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@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2001,
@c   2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Calendar/Diary, Gnus, Dired, Top
@chapter The Calendar and the Diary
@cindex calendar
@findex calendar

  Emacs provides the functions of a desk calendar, with a diary of
planned or past events.  It also has facilities for managing your
appointments, and keeping track of how much time you spend working on
certain projects.

  To enter the calendar, type @kbd{M-x calendar}; this displays a
three-month calendar centered on the current month, with point on the
current date.  With a numeric argument, as in @kbd{C-u M-x calendar}, it
prompts you for the month and year to be the center of the three-month
calendar.  The calendar uses its own buffer, whose major mode is
Calendar mode.

  @kbd{Mouse-2} in the calendar brings up a menu of operations on a
particular date; @kbd{Mouse-3} brings up a menu of commonly used
calendar features that are independent of any particular date.  To exit
the calendar, type @kbd{q}.

  This chapter describes the basic calendar features.
@inforef{Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage,, emacs-xtra}, for information
about more specialized features.
@end iftex

* Calendar Motion::     Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar::     Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days::       How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar::    Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* Writing Calendar Files:: Writing calendars to files of various formats.
* Holidays::            Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset::      Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases::        Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars::     Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary::               Displaying events from your diary.
* Appointments::	Reminders when it's time to do something.
* Importing Diary::     Converting diary events to/from other formats.
* Daylight Saving::     How to specify when daylight saving time is active.
* Time Intervals::      Keeping track of time intervals.
* Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage:: Advanced Calendar/Diary customization.
@end ifnottex
@end menu

@node Calendar Motion
@section Movement in the Calendar

@cindex moving inside the calendar
  Calendar mode provides commands to move through the calendar in
logical units of time such as days, weeks, months, and years.  If you
move outside the three months originally displayed, the calendar
display ``scrolls'' automatically through time to make the selected
date visible.  Moving to a date lets you view its holidays or diary
entries, or convert it to other calendars; moving by long time periods
is also useful simply to scroll the calendar.

* Calendar Unit Motion::      Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End::  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
* Specified Dates::           Moving to the current date or another
                                specific date.
@end menu

@node Calendar Unit Motion
@subsection Motion by Standard Lengths of Time

  The commands for movement in the calendar buffer parallel the
commands for movement in text.  You can move forward and backward by
days, weeks, months, and years.

@table @kbd
@item C-f
Move point one day forward (@code{calendar-forward-day}).
@item C-b
Move point one day backward (@code{calendar-backward-day}).
@item C-n
Move point one week forward (@code{calendar-forward-week}).
@item C-p
Move point one week backward (@code{calendar-backward-week}).
@item M-@}
Move point one month forward (@code{calendar-forward-month}).
@item M-@{
Move point one month backward (@code{calendar-backward-month}).
@item C-x ]
Move point one year forward (@code{calendar-forward-year}).
@item C-x [
Move point one year backward (@code{calendar-backward-year}).
@end table

@kindex C-f @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-forward-day
@kindex C-b @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-backward-day
@kindex C-n @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-forward-week
@kindex C-p @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-backward-week
  The day and week commands are natural analogues of the usual Emacs
commands for moving by characters and by lines.  Just as @kbd{C-n}
usually moves to the same column in the following line, in Calendar
mode it moves to the same day in the following week.  And @kbd{C-p}
moves to the same day in the previous week.

  The arrow keys are equivalent to @kbd{C-f}, @kbd{C-b}, @kbd{C-n} and
@kbd{C-p}, just as they normally are in other modes.

@kindex M-@} @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-forward-month
@kindex M-@{ @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-backward-month
@kindex C-x ] @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-forward-year
@kindex C-x [ @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-forward-year
  The commands for motion by months and years work like those for
weeks, but move a larger distance.  The month commands @kbd{M-@}} and
@kbd{M-@{} move forward or backward by an entire month.  The year
commands @kbd{C-x ]} and @w{@kbd{C-x [}} move forward or backward a
whole year.

  The easiest way to remember these commands is to consider months and
years analogous to paragraphs and pages of text, respectively.  But
the commands themselves are not quite analogous.  The ordinary Emacs
paragraph commands move to the beginning or end of a paragraph,
whereas these month and year commands move by an entire month or an
entire year, keeping the same date within the month or year.

  All these commands accept a numeric argument as a repeat count.
For convenience, the digit keys and the minus sign specify numeric
arguments in Calendar mode even without the Meta modifier.  For example,
@kbd{100 C-f} moves point 100 days forward from its present location.

@node Move to Beginning or End
@subsection Beginning or End of Week, Month or Year

  A week (or month, or year) is not just a quantity of days; we think of
weeks (months, years) as starting on particular dates.  So Calendar mode
provides commands to move to the beginning or end of a week, month or

@table @kbd
@kindex C-a @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-beginning-of-week
@item C-a
Move point to start of week (@code{calendar-beginning-of-week}).
@kindex C-e @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-end-of-week
@item C-e
Move point to end of week (@code{calendar-end-of-week}).
@kindex M-a @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-beginning-of-month
@item M-a
Move point to start of month (@code{calendar-beginning-of-month}).
@kindex M-e @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-end-of-month
@item M-e
Move point to end of month (@code{calendar-end-of-month}).
@kindex M-< @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-beginning-of-year
@item M-<
Move point to start of year (@code{calendar-beginning-of-year}).
@kindex M-> @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-end-of-year
@item M->
Move point to end of year (@code{calendar-end-of-year}).
@end table

  These commands also take numeric arguments as repeat counts, with the
repeat count indicating how many weeks, months, or years to move
backward or forward.

@vindex calendar-week-start-day
@cindex weeks, which day they start on
@cindex calendar, first day of week
  By default, weeks begin on Sunday.  To make them begin on Monday
instead, set the variable @code{calendar-week-start-day} to 1.

@node Specified Dates
@subsection Specified Dates

  Calendar mode provides commands for moving to a particular date
specified in various ways.

@table @kbd
@item g d
Move point to specified date (@code{calendar-goto-date}).
@item g D
Move point to specified day of year (@code{calendar-goto-day-of-year}).
@item g w
Move point to specified week of year (@code{calendar-goto-iso-week}).
@item o
Center calendar around specified month (@code{calendar-other-month}).
@item .
Move point to today's date (@code{calendar-goto-today}).
@end table

@kindex g d @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-goto-date
  @kbd{g d} (@code{calendar-goto-date}) prompts for a year, a month, and a day
of the month, and then moves to that date.  Because the calendar includes all
dates from the beginning of the current era, you must type the year in its
entirety; that is, type @samp{1990}, not @samp{90}.

@kindex g D @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-goto-day-of-year
@kindex g w @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-goto-iso-week
  @kbd{g D} (@code{calendar-goto-day-of-year}) prompts for a year and
day number, and moves to that date.  Negative day numbers count
backward from the end of the year.  @kbd{g w}
(@code{calendar-goto-iso-week}) prompts for a year and week number,
and moves to that week.

@kindex o @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-other-month
  @kbd{o} (@code{calendar-other-month}) prompts for a month and year,
then centers the three-month calendar around that month.

@kindex . @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-goto-today
  You can return to today's date with @kbd{.}@:

@node Scroll Calendar
@section Scrolling in the Calendar

@cindex scrolling in the calendar
  The calendar display scrolls automatically through time when you
move out of the visible portion.  You can also scroll it manually.
Imagine that the calendar window contains a long strip of paper with
the months on it.  Scrolling the calendar means moving the strip
horizontally, so that new months become visible in the window.

@table @kbd
@item >
Scroll calendar one month forward (@code{scroll-calendar-left}).
@item <
Scroll calendar one month backward (@code{scroll-calendar-right}).
@item C-v
@itemx @key{NEXT}
Scroll calendar three months forward
@item M-v
@itemx @key{PRIOR}
Scroll calendar three months backward
@end table

@kindex > @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex scroll-calendar-left
@kindex < @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex scroll-calendar-right
  The most basic calendar scroll commands scroll by one month at a
time.  This means that there are two months of overlap between the
display before the command and the display after.  @kbd{>} scrolls the
calendar contents one month forward in time.  @kbd{<} scrolls the
contents one month backwards in time.

@kindex C-v @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex scroll-calendar-left-three-months
@kindex M-v @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex scroll-calendar-right-three-months
  The commands @kbd{C-v} and @kbd{M-v} scroll the calendar by an entire
``screenful''---three months---in analogy with the usual meaning of
these commands.  @kbd{C-v} makes later dates visible and @kbd{M-v} makes
earlier dates visible.  These commands take a numeric argument as a
repeat count; in particular, since @kbd{C-u} multiplies the next command
by four, typing @kbd{C-u C-v} scrolls the calendar forward by a year and
typing @kbd{C-u M-v} scrolls the calendar backward by a year.

  The function keys @key{NEXT} and @key{PRIOR} are equivalent to
@kbd{C-v} and @kbd{M-v}, just as they are in other modes.

@node Counting Days
@section Counting Days

@table @kbd
@item M-=
Display the number of days in the current region
@end table

@kindex M-= @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-count-days-region
  To determine the number of days in the region, type @kbd{M-=}
(@code{calendar-count-days-region}).  The numbers of days shown is
@emph{inclusive}; that is, it includes the days specified by mark and

@node General Calendar
@section Miscellaneous Calendar Commands

@table @kbd
@item p d
Display day-in-year (@code{calendar-print-day-of-year}).
@item C-c C-l
Regenerate the calendar window (@code{redraw-calendar}).
@item SPC
Scroll the next window up (@code{scroll-other-window}).
@item DEL
Scroll the next window down (@code{scroll-other-window-down}).
@item q
Exit from calendar (@code{exit-calendar}).
@end table

@kindex p d @r{(Calendar mode)}
@cindex day of year
@findex calendar-print-day-of-year
  To display the number of days elapsed since the start of the year, or
the number of days remaining in the year, type the @kbd{p d} command
(@code{calendar-print-day-of-year}).  This displays both of those
numbers in the echo area.  The count of days elapsed includes the
selected date.  The count of days remaining does not include that

@kindex C-c C-l @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex redraw-calendar
  If the calendar window text gets corrupted, type @kbd{C-c C-l}
(@code{redraw-calendar}) to redraw it.  (This can only happen if you use
non-Calendar-mode editing commands.)

@kindex SPC @r{(Calendar mode)}
  In Calendar mode, you can use @kbd{SPC} (@code{scroll-other-window})
and @kbd{DEL} (@code{scroll-other-window-down}) to scroll the other
window up or down, respectively.  This is handy when you display a list
of holidays or diary entries in another window.

@kindex q @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex exit-calendar
  To exit from the calendar, type @kbd{q} (@code{exit-calendar}).  This
buries all buffers related to the calendar, selecting other buffers.
(If a frame contains a dedicated calendar window, exiting from the
calendar iconifies that frame.)

@node Writing Calendar Files
@section Writing Calendar Files

  These packages produce files of various formats containing calendar
and diary entries, for display purposes.

@cindex calendar and HTML
  The Calendar HTML commands produce files of HTML code that contain
calendar and diary entries.  Each file applies to one month, and has a
name of the format @file{@var{yyyy}-@var{mm}.html}, where @var{yyyy} and
@var{mm} are the four-digit year and two-digit month, respectively.  The
variable @code{cal-html-directory} specifies the default output
directory for the HTML files.

@vindex cal-html-css-default
  Diary entries enclosed by @code{<} and @code{>} are interpreted as
HTML tags (for example: this is a diary entry with <font
color=''red''>some red text</font>).  You can change the overall
appearance of the displayed HTML pages (for example, the color of
various page elements, header styles) via a stylesheet @file{cal.css} in
the directory containing the HTML files (see the value of the variable
@code{cal-html-css-default} for relevant style settings).

@kindex t @r{(Calendar mode)}
@table @kbd
@item H m
Generate a one-month calendar (@code{cal-html-cursor-month}).
@item H y
Generate a calendar file for each month of a year, as well as an index
page (@code{cal-html-cursor-year}).  By default, this command writes
files to a @var{yyyy} subdirectory - if this is altered some hyperlinks
between years will not work.
@end table

  If the variable @code{cal-html-print-day-number-flag} is
non-@code{nil}, then the monthly calendars show the day-of-the-year
number. The variable @code{cal-html-year-index-cols} specifies the
number of columns in the yearly index page.

@cindex calendar and La@TeX{}
  The Calendar La@TeX{} commands produce a buffer of La@TeX{} code that
prints as a calendar.  Depending on the command you use, the printed
calendar covers the day, week, month or year that point is in.

@kindex t @r{(Calendar mode)}
@table @kbd
@item t m
Generate a one-month calendar (@code{cal-tex-cursor-month}).
@item t M
Generate a sideways-printing one-month calendar
@item t d
Generate a one-day calendar
@item t w 1
Generate a one-page calendar for one week
@item t w 2
Generate a two-page calendar for one week
@item t w 3
Generate an ISO-style calendar for one week
@item t w 4
Generate a calendar for one Monday-starting week
@item t f w
Generate a Filofax-style two-weeks-at-a-glance calendar
@item t f W
Generate a Filofax-style one-week-at-a-glance calendar
@item t y
Generate a calendar for one year
@item t Y
Generate a sideways-printing calendar for one year
@item t f y
Generate a Filofax-style calendar for one year
@end table

  Some of these commands print the calendar sideways (in ``landscape
mode''), so it can be wider than it is long.  Some of them use Filofax
paper size (3.75in x 6.75in).  All of these commands accept a prefix
argument which specifies how many days, weeks, months or years to print
(starting always with the selected one).

  If the variable @code{cal-tex-holidays} is non-@code{nil} (the default),
then the printed calendars show the holidays in @code{calendar-holidays}.
If the variable @code{cal-tex-diary} is non-@code{nil} (the default is
@code{nil}), diary entries are included also (in monthly, filofax, and
iso-week calendars only).  If the variable @code{cal-tex-rules} is
non-@code{nil} (the default is @code{nil}), the calendar displays ruled
pages in styles that have sufficient room.  Consult the documentation of
the individual cal-tex functions to see which calendars support which

  You can use the variable @code{cal-tex-preamble-extra} to insert extra
La@TeX{} commands in the preamble of the generated document if you need

@node Holidays
@section Holidays
@cindex holidays

  The Emacs calendar knows about all major and many minor holidays,
and can display them.

@table @kbd
@item h
Display holidays for the selected date
@item Mouse-2 Holidays
Display any holidays for the date you click on.
@item x
Mark holidays in the calendar window (@code{calendar-mark-holidays}).
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@item u
Unmark calendar window (@code{calendar-unmark}).
@item a
List all holidays for the displayed three months in another window
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@item M-x holidays
List all holidays for three months around today's date in another
@item M-x list-holidays
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List holidays in another window for a specified range of years.
@end table

@kindex h @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-cursor-holidays
@vindex view-calendar-holidays-initially
  To see if any holidays fall on a given date, position point on that
date in the calendar window and use the @kbd{h} command.  Alternatively,
click on that date with @kbd{Mouse-2} and then choose @kbd{Holidays}
from the menu that appears.  Either way, this displays the holidays for
that date, in the echo area if they fit there, otherwise in a separate

@kindex x @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-mark-holidays
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@kindex u @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-unmark
@vindex mark-holidays-in-calendar
  To view the distribution of holidays for all the dates shown in the
calendar, use the @kbd{x} command.  This displays the dates that are
holidays in a different face (or places a @samp{*} after these dates, if
display with multiple faces is not available).
@inforef{Calendar Customizing, calendar-holiday-marker, emacs-xtra}.
@end iftex
@xref{Calendar Customizing, calendar-holiday-marker}.
@end ifnottex
  The command applies both to the currently visible months and to
other months that subsequently become visible by scrolling.  To turn
marking off and erase the current marks, type @kbd{u}, which also
erases any diary marks (@pxref{Diary}).  If the variable
@code{mark-holidays-in-calendar} is non-@code{nil}, creating or
updating the calendar marks holidays automatically.

@kindex a @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-list-holidays
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  To get even more detailed information, use the @kbd{a} command, which
displays a separate buffer containing a list of all holidays in the
current three-month range.  You can use @key{SPC} and @key{DEL} in the
calendar window to scroll that list up and down, respectively.

@findex holidays
  The command @kbd{M-x holidays} displays the list of holidays for the
current month and the preceding and succeeding months; this works even
if you don't have a calendar window.  If the variable
@code{view-calendar-holidays-initially} is non-@code{nil}, creating
the calendar displays holidays in this way.  If you want the list of
holidays centered around a different month, use @kbd{C-u M-x
holidays}, which prompts for the month and year.

  The holidays known to Emacs include United States holidays and the
major Christian, Jewish, and Islamic holidays; also the solstices and

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@findex list-holidays
   The command @kbd{M-x list-holidays} displays the list of holidays for
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a range of years.  This function asks you for the starting and stopping
years, and allows you to choose all the holidays or one of several
categories of holidays.  You can use this command even if you don't have
a calendar window.

  The dates used by Emacs for holidays are based on @emph{current
practice}, not historical fact.  For example Veteran's Day began in
1919, but is shown in earlier years.

@node Sunrise/Sunset
@section Times of Sunrise and Sunset
@cindex sunrise and sunset

  Special calendar commands can tell you, to within a minute or two, the
times of sunrise and sunset for any date.

@table @kbd
@item S
Display times of sunrise and sunset for the selected date
@item Mouse-2 Sunrise/sunset
Display times of sunrise and sunset for the date you click on.
@item M-x sunrise-sunset
Display times of sunrise and sunset for today's date.
@item C-u M-x sunrise-sunset
Display times of sunrise and sunset for a specified date.
@end table

@kindex S @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-sunrise-sunset
@findex sunrise-sunset
  Within the calendar, to display the @emph{local times} of sunrise and
sunset in the echo area, move point to the date you want, and type
@kbd{S}.  Alternatively, click @kbd{Mouse-2} on the date, then choose
@samp{Sunrise/sunset} from the menu that appears.  The command @kbd{M-x
sunrise-sunset} is available outside the calendar to display this
information for today's date or a specified date.  To specify a date
other than today, use @kbd{C-u M-x sunrise-sunset}, which prompts for
the year, month, and day.

  You can display the times of sunrise and sunset for any location and
any date with @kbd{C-u C-u M-x sunrise-sunset}.  This asks you for a
longitude, latitude, number of minutes difference from Coordinated
Universal Time, and date, and then tells you the times of sunrise and
sunset for that location on that date.

  Because the times of sunrise and sunset depend on the location on
earth, you need to tell Emacs your latitude, longitude, and location
name before using these commands.  Here is an example of what to set:

@vindex calendar-location-name
@vindex calendar-longitude
@vindex calendar-latitude
(setq calendar-latitude 40.1)
(setq calendar-longitude -88.2)
(setq calendar-location-name "Urbana, IL")
@end example

Use one decimal place in the values of @code{calendar-latitude} and

  Your time zone also affects the local time of sunrise and sunset.
Emacs usually gets time zone information from the operating system, but
if these values are not what you want (or if the operating system does
not supply them), you must set them yourself.  Here is an example:

@vindex calendar-time-zone
@vindex calendar-standard-time-zone-name
@vindex calendar-daylight-time-zone-name
(setq calendar-time-zone -360)
(setq calendar-standard-time-zone-name "CST")
(setq calendar-daylight-time-zone-name "CDT")
@end example

The value of @code{calendar-time-zone} is the number of minutes
difference between your local standard time and Coordinated Universal
Time (Greenwich time).  The values of
@code{calendar-standard-time-zone-name} and
@code{calendar-daylight-time-zone-name} are the abbreviations used in
your time zone.  Emacs displays the times of sunrise and sunset
@emph{corrected for daylight saving time}.  @xref{Daylight Saving},
for how daylight saving time is determined.

  As a user, you might find it convenient to set the calendar location
variables for your usual physical location in your @file{.emacs} file.
And when you install Emacs on a machine, you can create a
@file{default.el} file which sets them properly for the typical location
of most users of that machine.  @xref{Init File}.

@node Lunar Phases
@section Phases of the Moon
@cindex phases of the moon
@cindex moon, phases of

  These calendar commands display the dates and times of the phases of
the moon (new moon, first quarter, full moon, last quarter).  This
feature is useful for debugging problems that ``depend on the phase of
the moon.''

@table @kbd
@item M
Display the dates and times for all the quarters of the moon for the
three-month period shown (@code{calendar-phases-of-moon}).
@item M-x phases-of-moon
Display dates and times of the quarters of the moon for three months around
today's date.
@end table

@kindex M @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-phases-of-moon
  Within the calendar, use the @kbd{M} command to display a separate
buffer of the phases of the moon for the current three-month range.  The
dates and times listed are accurate to within a few minutes.

@findex phases-of-moon
  Outside the calendar, use the command @kbd{M-x phases-of-moon} to
display the list of the phases of the moon for the current month and the
preceding and succeeding months.  For information about a different
month, use @kbd{C-u M-x phases-of-moon}, which prompts for the month and

  The dates and times given for the phases of the moon are given in
local time (corrected for daylight saving, when appropriate); but if
the variable @code{calendar-time-zone} is void, Coordinated Universal
Time (the Greenwich time zone) is used.  @xref{Daylight Saving}.

@node Other Calendars
@section Conversion To and From Other Calendars

@cindex Gregorian calendar
  The Emacs calendar displayed is @emph{always} the Gregorian calendar,
sometimes called the ``new style'' calendar, which is used in most of
the world today.  However, this calendar did not exist before the
sixteenth century and was not widely used before the eighteenth century;
it did not fully displace the Julian calendar and gain universal
acceptance until the early twentieth century.  The Emacs calendar can
display any month since January, year 1 of the current era, but the
calendar displayed is the Gregorian, even for a date at which the
Gregorian calendar did not exist.

  While Emacs cannot display other calendars, it can convert dates to
and from several other calendars.

* Calendar Systems::	   The calendars Emacs understands
			     (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar::	   Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.
@end menu

@node Calendar Systems
@subsection Supported Calendar Systems

@cindex ISO commercial calendar
  The ISO commercial calendar is used largely in Europe.

@cindex Julian calendar
  The Julian calendar, named after Julius Caesar, was the one used in Europe
throughout medieval times, and in many countries up until the nineteenth

@cindex Julian day numbers
@cindex astronomical day numbers
  Astronomers use a simple counting of days elapsed since noon, Monday,
January 1, 4713 B.C. on the Julian calendar.  The number of days elapsed
is called the @dfn{Julian day number} or the @dfn{Astronomical day number}.

@cindex Hebrew calendar
  The Hebrew calendar is used by tradition in the Jewish religion.  The
Emacs calendar program uses the Hebrew calendar to determine the dates
of Jewish holidays.  Hebrew calendar dates begin and end at sunset.

@cindex Islamic calendar
  The Islamic calendar is used in many predominantly Islamic countries.
Emacs uses it to determine the dates of Islamic holidays.  There is no
universal agreement in the Islamic world about the calendar; Emacs uses
a widely accepted version, but the precise dates of Islamic holidays
often depend on proclamation by religious authorities, not on
calculations.  As a consequence, the actual dates of observance can vary
slightly from the dates computed by Emacs.  Islamic calendar dates begin
and end at sunset.

@cindex French Revolutionary calendar
  The French Revolutionary calendar was created by the Jacobins after the 1789
revolution, to represent a more secular and nature-based view of the annual
cycle, and to install a 10-day week in a rationalization measure similar to
the metric system.  The French government officially abandoned this
calendar at the end of 1805.

@cindex Mayan calendar
  The Maya of Central America used three separate, overlapping calendar
systems, the @emph{long count}, the @emph{tzolkin}, and the @emph{haab}.
Emacs knows about all three of these calendars.  Experts dispute the
exact correlation between the Mayan calendar and our calendar; Emacs uses the
Goodman-Martinez-Thompson correlation in its calculations.

@cindex Coptic calendar
@cindex Ethiopic calendar
  The Copts use a calendar based on the ancient Egyptian solar calendar.
Their calendar consists of twelve 30-day months followed by an extra
five-day period.  Once every fourth year they add a leap day to this
extra period to make it six days.  The Ethiopic calendar is identical in
structure, but has different year numbers and month names.

@cindex Persian calendar
  The Persians use a solar calendar based on a design of Omar Khayyam.
Their calendar consists of twelve months of which the first six have 31
days, the next five have 30 days, and the last has 29 in ordinary years
and 30 in leap years.  Leap years occur in a complicated pattern every
four or five years.
The calendar implemented here is the arithmetical Persian calendar
championed by Birashk, based on a 2,820-year cycle.  It differs from
the astronomical Persian calendar, which is based on astronomical
events.  As of this writing the first future discrepancy is projected
to occur on March 20, 2025.  It is currently not clear what the
official calendar of Iran will be that far into the future.

@cindex Chinese calendar
  The Chinese calendar is a complicated system of lunar months arranged
into solar years.  The years go in cycles of sixty, each year containing
either twelve months in an ordinary year or thirteen months in a leap
year; each month has either 29 or 30 days.  Years, ordinary months, and
days are named by combining one of ten ``celestial stems'' with one of
twelve ``terrestrial branches'' for a total of sixty names that are
repeated in a cycle of sixty.

@node To Other Calendar
@subsection Converting To Other Calendars

  The following commands describe the selected date (the date at point)
in various other calendar systems:

@table @kbd
@item Mouse-2  Other calendars
Display the date that you click on, expressed in various other calendars.
@kindex p @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-print-iso-date
@item p c
Display ISO commercial calendar equivalent for selected day
@findex calendar-print-julian-date
@item p j
Display Julian date for selected day (@code{calendar-print-julian-date}).
@findex calendar-print-astro-day-number
@item p a
Display astronomical (Julian) day number for selected day
@findex calendar-print-hebrew-date
@item p h
Display Hebrew date for selected day (@code{calendar-print-hebrew-date}).
@findex calendar-print-islamic-date
@item p i
Display Islamic date for selected day (@code{calendar-print-islamic-date}).
@findex calendar-print-french-date
@item p f
Display French Revolutionary date for selected day
@findex calendar-print-chinese-date
@item p C
Display Chinese date for selected day
@findex calendar-print-coptic-date
@item p k
Display Coptic date for selected day
@findex calendar-print-ethiopic-date
@item p e
Display Ethiopic date for selected day
@findex calendar-print-persian-date
@item p p
Display Persian date for selected day
@findex calendar-print-mayan-date
@item p m
Display Mayan date for selected day (@code{calendar-print-mayan-date}).
@end table

  If you are using X, the easiest way to translate a date into other
calendars is to click on it with @kbd{Mouse-2}, then choose @kbd{Other
calendars} from the menu that appears.  This displays the equivalent
forms of the date in all the calendars Emacs understands, in the form of
a menu.  (Choosing an alternative from this menu doesn't actually do
anything---the menu is used only for display.)

  Otherwise, move point to the date you want to convert, then type the
appropriate command starting with @kbd{p} from the table above.  The
prefix @kbd{p} is a mnemonic for ``print,'' since Emacs ``prints'' the
equivalent date in the echo area.

@node From Other Calendar
@subsection Converting From Other Calendars

  You can use the other supported calendars to specify a date to move
to.  This section describes the commands for doing this using calendars
other than Mayan; for the Mayan calendar, see the following section.

@kindex g @var{char} @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-goto-iso-date
@findex calendar-goto-iso-week
@findex calendar-goto-julian-date
@findex calendar-goto-astro-day-number
@findex calendar-goto-hebrew-date
@findex calendar-goto-islamic-date
@findex calendar-goto-french-date
@findex calendar-goto-chinese-date
@findex calendar-goto-persian-date
@findex calendar-goto-coptic-date
@findex calendar-goto-ethiopic-date
@table @kbd
@item g c
Move to a date specified in the ISO commercial calendar
@item g w
Move to a week specified in the ISO commercial calendar
@item g j
Move to a date specified in the Julian calendar
@item g a
Move to a date specified with an astronomical (Julian) day number
@item g h
Move to a date specified in the Hebrew calendar
@item g i
Move to a date specified in the Islamic calendar
@item g f
Move to a date specified in the French Revolutionary calendar
@item g C
Move to a date specified in the Chinese calendar
@item g p
Move to a date specified in the Persian calendar
@item g k
Move to a date specified in the Coptic calendar
@item g e
Move to a date specified in the Ethiopic calendar
@end table

  These commands ask you for a date on the other calendar, move point to
the Gregorian calendar date equivalent to that date, and display the
other calendar's date in the echo area.  Emacs uses strict completion
(@pxref{Completion}) whenever it asks you to type a month name, so you
don't have to worry about the spelling of Hebrew, Islamic, or French names.

@findex list-yahrzeit-dates
@cindex yahrzeits
  One common question concerning the Hebrew calendar is the computation
of the anniversary of a date of death, called a ``yahrzeit.''  The Emacs
calendar includes a facility for such calculations.  If you are in the
calendar, the command @kbd{M-x list-yahrzeit-dates} asks you for a
range of years and then displays a list of the yahrzeit dates for those
years for the date given by point.  If you are not in the calendar,
this command first asks you for the date of death and the range of
years, and then displays the list of yahrzeit dates.

@node Mayan Calendar
@subsection Converting from the Mayan Calendar

  Here are the commands to select dates based on the Mayan calendar:

@table @kbd
@item g m l
Move to a date specified by the long count calendar
@item g m n t
Move to the next occurrence of a place in the
tzolkin calendar (@code{calendar-next-tzolkin-date}).
@item g m p t
Move to the previous occurrence of a place in the
tzolkin calendar (@code{calendar-previous-tzolkin-date}).
@item g m n h
Move to the next occurrence of a place in the
haab calendar (@code{calendar-next-haab-date}).
@item g m p h
Move to the previous occurrence of a place in the
haab calendar (@code{calendar-previous-haab-date}).
@item g m n c
Move to the next occurrence of a place in the
calendar round (@code{calendar-next-calendar-round-date}).
@item g m p c
Move to the previous occurrence of a place in the
calendar round (@code{calendar-previous-calendar-round-date}).
@end table

@cindex Mayan long count
  To understand these commands, you need to understand the Mayan calendars.
The @dfn{long count} is a counting of days with these units:

1 kin = 1 day@ @ @ 1 uinal = 20 kin@ @ @ 1 tun = 18 uinal
1 katun = 20 tun@ @ @ 1 baktun = 20 katun
@end display

@kindex g m @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex calendar-goto-mayan-long-count-date
Thus, the long count date means 12 baktun, 16 katun, 11
tun, 16 uinal, and 6 kin.  The Emacs calendar can handle Mayan long
count dates as early as, but no earlier.  When you use the
@kbd{g m l} command, type the Mayan long count date with the baktun,
katun, tun, uinal, and kin separated by periods.

@findex calendar-previous-tzolkin-date
@findex calendar-next-tzolkin-date
@cindex Mayan tzolkin calendar
  The Mayan tzolkin calendar is a cycle of 260 days formed by a pair of
independent cycles of 13 and 20 days.  Since this cycle repeats
endlessly, Emacs provides commands to move backward and forward to the
previous or next point in the cycle.  Type @kbd{g m p t} to go to the
previous tzolkin date; Emacs asks you for a tzolkin date and moves point
to the previous occurrence of that date.  Similarly, type @kbd{g m n t}
to go to the next occurrence of a tzolkin date.

@findex calendar-previous-haab-date
@findex calendar-next-haab-date
@cindex Mayan haab calendar
  The Mayan haab calendar is a cycle of 365 days arranged as 18 months
of 20 days each, followed a 5-day monthless period.  Like the tzolkin
cycle, this cycle repeats endlessly, and there are commands to move
backward and forward to the previous or next point in the cycle.  Type
@kbd{g m p h} to go to the previous haab date; Emacs asks you for a haab
date and moves point to the previous occurrence of that date.
Similarly, type @kbd{g m n h} to go to the next occurrence of a haab

@c This is omitted because it is too long for smallbook format.
@c @findex calendar-previous-calendar-round-date
@findex calendar-next-calendar-round-date
@cindex Mayan calendar round
  The Maya also used the combination of the tzolkin date and the haab
date.  This combination is a cycle of about 52 years called a
@emph{calendar round}.  If you type @kbd{g m p c}, Emacs asks you for
both a haab and a tzolkin date and then moves point to the previous
occurrence of that combination.  Use @kbd{g m n c} to move point to the
next occurrence of a combination.  These commands signal an error if the
haab/tzolkin date combination you have typed is impossible.

  Emacs uses strict completion (@pxref{Strict Completion}) whenever it
asks you to type a Mayan name, so you don't have to worry about

@node Diary
@section The Diary
@cindex diary

  The Emacs diary keeps track of appointments or other events on a daily
basis, in conjunction with the calendar.  To use the diary feature, you
must first create a @dfn{diary file} containing a list of events and
their dates.  Then Emacs can automatically pick out and display the
events for today, for the immediate future, or for any specified

  The name of the diary file is specified by the variable
@code{diary-file}; @file{~/diary} is the default.  A sample diary file
is (note that the file format is essentially the same as that used by
the external shell utility @samp{calendar}):

12/22/1988  Twentieth wedding anniversary!!
&1/1.       Happy New Year!
10/22       Ruth's birthday.
* 21, *:    Payday
Tuesday--weekly meeting with grad students at 10am
         Supowit, Shen, Bitner, and Kapoor to attend.
1/13/89     Friday the thirteenth!!
&thu 4pm    squash game with Lloyd.
mar 16      Dad's birthday
April 15, 1989 Income tax due.
&* 15       time cards due.
@end example

This example uses extra spaces to align the event descriptions of most
of the entries.  Such formatting is purely a matter of taste.

  Although you probably will start by creating a diary manually, Emacs
provides a number of commands to let you view, add, and change diary

* Displaying the Diary::   Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File::   Entering events in your diary.
* Date Formats::	   Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary::	   Commands to create diary entries.
* Special Diary Entries::  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.
@end menu

@node Displaying the Diary
@subsection Displaying the Diary

  Once you have created a diary file, you can use the calendar to view
it.  You can also view today's events outside of Calendar mode.

@table @kbd
@item d
Display all diary entries for the selected date
@item Mouse-2 Diary
Display all diary entries for the date you click on.
@item s
Display the entire diary file (@code{diary-show-all-entries}).
@item m
Mark all visible dates that have diary entries
@item u
Unmark the calendar window (@code{calendar-unmark}).
@item M-x print-diary-entries
Print hard copy of the diary display as it appears.
@item M-x diary
Display all diary entries for today's date.
@item M-x diary-mail-entries
Mail yourself email reminders about upcoming diary entries.
@end table

@kindex d @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex diary-view-entries
@vindex view-diary-entries-initially
  Displaying the diary entries with @kbd{d} shows in a separate window
the diary entries for the selected date in the calendar.  The mode line
of the new window shows the date of the diary entries and any holidays
that fall on that date.  If you specify a numeric argument with @kbd{d},
it shows all the diary entries for that many successive days.  Thus,
@kbd{2 d} displays all the entries for the selected date and for the
following day.

  Another way to display the diary entries for a date is to click
@kbd{Mouse-2} on the date, and then choose @kbd{Diary entries} from
the menu that appears.  If the variable
@code{view-diary-entries-initially} is non-@code{nil}, creating the
calendar lists the diary entries for the current date (provided the
current date is visible).

@kindex m @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex mark-diary-entries
@vindex mark-diary-entries-in-calendar
  To get a broader view of which days are mentioned in the diary, use
the @kbd{m} command.  This displays the dates that have diary entries in
a different face (or places a @samp{+} after these dates, if display
with multiple faces is not available).
@inforef{Calendar Customizing, diary-entry-marker, emacs-xtra}.
@end iftex
@xref{Calendar Customizing, diary-entry-marker}.
@end ifnottex
  The command applies both to the currently visible months and to
other months that subsequently become visible by scrolling.  To turn
marking off and erase the current marks, type @kbd{u}, which also
turns off holiday marks (@pxref{Holidays}).  If the variable
@code{mark-diary-entries-in-calendar} is non-@code{nil}, creating or
updating the calendar marks diary dates automatically.

@kindex s @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex diary-show-all-entries
  To see the full diary file, rather than just some of the entries, use
the @kbd{s} command.

  Display of selected diary entries uses the selective display feature
to hide entries that don't apply.  The diary buffer as you see it is
an illusion, so simply printing the buffer does not print what you see
on your screen.  There is a special command to print hard copy of the
diary buffer @emph{as it appears}; this command is @kbd{M-x
print-diary-entries}.  It sends the data directly to the printer.  You
can customize it like @code{lpr-region} (@pxref{Printing}).

@findex diary
  The command @kbd{M-x diary} displays the diary entries for the current
date, independently of the calendar display, and optionally for the next
few days as well; the variable @code{number-of-diary-entries} specifies
how many days to include.
@inforef{Diary Customizing,, emacs-xtra}.
@end iftex
@xref{Diary Customizing, number-of-diary-entries}.
@end ifnottex

  If you put @code{(diary)} in your @file{.emacs} file, this
automatically displays a window with the day's diary entries, when you
enter Emacs.  The mode line of the displayed window shows the date and
any holidays that fall on that date.

@findex diary-mail-entries
@vindex diary-mail-days
  Many users like to receive notice of events in their diary as email.
To send such mail to yourself, use the command @kbd{M-x
diary-mail-entries}.  A prefix argument specifies how many days
(starting with today) to check; otherwise, the variable
@code{diary-mail-days} says how many days.

@node Format of Diary File
@subsection The Diary File
@cindex diary file

@vindex diary-file
  Your @dfn{diary file} is a file that records events associated with
particular dates.  The name of the diary file is specified by the
variable @code{diary-file}; @file{~/diary} is the default.  The
@code{calendar} utility program supports a subset of the format allowed
by the Emacs diary facilities, so you can use that utility to view the
diary file, with reasonable results aside from the entries it cannot

  Each entry in the diary file describes one event and consists of one
or more lines.  An entry always begins with a date specification at the
left margin.  The rest of the entry is simply text to describe the
event.  If the entry has more than one line, then the lines after the
first must begin with whitespace to indicate they continue a previous
entry.  Lines that do not begin with valid dates and do not continue a
preceding entry are ignored.

  You can inhibit the marking of certain diary entries in the calendar
window; to do this, insert an ampersand (@samp{&}) at the beginning of
the entry, before the date.  This has no effect on display of the entry
in the diary window; it affects only marks on dates in the calendar
window.  Nonmarking entries are especially useful for generic entries
that would otherwise mark many different dates.

  If the first line of a diary entry consists only of the date or day
name with no following blanks or punctuation, then the diary window
display doesn't include that line; only the continuation lines appear.
For example, this entry:

      Bill B. visits Princeton today
      2pm Cognitive Studies Committee meeting
      2:30-5:30 Liz at Lawrenceville
      4:00pm Dentist appt
      7:30pm Dinner at George's
      8:00-10:00pm concert
@end example

appears in the diary window without the date line at the beginning.
This style of entry looks neater when you display just a single day's
entries, but can cause confusion if you ask for more than one day's

  You can edit the diary entries as they appear in the window, but it is
important to remember that the buffer displayed contains the @emph{entire}
diary file, with portions of it concealed from view.  This means, for
instance, that the @kbd{C-f} (@code{forward-char}) command can put point
at what appears to be the end of the line, but what is in reality the
middle of some concealed line.

  @emph{Be careful when editing the diary entries!}  Inserting
additional lines or adding/deleting characters in the middle of a
visible line cannot cause problems, but editing at the end of a line may
not do what you expect.  Deleting a line may delete other invisible
entries that follow it.  Before editing the diary, it is best to display
the entire file with @kbd{s} (@code{diary-show-all-entries}).

@node Date Formats
@subsection Date Formats

  Here are some sample diary entries, illustrating different ways of
formatting a date.  The examples all show dates in American order
(month, day, year), but Calendar mode supports European order (day,
month, year) as an option.

4/20/93  Switch-over to new tabulation system
apr. 25  Start tabulating annual results
4/30  Results for April are due
*/25  Monthly cycle finishes
Friday  Don't leave without backing up files
@end example

  The first entry appears only once, on April 20, 1993.  The second and
third appear every year on the specified dates, and the fourth uses a
wildcard (asterisk) for the month, so it appears on the 25th of every
month.  The final entry appears every week on Friday.

  You can use just numbers to express a date, as in
@samp{@var{month}/@var{day}} or @samp{@var{month}/@var{day}/@var{year}}.
This must be followed by a nondigit.  In the date itself, @var{month}
and @var{day} are numbers of one or two digits.  The optional @var{year}
is also a number, and may be abbreviated to the last two digits; that
is, you can use @samp{11/12/1989} or @samp{11/12/89}.

  Dates can also have the form @samp{@var{monthname} @var{day}} or
@samp{@var{monthname} @var{day}, @var{year}}, where the month's name can
be spelled in full or abbreviated (with or without a period).  The
preferred abbreviations can be controlled using the variables
@code{calendar-abbrev-length}, @code{calendar-month-abbrev-array}, and
@code{calendar-day-abbrev-array}.  The default is to use the first three
letters of a name as its abbreviation.  Case is not significant.

  A date may be @dfn{generic}; that is, partially unspecified.  Then the
entry applies to all dates that match the specification.  If the date
does not contain a year, it is generic and applies to any year.
Alternatively, @var{month}, @var{day}, or @var{year} can be a @samp{*};
this matches any month, day, or year, respectively.  Thus, a diary entry
@samp{3/*/*} matches any day in March of any year; so does @samp{march

@vindex european-calendar-style
@findex european-calendar
@findex american-calendar
  If you prefer the European style of writing dates---in which the day
comes before the month---type @kbd{M-x european-calendar} while in the
calendar, or set the variable @code{european-calendar-style} to @code{t}
with @kbd{M-x customize}, or @emph{before} using any calendar or diary
command.  This mode interprets all dates in the diary in the European
manner, and also uses European style for displaying diary dates.  (Note
that there is no comma after the @var{monthname} in the European style.)
To go back to the (default) American style of writing dates, type
@kbd{M-x american-calendar}.

  You can use the name of a day of the week as a generic date which
applies to any date falling on that day of the week.  You can abbreviate
the day of the week to three letters (with or without a period) or spell
it in full; case is not significant.

@node Adding to Diary
@subsection Commands to Add to the Diary

  While in the calendar, there are several commands to create diary

@table @kbd
@item i d
Add a diary entry for the selected date (@code{insert-diary-entry}).
@item i w
Add a diary entry for the selected day of the week (@code{insert-weekly-diary-entry}).
@item i m
Add a diary entry for the selected day of the month (@code{insert-monthly-diary-entry}).
@item i y
Add a diary entry for the selected day of the year (@code{insert-yearly-diary-entry}).
@end table

@kindex i d @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-diary-entry
  You can make a diary entry for a specific date by selecting that date
in the calendar window and typing the @kbd{i d} command.  This command
displays the end of your diary file in another window and inserts the
date; you can then type the rest of the diary entry.

@kindex i w @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-weekly-diary-entry
@kindex i m @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-monthly-diary-entry
@kindex i y @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-yearly-diary-entry
  If you want to make a diary entry that applies to a specific day of
the week, select that day of the week (any occurrence will do) and type
@kbd{i w}.  This inserts the day-of-week as a generic date; you can then
type the rest of the diary entry.  You can make a monthly diary entry in
the same fashion: select the day of the month, use the @kbd{i m}
command, and type the rest of the entry.  Similarly, you can insert a
yearly diary entry with the @kbd{i y} command.

  All of the above commands make marking diary entries by default.  To
make a nonmarking diary entry, give a numeric argument to the command.
For example, @kbd{C-u i w} makes a nonmarking weekly diary entry.

  When you modify the diary file, be sure to save the file before
exiting Emacs.  Saving the diary file after using any of the above
insertion commands will automatically update the diary marks in the
calendar window, if appropriate.  You can use the command
@code{redraw-calendar} to force an update at any time.

@node Special Diary Entries
@subsection Special Diary Entries

  In addition to entries based on calendar dates, the diary file can
contain @dfn{sexp entries} for regular events such as anniversaries.
These entries are based on Lisp expressions (sexps) that Emacs evaluates
as it scans the diary file.  Instead of a date, a sexp entry contains
@samp{%%} followed by a Lisp expression which must begin and end with
parentheses.  The Lisp expression determines which dates the entry
applies to.

  Calendar mode provides commands to insert certain commonly used
sexp entries:

@table @kbd
@item i a
Add an anniversary diary entry for the selected date
@item i b
Add a block diary entry for the current region
@item i c
Add a cyclic diary entry starting at the date
@end table

@kindex i a @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-anniversary-diary-entry
  If you want to make a diary entry that applies to the anniversary of a
specific date, move point to that date and use the @kbd{i a} command.
This displays the end of your diary file in another window and inserts
the anniversary description; you can then type the rest of the diary
entry.  The entry looks like this:

@findex diary-anniversary
%%(diary-anniversary 10 31 1948) Arthur's birthday
@end example

This entry applies to October 31 in any year after 1948; @samp{10 31
1948} specifies the date.  (If you are using the European calendar
style, the month and day are interchanged.)  The reason this expression
requires a beginning year is that advanced diary functions can use it to
calculate the number of elapsed years.

  A @dfn{block} diary entry applies to a specified range of consecutive
dates.  Here is a block diary entry that applies to all dates from June
24, 1990 through July 10, 1990:

@findex diary-block
%%(diary-block 6 24 1990 7 10 1990) Vacation
@end example

The @samp{6 24 1990} indicates the starting date and the @samp{7 10 1990}
indicates the stopping date.  (Again, if you are using the European calendar
style, the month and day are interchanged.)

@kindex i b @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-block-diary-entry
  To insert a block entry, place point and the mark on the two
dates that begin and end the range, and type @kbd{i b}.  This command
displays the end of your diary file in another window and inserts the
block description; you can then type the diary entry.

@kindex i c @r{(Calendar mode)}
@findex insert-cyclic-diary-entry
   @dfn{Cyclic} diary entries repeat after a fixed interval of days.  To
create one, select the starting date and use the @kbd{i c} command.  The
command prompts for the length of interval, then inserts the entry,
which looks like this:

@findex diary-cyclic
%%(diary-cyclic 50 3 1 1990) Renew medication
@end example

This entry applies to March 1, 1990 and every 50th day following;
@samp{3 1 1990} specifies the starting date.  (If you are using the
European calendar style, the month and day are interchanged.)

  All three of these commands make marking diary entries.  To insert a
nonmarking entry, give a numeric argument to the command.  For example,
@kbd{C-u i a} makes a nonmarking anniversary diary entry.

  Marking sexp diary entries in the calendar is @emph{extremely}
time-consuming, since every date visible in the calendar window must be
individually checked.  So it's a good idea to make sexp diary entries
nonmarking (with @samp{&}) when possible.

  Another sophisticated kind of sexp entry, a @dfn{floating} diary entry,
specifies a regularly occurring event by offsets specified in days,
weeks, and months.  It is comparable to a crontab entry interpreted by
the @code{cron} utility.  Here is a nonmarking, floating diary entry
that applies to the last Thursday in November:

@findex diary-float
&%%(diary-float 11 4 -1) American Thanksgiving
@end example

The 11 specifies November (the eleventh month), the 4 specifies Thursday
(the fourth day of the week, where Sunday is numbered zero), and the
@minus{}1 specifies ``last'' (1 would mean ``first,'' 2 would mean
``second,'' @minus{}2 would mean ``second-to-last,'' and so on).  The
month can be a single month or a list of months.  Thus you could change
the 11 above to @samp{'(1 2 3)} and have the entry apply to the last
Thursday of January, February, and March.  If the month is @code{t}, the
entry applies to all months of the year.@refill

  Each of the standard sexp diary entries takes an optional parameter
specifying the name of a face or a single-character string to use when
marking the entry in the calendar.  Most generally, sexp diary entries
can perform arbitrary computations to determine when they apply.
@inforef{Sexp Diary Entries,, emacs-xtra}.
@end iftex
@inforef{Sexp Diary Entries}.
@end ifnottex

@node Appointments
@section Appointments
@cindex appointment notification

@vindex appt-display-format
@vindex appt-audible
@vindex appt-display-mode-line
  If you have a diary entry for an appointment, and that diary entry
begins with a recognizable time of day, Emacs can warn you several
minutes beforehand that that appointment is pending.  Emacs alerts you
to the appointment by displaying a message in your chosen format, as
specified by the variable @code{appt-display-format}.  If the value of
@code{appt-audible} is non-@code{nil}, the warning includes an audible
reminder.  In addition, if @code{appt-display-mode-line} is
non-@code{nil}, Emacs displays the number of minutes to the
appointment on the mode line.

@vindex appt-display-duration
@vindex appt-disp-window-function
@vindex appt-delete-window-function
  If @code{appt-display-format} has the value @code{window}, then the
variable @code{appt-display-duration} controls how long the reminder
window is visible for; and the variables
@code{appt-disp-window-function} and @code{appt-delete-window-function}
give the names of functions used to create and destroy the window,

@findex appt-activate
  To enable appointment notification, use the command @kbd{M-x
appt-activate}.  With a positive argument, it enables notification;
with a negative argument, it disables notification; with no argument,
it toggles.  Enabling notification also sets up an appointment list
for today from the diary file, giving all diary entries found with
recognizable times of day, and reminds you just before each of them.

  For example, suppose the diary file contains these lines:

  9:30am Coffee break
 12:00pm Lunch
@end example

@vindex appt-message-warning-time
Then on Mondays, you will be reminded at around 9:20am about your
coffee break and at around 11:50am about lunch.  The variable
@code{appt-message-warning-time} specifies how many minutes in advance
to warn you; its default value is 12 (12 minutes).

  You can write times in am/pm style (with @samp{12:00am} standing
for midnight and @samp{12:00pm} standing for noon), or 24-hour
European/military style.  You need not be consistent; your diary file
can have a mixture of the two styles.  Times must be at the beginning
of lines if they are to be recognized.

@vindex appt-display-diary
  Emacs updates the appointments list from the diary file
automatically just after midnight.  You can force an update at any
time by re-enabling appointment notification.  Both these actions also
display the day's diary buffer, unless you set
@code{appt-display-diary} to @code{nil}.  The appointments list is
also updated whenever the diary file is saved.

@findex appt-add
@findex appt-delete
@cindex alarm clock
  You can also use the appointment notification facility like an alarm
clock.  The command @kbd{M-x appt-add} adds entries to the appointment
list without affecting your diary file.  You delete entries from the
appointment list with @kbd{M-x appt-delete}.

@node Importing Diary
@section Importing and Exporting Diary Entries

  You can transfer diary entries between Emacs diary files and a
variety of other formats.

@vindex diary-outlook-formats
  You can import diary entries from Outlook-generated appointment
messages.  While viewing such a message in Rmail or Gnus, do @kbd{M-x
diary-from-outlook} to import the entry.  You can make this command
recognize additional appointment message formats by customizing the
variable @code{diary-outlook-formats}.

@cindex iCalendar support
  The icalendar package allows you to transfer data between your Emacs
diary file and iCalendar files, which are defined in ``RFC
2445---Internet Calendaring and Scheduling Core Object Specification
(iCalendar)'' (as well as the earlier vCalendar format).

  Importing works for ``ordinary'' (i.e. non-recurring) events, but
(at present) may not work correctly (if at all) for recurring events.
Exporting of diary files into iCalendar files should work correctly
for most diary entries.  This feature is a work in progress, so the
commands may evolve in future.

@findex icalendar-import-buffer
  The command @code{icalendar-import-buffer} extracts
iCalendar data from the current buffer and adds it to your (default)
diary file.  This function is also suitable for automatic extraction of
iCalendar data; for example with the Rmail mail client one could use:

(add-hook 'rmail-show-message-hook 'icalendar-import-buffer)
@end example

@findex icalendar-import-file
  The command @code{icalendar-import-file} imports an iCalendar file
and adds the results to an Emacs diary file.  For example:

(icalendar-import-file "/here/is/calendar.ics"
@end example

You can use an @code{#include} directive to add the import file contents
to the main diary file, if these are different files.
@inforef{Fancy Diary Display,, emacs-xtra}.
@end iftex
@xref{Fancy Diary Display}.
@end ifnottex

@findex icalendar-export-file, icalendar-export-region
  Use @code{icalendar-export-file} to interactively export an entire
Emacs diary file to iCalendar format.  To export only a part of a diary
file, mark the relevant area, and call @code{icalendar-export-region}.
In both cases the result is appended to the target file.

@node Daylight Saving
@section Daylight Saving Time
@cindex daylight saving time

  Emacs understands the difference between standard time and daylight
saving time---the times given for sunrise, sunset, solstices,
equinoxes, and the phases of the moon take that into account.  The rules
for daylight saving time vary from place to place and have also varied
historically from year to year.  To do the job properly, Emacs needs to
know which rules to use.

@vindex calendar-daylight-savings-starts
@vindex calendar-daylight-savings-ends
  Some operating systems keep track of the rules that apply to the place
where you are; on these systems, Emacs gets the information it needs
from the system automatically.  If some or all of this information is
missing, Emacs fills in the gaps with the rules currently used in
Cambridge, Massachusetts.  If the resulting rules are not what you want,
you can tell Emacs the rules to use by setting certain variables:
@code{calendar-daylight-savings-starts} and

  These values should be Lisp expressions that refer to the variable
@code{year}, and evaluate to the Gregorian date on which daylight
saving time starts or (respectively) ends, in the form of a list
@code{(@var{month} @var{day} @var{year})}.  The values should be
@code{nil} if your area does not use daylight saving time.

  Emacs uses these expressions to determine the starting date of
daylight saving time for the holiday list and for correcting times of
day in the solar and lunar calculations.

  The values for Cambridge, Massachusetts are as follows:

(calendar-nth-named-day 2 0 3 year)
(calendar-nth-named-day 1 0 11 year)
@end example

That is, the second 0th day (Sunday) of the third month (March) in
the year specified by @code{year}, and the first Sunday of the eleventh month
(November) of that year.  If daylight saving time were
changed to start on October 1, you would set
@code{calendar-daylight-savings-starts} to this:

(list 10 1 year)
@end example

  If there is no daylight saving time at your location, or if you want
all times in standard time, set @code{calendar-daylight-savings-starts}
and @code{calendar-daylight-savings-ends} to @code{nil}.

@vindex calendar-daylight-time-offset
  The variable @code{calendar-daylight-time-offset} specifies the
difference between daylight saving time and standard time, measured in
minutes.  The value for Cambridge, Massachusetts is 60.

@c @vindex calendar-daylight-savings-starts-time  too long!
@vindex calendar-daylight-savings-ends-time
  Finally, the two variables
@code{calendar-daylight-savings-starts-time} and
@code{calendar-daylight-savings-ends-time} specify the number of
minutes after midnight local time when the transition to and from
daylight saving time should occur.  For Cambridge, Massachusetts both
variables' values are 120.

@node Time Intervals
@section Summing Time Intervals
@cindex time intervals, summing
@cindex summing time intervals
@cindex timeclock

  The timeclock feature adds up time intervals, so you can (for
instance) keep track of how much time you spend working on particular

@findex timeclock-in
@findex timeclock-out
@findex timeclock-change
@findex timeclock-workday-remaining
@findex timeclock-when-to-leave
  Use the @kbd{M-x timeclock-in} command when you start working on a
project, and @kbd{M-x timeclock-out} command when you're done.  Each
time you do this, it adds one time interval to the record of the
project.  You can change to working on a different project with @kbd{M-x

  Once you've collected data from a number of time intervals, you can use
@kbd{M-x timeclock-workday-remaining} to see how much time is left to
work today (assuming a typical average of 8 hours a day), and @kbd{M-x
timeclock-when-to-leave} which will calculate when you're ``done.''

@vindex timeclock-modeline-display
@findex timeclock-modeline-display
  If you want Emacs to display the amount of time ``left'' of your
workday in the mode line, either customize the
@code{timeclock-modeline-display} variable and set its value to
@code{t}, or invoke the @kbd{M-x timeclock-modeline-display} command.

@vindex timeclock-ask-before-exiting
  Terminating the current Emacs session might or might not mean that
you have stopped working on the project and, by default, Emacs asks
you.  You can, however, set the value of the variable
@code{timeclock-ask-before-exiting} to @code{nil} (via @kbd{M-x
customize}) to avoid the question; then, only an explicit @kbd{M-x
timeclock-out} or @kbd{M-x timeclock-change} will tell Emacs that the
current interval is over.

@cindex @file{.timelog} file
@vindex timeclock-file
@findex timeclock-reread-log
  The timeclock functions work by accumulating the data in a file
called @file{.timelog} in your home directory.  You can specify a
different name for this file by customizing the variable
@code{timeclock-file}.  If you edit the timeclock file manually, or if
you change the value of any of timeclock's customizable variables, you
should run the command @kbd{M-x timeclock-reread-log} to update the
data in Emacs from the file.

@include cal-xtra.texi
@end ifnottex

   arch-tag: 4531ef09-9df3-449d-9c52-2b5a4a337f92
@end ignore