text.texi 110 KB
Newer Older
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985-1987, 1993-1995, 1997, 2000-2011
@c   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
4 5 6 7 8 9
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Text, Programs, Indentation, Top
@chapter Commands for Human Languages
@cindex text
@cindex manipulating text

10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22
  This chapter describes Emacs commands that act on @dfn{text}, by
which we mean sequences of characters in a human language (as opposed
to, say, a computer programming language).  These commands act in ways
that take into account the syntactic and stylistic conventions of
human languages: conventions involving words, sentences, paragraphs,
and capital letters.  There are also commands for @dfn{filling}, which
means rearranging the lines of a paragraph to be approximately equal
in length.  These commands, while intended primarily for editing text,
are also often useful for editing programs.

  Emacs has several major modes for editing human-language text.  If
the file contains ordinary text, use Text mode, which customizes Emacs
in small ways for the syntactic conventions of text.  Outline mode
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
provides special commands for operating on text with an outline
24 25 26 27
structure.  Org mode extends Outline mode and turn Emacs into a
full-fledged organizer: you can manage TODO lists, store notes and
publish them in many formats.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
28 29 30 31
@xref{Outline Mode}.
@end iftex

32 33 34 35
@cindex nXML mode
@cindex mode, XML
@cindex mode, nXML
@findex nxml-mode
  Emacs has other major modes for text which contains ``embedded''
commands, such as @TeX{} and La@TeX{} (@pxref{TeX Mode}); HTML and
38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45
SGML (@pxref{HTML Mode}); XML
(@pxref{Top,The nXML Mode Manual,,nxml-mode, nXML Mode});
@end ifinfo
(see the nXML mode Info manual, which is distributed with Emacs);
@end ifnotinfo
and Groff and Nroff (@pxref{Nroff Mode}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
46 47 48

@cindex ASCII art
  If you need to edit pictures made out of text characters (commonly
49 50
referred to as ``ASCII art''), use Picture mode, a special major mode
for editing such pictures.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
51 52 53 54 55 56 57
@xref{Picture Mode,,, emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}.
@end iftex
@xref{Picture Mode}.
@end ifnottex

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
59 60 61 62 63
@cindex skeletons
@cindex templates
@cindex autotyping
@cindex automatic typing
  The ``automatic typing'' features may be useful when writing text.
64 65
@inforef{Top,The Autotype Manual,autotype}.
@end ifinfo
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
66 67

68 69 70 71 72 73 74
* Words::               Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::           Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::          Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::               Moving over pages.
* Filling::             Filling or justifying text.
* Case::                Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::           The major modes for editing text files.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
* Org Mode::            The Emacs organizer.
* TeX Mode::            Editing input to the formatter TeX.
* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML and SGML files.
* Nroff Mode::          Editing input to the formatter nroff.
80 81
* Enriched Text::       Editing text ``enriched'' with fonts, colors, etc.
* Text Based Tables::   Commands for editing text-based tables.
* Two-Column::          Splitting text columns into separate windows.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
83 84 85 86 87 88 89
@end menu

@node Words
@section Words
@cindex words
@cindex Meta commands and words

90 91
  Emacs defines several commands for moving over or operating on
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118

@table @kbd
@item M-f
Move forward over a word (@code{forward-word}).
@item M-b
Move backward over a word (@code{backward-word}).
@item M-d
Kill up to the end of a word (@code{kill-word}).
@item M-@key{DEL}
Kill back to the beginning of a word (@code{backward-kill-word}).
@item M-@@
Mark the end of the next word (@code{mark-word}).
@item M-t
Transpose two words or drag a word across others
@end table

  Notice how these keys form a series that parallels the character-based
@kbd{C-f}, @kbd{C-b}, @kbd{C-d}, @key{DEL} and @kbd{C-t}.  @kbd{M-@@} is
cognate to @kbd{C-@@}, which is an alias for @kbd{C-@key{SPC}}.

@kindex M-f
@kindex M-b
@findex forward-word
@findex backward-word
  The commands @kbd{M-f} (@code{forward-word}) and @kbd{M-b}
(@code{backward-word}) move forward and backward over words.  These
119 120 121 122 123 124 125
@key{Meta}-based key sequences are analogous to the key sequences
@kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-b}, which move over single characters.  The
analogy extends to numeric arguments, which serve as repeat counts.
@kbd{M-f} with a negative argument moves backward, and @kbd{M-b} with
a negative argument moves forward.  Forward motion stops right after
the last letter of the word, while backward motion stops right before
the first letter.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
126 127 128 129 130 131

@kindex M-d
@findex kill-word
  @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) kills the word after point.  To be
precise, it kills everything from point to the place @kbd{M-f} would
move to.  Thus, if point is in the middle of a word, @kbd{M-d} kills
132 133 134 135 136
just the part after point.  If some punctuation comes between point
and the next word, it is killed along with the word.  (If you wish to
kill only the next word but not the punctuation before it, simply do
@kbd{M-f} to get the end, and kill the word backwards with
@kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.)  @kbd{M-d} takes arguments just like @kbd{M-f}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158

@findex backward-kill-word
@kindex M-DEL
  @kbd{M-@key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-word}) kills the word before
point.  It kills everything from point back to where @kbd{M-b} would
move to.  For instance, if point is after the space in @w{@samp{FOO,
BAR}}, it kills @w{@samp{FOO, }}.  If you wish to kill just
@samp{FOO}, and not the comma and the space, use @kbd{M-b M-d} instead
of @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.

@c Don't index M-t and transpose-words here, they are indexed in
@c fixit.texi, in the node "Transpose".
@c @kindex M-t
@c @findex transpose-words
  @kbd{M-t} (@code{transpose-words}) exchanges the word before or
containing point with the following word.  The delimiter characters between
the words do not move.  For example, @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}} transposes into
@w{@samp{BAR, FOO}} rather than @samp{@w{BAR FOO,}}.  @xref{Transpose}, for
more on transposition.

@kindex M-@@
@findex mark-word
159 160 161 162
  To operate on words with an operation which acts on the region, use
the command @kbd{M-@@} (@code{mark-word}).  This command sets the mark
where @kbd{M-f} would move to.  @xref{Marking Objects}, for more
information about this command.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed

164 165 166 167
  The word commands' understanding of word boundaries is controlled by
the syntax table.  Any character can, for example, be declared to be a
word delimiter.  @xref{Syntax Tables,, Syntax Tables, elisp, The Emacs
Lisp Reference Manual}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed

169 170 171 172
  In addition, see @ref{Position Info} for the @kbd{M-=}
(@code{count-words-region}) and @kbd{M-x count-words} commands, which
count and report the number of words in the region or buffer.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
173 174 175 176 177
@node Sentences
@section Sentences
@cindex sentences
@cindex manipulating sentences

178 179
  The Emacs commands for manipulating sentences and paragraphs are
mostly on Meta keys, like the word-handling commands.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195

@table @kbd
@item M-a
Move back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-sentence}).
@item M-e
Move forward to the end of the sentence (@code{forward-sentence}).
@item M-k
Kill forward to the end of the sentence (@code{kill-sentence}).
@item C-x @key{DEL}
Kill back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-kill-sentence}).
@end table

@kindex M-a
@kindex M-e
@findex backward-sentence
@findex forward-sentence
196 197 198 199 200 201
  The commands @kbd{M-a} (@code{backward-sentence}) and @kbd{M-e}
(@code{forward-sentence}) move to the beginning and end of the current
sentence, respectively.  Their bindings were chosen to resemble
@kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e}, which move to the beginning and end of a
line.  Unlike them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} move over successive
sentences if repeated.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209

  Moving backward over a sentence places point just before the first
character of the sentence; moving forward places point right after the
punctuation that ends the sentence.  Neither one moves over the
whitespace at the sentence boundary.

@kindex M-k
@findex kill-sentence
210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217
  Just as @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} have a kill command, @kbd{C-k}, to
go with them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} have a corresponding kill
command: @kbd{M-k} (@code{kill-sentence}) kills from point to the end
of the sentence.  With a positive numeric argument @var{n}, it kills
the next @var{n} sentences; with a negative argument @minus{}@var{n},
it kills back to the beginning of the @var{n}th preceding sentence.

@kindex C-x DEL
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
@findex backward-kill-sentence
219 220
  The @kbd{C-x @key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-sentence}) kills back
to the beginning of a sentence.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
221 222

  The sentence commands assume that you follow the American typist's
223 224
convention of putting two spaces at the end of a sentence.  That is, a
sentence ends wherever there is a @samp{.}, @samp{?} or @samp{!}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
followed by the end of a line or two spaces, with any number of
226 227 228 229 230
@samp{)}, @samp{]}, @samp{'}, or @samp{"} characters allowed in
between.  A sentence also begins or ends wherever a paragraph begins
or ends.  It is useful to follow this convention, because it allows
the Emacs sentence commands to distinguish between periods that end a
sentence and periods that indicate abbreviations.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
231 232 233 234

@vindex sentence-end-double-space
  If you want to use just one space between sentences, you can set the
variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} to @code{nil} to make the
sentence commands stop for single spaces.  However, this has a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
236 237 238 239
drawback: there is no way to distinguish between periods that end
sentences and those that indicate abbreviations.  For convenient and
reliable editing, we therefore recommend you follow the two-space
convention.  The variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} also
affects filling (@pxref{Fill Commands}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
241 242 243

@vindex sentence-end
  The variable @code{sentence-end} controls how to recognize the end
244 245 246 247 248 249
of a sentence.  If non-@code{nil}, its value should be a regular
expression, which is used to match the last few characters of a
sentence, together with the whitespace following the sentence
(@pxref{Regexps}).  If the value is @code{nil}, the default, then
Emacs computes sentence ends according to various criteria such as the
value of @code{sentence-end-double-space}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
250 251

@vindex sentence-end-without-period
252 253
  Some languages, such as Thai, do not use periods to indicate the end
of a sentence.  Set the variable @code{sentence-end-without-period} to
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271
@code{t} in such cases.

@node Paragraphs
@section Paragraphs
@cindex paragraphs
@cindex manipulating paragraphs

  The Emacs commands for manipulating paragraphs are also on Meta keys.

@table @kbd
@item M-@{
Move back to previous paragraph beginning (@code{backward-paragraph}).
@item M-@}
Move forward to next paragraph end (@code{forward-paragraph}).
@item M-h
Put point and mark around this or next paragraph (@code{mark-paragraph}).
@end table

272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280
@kindex M-@{
@kindex M-@}
@findex backward-paragraph
@findex forward-paragraph
  @kbd{M-@{} (@code{backward-paragraph}) moves to the beginning of the
current or previous paragraph (see below for the definition of a
paragraph).  @kbd{M-@}} (@code{forward-paragraph}) moves to the end of
the current or next paragraph.  If there is a blank line before the
paragraph, @kbd{M-@{} moves to the blank line.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
281 282 283

@kindex M-h
@findex mark-paragraph
284 285 286 287 288
  When you wish to operate on a paragraph, type @kbd{M-h}
(@code{mark-paragraph}) to set the region around it.  For example,
@kbd{M-h C-w} kills the paragraph around or after point.  @kbd{M-h}
puts point at the beginning and mark at the end of the paragraph point
was in.  If point is between paragraphs (in a run of blank lines, or
289 290 291 292 293
at a boundary), @kbd{M-h} sets the region around the paragraph
following point.  If there are blank lines preceding the first line of
the paragraph, one of these blank lines is included in the region.  If
the region is already active, the command sets the mark without
changing point, and each subsequent @kbd{M-h} further advances the
mark by one paragraph.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed

296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311
  The definition of a paragraph depends on the major mode.  In
Fundamental mode, as well as Text mode and related modes, a paragraph
is separated each neighboring paragraph another by one or more
@dfn{blank lines}---lines that are either empty, or consist solely of
space, tab and/or formfeed characters.  In programming language modes,
paragraphs are usually defined in a similar way, so that you can use
the paragraph commands even though there are no paragraphs as such in
a program.

  Note that an indented line is @emph{not} itself a paragraph break in
Text mode.  If you want indented lines to separate paragraphs, use
Paragraph-Indent Text mode instead.  @xref{Text Mode}.

  If you set a fill prefix, then paragraphs are delimited by all lines
which don't start with the fill prefix.  @xref{Filling}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
312 313 314 315
@vindex paragraph-start
@vindex paragraph-separate
  The precise definition of a paragraph boundary is controlled by the
variables @code{paragraph-separate} and @code{paragraph-start}.  The
316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324
value of @code{paragraph-start} is a regular expression that should
match lines that either start or separate paragraphs
(@pxref{Regexps}).  The value of @code{paragraph-separate} is another
regular expression that should match lines that separate paragraphs
without being part of any paragraph (for example, blank lines).  Lines
that start a new paragraph and are contained in it must match only
@code{paragraph-start}, not @code{paragraph-separate}.  For example,
in Fundamental mode, @code{paragraph-start} is @w{@code{"\f\\|[
\t]*$"}}, and @code{paragraph-separate} is @w{@code{"[ \t\f]*$"}}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
325 326 327 328 329

@node Pages
@section Pages

@cindex pages
@cindex formfeed character
331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339
  Within some text files, text is divided into @dfn{pages} delimited
by the @dfn{formfeed character} (@acronym{ASCII} code 12, also denoted
as @key{control-L}), which is displayed in Emacs as the escape
sequence @samp{^L} (@pxref{Text Display}).  Traditionally, when such
text files are printed to hardcopy, each formfeed character forces a
page break.  Most Emacs commands treat it just like any other
character, so you can insert it with @kbd{C-q C-l}, delete it with
@key{DEL}, etc.  In addition, Emacs provides commands to move over
pages and operate on them.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
340 341

@table @kbd
342 343
@item M-x what-page
Display the page number of point, and the line number within that page.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353
@item C-x [
Move point to previous page boundary (@code{backward-page}).
@item C-x ]
Move point to next page boundary (@code{forward-page}).
@item C-x C-p
Put point and mark around this page (or another page) (@code{mark-page}).
@item C-x l
Count the lines in this page (@code{count-lines-page}).
@end table

354 355 356 357
@findex what-page
  @kbd{M-x what-page} counts pages from the beginning of the file, and
counts lines within the page, showing both numbers in the echo area.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370
@kindex C-x [
@kindex C-x ]
@findex forward-page
@findex backward-page
  The @kbd{C-x [} (@code{backward-page}) command moves point to immediately
after the previous page delimiter.  If point is already right after a page
delimiter, it skips that one and stops at the previous one.  A numeric
argument serves as a repeat count.  The @kbd{C-x ]} (@code{forward-page})
command moves forward past the next page delimiter.

@kindex C-x C-p
@findex mark-page
  The @kbd{C-x C-p} command (@code{mark-page}) puts point at the
371 372 373
beginning of the current page (after that page delimiter at the
front), and the mark at the end of the page (after the page delimiter
at the end).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
374 375 376 377 378 379 380

  @kbd{C-x C-p C-w} is a handy way to kill a page to move it
elsewhere.  If you move to another page delimiter with @kbd{C-x [} and
@kbd{C-x ]}, then yank the killed page, all the pages will be properly
delimited once again.  The reason @kbd{C-x C-p} includes only the
following page delimiter in the region is to ensure that.

381 382
  A numeric argument to @kbd{C-x C-p} specifies which page to go to,
relative to the current one.  Zero means the current page.  One means
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401
the next page, and @minus{}1 means the previous one.

@kindex C-x l
@findex count-lines-page
  The @kbd{C-x l} command (@code{count-lines-page}) is good for deciding
where to break a page in two.  It displays in the echo area the total number
of lines in the current page, and then divides it up into those preceding
the current line and those following, as in

Page has 96 (72+25) lines
@end example

  Notice that the sum is off by one; this is correct if point is not at the
beginning of a line.

@vindex page-delimiter
  The variable @code{page-delimiter} controls where pages begin.  Its
402 403 404 405
value is a regular expression that matches the beginning of a line
that separates pages (@pxref{Regexps}).  The normal value of this
variable is @code{"^\f"}, which matches a formfeed character at the
beginning of a line.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414

@node Filling
@section Filling Text
@cindex filling text

  @dfn{Filling} text means breaking it up into lines that fit a
specified width.  Emacs does filling in two ways.  In Auto Fill mode,
inserting text with self-inserting characters also automatically fills
it.  There are also explicit fill commands that you can use when editing
text leaves it unfilled.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
416 417

418 419 420 421
* Auto Fill::      Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Fill Commands::  Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::    Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::  How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
422 423 424 425 426 427 428
@end menu

@node Auto Fill
@subsection Auto Fill Mode
@cindex Auto Fill mode
@cindex mode, Auto Fill

429 430 431
  @dfn{Auto Fill} mode is a buffer-local minor mode (@pxref{Minor
Modes}) in which lines are broken automatically when they become too
wide.  Breaking happens only when you type a @key{SPC} or @key{RET}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441

@table @kbd
@item M-x auto-fill-mode
Enable or disable Auto Fill mode.
@item @key{SPC}
@itemx @key{RET}
In Auto Fill mode, break lines when appropriate.
@end table

@findex auto-fill-mode
442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474
  The mode command @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} toggles Auto Fill mode in
the current buffer.  With a positive numeric argument, it enables Auto
Fill mode, and with a negative argument it disables it.  If
@code{auto-fill-mode} is called from Lisp with an omitted or
@code{nil} argument, it enables Auto Fill mode.  To enable Auto Fill
mode automatically in certain major modes, add @code{auto-fill-mode}
to the mode hooks (@pxref{Major Modes}).  When Auto Fill mode is
enabled, the mode indicator @samp{Fill} appears in the mode line
(@pxref{Mode Line}).

  Auto Fill mode breaks lines automatically at spaces whenever they
get longer than the desired width.  This line breaking occurs only
when you type @key{SPC} or @key{RET}.  If you wish to insert a space
or newline without permitting line-breaking, type @kbd{C-q @key{SPC}}
or @kbd{C-q C-j} respectively.  Also, @kbd{C-o} inserts a newline
without line breaking.

  When Auto Fill mode breaks a line, it tries to obey the
@dfn{adaptive fill prefix}: if a fill prefix can be deduced from the
first and/or second line of the current paragraph, it is inserted into
the new line (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}).  Otherwise the new line is
indented, as though you had typed @key{TAB} on it
(@pxref{Indentation}).  In a programming language mode, if a line is
broken in the middle of a comment, the comment is split by inserting
new comment delimiters as appropriate.

  Auto Fill mode does not refill entire paragraphs; it breaks lines
but does not merge lines.  Therefore, editing in the middle of a
paragraph can result in a paragraph that is not correctly filled.  To
fill it, call the explicit fill commands
described in the next section.
@end iftex
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
(@pxref{Fill Commands}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
477 478 479 480 481 482 483
@end ifnottex

@node Fill Commands
@subsection Explicit Fill Commands

@table @kbd
@item M-q
Fill current paragraph (@code{fill-paragraph}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
485 486 487 488 489 490
@item C-x f
Set the fill column (@code{set-fill-column}).
@item M-x fill-region
Fill each paragraph in the region (@code{fill-region}).
@item M-x fill-region-as-paragraph
Fill the region, considering it as one paragraph.
@item M-o M-s
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
492 493 494
Center a line.
@end table

@kindex M-q
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
@findex fill-paragraph
497 498 499 500 501
  The command @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph}) @dfn{fills} the
current paragraph.  It redistributes the line breaks within the
paragraph, and deletes any excess space and tab characters occurring
within the paragraph, in such a way that the lines end up fitting
within a certain maximum width.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
502 503

@findex fill-region
504 505 506 507 508
  Normally, @kbd{M-q} acts on the paragraph where point is, but if
point is between paragraphs, it acts on the paragraph after point.  If
the region is active, it acts instead on the text in the region.  You
can also call @kbd{M-x fill-region} to specifically fill the text in
the region.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
509 510

@findex fill-region-as-paragraph
511 512 513
  @kbd{M-q} and @code{fill-region} use the usual Emacs criteria for
finding paragraph boundaries (@pxref{Paragraphs}).  For more control,
you can use @kbd{M-x fill-region-as-paragraph}, which refills
514 515 516
everything between point and mark as a single paragraph.  This command
deletes any blank lines within the region, so separate blocks of text
end up combined into one block.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
517 518 519 520 521 522

@cindex justification
  A numeric argument to @kbd{M-q} tells it to @dfn{justify} the text
as well as filling it.  This means that extra spaces are inserted to
make the right margin line up exactly at the fill column.  To remove
the extra spaces, use @kbd{M-q} with no argument.  (Likewise for
523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534

@vindex fill-column
@kindex C-x f
@findex set-fill-column
  The maximum line width for filling is specified by the buffer-local
variable @code{fill-column}.  The default value (@pxref{Locals}) is
70.  The easiest way to set @code{fill-column} in the current buffer
is to use the command @kbd{C-x f} (@code{set-fill-column}).  With a
numeric argument, it uses that as the new fill column.  With just
@kbd{C-u} as argument, it sets @code{fill-column} to the current
horizontal position of point.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed

@kindex M-o M-s @r{(Text mode)}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
537 538
@cindex centering
@findex center-line
  The command @kbd{M-o M-s} (@code{center-line}) centers the current line
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
540 541 542 543 544
within the current fill column.  With an argument @var{n}, it centers
@var{n} lines individually and moves past them.  This binding is
made by Text mode and is available only in that and related modes
(@pxref{Text Mode}).

545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553
  By default, Emacs considers a period followed by two spaces or by a
newline as the end of a sentence; a period followed by just one space
indicates an abbreviation, not the end of a sentence.  Accordingly,
the fill commands will not break a line after a period followed by
just one space.  If you change the variable
@code{sentence-end-double-space} to a non-@code{nil} value, the fill
commands will break a line after a period followed by one space, and
put just one space after each period.  @xref{Sentences}, for other
effects and possible drawbacks of this.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
554 555 556 557 558 559

@vindex colon-double-space
  If the variable @code{colon-double-space} is non-@code{nil}, the
fill commands put two spaces after a colon.

@vindex fill-nobreak-predicate
560 561 562 563 564 565
  To specify additional conditions where line-breaking is not allowed,
customize the abnormal hook variable @code{fill-nobreak-predicate}
(@pxref{Hooks}).  Each function in this hook is called with no
arguments, with point positioned where Emacs is considering breaking a
line.  If a function returns a non-@code{nil} value, Emacs will not
break the line there.  Two functions you can use are
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573
@code{fill-single-word-nobreak-p} (don't break after the first word of
a sentence or before the last) and @code{fill-french-nobreak-p} (don't
break after @samp{(} or before @samp{)}, @samp{:} or @samp{?}).

@node Fill Prefix
@subsection The Fill Prefix

@cindex fill prefix
574 575 576 577 578
  The @dfn{fill prefix} feature allows paragraphs to be filled so that
each line starts with a special string of characters (such as a
sequence of spaces, giving an indented paragraph).  You can specify a
fill prefix explicitly; otherwise, Emacs tries to deduce one
automatically (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
579 580 581 582 583

@table @kbd
@item C-x .
Set the fill prefix (@code{set-fill-prefix}).
@item M-q
Fill a paragraph using current fill prefix (@code{fill-paragraph}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601
@item M-x fill-individual-paragraphs
Fill the region, considering each change of indentation as starting a
new paragraph.
@item M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs
Fill the region, considering only paragraph-separator lines as starting
a new paragraph.
@end table

@kindex C-x .
@findex set-fill-prefix
  To specify a fill prefix for the current buffer, move to a line that
starts with the desired prefix, put point at the end of the prefix,
and type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: (@code{set-fill-prefix}).  (That's a period
after the @kbd{C-x}.)  To turn off the fill prefix, specify an empty
prefix: type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: with point at the beginning of a line.

  When a fill prefix is in effect, the fill commands remove the fill
602 603
prefix from each line of the paragraph before filling, and insert it
on each line after filling.  (The beginning of the first line of the
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
604 605
paragraph is left unchanged, since often that is intentionally
different.)  Auto Fill mode also inserts the fill prefix automatically
606 607 608 609 610
when it makes a new line (@pxref{Auto Fill}).  The @kbd{C-o} command
inserts the fill prefix on new lines it creates, when you use it at
the beginning of a line (@pxref{Blank Lines}).  Conversely, the
command @kbd{M-^} deletes the prefix (if it occurs) after the newline
that it deletes (@pxref{Indentation}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662

  For example, if @code{fill-column} is 40 and you set the fill prefix
to @samp{;; }, then @kbd{M-q} in the following text

;; This is an
;; example of a paragraph
;; inside a Lisp-style comment.
@end example

produces this:

;; This is an example of a paragraph
;; inside a Lisp-style comment.
@end example

  Lines that do not start with the fill prefix are considered to start
paragraphs, both in @kbd{M-q} and the paragraph commands; this gives
good results for paragraphs with hanging indentation (every line
indented except the first one).  Lines which are blank or indented once
the prefix is removed also separate or start paragraphs; this is what
you want if you are writing multi-paragraph comments with a comment
delimiter on each line.

@findex fill-individual-paragraphs
  You can use @kbd{M-x fill-individual-paragraphs} to set the fill
prefix for each paragraph automatically.  This command divides the
region into paragraphs, treating every change in the amount of
indentation as the start of a new paragraph, and fills each of these
paragraphs.  Thus, all the lines in one ``paragraph'' have the same
amount of indentation.  That indentation serves as the fill prefix for
that paragraph.

@findex fill-nonuniform-paragraphs
  @kbd{M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs} is a similar command that divides
the region into paragraphs in a different way.  It considers only
paragraph-separating lines (as defined by @code{paragraph-separate}) as
starting a new paragraph.  Since this means that the lines of one
paragraph may have different amounts of indentation, the fill prefix
used is the smallest amount of indentation of any of the lines of the
paragraph.  This gives good results with styles that indent a paragraph's
first line more or less that the rest of the paragraph.

@vindex fill-prefix
  The fill prefix is stored in the variable @code{fill-prefix}.  Its value
is a string, or @code{nil} when there is no fill prefix.  This is a
per-buffer variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer,
but there is a default value which you can change as well.  @xref{Locals}.

  The @code{indentation} text property provides another way to control
663 664
the amount of indentation paragraphs receive.  @xref{Enriched
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760

@node Adaptive Fill
@subsection Adaptive Filling

@cindex adaptive filling
  The fill commands can deduce the proper fill prefix for a paragraph
automatically in certain cases: either whitespace or certain punctuation
characters at the beginning of a line are propagated to all lines of the

  If the paragraph has two or more lines, the fill prefix is taken from
the paragraph's second line, but only if it appears on the first line as

  If a paragraph has just one line, fill commands @emph{may} take a
prefix from that line.  The decision is complicated because there are
three reasonable things to do in such a case:

@itemize @bullet
Use the first line's prefix on all the lines of the paragraph.

Indent subsequent lines with whitespace, so that they line up under the
text that follows the prefix on the first line, but don't actually copy
the prefix from the first line.

Don't do anything special with the second and following lines.
@end itemize

  All three of these styles of formatting are commonly used.  So the
fill commands try to determine what you would like, based on the prefix
that appears and on the major mode.  Here is how.

@vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp
  If the prefix found on the first line matches
@code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}, or if it appears to be a
comment-starting sequence (this depends on the major mode), then the
prefix found is used for filling the paragraph, provided it would not
act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines.

  Otherwise, the prefix found is converted to an equivalent number of
spaces, and those spaces are used as the fill prefix for the rest of the
lines, provided they would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent

  In Text mode, and other modes where only blank lines and page
delimiters separate paragraphs, the prefix chosen by adaptive filling
never acts as a paragraph starter, so it can always be used for filling.

@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@vindex adaptive-fill-regexp
  The variable @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} determines what kinds of line
beginnings can serve as a fill prefix: any characters at the start of
the line that match this regular expression are used.  If you set the
variable @code{adaptive-fill-mode} to @code{nil}, the fill prefix is
never chosen automatically.

@vindex adaptive-fill-function
  You can specify more complex ways of choosing a fill prefix
automatically by setting the variable @code{adaptive-fill-function} to a
function.  This function is called with point after the left margin of a
line, and it should return the appropriate fill prefix based on that
line.  If it returns @code{nil}, @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} gets
a chance to find a prefix.

@node Case
@section Case Conversion Commands
@cindex case conversion

  Emacs has commands for converting either a single word or any arbitrary
range of text to upper case or to lower case.

@table @kbd
@item M-l
Convert following word to lower case (@code{downcase-word}).
@item M-u
Convert following word to upper case (@code{upcase-word}).
@item M-c
Capitalize the following word (@code{capitalize-word}).
@item C-x C-l
Convert region to lower case (@code{downcase-region}).
@item C-x C-u
Convert region to upper case (@code{upcase-region}).
@end table

@kindex M-l
@kindex M-u
@kindex M-c
@cindex words, case conversion
@cindex converting text to upper or lower case
@cindex capitalizing words
@findex downcase-word
@findex upcase-word
@findex capitalize-word
761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770
  @kbd{M-l} (@code{downcase-word}) converts the word after point to
lower case, moving past it.  Thus, repeating @kbd{M-l} converts
successive words.  @kbd{M-u} (@code{upcase-word}) converts to all
capitals instead, while @kbd{M-c} (@code{capitalize-word}) puts the
first letter of the word into upper case and the rest into lower case.
All these commands convert several words at once if given an argument.
They are especially convenient for converting a large amount of text
from all upper case to mixed case, because you can move through the
text using @kbd{M-l}, @kbd{M-u} or @kbd{M-c} on each word as
appropriate, occasionally using @kbd{M-f} instead to skip a word.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803

  When given a negative argument, the word case conversion commands apply
to the appropriate number of words before point, but do not move point.
This is convenient when you have just typed a word in the wrong case: you
can give the case conversion command and continue typing.

  If a word case conversion command is given in the middle of a word,
it applies only to the part of the word which follows point.  (This is
comparable to what @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) does.)  With a
negative argument, case conversion applies only to the part of the
word before point.

@kindex C-x C-l
@kindex C-x C-u
@findex downcase-region
@findex upcase-region
  The other case conversion commands are @kbd{C-x C-u}
(@code{upcase-region}) and @kbd{C-x C-l} (@code{downcase-region}), which
convert everything between point and mark to the specified case.  Point and
mark do not move.

  The region case conversion commands @code{upcase-region} and
@code{downcase-region} are normally disabled.  This means that they ask
for confirmation if you try to use them.  When you confirm, you may
enable the command, which means it will not ask for confirmation again.

@node Text Mode
@section Text Mode
@cindex Text mode
@cindex mode, Text
@findex text-mode

804 805 806 807
  Text mode is a major mode for editing files of text in a human
language.  Files which have names ending in the extension @file{.txt}
are usually opened in Text mode (@pxref{Choosing Modes}).  To
explicitly switch to Text mode, type @kbd{M-x text-mode}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
808 809 810 811 812 813 814

  In Text mode, only blank lines and page delimiters separate
paragraphs.  As a result, paragraphs can be indented, and adaptive
filling determines what indentation to use when filling a paragraph.
@xref{Adaptive Fill}.

@kindex TAB @r{(Text mode)}
815 816 817
  In Text mode, the @key{TAB} (@code{indent-for-tab-command}) command
usually inserts whitespace up to the next tab stop, instead of
indenting the current line.  @xref{Indentation}, for details.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
818 819 820

  Text mode turns off the features concerned with comments except when
you explicitly invoke them.  It changes the syntax table so that
single-quotes are considered part of words (e.g.@: @samp{don't} is
822 823
considered one word).  However, if a word starts with a single-quote,
it is treated as a prefix for the purposes of capitalization
(e.g.@: @kbd{M-c} converts @samp{'hello'} into @samp{'Hello'}, as
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
826 827 828 829 830 831

@cindex Paragraph-Indent Text mode
@cindex mode, Paragraph-Indent Text
@findex paragraph-indent-text-mode
@findex paragraph-indent-minor-mode
  If you indent the first lines of paragraphs, then you should use
832 833 834 835 836 837 838
Paragraph-Indent Text mode (@kbd{M-x paragraph-indent-text-mode})
rather than Text mode.  In that mode, you do not need to have blank
lines between paragraphs, because the first-line indentation is
sufficient to start a paragraph; however paragraphs in which every
line is indented are not supported.  Use @kbd{M-x
paragraph-indent-minor-mode} to enable an equivalent minor mode for
situations where you shouldn't change the major mode---in mail
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
839 840 841
composition, for instance.

@kindex M-TAB @r{(Text mode)}
842 843 844 845 846 847
  Text mode binds @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to @code{ispell-complete-word}.
This command performs completion of the partial word in the buffer
before point, using the spelling dictionary as the space of possible
words.  @xref{Spelling}.  If your window manager defines
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows, you can type @kbd{@key{ESC}
@key{TAB}} or @kbd{C-M-i} instead.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
848 849

@vindex text-mode-hook
850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857
  Entering Text mode runs the mode hook @code{text-mode-hook}
(@pxref{Major Modes}).

  The following sections describe several major modes that are
@dfn{derived} from Text mode.  These derivatives share most of the
features of Text mode described above.  In particular, derivatives of
Text mode run @code{text-mode-hook} prior to running their own mode
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867

@node Outline Mode
@section Outline Mode
@cindex Outline mode
@cindex mode, Outline
@cindex invisible lines

@findex outline-mode
@findex outline-minor-mode
@vindex outline-minor-mode-prefix
868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882
@vindex outline-mode-hook
  Outline mode is a major mode derived from Text mode, which is
specialized for editing outlines.  It provides commands to navigate
between entries in the outline structure, and commands to make parts
of a buffer temporarily invisible, so that the outline structure may
be more easily viewed.  Type @kbd{M-x outline-mode} to switch to
Outline mode.  Entering Outline mode runs the hook
@code{text-mode-hook} followed by the hook @code{outline-mode-hook}

  When you use an Outline mode command to make a line invisible
(@pxref{Outline Visibility}), the line disappears from the screen.  An
ellipsis (three periods in a row) is displayed at the end of the
previous visible line, to indicate the hidden text.  Multiple
consecutive invisible lines produce just one ellipsis.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
883 884

  Editing commands that operate on lines, such as @kbd{C-n} and
885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895
@kbd{C-p}, treat the text of the invisible line as part of the
previous visible line.  Killing the ellipsis at the end of a visible
line really kills all the following invisible text associated with the

  Outline minor mode is a buffer-local minor mode which provides the
same commands as the major mode, Outline mode, but can be used in
conjunction with other major modes.  You can type @kbd{M-x
outline-minor-mode} to toggle Outline minor mode in the current
buffer, or use a file-local variable setting to enable it in a
specific file (@pxref{File Variables}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904

@kindex C-c @@ @r{(Outline minor mode)}
  The major mode, Outline mode, provides special key bindings on the
@kbd{C-c} prefix.  Outline minor mode provides similar bindings with
@kbd{C-c @@} as the prefix; this is to reduce the conflicts with the
major mode's special commands.  (The variable
@code{outline-minor-mode-prefix} controls the prefix used.)

905 906 907 908 909
* Outline Format::      What the text of an outline looks like.
* Outline Motion::      Special commands for moving through outlines.
* Outline Visibility::  Commands to control what is visible.
* Outline Views::       Outlines and multiple views.
* Foldout::             Folding means zooming in on outlines.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918
@end menu

@node Outline Format
@subsection Format of Outlines

@cindex heading lines (Outline mode)
@cindex body lines (Outline mode)
  Outline mode assumes that the lines in the buffer are of two types:
@dfn{heading lines} and @dfn{body lines}.  A heading line represents a
919 920 921 922 923 924 925
topic in the outline.  Heading lines start with one or more asterisk
(@samp{*}) characters; the number of asterisks determines the depth of
the heading in the outline structure.  Thus, a heading line with one
@samp{*} is a major topic; all the heading lines with two @samp{*}s
between it and the next one-@samp{*} heading are its subtopics; and so
on.  Any line that is not a heading line is a body line.  Body lines
belong with the preceding heading line.  Here is an example:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006

* Food
This is the body,
which says something about the topic of food.

** Delicious Food
This is the body of the second-level header.

** Distasteful Food
This could have
a body too, with
several lines.

*** Dormitory Food

* Shelter
Another first-level topic with its header line.
@end example

  A heading line together with all following body lines is called
collectively an @dfn{entry}.  A heading line together with all following
deeper heading lines and their body lines is called a @dfn{subtree}.

@vindex outline-regexp
  You can customize the criterion for distinguishing heading lines by
setting the variable @code{outline-regexp}.  (The recommended ways to
do this are in a major mode function or with a file local variable.)
Any line whose beginning has a match for this regexp is considered a
heading line.  Matches that start within a line (not at the left
margin) do not count.

  The length of the matching text determines the level of the heading;
longer matches make a more deeply nested level.  Thus, for example, if
a text formatter has commands @samp{@@chapter}, @samp{@@section} and
@samp{@@subsection} to divide the document into chapters and sections,
you could make those lines count as heading lines by setting
@code{outline-regexp} to @samp{"@@chap\\|@@\\(sub\\)*section"}.  Note
the trick: the two words @samp{chapter} and @samp{section} are equally
long, but by defining the regexp to match only @samp{chap} we ensure
that the length of the text matched on a chapter heading is shorter,
so that Outline mode will know that sections are contained in
chapters.  This works as long as no other command starts with

@vindex outline-level
  You can explicitly specify a rule for calculating the level of a
heading line by setting the variable @code{outline-level}.  The value
of @code{outline-level} should be a function that takes no arguments
and returns the level of the current heading.  The recommended ways to
set this variable are in a major mode command or with a file local

@node Outline Motion
@subsection Outline Motion Commands

  Outline mode provides special motion commands that move backward and
forward to heading lines.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-n
Move point to the next visible heading line
@item C-c C-p
Move point to the previous visible heading line
@item C-c C-f
Move point to the next visible heading line at the same level
as the one point is on (@code{outline-forward-same-level}).
@item C-c C-b
Move point to the previous visible heading line at the same level
@item C-c C-u
Move point up to a lower-level (more inclusive) visible heading line
@end table

@findex outline-next-visible-heading
@findex outline-previous-visible-heading
@kindex C-c C-n @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-p @r{(Outline mode)}
1007 1008 1009 1010
  @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}) moves down to
the next heading line.  @kbd{C-c C-p}
(@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}) moves similarly backward.
Both accept numeric arguments as repeat counts.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017

@findex outline-up-heading
@findex outline-forward-same-level
@findex outline-backward-same-level
@kindex C-c C-f @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-b @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-u @r{(Outline mode)}
  The commands @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{outline-forward-same-level}) and
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
@kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{outline-backward-same-level}) move from one
1020 1021 1022
heading line to another visible heading at the same depth in the
outline.  @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{outline-up-heading}) moves backward to
another heading that is less deeply nested.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1023 1024 1025 1026

@node Outline Visibility
@subsection Outline Visibility Commands

1027 1028 1029 1030
  Outline mode provides several commands for temporarily hiding or
revealing parts of the buffer, based on the outline structure.  These
commands are not undoable; their effects are simply not recorded by
the undo mechanism, so you can undo right past them (@pxref{Undo}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073

  Many of these commands act on the ``current'' heading line.  If
point is on a heading line, that is the current heading line; if point
is on a body line, the current heading line is the nearest preceding
header line.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-c
Make the current heading line's body invisible (@code{hide-entry}).
@item C-c C-e
Make the current heading line's body visible (@code{show-entry}).
@item C-c C-d
Make everything under the current heading invisible, not including the
heading itself (@code{hide-subtree}).
@item C-c C-s
Make everything under the current heading visible, including body,
subheadings, and their bodies (@code{show-subtree}).
@item C-c C-l
Make the body of the current heading line, and of all its subheadings,
invisible (@code{hide-leaves}).
@item C-c C-k
Make all subheadings of the current heading line, at all levels,
visible (@code{show-branches}).
@item C-c C-i
Make immediate subheadings (one level down) of the current heading
line visible (@code{show-children}).
@item C-c C-t
Make all body lines in the buffer invisible (@code{hide-body}).
@item C-c C-a
Make all lines in the buffer visible (@code{show-all}).
@item C-c C-q
Hide everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines
@item C-c C-o
Hide everything except for the heading or body that point is in, plus
the headings leading up from there to the top level of the outline
@end table

@findex hide-entry
@findex show-entry
@kindex C-c C-c @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(Outline mode)}
1074 1075 1076 1077
  The simplest of these commands are @kbd{C-c C-c}
(@code{hide-entry}), which hides the body lines directly following the
current heading line, and @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{show-entry}), which
reveals them.  Subheadings and their bodies are not affected.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083

@findex hide-subtree
@findex show-subtree
@kindex C-c C-s @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-d @r{(Outline mode)}
@cindex subtree (Outline mode)
1084 1085 1086 1087
  The commands @kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{hide-subtree}) and @kbd{C-c C-s}
(@code{show-subtree}) are more powerful.  They apply to the current
heading line's @dfn{subtree}: its body, all of its subheadings, both
direct and indirect, and all of their bodies.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1088 1089 1090

@findex hide-leaves
@findex show-branches
@findex show-children
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1092 1093 1094
@kindex C-c C-l @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-k @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-i @r{(Outline mode)}
1095 1096 1097 1098
  The command @kbd{C-c C-l} (@code{hide-leaves}) hides the body of the
current heading line as well as all the bodies in its subtree; the
subheadings themselves are left visible.  The command @kbd{C-c C-k}
(@code{show-branches}) reveals the subheadings, if they had previously
been hidden (e.g.@: by @kbd{C-c C-d}).  The command @kbd{C-c C-i}
(@code{show-children}) is a weaker version of this; it reveals just
the direct subheadings, i.e.@: those one level down.
1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108

@findex hide-other
@kindex C-c C-o @r{(Outline mode)}
  The command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{hide-other}) hides everything
except the entry that point is in, plus its parents (the headers
leading up from there to top level in the outline) and the top level
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115

@findex hide-body
@findex show-all
@kindex C-c C-t @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-a @r{(Outline mode)}
@findex hide-sublevels
@kindex C-c C-q @r{(Outline mode)}
1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124
  The remaining commands affect the whole buffer.  @kbd{C-c C-t}
(@code{hide-body}) makes all body lines invisible, so that you see
just the outline structure (as a special exception, it will not hide
lines at the top of the file, preceding the first header line, even
though these are technically body lines).  @kbd{C-c C-a}
(@code{show-all}) makes all lines visible.  @kbd{C-c C-q}
(@code{hide-sublevels}) hides all but the top level headings; with a
numeric argument @var{n}, it hides everything except the top @var{n}
levels of heading lines.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1125 1126 1127

@findex reveal-mode
  When incremental search finds text that is hidden by Outline mode,
1128 1129 1130 1131
it makes that part of the buffer visible.  If you exit the search at
that position, the text remains visible.  You can also automatically
make text visible as you navigate in it by using Reveal mode (@kbd{M-x
reveal-mode}), a buffer-local minor mode.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169 1170 1171 1172 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200 1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208

@node Outline Views
@subsection Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views

@cindex multiple views of outline
@cindex views of an outline
@cindex outline with multiple views
@cindex indirect buffers and outlines
  You can display two views of a single outline at the same time, in
different windows.  To do this, you must create an indirect buffer using
@kbd{M-x make-indirect-buffer}.  The first argument of this command is
the existing outline buffer name, and its second argument is the name to
use for the new indirect buffer.  @xref{Indirect Buffers}.

  Once the indirect buffer exists, you can display it in a window in the
normal fashion, with @kbd{C-x 4 b} or other Emacs commands.  The Outline
mode commands to show and hide parts of the text operate on each buffer
independently; as a result, each buffer can have its own view.  If you
want more than two views on the same outline, create additional indirect

@node Foldout
@subsection Folding Editing

@cindex folding editing
  The Foldout package extends Outline mode and Outline minor mode with
``folding'' commands.  The idea of folding is that you zoom in on a
nested portion of the outline, while hiding its relatives at higher

  Consider an Outline mode buffer with all the text and subheadings under
level-1 headings hidden.  To look at what is hidden under one of these
headings, you could use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@kbd{M-x show-entry}) to expose
the body, or @kbd{C-c C-i} to expose the child (level-2) headings.

@kindex C-c C-z
@findex foldout-zoom-subtree
  With Foldout, you use @kbd{C-c C-z} (@kbd{M-x foldout-zoom-subtree}).
This exposes the body and child subheadings, and narrows the buffer so
that only the @w{level-1} heading, the body and the level-2 headings are
visible.  Now to look under one of the level-2 headings, position the
cursor on it and use @kbd{C-c C-z} again.  This exposes the level-2 body
and its level-3 child subheadings and narrows the buffer again.  Zooming
in on successive subheadings can be done as much as you like.  A string
in the mode line shows how deep you've gone.

  When zooming in on a heading, to see only the child subheadings specify
a numeric argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-z}.  The number of levels of children
can be specified too (compare @kbd{M-x show-children}), e.g.@: @kbd{M-2
C-c C-z} exposes two levels of child subheadings.  Alternatively, the
body can be specified with a negative argument: @kbd{M-- C-c C-z}.  The
whole subtree can be expanded, similarly to @kbd{C-c C-s} (@kbd{M-x
show-subtree}), by specifying a zero argument: @kbd{M-0 C-c C-z}.

  While you're zoomed in, you can still use Outline mode's exposure and
hiding functions without disturbing Foldout.  Also, since the buffer is
narrowed, ``global'' editing actions will only affect text under the
zoomed-in heading.  This is useful for restricting changes to a
particular chapter or section of your document.

@kindex C-c C-x
@findex foldout-exit-fold
  To unzoom (exit) a fold, use @kbd{C-c C-x} (@kbd{M-x foldout-exit-fold}).
This hides all the text and subheadings under the top-level heading and
returns you to the previous view of the buffer.  Specifying a numeric
argument exits that many levels of folds.  Specifying a zero argument
exits all folds.

  To cancel the narrowing of a fold without hiding the text and
subheadings, specify a negative argument.  For example, @kbd{M--2 C-c
C-x} exits two folds and leaves the text and subheadings exposed.

  Foldout mode also provides mouse commands for entering and exiting
folds, and for showing and hiding text:

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-1} zooms in on the heading clicked on
@itemize @w{}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219
single click: expose body.
double click: expose subheadings.
triple click: expose body and subheadings.
quad click: expose entire subtree.
@end itemize
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-2} exposes text under the heading clicked on
@itemize @w{}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228 1229 1230
single click: expose body.
double click: expose subheadings.
triple click: expose body and subheadings.
quad click: expose entire subtree.
@end itemize
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-3} hides text under the heading clicked on or exits fold
@itemize @w{}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1232 1233 1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250
single click: hide subtree.
double click: exit fold and hide text.
triple click: exit fold without hiding text.
quad click: exit all folds and hide text.
@end itemize
@end table

@vindex foldout-mouse-modifiers
  You can specify different modifier keys (instead of
@kbd{Control-Meta-}) by setting @code{foldout-mouse-modifiers}; but if
you have already loaded the @file{foldout.el} library, you must reload
it in order for this to take effect.

  To use the Foldout package, you can type @kbd{M-x load-library
@key{RET} foldout @key{RET}}; or you can arrange for to do that
automatically by putting this in your init file (@pxref{Init File}):
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1252 1253 1254 1255 1256

(eval-after-load "outline" '(require 'foldout))
@end example

1257 1258 1259 1260
@node Org Mode
@section Org Mode
@cindex organizer
@cindex planner
1261 1262
@findex Org mode
@findex mode, Org

1264 1265 1266 1267 1268
@findex org-mode
  Org mode is a variant of Outline mode for using Emacs as an
organizer and/or authoring system.  Files with names ending in the
extension @file{.org} are opened in Org mode (@pxref{Choosing Modes}).
To explicitly switch to Org mode, type @kbd{M-x org-mode}.

1270 1271 1272 1273
  In Org mode, as in Outline mode, each entry has a heading line that
starts with one or more @samp{*} characters.  @xref{Outline Format}.
In addition, any line that begins with the @samp{#} character is
treated as a comment.

1275 1276 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284
@kindex TAB @r{(Org Mode)}
@findex org-cycle
  Org mode provides commands for easily viewing and manipulating the
outline structure.  The simplest of these commands is @key{TAB}
(@code{org-cycle}).  If invoked on a heading line, it cycles through
the different visibility states of the subtree: (i) showing only that
heading line, (ii) showing only the heading line and the heading lines
of its direct children, if any, and (iii) showing the entire subtree.
If invoked in a body line, the global binding for @key{TAB} is

1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291
@kindex S-TAB @r{(Org Mode)}
@findex org-shifttab
  Typing @key{S-TAB} (@code{org-shifttab}) anywhere in an Org mode
buffer cycles the visibility of the entire outline structure, between
(i) showing only top-level heading lines, (ii) showing all heading
lines but no body lines, and (iii) showing everything.

1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301 1302 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311
@kindex M-<up> @r{(Org Mode)}
@kindex M-<down> @r{(Org Mode)}
@kindex M-<left> @r{(Org Mode)}
@kindex M-<right> @r{(Org Mode)}
@findex org-metaup
@findex org-metadown
@findex org-metaleft
@findex org-metaright
  You can move an entire entry up or down in the buffer, including its
body lines and subtree (if any), by typing @kbd{M-<up>}
(@code{org-metaup}) or @kbd{M-<down>} (@code{org-metadown}) on the
heading line.  Similarly, you can promote or demote a heading line
with @kbd{M-<left>} (@code{org-metaleft}) and @kbd{M-<left>}
(@code{org-metaright}).  These commands execute their global bindings
if invoked on a body line.

  The following subsections give basic instructions for using Org mode
as an organizer and as an authoring system.  @xref{Top,The Org Mode
Manual,,org, The Org Manual}, for details.
1312 1313

1314 1315
* Org Organizer::   Managing TODO lists and agendas.
* Org Authoring::   Exporting Org buffers to various formats.
1316 1317
@end menu

@node Org Organizer
@subsection Org as an organizer
1320 1321
@cindex TODO item
@cindex Org agenda
1322 1323

@kindex C-c C-t @r{(Org Mode)}
1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332
@findex org-todo
@vindex org-todo-keywords
  You can tag an Org entry as a @dfn{TODO} item by typing @kbd{C-c
C-t} (@code{org-todo}) anywhere in the entry.  This adds the keyword
@samp{TODO} to the heading line.  Typing @kbd{C-c C-t} again switches
the keyword to @samp{DONE}; another @kbd{C-c C-t} removes the keyword
entirely, and so forth.  You can customize the keywords used by
@kbd{C-c C-t} via the variable @code{org-todo-keywords}.

1333 1334
@kindex C-c C-s @r{(Org Mode)}
@kindex C-c C-d @r{(Org Mode)}
1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354
@findex org-schedule
@findex org-deadline
  Apart from marking an entry as TODO, you can attach a date to it, by
typing @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{org-schedule}) in the entry.  This prompts
for a date by popping up the Emacs Calendar (@pxref{Calendar/Diary}),
and then adds the tag @samp{SCHEDULED}, together with the selected
date, beneath the heading line.  The command @kbd{C-c C-d}
(@code{org-deadline}) has the same effect, except that it uses the tag

@kindex C-c [ @r{(Org Mode)}
@findex org-agenda-file-to-front
@vindex org-agenda-files
  Once you have some TODO items planned in an Org file, you can add
that file to the list of @dfn{agenda files} by typing @kbd{C-c [}
(@code{org-agenda-file-to-front}).  Org mode is designed to let you
easily maintain multiple agenda files, e.g.@: for organizing different
aspects of your life.  The list of agenda files is stored in the
variable @code{org-agenda-files}.

@findex org-agenda
1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364
  To view items coming from your agenda files, type @kbd{M-x
org-agenda}.  This command prompts for what you want to see: a list of
things to do this week, a list of TODO items with specific keywords,
@xref{Agenda Views,,,org, The Org Manual}, for details.
@end ifnottex

@node Org Authoring
@subsection Org as an authoring system
@cindex Org exporting

1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384
@findex org-export
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(Org mode)}
  You may want to format your Org notes nicely and to prepare them for
export and publication.  To export the current buffer, type @kbd{C-c
C-e} (@code{org-export}) anywhere in an Org buffer.  This command
prompts for an export format; currently supported formats include
HTML, La@TeX{}, OpenDocument (@file{.odt}), and PDF.  Some formats,
such as PDF, require certain system tools to be installed.

@vindex org-publish-project-alist
  To export several files at once to a specific directory, either
locally or over the network, you must define a list of projects
through the variable @code{org-publish-project-alist}.  See its
documentation for details.

  Org supports a simple markup scheme for applying text formatting to
exported documents:
1385 1386 1387

- This text is /emphasized/
- This text is *in bold*
1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400
- This text is _underlined_
- This text uses =a teletype font=

``This is a quote.''

This is an example.
@end example

  For further details, see @ref{Exporting,,,org, The Org Manual} and
1402 1403
@ref{Publishing,,,org, The Org Manual}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418
@node TeX Mode
@section @TeX{} Mode
@cindex @TeX{} mode
@cindex La@TeX{} mode
@cindex Sli@TeX{} mode
@cindex Doc@TeX{} mode
@cindex mode, @TeX{}
@cindex mode, La@TeX{}
@cindex mode, Sli@TeX{}
@cindex mode, Doc@TeX{}
@findex tex-mode
@findex plain-tex-mode
@findex latex-mode
@findex slitex-mode
@findex doctex-mode
1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429
@findex bibtex-mode

  Emacs provides special major modes for editing files written in
@TeX{} and its related formats.  @TeX{} is a powerful text formatter
written by Donald Knuth; like GNU Emacs, it is free software.
La@TeX{} is a simplified input format for @TeX{}, implemented using
@TeX{} macros.  Doc@TeX{} is a special file format in which the
La@TeX{} sources are written, combining sources with documentation.
Sli@TeX{} is an obsolete special form of La@TeX{}.@footnote{It has
been replaced by the @samp{slides} document class, which comes with
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1430 1431 1432

@vindex tex-default-mode
  @TeX{} mode has four variants: Plain @TeX{} mode, La@TeX{} mode,
1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444
Doc@TeX{} mode, and Sli@TeX{} mode.  These distinct major modes differ
only slightly, and are designed for editing the four different
formats.  Emacs selects the appropriate mode by looking at the
contents of the buffer.  (This is done by the @code{tex-mode} command,
which is normally called automatically when you visit a @TeX{}-like
file.  @xref{Choosing Modes}.)  If the contents are insufficient to
determine this, Emacs chooses the mode specified by the variable
@code{tex-default-mode}; its default value is @code{latex-mode}.  If
Emacs does not guess right, you can select the correct variant of
@TeX{} mode using the command @kbd{M-x plain-tex-mode}, @kbd{M-x
latex-mode}, @kbd{M-x slitex-mode}, or @kbd{doctex-mode}.

1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456
  The following sections document the features of @TeX{} mode and its
variants.  There are several other @TeX{}-related Emacs packages,
which are not documented in this manual:

@itemize @bullet
Bib@TeX{} mode is a major mode for Bib@TeX{} files, which are commonly
used for keeping bibliographic references for La@TeX{} documents.  For
more information, see the documentation string for the command

1457 1458
The Ref@TeX{} package provides a minor mode which can be used with
La@TeX{} mode to manage bibliographic references.
1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477 1478 1479 1480
@xref{Top,The Ref@TeX{} Manual,,reftex}.
@end ifinfo
For more information, see the Ref@TeX{} Info manual, which is
distributed with Emacs.
@end ifnotinfo

The AUC@TeX{} package provides more advanced features for editing
@TeX{} and its related formats, including the ability to preview
@TeX{} equations within Emacs buffers.  Unlike Bib@TeX{} mode and the
Ref@TeX{} package, AUC@TeX{} is not distributed with Emacs by default.
It can be downloaded via the Package Menu (@pxref{Packages}); once
installed, see
@ref{Top,The AUC@TeX{} Manual,,auctex}.
@end ifinfo
the AUC@TeX{} manual, which is included with the package.
@end ifnotinfo
@end itemize
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1481 1482

1483 1484 1485 1486
* TeX Editing::   Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX Editing:: Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* TeX Print::     Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* TeX Misc::      Customization of TeX mode, and related features.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509
@end menu

@node TeX Editing
@subsection @TeX{} Editing Commands

@table @kbd
@item "
Insert, according to context, either @samp{``} or @samp{"} or
@samp{''} (@code{tex-insert-quote}).
@item C-j
Insert a paragraph break (two newlines) and check the previous
paragraph for unbalanced braces or dollar signs
@item M-x tex-validate-region
Check each paragraph in the region for unbalanced braces or dollar signs.
@item C-c @{
Insert @samp{@{@}} and position point between them (@code{tex-insert-braces}).
@item C-c @}
Move forward past the next unmatched close brace (@code{up-list}).
@end table

@findex tex-insert-quote
@kindex " @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  In @TeX{}, the character @samp{"} is not normally used; instead,
1511 1512 1513 1514
quotations begin with @samp{``} and end with @samp{''}.  @TeX{} mode
therefore binds the @kbd{"} key to the @code{tex-insert-quote}
command.  This inserts @samp{``} after whitespace or an open brace,
@samp{"} after a backslash, and @samp{''} after any other character.
1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521

  As a special exception, if you type @kbd{"} when the text before
point is either @samp{``} or @samp{''}, Emacs replaces that preceding
text with a single @samp{"} character.  You can therefore type
@kbd{""} to insert @samp{"}, should you ever need to do so.  (You can
also use @kbd{C-q "} to insert this character.)

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545
  In @TeX{} mode, @samp{$} has a special syntax code which attempts to
understand the way @TeX{} math mode delimiters match.  When you insert a
@samp{$} that is meant to exit math mode, the position of the matching
@samp{$} that entered math mode is displayed for a second.  This is the
same feature that displays the open brace that matches a close brace that
is inserted.  However, there is no way to tell whether a @samp{$} enters
math mode or leaves it; so when you insert a @samp{$} that enters math
mode, the previous @samp{$} position is shown as if it were a match, even
though they are actually unrelated.

@findex tex-insert-braces
@kindex C-c @{ @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex up-list
@kindex C-c @} @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  @TeX{} uses braces as delimiters that must match.  Some users prefer
to keep braces balanced at all times, rather than inserting them
singly.  Use @kbd{C-c @{} (@code{tex-insert-braces}) to insert a pair of
braces.  It leaves point between the two braces so you can insert the
text that belongs inside.  Afterward, use the command @kbd{C-c @}}
(@code{up-list}) to move forward past the close brace.

@findex tex-validate-region
@findex tex-terminate-paragraph
@kindex C-j @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553
  There are two commands for checking the matching of braces.
@kbd{C-j} (@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}) checks the paragraph before
point, and inserts two newlines to start a new paragraph.  It outputs
a message in the echo area if any mismatch is found.  @kbd{M-x
tex-validate-region} checks a region, paragraph by paragraph.  The
errors are listed in an @samp{*Occur*} buffer; you can use the usual
Occur mode commands in that buffer, such as @kbd{C-c C-c}, to visit a
particular mismatch (@pxref{Other Repeating Search}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1554 1555 1556 1557

  Note that Emacs commands count square brackets and parentheses in
@TeX{} mode, not just braces.  This is not strictly correct for the
purpose of checking @TeX{} syntax.  However, parentheses and square
1558 1559 1560
brackets are likely to be used in text as matching delimiters, and it
is useful for the various motion commands and automatic match display
to work with them.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1561 1562 1563 1564

@node LaTeX Editing
@subsection La@TeX{} Editing Commands

1565 1566
  La@TeX{} mode provides a few extra features not applicable to plain
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-o
Insert @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} for La@TeX{} block and position
point on a line between them (@code{tex-latex-block}).
@item C-c C-e
Close the innermost La@TeX{} block not yet closed
@end table

@findex tex-latex-block
@kindex C-c C-o @r{(La@TeX{} mode)}
1579 1580 1581 1582 1583
  In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} tags are used to
group blocks of text.  To insert a block, type @kbd{C-c C-o}
(@code{tex-latex-block}).  This prompts for a block type, and inserts
the appropriate matching @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} tags, leaving a
blank line between the two and moving point there.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed

1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590
@vindex latex-block-names
  When entering the block type argument to @kbd{C-c C-o}, you can use
the usual completion commands (@pxref{Completion}).  The default
completion list contains the standard La@TeX{} block types.  If you
want additional block types for completion, customize the list
variable @code{latex-block-names}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1591 1592 1593

@findex tex-close-latex-block
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(La@TeX{} mode)}
1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599
  In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} tags must balance.
You can use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{tex-close-latex-block}) to insert an
@samp{\end} tag which matches the last unmatched @samp{\begin}.  It
also indents the @samp{\end} to match the corresponding @samp{\begin},
and inserts a newline after the @samp{\end} tag if point is at the
beginning of a line.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1600 1601 1602 1603

@node TeX Print
@subsection @TeX{} Printing Commands

1604 1605 1606
  You can invoke @TeX{} as an subprocess of Emacs, supplying either
the entire contents of the buffer or just part of it (e.g.@: one
chapter of a larger document).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1607 1608

@table @kbd
1609 1610
@item C-c C-b
Invoke @TeX{} on the entire current buffer (@code{tex-buffer}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1611 1612 1613 1614 1615
@item C-c C-r
Invoke @TeX{} on the current region, together with the buffer's header
@item C-c C-f
Invoke @TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-file}).

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1617 1618 1619
@item C-c C-v
Preview the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c
C-f} command (@code{tex-view}).
1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625