calc-grab-region into two functions, calc-grab-region/-rectangle.

 * Swapped positions of stack and trail in full-calc-keypad display.

 * Improved line-breaking algorithm for displaying long formulas.

 * Improved display of control characters in vectors shown as strings.

 * Changed `d o' to allow fraction format to specify desired denominator.

 * Changed `M-# y' to respect overwrite mode in target buffer.

 * Added `H' prefix to display-mode commands to suppress stack refresh.

 * Changed "calc-why" mechanism to display urgent messages automatically.

 * Handled taking derivatives of symbolic integrals and vice-versa.

 * Handled integrating vectors of formulas.

 * Incorporated Ewerlid's polynomial division and GCD functions into Calc.

 * Improved algebraic operations on "mod" forms, esp. polynomials.

 * Added some more financial functions (sln, syd, ddb).

 * Added nest, anest, fixp, and afixp (`H V R' and `H V U') functions.

 * Added `a .' (calc-remove-equal) command to take apart equations.

 * Generalized dfact to work for negative odd integers; added !! syntax.

 * Changed `k f' to factor 1, 0, and negative integers.

 * Changed `u M', etc., to accept +/- and [ .. ] forms as distributions.

 * Changed `g q' to remove *Gnuplot Commands/Trail* window if present.

 * Added support for Francois Pinard's "dumb terminal" driver for GNUPLOT.

 * Added ":: remember" feature for rewrite rules.

 * Changed rewrites to let pattern "a*b" match "x/2" with a=x, b=1/2.

 * Added ability to put function names like "simplify" in rewrite schedule.

 * Added "Rewrites Tutorial" to the manual.

 * Changed ` to bind RET as newline instead of finish if editing a vector.

 * Added some new exercises to the List Tutorial.

 * Changed `Z F', `V M', etc. not to remove stored vars from def arg list.

 * Added parsing for /1, 2, 3/ notation for Fortran mode vectors.

 * Added a "%%" syntax for comments in formulas being read.

 * Fixed a bug in which failing `h k' removed an existing Info window.

 * Fixed a bug in `j /' operating on subformulas like "a + b".

 * Fixed a bug in which "inf = inf" undesirably evaluated to 1.

 * Fixed a bug that simplified "0 = 1 + a + 2" to "0 = a".

 * Fixed a bug that failed for rewrite patterns like "fib(1 ||| 2)".

 * Fixed a bug that arose because rewrite programs are non-reentrant.


Version 2.00 alpha 2:

 * Changed LFD terminating algebraic entry to push in no-simplify mode.

 * Changed so that `K -' interprets `-' as calc-minus, not neg prefix arg.

 * Improved `h c' command to understand all Calc key sequences.

 * Fixed problems with DistribRules, NegateRules, and FitRules.

 * Fixed several bad node pointers in the manual.

 * Fixed a bug in `h C-w' when used with makeinfo-formatted manuals.

 * Fixed a bug in sqrt(-1) when Polar and HMS modes are enabled.

 * Fixed/improved dscalar and deven functions; added dodd.

 * Fixed a bug in polynomial handling that also affected sum(sin(k),k,1,n).

 * Fixed various other glitches in the manual.


Version 2.00 alpha 1:

 * Calc's tar file now creates a calc-(version) directory to unpack into.

 * Calc now comes with a Makefile; install with "make install".

 * Calc now comes already split into many files; installation is much simpler.

 * Changed base file name of the manual from "calc-info" to "calc.info".

 * Key binding for `M-# w' was documented but not implemented.

 * Bound M-# ' to be synonymous with `M-# f' (used to be `M-# q').

 * Changed M-# M-# to use last interface of C or K; E no longer counts.

 * Changed `i' (and `M-# i') not to return to Top node unnecessarily.

 * Changed `h' to be a prefix key with various help commands.

 * Changed `s' to be a prefix key with various store and recall commands.

 * Keys `i', `r', and `l' are obsolete (moved to `h' and `s' prefixes).

 * Rearranged `K', `X', and `M-RET' keys; `K' is now calc-keep-args.

 * Changed quick-calc to display input formula as well as output if room.

 * Changed quick-calc to interact with the editing buffer and kill ring.

 * Created pack, unpack, unpackt function equivalents of `v p', `v u'.

 * Changed to expand (a/b)^x to a^x/b^x only if b > 0 (not if a > 0).

 * Changed math-possible-signs to understand sqrt function.

 * Changed Z [, rewrites to consider any provably non-zero value as true.

 * Changed normal language modes to accept ** as a synonym for ^.

 * Added "maple" language mode.

 * Changed, e.g., Mathematica "(2 + 3 I)^(1.23*10^20)" to include parens.

 * Generalized math-compose-big properties for all language modes.

 * Introduced "string" and other function for composing expressions.

 * Changed many recursive vector routines to use loops instead.

 * Added evalv, evalvn function equivalents to `=', `N'.

 * Changed "expr =>" not to evaluate at all if in no-simplify mode.

 * Redesigned user interface of `a F' (calc-curve-fit) command.

603
 * Added "phase" feature to the rewrite rule system.
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 * Added "&&&", "|||", "!!!" to the rewrite rule system.

 * Introduced a new notation for rewrites:  LHS := RHS :: COND.

 * Changed `a r' (but not `j r') to repeat 100 times by default.

 * Integrated EvalRules more cleanly into the default simplifications.

 * Added `H v l' [mdims] to measure the dimensions of a matrix.

 * Changed `u c' to interpret "/units" as "1/units".

 * Added `u a' to adjust unit prefix letters automatically.

 * Changed `u s' to enable scalar mode while simplifying.

 * Changed `c f' [pfloat] not to float integer powers or subscripts.

 * Added a three-argument form for the "hms" function.

 * Changed, e.g., sin(90) degrees to produce 1 instead of 1.0.

 * Changed symbolic mode to prefer sqrt(int): abs([1 2 3]) => sqrt(14).

 * Enhanced solver to handle, e.g., x + 1/x = a; exp(x) + exp(-x) = a.

 * Enhanced simplifier to handle, e.g., exp(a+2) / e^a => e^2.

 * Enhanced `a s' to simplify sqrt(x) - x^1:2 and exp(x) - e^x to 0.

 * Added -(a + b) to -a - b as a default simplification.

 * Added rules for differentiating sum() and prod() functions.

 * Added a few more energy units (due to Przemek Klosowski).

 * Added overflow/underflow checking for all floating-point arithmetic.

 * Extended error forms to work with complex numbers.

 * Generalized GCD to handle fractional arguments.

 * Changed graphics routines to evaluate "x" values, e.g., [-pi .. pi].

 * Added `g q', like `g K' but without viewing the Gnuplot Trail.

 * Changed `g p' and `V M' to display better "Working..." messages.

 * Modified `M-# g' to be more robust about grabbing formulas.

 * Added `Y' prefix key reserved for user-written extensions.

 * Added calc-load-hook and calc-ext-load-hook.

 * Prevented calc-install from leaving large ~ files behind.

 * Changed @bullet to @bullet{} in manual to conform to texinfo spec.

 * Rearranged some chapters in the manual to be a bit more logical.

 * Added calc-split-summary command.

 * Fixed several bugs in embedded mode.

 * Fixed a bug in calc-vector-covariance that required a prefix arg.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented parsing "a=>" with no right-hand side.

 * Fixed a bug which allowed incorrectly dividing a vector by a vector.

 * Fixed a bug formatting sum(...)^2 in Big mode.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented Calc from deleting old graphics temp files.

 * Fixed some typos calling calc-inverse-func instead of calc-invert-func.

 * Fixed bugs in the derivatives of conj, deg, and rad; added re, im.

 * Fixed a bug where (r;theta) parsed as r exp(theta i) even in Deg mode.

 * Fixed a bug which gave wrong answer for exp of a polar complex number.

 * Fixed a bug in `Z F' that failed if formula used non-arg variables.

 * Fixed a bad pointer to Info node "Assignments in Embedded Mode".

 * Fixed several errors in the Calc Summary.


Version 1.08 beta 1:

 * Calc's copyright has been assigned to FSF, for inclusion in Emacs 19!

 * Changed M-# to be a two-key sequence; use M-# M-# to start Calc now.

 * Rewrote and expanded the introductory chapter of the manual.

 * Added a key and function summary to the manual.

 * Changed the manual to take better advantage of TeX's math formatting.

 * Changed manual to be printable in @smallbook format.

 * Added "calc-embedded" mode.

 * Added "=>" [evalto] operator.

 * Added facilities for date and date/time arithmetic.

 * Added a set of financial functions (pv, fv, etc.).

 * Added infinite quantities inf, uinf, and nan (plus infinite intervals).

 * Added "EvalRules", "SimpRules", and "ExtSimpRules" variables.

 * Added sum and product commands `a +', `a -', `a *', `a T'.

 * Enhanced `a S' and `a P' to solve systems of equations.

 * Enhanced solver to handle eqns like sin(x) = cos(2 x), sqrt(x) + x = 1.

 * Added `a M' (calc-map-equation) command.

 * Added new statistical functions: mean, standard deviation, etc.

 * Added line, polynomial, and curve fitting commands (`a L' and `a F').

 * Added support for composite units, e.g., "mi+ft+in".

 * Enhanced "Big" mode to format square roots, choose, and powers better.

 * Enhanced "Big" mode to display fractions in large notation.

 * Added several alternate formats for matrix display.

 * Changed TeX mode to write "(1 + x^2)" instead of "\left(1 + x^2\right)".

 * Added support for relational operators in TeX and FORTRAN modes.

 * Added recognition of accents like \dot, \tilde, \underline in TeX mode.

 * Added "eqn" language mode.

 * Added extra control over display justification with `d <', `d =', `d >'.

 * Added calc-left-label and calc-right-label (`d {', `d }').

 * Added "nn%" syntax for algebraic formulas; equivalent to "nn * .01".

 * Added input syntaxes like a = b = c, a != b != c, a <= b < c.

 * Changed "_" to mean subscripts; old use of "_" in vars is now "#".

 * Introduced "matrix mode" and "scalar mode" (`m v').

 * Introduced generic identity matrices (idn(1)).

 * Added a method for declaring variables to be real, integer, > 0, etc.

 * Added `Z S' command for editing stored value of a variable.

 * Added "subst" algebraic function equivalent to the `a b' command.

 * Added `a f' command, changed deriv/integ/solve-for to use it.

 * Improved `a s' to simplify (x + y) (y + x) to (x + y)^2.

 * Improved `a s' to simplify i^2 to -1.

 * Improved `a s' to simplify, e.g., sin(pi/3) in Symbolic mode.

 * Improved `a s' to simplify sqrt(8) to 2 sqrt(2), 1/sqrt(2) to sqrt(2)/2.

 * Moved sin(arccos(x)) from `a e' to `a s'; not unsafe after all!

 * Changed (x y)^z => x^z y^z to be a usually-unsafe simplification.

 * Added thorough documentation of `a s' and `a e' to the manual.

 * Improved `a c' to collect "f(a)" even if "a" also appears elsewhere.

 * Introduced lin, linnt, islin, islinnt functions for linearity testing.

 * Improved `a x' to use binomial theorem to give simpler answers.

 * Improved `j D' to distribute powers of sums: (a + b)^n.

 * Improved `j M' to merge products of powers (may need no-simplify mode).

 * Changed to use defvar for DistribRules etc. so `Z V' works with them.

 * Improved `j *' and `j /' to work properly in a few more cases.

 * Improved `V R' to use identity value when reducing empty vectors.

 * Improved `v p' and `v u' to support more complex packing operations.

 * Disabled automatic simplification of sqrt(2)/2 to 1/sqrt(2).

 * Bound SPC and RET to press, TAB to next-menu in *Calc Keypad* buffer.

 * Added C-u ' to do algebraic entry with language mode forced to normal.

 * Added "$1", "$2", etc. input notation for algebraic entry.

 * Changed unary operators like `n', `&' to treat neg prefix args like RET.

 * Changed ` (calc-edit) to show full precision regardless of float format.

 * Enhanced quick-calc to display integers in several formats.

 * Documented `g H' (calc-graph-hide) command (had been left from manual).

 * Enhanced floor/ceil/trunc/round in several ways.

 * Added rounde and roundu functions.

 * Changed `c 1' through `c 9' to change small floats to 0.0; added `c 0'.

 * Enhanced set operations to work on sets of intervals.

 * Fixed erf(0), utpn(x,x,y), and arccosh(-1) to work properly.

 * Changed complex arctan and arctanh to follow Steele 2nd edition.

 * Expanded "Branch Cuts" section of the manual with some useful tables.

 * Rearranged order of words in mode line to be a bit more logical.

 * Changed `m N' (num-simplify) mode to evaluate constant vectors, too.

 * Changed `a r'/`j r' to prompt twice for separate LHS/RHS if necessary.

 * Enhanced `let(v,x)' in rewrites by allowing arbitrary patterns for v.

 * Changed cursor positioning in second prompt for `a b' (calc-substitute).

 * Changed `y' to omit line numbers more consistently.

 * Changed `o' (calc-realign) to reset horizontal scrolling to zero, also.

 * Added "pred" mode for calc-eval.

 * Added "calc-report-bug" as an alias for "report-calc-bug".

 * Added `Z T' and "calc-pass-errors" to aid debugging Calc-related code.

 * Added "calc-load-everything" (`m X' or `M-# L') command.

 * Enhanced calc-install to pre-build units table, CommuteRules, etc.

 * Changed Calc to interact more gracefully with load-path.

 * Changed Lisp Variable Index in manual to include user variables, too.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented calc-install from working under VMS.

 * Fixed a bug that sometimes crashed rewrites dealing with subtractions.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented `a S' from solving "3 - x = 1 + x"!

 * Fixed a bug in solver that crashed for certain cubics and quartics.

 * Fixed a bug in calc-simplify that crashed for equations and ineqs.

 * Fixed a bug which placed the "[" oddly in `d B' + `v /' mode.

 * Fixed a bug where finishing calc-edit improperly obeyed language mode.

 * Fixed a bug formatting (-1)^n in Big mode after selection commands.

 * Fixed a bug that got ">=" and "<=" backwards in rewrite conditions.

 * Fixed a bug that broke the `"x"' key in calc-keypad mode.

 * Fixed a bug in which `MAP$' in calc-keypad didn't display "Working...".

 * Fixed a bug where matrix division gave bad result for singular matrix.

 * Fixed a bug which closed Calc window if calc-grab-region got an error.

 * Fixed a bug where `a s' failed on formulas containing dimension errors.

 * Fixed a bug that caused `m F' to hang.

 * Fixed a bug in complex arithmetic that caused problems with solver.

 * Fixed a bug which raised intervals to interval powers incorrectly.

 * Fixed a bug in utpp/ltpp (order of arguments did not match the manual).

 * Fixed a bug in which `t y' rounded yanked data with old precision.

 * Fixed a bug in which "in(3, [3 .. 3))" returned true.

 * Fixed a bug which simplified abs(abs(x)) incorrectly.

 * Fixed a bug in which (a^2)^1:3 was unsafely simplified to a^2:3.

 * Fixed a bug in rewrite system which missed pattern "2 sin(x) cos(x)".

 * Fixed a bug in rewrite system which missed pattern "a - a cos(x)^2".

 * Fixed obsolete trail tags gsmp, gneg, ginv to jsmp, jneg, jinv.

 * Fixed some errors and made improvements in units table [Ulrich Mueller].


Version 1.07:

 * Added `m F' (calc-settings-file-name) command.

 * Added calc-autoload-directory variable.

 * Extended Z ` to accept a prefix argument.

 * Added keystrokes (v h, v k) for head, tail, cons.

 * Extended `v e' to accept a vector as the filler.

 * Changed `V M', `V R' to accept mapping-mode keys in uppercase, too.

 * Changed V M ' etc. to accept $, $$, ... as argument indicators.

 * Changed `t y' to accept a prefix argument.

 * Put in a cleaner and safer random number generator for `k r' et al.

 * Fixed a bug which completely broke `a r' command!

 * Fixed "0 * matrix" to generate a zero matrix instead of 0.

 * Fixed a bug in `a R' which sometimes caused it to crash.

 * Fixed a fatal typo in the TeX version of the manual.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented C-k, C-w, M-w from working in Trail buffer.

 * Fixed another bug in `Z P' command.

 * Fixed a bug in `u s' which incorrectly simplified subtractions.

 * Fixed an argument-name aliasing bug evaluating lambda( ) formulas.

 * Fixed overfull hboxes in the manual.

 * Fixed various other bugs in the manual.


Version 1.06:

 * Added "calc-keypad" mode for X window system users (try it!).

 * Improved "calc-eval" for calling/operating Calc from user-written Lisp.

 * Moved vector accumulate command to `V U' (old `H V R' still supported).

 * Added right-to-left reductions: `I V R' and `I V U'.

 * Added set operations on vectors: intersect, union, diff, xor.

 * Added `I v s' to remove a subvector from a vector.

 * Introduced `H |' to append two vectors with no magical special cases.

 * Introduced rhead, rtail, and rcons for isolating last vector element.

 * Changed `g p' to keep temp files around until data actually change.

 * Improved `a S' to solve many higher-order polynomial equations.

 * Added `a P' to produce a vector of all solutions to an equation.

 * Enhanced `a v' and `j v' to allow top-level-only evaluation.

 * Changed `j DEL' to delete a side of an eqn or ineq, leaving other side.

 * Fixed binding for keys `j 1' through `j 9'.

 * Introduced "let" marker in rewrite rules.

 * Enhanced the "sign" function to provide a two-argument version.

 * Changed "max-specpdl-size exceeded" error message to be user-friendly.

 * Put "<Aborted>" in the trail in above case and when user presses C-g.

 * Changed TeX mode to generate \ldots instead of \dots, recognize both.

 * Changed "sin(0)" etc. (for integer 0) to generate "0" instead of "0.".

 * Enhanced Programming Tutorial exercise 2.

 * Fixed an error in the answer to Types Tutorial exercise 3.

 * Fixed several bugs relating to head, tail, and cons functions.

 * Fixed some other minor typos in the manual.

 * Fixed several bugs in `Z P' (calc-user-define-permanent).

 * Fixed several bugs that broke the `g P' command.


Version 1.05:

 * Created a calc-install command to ease installation.

 * Added lots of exercises to the Tutorial section of the manual.

 * Added ability to select and operate on sub-formulas.

 * Substantially improved the algebraic rewrite-rule system.

 * Added a set of graphing commands that use GNUPLOT.

 * Added a command (`a R') for finding numerical roots to equations.

 * Added several new math functions, such as erf and Bessel functions.

 * Added key bindings for miscellaneous commands using the "f" prefix key.

 * Added lots of new vector operations, many of them in the spirit of APL.

 * Added more control over vector display, including an abbreviated mode.

 * Improved keyboard macro editing; added read-kbd-macro to macedit.el.

 * Introduced the `m S' (calc-shift-prefix) command.

 * Enhanced the calc-edit command in several ways.

 * Made it possible to hit ` (calc-edit) during numeric/algebraic entry.

 * Enhanced the calc-solve-for command to handle inequalities.

 * Enhanced calc-simplify to handle equations and inequalities.

 * Taught log10 and log to look for exact integer or rational results.

 * Added ability to take Nth roots directly.

 * Added "increment" and "decrement" commands for integers and floats.

 * Added "full-help" command, changed "h" key to invoke it.

 * Added special help for Inverse and Hyperbolic prefixes.

 * Added an optional prefix argument to `o' (calc-realign).

 * Changed `t s' and `t r' to use RET as the search exit key.

 * Made handling of operator keys for V M, V R, etc. more regular.

 * Improved TeX mode; added support for \matrix format.

 * Added a variant of `m a' mode that only affects ( and [ keys.

 * Fixed "Mismatch" message for algebraic entry of semi-open intervals.

 * Trimmed fat from calc.el to speed loading, moved more to calc-ext.el.

 * Fixed a bug in which minibuffer entry rounded to out-of-date precision.

 * Fixed a bug which crashed Calc 1.04 under Epoch.

 * Fixed a bug which messed up Calc Trail's mode line, among other things.

 * Fixed a bug which caused trail ">" to show only when in Trail buffer.

 * Fixed a bug in which "calc" called "calc-grab-region" with too few args.

 * Fixed bugs in both implementation and documentation of calc-perm.

 * Fixed a bug in which calc-simplify-extended always used radians.

 * Fixed a bug where calc-comma failed to override "polar" mode.

 * Fixed a bug doing mixed arithmetic on rectangular+polar complex numbers.

 * Fixed several bugs in transcendental functions with complex arguments.

 * Fixed a bug in which `a s' simplified "x / .5" to ".5 x".

 * Fixed numerous other bugs in various parts of Calc.

 * Completed the "Hooks" section of the "Internals" chapter of the manual.


Version 1.04:

 * Included a copy of revision history (from README) in calc.el.

 * Added the "calc-split" feature to split calc-ext.el into smaller bits.

 * Changed calc-unpack to unpack floats and fractions, too.

 * Added "mant", "xpon", and "scf" functions for decomposing floats.

 * Fixed a bug in the "y" command with positive prefix arguments.

 * Rearranged binary shift/rotate command keys to be a bit more convenient.

 * Fixed a bug in which simplifying "(0/0) * 2" crashed with a Lisp error.

 * Made `H F' [ffloor] and friends faster for very large arguments.

 * Made calc-define-del more robust.

 * Handled pasting of data into the Calculator using the mouse under X.

 * Made overlay-arrow variables buffer-local to avoid interference.

 * Fixed a problem in which Calc Trail buffer got stuck after a C-x C-w.


Version 1.03:

 * Changed math-choose to compute n-choose-m faster when m is large.

 * Fixed some problems with TeX mode.

 * Fixed a bug that prevented `b s' from working without a prefix argument.

 * Added "calc-eval" function.

 * Improved calc-grab-region.


Version 1.02:

 * Fixed a bug in Tutorial: telephone pole height/distance were switched!

 * Fixed a few other things in the manual.

 * Added "full-calc" command.

 * Added "calc-insert-variables" (`Z I') command.

 * Quick Calc now works even if you are already in the minibuffer.

 * Fixed a bug in math-mul-bignum-digit which affected math-and, etc.

 * Definition of "Hectares" was wrong in units table.

 * Fixed a bug in calc-execute-kbd-macro concerning undo and refresh.

 * Bound "calc-undo" to `C-x u' as well as `C-_' and `U'.

Version 1.01:

 * Added a tutorial section to the manual.

 * Next and Prev for node Strings in the manual were reversed; fixed.

 * Changed "'bignum" in calc-isqrt-bignum-iter to "'bigpos".

 * Fixed a bug that prevented "$" from working during algebraic entry.

 * Fixed a bug caused by an X (last-X) command following a K (macro) cmd.

 * Fixed a bug in which K command incorrectly formatted stack in Big mode.

 * Added space between unary operators and non-flat compositions.
   (Otherwise, "-(a/b)" in Big mode blended the minus sign into the rule!)

 * Fixed formatting of (-1)^n in Big mode.

 * Fixed some problems relating to "not" operator in Pascal language mode.

 * Fixed several bugs relating to V M ' and V M $ sequences.

 * Fixed matrix-vector multiplication to produce a vector.

 * Introduced Z ` ... Z ' commands; renamed old Z ' to Z #.

 * Fixed various other bugs.

 * Added calc-settings-file variable suggested by C. Witty.


Version 1.00:

 * First official release of Calc.

 * If you used the Beta test version (0.01), you will find that this
   version of Calc is over 50% larger than the original release.
   General areas of improvement include much better algebra features;
   operations on units; language modes; simplification modes; interval
   arithmetic; vector mapping and reduction.  Other new commands include
   calc-fraction and calc-grab-region.  The program has been split into
   two parts for faster loading, and the manual is more complete.

1198 1199 1200

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