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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2006-05-31

Copyright (C) 2000-2011  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end of the file for license conditions.

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This file is about changes in emacs version 21.

* Emacs 21.4 is a bug-fix release with no user-visible changes.

* Installation changes in Emacs 21.3

** Support for GNU/Linux on little-endian MIPS and on IBM S390 has
been added.

* Changes in Emacs 21.3

** The obsolete C mode (c-mode.el) has been removed to avoid problems
with Custom.

** UTF-16 coding systems are available, encoding the same characters
as mule-utf-8.

** There is a new language environment for UTF-8 (set up automatically
in UTF-8 locales).

** Translation tables are available between equivalent characters in
different Emacs charsets -- for instance `e with acute' coming from the
Latin-1 and Latin-2 charsets.  User options `unify-8859-on-encoding-mode'
and `unify-8859-on-decoding-mode' respectively turn on translation
between ISO 8859 character sets (`unification') on encoding
(e.g. writing a file) and decoding (e.g. reading a file).  Note that
`unify-8859-on-encoding-mode' is useful and safe, but
`unify-8859-on-decoding-mode' can cause text to change when you read
it and write it out again without edits, so it is not generally advisable.
By default `unify-8859-on-encoding-mode' is turned on.

** In Emacs running on the X window system, the default value of
`selection-coding-system' is now `compound-text-with-extensions'.

If you want the old behavior, set selection-coding-system to
compound-text, which may be significantly more efficient.  Using
compound-text-with-extensions seems to be necessary only for decoding
text from applications under XFree86 4.2, whose behavior is actually
contrary to the compound text specification.

* Installation changes in Emacs 21.2

** Support for BSD/OS 5.0 has been added.

** Support for AIX 5.1 was added.

* Changes in Emacs 21.2

** Emacs now supports compound-text extended segments in X selections.

X applications can use `extended segments' to encode characters in
compound text that belong to character sets which are not part of the
list of approved standard encodings for X, e.g. Big5.  To paste
selections with such characters into Emacs, use the new coding system
compound-text-with-extensions as the value of selection-coding-system.

** The default values of `tooltip-delay' and `tooltip-hide-delay'
were changed.

** On terminals whose erase-char is ^H (Backspace), Emacs
now uses normal-erase-is-backspace-mode.

** When the *scratch* buffer is recreated, its mode is set from
initial-major-mode, which normally is lisp-interaction-mode,
instead of using default-major-mode.

** The new option `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' causes Info to behave
like the stand-alone Info reader (from the GNU Texinfo package) as far
as motion between nodes and their subnodes is concerned.  If it is t
(the default), Emacs behaves as before when you type SPC in a menu: it
visits the subnode pointed to by the first menu entry.  If this option
is nil, SPC scrolls to the end of the current node, and only then goes
to the first menu item, like the stand-alone reader does.

This change was already in Emacs 21.1, but wasn't advertised in the

* Lisp Changes in Emacs 21.2

** The meanings of scroll-up-aggressively and scroll-down-aggressively
have been interchanged, so that the former now controls scrolling up,
and the latter now controls scrolling down.

** The variable `compilation-parse-errors-filename-function' can
be used to transform filenames found in compilation output.

* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

See the INSTALL file for information on installing extra libraries and
fonts to take advantage of the new graphical features and extra
charsets in this release.

** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

** Support for LynxOS has been added.

** There are new configure options associated with the support for
images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in `configure'
to list them.

** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
support 64-bit executables and also on Irix 6.5.  This increases the
maximum buffer size.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.  Changes to
build on other 64-bit systems should be straightforward modulo any
necessary changes to unexec.

** There is a new configure option `--disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** There is a new configure option `--without-xim' that instructs
Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.

** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.

** This version can be built for the Macintosh, but does not implement
all of the new display features described below.  The port currently
lacks unexec, asynchronous processes, and networking support.  See the
"Emacs and the Mac OS" appendix in the Emacs manual, for the
description of aspects specific to the Mac.

** Note that the MS-Windows port does not yet implement various of the
new display features described below.

* Changes in Emacs 21.1

** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes such as `overline', `strike-through', and `box' are ignored
on terminals.

The command-line options `-fg COLOR', `-bg COLOR', and `-rv' are now
supported on character terminals.

Emacs automatically remaps all X-style color specifications to one of
the colors supported by the terminal.  This means you could have the
same color customizations that work both on a windowed display and on
a TTY or when Emacs is invoked with the -nw option.

** New default font is Courier 12pt under X.

** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
You must configure Emacs with the option `--with-sound=yes' to enable
sound support.

** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs can resize the minibuffer window unless it
is on a frame of its own.  You can control resizing and the maximum
minibuffer window size by setting the following variables:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.

Default is 0.25.

- User option: resize-mini-windows

How to resize mini-windows.  If nil, don't resize.  If t, always
resize to fit the size of the text.  If `grow-only', let mini-windows
grow only, until they become empty, at which point they are shrunk

Default is `grow-only'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see
<>).  You will need version 0.92.26, or later.

** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is

** File selection dialog on MS-Windows is supported.

When a file is visited by clicking File->Open, the MS-Windows version
now pops up a standard file selection dialog where you can select a
file to visit.  File->Save As also pops up that dialog.

** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scroll bars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scroll bar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
imake configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
of how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level
changes.  Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is
displayed and is on by default.  The appearance of the bar is improved
if Emacs has been built with XPM image support.  Otherwise monochrome
icons will be used.

To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
for specific modes (with copyright assignments).

** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  The Lisp package `tooltip' implements them.  You can
turn them off via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

** Automatic Hscrolling

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
`automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be

If a window is scrolled horizontally with set-window-hscroll, or
scroll-left/scroll-right (C-x <, C-x >), this serves as a lower bound
for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling will scroll
the text more to the left if necessary, but won't scroll the text more
to the right than the column set with set-window-hscroll etc.

** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  By default, when a window is selected, the cursor is
solid; otherwise, it is hollow.  The user-option
`cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to display the
cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is shown, if
non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.

** Fringes to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.
You can change its appearance by modifying the face `mode-line'.
In particular, setting the `:box' attribute to nil turns off the 3D
appearance of the mode line.  (The 3D appearance makes the mode line
occupy more space, and thus might cause the first or the last line of
the window to be partially obscured.)

The variable `mode-line-inverse-video', which was used in older
versions of emacs to make the mode-line stand out, is now deprecated.
However, setting it to nil will cause the `mode-line' face to be
ignored, and mode-lines to be drawn using the default text face.

** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

Different parts of the mode line have been made mouse-sensitive on all
systems which support the mouse.  Moving the mouse to a
mouse-sensitive part in the mode line changes the appearance of the
mouse pointer to an arrow, and help about available mouse actions is
displayed either in the echo area, or in the tooltip window if you
have enabled one.

Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line goes to the next buffer.

- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name goes to the previous buffer.

- Mouse-2 on the read-only or modified status in the mode line (`%' or
`*') toggles the status.

- Mouse-3 on the major mode name displays a major mode menu.

- Mouse-3 on the mode name displays a minor-mode menu.

** Hourglass pointer

Emacs can optionally display an hourglass pointer under X.  You can
turn the display on or off by customizing group `cursor'.

** Blinking cursor

M-x blink-cursor-mode toggles a blinking cursor under X and on
terminals having terminal capabilities `vi', `vs', and `ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group `cursor'.

** New font-lock support mode `jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to `lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function `jit-lock-mode' for more

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

** The default binding of the Delete key has changed.

The new user-option `normal-erase-is-backspace' can be set to
determine the effect of the Delete and Backspace function keys.

On window systems, the default value of this option is chosen
according to the keyboard used.  If the keyboard has both a Backspace
key and a Delete key, and both are mapped to their usual meanings, the
option's default value is set to t, so that Backspace can be used to
delete backward, and Delete can be used to delete forward.  On
keyboards which either have only one key (usually labeled DEL), or two
keys DEL and BS which produce the same effect, the option's value is
set to nil, and these keys delete backward.

If not running under a window system, setting this option accomplishes
a similar effect by mapping C-h, which is usually generated by the
Backspace key, to DEL, and by mapping DEL to C-d via
`keyboard-translate'.  The former functionality of C-h is available on
the F1 key.  You should probably not use this setting on a text-only
terminal if you don't have both Backspace, Delete and F1 keys.

Programmatically, you can call function normal-erase-is-backspace-mode
to toggle the behavior of the Delete and Backspace keys.

** The default for user-option `next-line-add-newlines' has been
changed to nil, i.e. C-n will no longer add newlines at the end of a
buffer by default.

** The <home> and <end> keys now move to the beginning or end of the
current line, respectively.  C-<home> and C-<end> move to the
beginning and end of the buffer.

** Emacs now checks for recursive loads of Lisp files.  If the
recursion depth exceeds `recursive-load-depth-limit', an error is

** When an error is signaled during the loading of the user's init
file, Emacs now pops up the *Messages* buffer.

** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set `load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs's byte
compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

** Toggle buttons and radio buttons in menus.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
widgets for radio and toggle buttons in menus.  When configured for
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

** Item Save Options on the Options menu allows saving options set
using that menu.

** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face `trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the

** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

** The new user-option `confirm-kill-emacs' can be customized to
let Emacs ask for confirmation before exiting.

** The header line in an Info buffer is now displayed as an emacs
header-line (which is like a mode-line, but at the top of the window),
so that it remains visible even when the buffer has been scrolled.
This behavior may be disabled by customizing the option

** Polish, Czech, German, and French translations of Emacs' reference card
have been added.  They are named `pl-refcard.tex', `cs-refcard.tex',
Juanma Barranquero's avatar
Juanma Barranquero committed
`de-refcard.tex' and `fr-refcard.tex'.  PostScript files are included.
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** An `Emacs Survival Guide', etc/survival.tex, is available.

** A reference card for Dired has been added.  Its name is
`dired-ref.tex'.  A French translation is available in

** C-down-mouse-3 is bound differently.  Now if the menu bar is not
displayed it pops up a menu containing the items which would be on the
menu bar.  If the menu bar is displayed, it pops up the major mode
menu or the Edit menu if there is no major mode menu.

** Variable `load-path' is no longer customizable through Customize.

You can no longer use `M-x customize-variable' to customize `load-path'
because it now contains a version-dependent component.  You can still
use `add-to-list' and `setq' to customize this variable in your
`~/.emacs' init file or to modify it from any Lisp program in general.

** C-u C-x = provides detailed information about the character at
point in a pop-up window.

** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, use the `mouse-wheel-mode' command, or
customize the variable `mouse-wheel-mode'.

The variables `mouse-wheel-follow-mouse' and `mouse-wheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

** Emacs' auto-save list files are now by default stored in a
sub-directory `.emacs.d/auto-save-list/' of the user's home directory.
(On MS-DOS, this subdirectory's name is `_emacs.d/auto-save.list/'.)
You can customize `auto-save-list-file-prefix' to change this location.

** The function `getenv' is now callable interactively.

** The new user-option `even-window-heights' can be set to nil
to prevent `display-buffer' from evening out window heights.

** The new command M-x delete-trailing-whitespace RET will delete the
trailing whitespace within the current restriction.  You can also add
this function to `write-file-hooks' or `local-write-file-hooks'.

** When visiting a file with M-x find-file-literally, no newlines will
be added to the end of the buffer even if `require-final-newline' is

** The new user-option `find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' can be
set to suppress warnings ``X and Y are the same file'' when visiting a
file that is already visited under a different name.

** The new user-option `electric-help-shrink-window' can be set to
nil to prevent adjusting the help window size to the buffer size.

** New command M-x describe-character-set reads a character set name
and displays information about that.

** The new variable `auto-mode-interpreter-regexp' contains a regular
expression matching interpreters, for file mode determination.

This regular expression is matched against the first line of a file to
determine the file's mode in `set-auto-mode' when Emacs can't deduce a
mode from the file's name.  If it matches, the file is assumed to be
interpreted by the interpreter matched by the second group of the
regular expression.  The mode is then determined as the mode
associated with that interpreter in `interpreter-mode-alist'.

** New function executable-make-buffer-file-executable-if-script-p is
suitable as an after-save-hook as an alternative to `executable-chmod'.

** The most preferred coding-system is now used to save a buffer if
buffer-file-coding-system is `undecided' and it is safe for the buffer
contents.  (The most preferred is set by set-language-environment or
by M-x prefer-coding-system.)  Thus if you visit an ASCII file and
insert a non-ASCII character from your current language environment,
the file will be saved silently with the appropriate coding.
Previously you would be prompted for a safe coding system.

** The many obsolete language `setup-...-environment' commands have
been removed -- use `set-language-environment'.

** The new Custom option `keyboard-coding-system' specifies a coding
system for keyboard input.

** New variable `inhibit-iso-escape-detection' determines if Emacs'
coding system detection algorithm should pay attention to ISO2022's
escape sequences.  If this variable is non-nil, the algorithm ignores
such escape sequences.  The default value is nil, and it is
recommended not to change it except for the special case that you
always want to read any escape code verbatim.  If you just want to
read a specific file without decoding escape codes, use C-x RET c
(`universal-coding-system-argument').  For instance, C-x RET c latin-1
RET C-x C-f filename RET.

** Variable `default-korean-keyboard' is initialized properly from the
environment variable `HANGUL_KEYBOARD_TYPE'.

** New command M-x list-charset-chars reads a character set name and
displays all characters in that character set.

** M-x set-terminal-coding-system (C-x RET t) now allows CCL-based
coding systems such as cpXXX and cyrillic-koi8.

** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.

** New language environments `Polish', `Latin-8' and `Latin-9'.
Latin-8 and Latin-9 correspond respectively to the ISO character sets
8859-14 (Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign).
GNU Intlfonts doesn't support these yet but recent X releases have
8859-15.  See etc/INSTALL for information on obtaining extra fonts.
There are new Leim input methods for Latin-8 and Latin-9 prefix (only)
and Polish `slash'.

** New language environments `Dutch' and `Spanish'.
These new environments mainly select appropriate translations
of the tutorial.

** In Ethiopic language environment, special key bindings for
function keys are changed as follows.  This is to conform to "Emacs
Lisp Coding Convention".

    new  command                            old-binding
    ---  -------                            -----------
    f3   ethio-fidel-to-sera-buffer         f5
    S-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-region         f5
    C-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-mail-or-marker f5

    f4   ethio-sera-to-fidel-buffer         unchanged
    S-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-region         unchanged
    C-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-mail-or-marker unchanged

    S-f5 ethio-toggle-punctuation           f3
    S-f6 ethio-modify-vowel                 f6
    S-f7 ethio-replace-space                f7
    S-f8 ethio-input-special-character      f8
    S-f9 ethio-replace-space                unchanged
    C-f9 ethio-toggle-space                 f2

** There are new Leim input methods.
New input methods "turkish-postfix", "turkish-alt-postfix",
"greek-mizuochi", "TeX", and "greek-babel" are now part of the Leim

** The rule of input method "slovak" is slightly changed.  Now the
rules for translating "q" and "Q" to "`" (backquote) are deleted, thus
typing them inserts "q" and "Q" respectively.  Rules for translating
"=q", "+q", "=Q", and "+Q" to "`" are also deleted.  Now, to input
"`", you must type "=q".

** When your terminal can't display characters from some of the ISO
8859 character sets but can display Latin-1, you can display
more-or-less mnemonic sequences of ASCII/Latin-1 characters instead of
empty boxes (under a window system) or question marks (not under a
window system).  Customize the option `latin1-display' to turn this

** M-; now calls comment-dwim which tries to do something clever based
on the context.  M-x kill-comment is now an alias to comment-kill,
defined in newcomment.el.  You can choose different styles of region
commenting with the variable `comment-style'.

** New user options `display-time-mail-face' and
`display-time-use-mail-icon' control the appearance of mode-line mail
indicator used by the display-time package.  On a suitable display the
indicator can be an icon and is mouse-sensitive.

** On window-systems, additional space can be put between text lines
on the display using several methods

- By setting frame parameter `line-spacing' to PIXELS.  PIXELS must be
a positive integer, and specifies that PIXELS number of pixels should
be put below text lines on the affected frame or frames.

- By setting X resource `lineSpacing', class `LineSpacing'.  This is
equivalent to specifying the frame parameter.

- By specifying `--line-spacing=N' or `-lsp N' on the command line.

- By setting buffer-local variable `line-spacing'.  The meaning is
the same, but applies to the a particular buffer only.

** The new command `clone-indirect-buffer' can be used to create
an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current buffer.  The
command `clone-indirect-buffer-other-window', bound to C-x 4 c,
does the same but displays the indirect buffer in another window.

** New user options `backup-directory-alist' and
`make-backup-file-name-function' control the placement of backups,
typically in a single directory or in an invisible sub-directory.

** New commands iso-iso2sgml and iso-sgml2iso convert between Latin-1
characters and the corresponding SGML (HTML) entities.

** New X resources recognized

*** The X resource `synchronous', class `Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.


  emacs.synchronous: true

*** The X resource `visualClass, class `VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form `CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are


Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
`pseudocolor', `Pseudocolor' and `PseudoColor' all have the same

The program `xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
`visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default


  emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8

*** The X resource `privateColormap', class `PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are `true' or `on'.


  emacs.privateColormap: true

** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces `scroll-bar', `border', `cursor' and `mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters `scroll-bar-foreground' and
`scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
`scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter `border-color'
sets the background color of face `border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters `cursor-color' and face `cursor', and frame
parameter `mouse-color' and face `mouse'.

Changing frame parameter `font' sets font-related attributes of the
`default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
`foreground-color' or `background-color' sets the colors of the
`default' face and vice versa.

** New face `menu'.

The face `menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.

** New frame parameter `screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter `screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is `screenGamma', class

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

	emacs.pane.menubar.margin: 5

The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the
LessTif/Motif one.

*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, as in
LessTif and Motif.

** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
`x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi and Less).

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in `default-indicate-empty-lines'.

** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-up-aggressively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.

When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-down-aggressively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.

** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either
M-x clone-buffer, C-u m <entry> RET or C-u g <entry> RET.
M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and several other special

** The command `Info-search' now uses a search history.

** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing

** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

** The function `replace-rectangle' is an alias for `string-rectangle'.

** The new command M-x string-insert-rectangle is like `string-rectangle',
but inserts text instead of replacing it.

** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

** M-x query-replace recognizes a new command `e' (or `E') that lets
you edit the replacement string.

** The new command mail-abbrev-complete-alias, bound to `M-TAB'
(if you load the library `mailabbrev'), lets you complete mail aliases
in the text, analogous to lisp-complete-symbol.

** The variable `echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.

** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), `user-init-file' is set
to the source name (.emacs.el), if that exists, after loading it.

** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
the property `:help HELP' is now displayed under X, on MS-Windows, and
MS-DOS, either in the echo area or with tooltips.  Many standard menus
displayed by Emacs now have help strings.

** New user option `read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to
read mail from the menu etc.

** The environment variable `EMACSLOCKDIR' is no longer used on MS-Windows.
This environment variable was used when creating lock files.  Emacs on
MS-Windows does not use this variable anymore.  This change was made
before Emacs 21.1, but wasn't documented until now.

** Highlighting of mouse-sensitive regions is now supported in the
MS-DOS version of Emacs.

** The new command `msdos-set-mouse-buttons' forces the MS-DOS version
of Emacs to behave as if the mouse had a specified number of buttons.
This comes handy with mice that don't report their number of buttons
correctly.  One example is the wheeled mice, which report 3 buttons,
but clicks on the middle button are not passed to the MS-DOS version
of Emacs.

** Customize changes

*** Customize now supports comments about customized items.  Use the
`State' menu to add comments, or give a prefix argument to
M-x customize-set-variable or M-x customize-set-value.  Note that
customization comments will cause the customizations to fail in
earlier versions of Emacs.

*** The new option `custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the

*** If Emacs was invoked with the `-q' or `--no-init-file' options, it
does not allow you to save customizations in your `~/.emacs' init
file.  This is because saving customizations from such a session would
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wipe out all the other customizations you might have on your init
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** If Emacs was invoked with the `-q' or `--no-init-file' options, it
does not save disabled and enabled commands for future sessions, to
avoid overwriting existing customizations of this kind that are
already in your init file.

** New features in evaluation commands

*** The commands to evaluate Lisp expressions, such as C-M-x in Lisp
modes, C-j in Lisp Interaction mode, and M-:, now bind the variables
print-level, print-length, and debug-on-error based on the new
customizable variables eval-expression-print-level,
eval-expression-print-length, and eval-expression-debug-on-error.

The default values for the first two of these variables are 12 and 4
respectively, which means that `eval-expression' now prints at most
the first 12 members of a list and at most 4 nesting levels deep (if
the list is longer or deeper than that, an ellipsis `...'  is

<RET> or <mouse-2> on the printed text toggles between an abbreviated
printed representation and an unabbreviated one.

The default value of eval-expression-debug-on-error is t, so any error
during evaluation produces a backtrace.

*** The function `eval-defun' (C-M-x) now loads Edebug and instruments
code when called with a prefix argument.

** CC mode changes.

Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback.  Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this

*** The hardcoded switch to "java" style in Java mode is gone.
CC Mode used to automatically set the style to "java" when Java mode
is entered.  This has now been removed since it caused too much

However, to keep backward compatibility to a certain extent, the
default value for c-default-style now specifies the "java" style for
java-mode, but "gnu" for all other modes (as before).  So you won't
notice the change if you haven't touched that variable.

*** New cleanups, space-before-funcall and compact-empty-funcall.
Two new cleanups have been added to c-cleanup-list:

space-before-funcall causes a space to be inserted before the opening
parenthesis of a function call, which gives the style "foo (bar)".

compact-empty-funcall causes any space before a function call opening
parenthesis to be removed if there are no arguments to the function.
It's typically useful together with space-before-funcall to get the
style "foo (bar)" and "foo()".

*** Some keywords now automatically trigger reindentation.
Keywords like "else", "while", "catch" and "finally" have been made
"electric" to make them reindent automatically when they continue an
earlier statement.  An example:

for (i = 0; i < 17; i++)
  if (a[i])
    res += a[i]->offset;

Here, the "else" should be indented like the preceding "if", since it
continues that statement. CC Mode will automatically reindent it after
the "else" has been typed in full, since it's not until then it's
possible to decide whether it's a new statement or a continuation of
the preceding "if".

CC Mode uses Abbrev mode to achieve this, which is therefore turned on
by default.

*** M-a and M-e now moves by sentence in multiline strings.
Previously these two keys only moved by sentence in comments, which
meant that sentence movement didn't work in strings containing
documentation or other natural language text.

The reason it's only activated in multiline strings (i.e. strings that
contain a newline, even when escaped by a '\') is to avoid stopping in
the short strings that often reside inside statements.  Multiline
strings almost always contain text in a natural language, as opposed
to other strings that typically contain format specifications,
commands, etc.  Also, it's not that bothersome that M-a and M-e misses
sentences in single line strings, since they're short anyway.

*** Support for autodoc comments in Pike mode.
Autodoc comments for Pike are used to extract documentation from the
source, like Javadoc in Java.  Pike mode now recognize this markup in
comment prefixes and paragraph starts.

*** The comment prefix regexps on c-comment-prefix may be mode specific.
When c-comment-prefix is an association list, it specifies the comment
line prefix on a per-mode basis, like c-default-style does.  This
change came about to support the special autodoc comment prefix in
Pike mode only.

*** Better handling of syntactic errors.
The recovery after unbalanced parens earlier in the buffer has been
improved; CC Mode now reports them by dinging and giving a message
stating the offending line, but still recovers and indent the
following lines in a sane way (most of the time).  An "else" with no
matching "if" is handled similarly.  If an error is discovered while
indenting a region, the whole region is still indented and the error
is reported afterwards.

*** Lineup functions may now return absolute columns.
A lineup function can give an absolute column to indent the line to by
returning a vector with the desired column as the first element.

*** More robust and warning-free byte compilation.
Although this is strictly not a user visible change (well, depending
on the view of a user), it's still worth mentioning that CC Mode now
can be compiled in the standard ways without causing trouble.  Some
code have also been moved between the subpackages to enhance the
modularity somewhat.  Thanks to Martin Buchholz for doing the

*** c-style-variables-are-local-p now defaults to t.
This is an incompatible change that has been made to make the behavior
of the style system wrt global variable settings less confusing for
non-advanced users.  If you know what this variable does you might
want to set it to nil in your .emacs, otherwise you probably don't
have to bother.

Defaulting c-style-variables-are-local-p to t avoids the confusing
situation that occurs when a user sets some style variables globally
and edits both a Java and a non-Java file in the same Emacs session.
If the style variables aren't buffer local in this case, loading of
the second file will cause the default style (either "gnu" or "java"
by default) to override the global settings made by the user.

*** New initialization procedure for the style system.
When the initial style for a buffer is determined by CC Mode (from the
variable c-default-style), the global values of style variables now
take precedence over the values specified by the chosen style.  This
is different than the old behavior: previously, the style-specific
settings would override the global settings.  This change makes it
possible to do simple configuration in the intuitive way with
Customize or with setq lines in one's .emacs file.

By default, the global value of every style variable is the new
special symbol set-from-style, which causes the value to be taken from
the style system.  This means that in effect, only an explicit setting
of a style variable will cause the "overriding" behavior described

Also note that global settings override style-specific settings *only*
when the initial style of a buffer is chosen by a CC Mode major mode
function.  When a style is chosen in other ways --- for example, by a
call like (c-set-style "gnu") in a hook, or via M-x c-set-style ---
then the style-specific values take precedence over any global style
values.  In Lisp terms, global values override style-specific values
only when the new second argument to c-set-style is non-nil; see the
function documentation for more info.

The purpose of these changes is to make it easier for users,
especially novice users, to do simple customizations with Customize or
with setq in their .emacs files.  On the other hand, the new system is
intended to be compatible with advanced users' customizations as well,
such as those that choose styles in hooks or whatnot.  This new system
is believed to be almost entirely compatible with current
configurations, in spite of the changed precedence between style and
global variable settings when a buffer's default style is set.

(Thanks to Eric Eide for clarifying this explanation a bit.)

**** c-offsets-alist is now a customizable variable.
This became possible as a result of the new initialization behavior.

This variable is treated slightly differently from the other style
variables; instead of using the symbol set-from-style, it will be
completed with the syntactic symbols it doesn't already contain when
the style is first initialized.  This means it now defaults to the
empty list to make all syntactic elements get their values from the
style system.

**** Compatibility variable to restore the old behavior.
In case your configuration doesn't work with this change, you can set
c-old-style-variable-behavior to non-nil to get the old behavior back
as far as possible.

*** Improvements to line breaking and text filling.
CC Mode now handles this more intelligently and seamlessly wrt the
surrounding code, especially inside comments.  For details see the new
chapter about this in the manual.

**** New variable to recognize comment line prefix decorations.
The variable c-comment-prefix-regexp has been added to properly
recognize the line prefix in both block and line comments.  It's
primarily used to initialize the various paragraph recognition and
adaptive filling variables that the text handling functions uses.

**** New variable c-block-comment-prefix.
This is a generalization of the now obsolete variable
c-comment-continuation-stars to handle arbitrary strings.

**** CC Mode now uses adaptive fill mode.
This to make it adapt better to the paragraph style inside comments.

It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages inside CC
Mode, notably Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt mode (
A new convenience function c-setup-filladapt sets up Filladapt for use
inside CC Mode.

Note though that the 2.12 version of Filladapt lacks a feature that
causes it to work suboptimally when c-comment-prefix-regexp can match
the empty string (which it commonly does).  A patch for that is
available from the CC Mode web site (

**** The variables `c-hanging-comment-starter-p' and
`c-hanging-comment-ender-p', which controlled how comment starters and
enders were filled, are not used anymore.  The new version of the
function `c-fill-paragraph' keeps the comment starters and enders as
they were before the filling.

**** It's now possible to selectively turn off auto filling.
The variable c-ignore-auto-fill is used to ignore auto fill mode in
specific contexts, e.g. in preprocessor directives and in string

**** New context sensitive line break function c-context-line-break.
It works like newline-and-indent in normal code, and adapts the line
prefix according to the comment style when used inside comments.  If
you're normally using newline-and-indent, you might want to switch to
this function.

*** Fixes to IDL mode.
It now does a better job in recognizing only the constructs relevant
to IDL.  E.g. it no longer matches "class" as the beginning of a
struct block, but it does match the CORBA 2.3 "valuetype" keyword.
Thanks to Eric Eide.

*** Improvements to the Whitesmith style.
It now keeps the style consistently on all levels and both when
opening braces hangs and when they don't.

**** New lineup function c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block.

*** New lineup functions c-lineup-template-args and c-indent-multi-line-block.
See their docstrings for details.  c-lineup-template-args does a
better job of tracking the brackets used as parens in C++ templates,
and is used by default to line up continued template arguments.

*** c-lineup-comment now preserves alignment with a comment on the
previous line.  It used to instead preserve comments that started in
the column specified by comment-column.

*** c-lineup-C-comments handles "free form" text comments.
In comments with a long delimiter line at the start, the indentation
is kept unchanged for lines that start with an empty comment line
prefix.  This is intended for the type of large block comments that
contain documentation with its own formatting.  In these you normally
don't want CC Mode to change the indentation.

*** The `c' syntactic symbol is now relative to the comment start
instead of the previous line, to make integers usable as lineup

*** All lineup functions have gotten docstrings.

*** More preprocessor directive movement functions.
c-down-conditional does the reverse of c-up-conditional.
c-up-conditional-with-else and c-down-conditional-with-else are
variants of these that also stops at "#else" lines (suggested by Don

*** Minor improvements to many movement functions in tricky situations.

** Dired changes

*** New variable `dired-recursive-deletes' determines if the delete
command will delete non-empty directories recursively.  The default
is, delete only empty directories.

*** New variable `dired-recursive-copies' determines if the copy
command will copy directories recursively.  The default is, do not
copy directories recursively.

*** In command `dired-do-shell-command' (usually bound to `!') a `?'
in the shell command has a special meaning similar to `*', but with
the difference that the command will be run on each file individually.

*** The new command `dired-find-alternate-file' (usually bound to `a')
replaces the Dired buffer with the buffer for an alternate file or

*** The new command `dired-show-file-type' (usually bound to `y') shows
a message in the echo area describing what type of file the point is on.
This command invokes the external program `file' do its work, and so
will only work on systems with that program, and will be only as
accurate or inaccurate as it is.

*** Dired now properly handles undo changes of adding/removing `-R'
from ls switches.

*** Dired commands that prompt for a destination file now allow the use
of the `M-n' command in the minibuffer to insert the source filename,
which the user can then edit.  This only works if there is a single
source file, not when operating on multiple marked files.

** Gnus changes.

The Gnus NEWS entries are short, but they reflect sweeping changes in
four areas: Article display treatment, MIME treatment,
internationalization and mail-fetching.

*** The mail-fetching functions have changed.  See the manual for the
many details.  In particular, all procmail fetching variables are gone.

If you used procmail like in

(setq nnmail-use-procmail t)
(setq nnmail-spool-file 'procmail)
(setq nnmail-procmail-directory "~/mail/incoming/")
(setq nnmail-procmail-suffix "\\.in")

this now has changed to

(setq mail-sources
      '((directory :path "~/mail/incoming/"
		   :suffix ".in")))

More information is available in the info doc at Select Methods ->
Getting Mail -> Mail Sources

*** Gnus is now a MIME-capable reader.  This affects many parts of
Gnus, and adds a slew of new commands.  See the manual for details.
Separate MIME packages like RMIME, mime-compose etc., will probably no
longer work; remove them and use the native facilities.

The FLIM/SEMI package still works with Emacs 21, but if you want to
use the native facilities, you must remove any mailcap.el[c] that was
installed by FLIM/SEMI version 1.13 or earlier.

*** Gnus has also been multilingualized.  This also affects too many
parts of Gnus to summarize here, and adds many new variables.  There
are built-in facilities equivalent to those of gnus-mule.el, which is
now just a compatibility layer.

*** gnus-mule.el is now just a compatibility layer over the built-in
Gnus facilities.

*** gnus-auto-select-first can now be a function to be
called to position point.

*** The user can now decide which extra headers should be included in
summary buffers and NOV files.

*** `gnus-article-display-hook' has been removed.  Instead, a number
of variables starting with `gnus-treat-' have been added.

*** The Gnus posting styles have been redone again and now work in a
subtly different manner.

*** New web-based backends have been added: nnslashdot, nnwarchive
and nnultimate.  nnweb has been revamped, again, to keep up with
ever-changing layouts.

*** Gnus can now read IMAP mail via nnimap.

*** There is image support of various kinds and some sound support.

** Changes in Texinfo mode.

*** A couple of new key bindings have been added for inserting Texinfo

  Key binding	Macro
  C-c C-c C-s	@strong
  C-c C-c C-e	@emph
  C-c C-c u	@uref
  C-c C-c q     @quotation
  C-c C-c m	@email
  C-c C-o       @<block> ... @end <block>
  M-RET         @item

*** The " key now inserts either " or `` or '' depending on context.

** Changes in Outline mode.

There is now support for Imenu to index headings.  A new command
`outline-headers-as-kill' copies the visible headings in the region to
the kill ring, e.g. to produce a table of contents.

** Changes to Emacs Server

*** The new option `server-kill-new-buffers' specifies what to do
with buffers when done with them.  If non-nil, the default, buffers
are killed, unless they were already present before visiting them with
Emacs Server.  If nil, `server-temp-file-regexp' specifies which
buffers to kill, as before.

Please note that only buffers are killed that still have a client,
i.e. buffers visited with `emacsclient --no-wait' are never killed in
this way.

** Both emacsclient and Emacs itself now accept command line options
of the form +LINE:COLUMN in addition to +LINE.

** Changes to Show Paren mode.

*** Overlays used by Show Paren mode now use a priority property.
The new user option show-paren-priority specifies the priority to
use.  Default is 1000.

** New command M-x check-parens can be used to find unbalanced paren
groups and strings in buffers in Lisp mode (or other modes).

** Changes to hideshow.el

*** Generalized block selection and traversal

A block is now recognized by its start and end regexps (both strings),
and an integer specifying which sub-expression in the start regexp
serves as the place where a `forward-sexp'-like function can operate.
See the documentation of variable `hs-special-modes-alist'.

*** During incremental search, if Hideshow minor mode is active,
hidden blocks are temporarily shown.  The variable `hs-headline' can
be used in the mode line format to show the line at the beginning of
the open block.

*** User option `hs-hide-all-non-comment-function' specifies a
function to be called at each top-level block beginning, instead of
the normal block-hiding function.

*** The command `hs-show-region' has been removed.

*** The key bindings have changed to fit the Emacs conventions,
roughly imitating those of Outline minor mode.  Notably, the prefix
for all bindings is now `C-c @'.  For details, see the documentation
for `hs-minor-mode'.

*** The variable `hs-show-hidden-short-form' has been removed, and
hideshow.el now always behaves as if this variable were set to t.

** Changes to Change Log mode and Add-Log functions

*** If you invoke `add-change-log-entry' from a backup file, it makes
an entry appropriate for the file's parent.  This is useful for making
log entries by comparing a version with deleted functions.

**** New command M-x change-log-merge merges another log into the
current buffer.

*** New command M-x change-log-redate fixes any old-style date entries
in a log file.

*** Change Log mode now adds a file's version number to change log
entries if user-option `change-log-version-info-enabled' is non-nil.
Unless the file is under version control the search for a file's
version number is performed based on regular expressions from
`change-log-version-number-regexp-list' which can be customized.
Version numbers are only found in the first 10 percent of a file.

*** Change Log mode now defines its own faces for font-lock highlighting.

** Changes to cmuscheme

*** The user-option `scheme-program-name' has been renamed
`cmuscheme-program-name' due to conflicts with xscheme.el.

** Changes in Font Lock

*** The new function `font-lock-remove-keywords' can be used to remove
font-lock keywords from the current buffer or from a specific major mode.

*** Multi-line patterns are now supported.  Modes using this, should
set font-lock-multiline to t in their font-lock-defaults.

*** `font-lock-syntactic-face-function' allows major-modes to choose
the face used for each string/comment.

*** A new standard face `font-lock-doc-face'.
Meant for Lisp docstrings, Javadoc comments and other "documentation in code".

** Changes to Shell mode

*** The `shell' command now accepts an optional argument to specify the buffer
to use, which defaults to "*shell*".  When used interactively, a
non-default buffer may be specified by giving the `shell' command a
prefix argument (causing it to prompt for the buffer name).

** Comint (subshell) changes

These changes generally affect all modes derived from comint mode, which
include shell-mode, gdb-mode, scheme-interaction-mode, etc.

*** Comint now by default interprets some carriage-control characters.
Comint now removes CRs from CR LF sequences, and treats single CRs and
BSs in the output in a way similar to a terminal (by deleting to the
beginning of the line, or deleting the previous character,
respectively).  This is achieved by adding `comint-carriage-motion' to
the `comint-output-filter-functions' hook by default.

*** By default, comint no longer uses the variable `comint-prompt-regexp'
to distinguish prompts from user-input.  Instead, it notices which
parts of the text were output by the process, and which entered by the
user, and attaches `field' properties to allow emacs commands to use
this information.  Common movement commands, notably beginning-of-line,
respect field boundaries in a fairly natural manner.  To disable this
feature, and use the old behavior, customize the user option

*** Comint now includes new features to send commands to running processes
and redirect the output to a designated buffer or buffers.

*** The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command reads a command and
buffer name from the mini-buffer.  The command is sent to the current
buffer's process, and its output is inserted into the specified buffer.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command-to-process acts like
M-x comint-redirect-send-command but additionally reads the name of
the buffer whose process should be used from the mini-buffer.

*** Packages based on comint now highlight user input and program prompts,
and support choosing previous input with mouse-2.  To control these features,
see the user-options `comint-highlight-input' and `comint-highlight-prompt'.

*** The new command `comint-write-output' (usually bound to `C-c C-s')
saves the output from the most recent command to a file.  With a prefix
argument, it appends to the file.

*** The command `comint-kill-output' has been renamed `comint-delete-output'
(usually bound to `C-c C-o'); the old name is aliased to it for

*** The new function `comint-add-to-input-history' adds commands to the input
ring (history).

*** The new variable `comint-input-history-ignore' is a regexp for
identifying history lines that should be ignored, like tcsh time-stamp
strings, starting with a `#'.  The default value of this variable is "^#".

** Changes to Rmail mode

*** The new user-option rmail-user-mail-address-regexp can be
set to fine tune the identification of the correspondent when
receiving new mail.  If it matches the address of the sender, the
recipient is taken as correspondent of a mail.  If nil, the default,
`user-login-name' and `user-mail-address' are used to exclude yourself
as correspondent.

Usually you don't have to set this variable, except if you collect
mails sent by you under different user names.  Then it should be a
regexp matching your mail addresses.

*** The new user-option rmail-confirm-expunge controls whether and how
to ask for confirmation before expunging deleted messages from an
Rmail file.  You can choose between no confirmation, confirmation
with y-or-n-p, or confirmation with yes-or-no-p.  Default is to ask
for confirmation with yes-or-no-p.

*** RET is now bound in the Rmail summary to rmail-summary-goto-msg,
like `j'.

*** There is a new user option `rmail-digest-end-regexps' that
specifies the regular expressions to detect the line that ends a
digest message.

*** The new user option `rmail-automatic-folder-directives' specifies
in which folder to put messages automatically.

*** The new function `rmail-redecode-body' allows to fix a message
with non-ASCII characters if Emacs happens to decode it incorrectly
due to missing or malformed "charset=" header.

** The new user-option `mail-envelope-from' can be used to specify
an envelope-from address different from user-mail-address.

** The variable mail-specify-envelope-from controls whether to
use the -f option when sending mail.

** The Rmail command `o' (`rmail-output-to-rmail-file') now writes the
current message in the internal `emacs-mule' encoding, rather than in
the encoding taken from the variable `buffer-file-coding-system'.
This allows to save messages whose characters cannot be safely encoded
by the buffer's coding system, and makes sure the message will be
displayed correctly when you later visit the target Rmail file.

If you want your Rmail files be encoded in a specific coding system
other than `emacs-mule', you can customize the variable
`rmail-file-coding-system' to set its value to that coding system.

** Changes to TeX mode

*** The default mode has been changed from `plain-tex-mode' to

*** latex-mode now has a simple indentation algorithm.

*** M-f and M-p jump around \begin...\end pairs.

*** Added support for outline-minor-mode.

** Changes to RefTeX mode

*** RefTeX has new support for index generation.  Index entries can be
    created with `C-c <', with completion available on index keys.
    Pressing `C-c /' indexes the word at the cursor with a default
    macro.  `C-c >' compiles all index entries into an alphabetically
    sorted *Index* buffer which looks like the final index.  Entries
    can be edited from that buffer.

*** Label and citation key selection now allow to select several
    items and reference them together (use `m' to mark items, `a' or
    `A' to use all marked entries).

*** reftex.el has been split into a number of smaller files to reduce
    memory use when only a part of RefTeX is being used.

*** a new command `reftex-view-crossref-from-bibtex' (bound to `C-c &'
    in BibTeX-mode) can be called in a BibTeX database buffer in order
    to show locations in LaTeX documents where a particular entry has
    been cited.

** Emacs Lisp mode now allows multiple levels of outline headings.
The level of a heading is determined from the number of leading
semicolons in a heading line.  Toplevel forms starting with a `('
in column 1 are always made leaves.

** The M-x time-stamp command (most commonly used on write-file-hooks)
has the following new features:

*** The patterns for finding the time stamp and for updating a pattern
may match text spanning multiple lines.  For example, some people like
to have the filename and date on separate lines.  The new variable
time-stamp-inserts-lines controls the matching for multi-line patterns.

*** More than one time stamp can be updated in the same file.  This
feature is useful if you need separate time stamps in a program source
file to both include in formatted documentation and insert in the
compiled binary.  The same time-stamp will be written at each matching
pattern.  The variable time-stamp-count enables this new feature; it
defaults to 1.

** Partial Completion mode now completes environment variables in
file names.

** Ispell changes

*** The command `ispell' now spell-checks a region if
transient-mark-mode is on, and the mark is active.  Otherwise it
spell-checks the current buffer.

*** Support for synchronous subprocesses - DOS/Windoze - has been

*** An "alignment error" bug was fixed when a manual spelling
correction is made and re-checked.

*** Italian, Portuguese, and Slovak dictionary definitions have been added.

*** Region skipping performance has been vastly improved in some

*** Spell checking HTML buffers has been improved and isn't so strict
on syntax errors.

*** The buffer-local words are now always placed on a new line at the
end of the buffer.

*** Spell checking now works in the MS-DOS version of Emacs.

*** The variable `ispell-format-word' has been renamed to
`ispell-format-word-function'.  The old name is still available as

** Makefile mode changes

*** The mode now uses the abbrev table `makefile-mode-abbrev-table'.

*** Conditionals and include statements are now highlighted when
Fontlock mode is active.

** Isearch changes

*** Isearch now puts a call to `isearch-resume' in the command history,
so that searches can be resumed.

*** In Isearch mode, C-M-s and C-M-r are now bound like C-s and C-r,
respectively, i.e. you can repeat a regexp isearch with the same keys
that started the search.

*** In Isearch mode, mouse-2 in the echo area now yanks the current
selection into the search string rather than giving an error.

*** There is a new lazy highlighting feature in incremental search.

Lazy highlighting is switched on/off by customizing variable
`isearch-lazy-highlight'.  When active, all matches for the current
search string are highlighted.  The current match is highlighted as
before using face `isearch' or `region'.  All other matches are
highlighted using face `isearch-lazy-highlight-face' which defaults to

The extra highlighting makes it easier to anticipate where the cursor
will end up each time you press C-s or C-r to repeat a pending search.
Highlighting of these additional matches happens in a deferred fashion
using "idle timers," so the cycles needed do not rob isearch of its
usual snappy response.

If `isearch-lazy-highlight-cleanup' is set to t, highlights for
matches are automatically cleared when you end the search.  If it is
set to nil, you can remove the highlights manually with `M-x

** VC Changes

VC has been overhauled internally.  It is now modular, making it
easier to plug-in arbitrary version control backends.  (See Lisp
Changes for details on the new structure.)  As a result, the mechanism
to enable and disable support for particular version systems has
changed: everything is now controlled by the new variable
`vc-handled-backends'.  Its value is a list of symbols that identify
version systems; the default is '(RCS CVS SCCS).  When finding a file,
each of the backends in that list is tried in order to see whether the
file is registered in that backend.

When registering a new file, VC first tries each of the listed
backends to see if any of them considers itself "responsible" for the
directory of the file (e.g. because a corresponding subdirectory for
master files exists).  If none of the backends is responsible, then
the first backend in the list that could register the file is chosen.
As a consequence, the variable `vc-default-back-end' is now obsolete.

The old variable `vc-master-templates' is also obsolete, although VC
still supports it for backward compatibility.  To define templates for
RCS or SCCS, you should rather use the new variables
vc-{rcs,sccs}-master-templates.  (There is no such feature under CVS
where it doesn't make sense.)

The variables `vc-ignore-vc-files' and `vc-handle-cvs' are also
obsolete now, you must set `vc-handled-backends' to nil or exclude
`CVS' from the list, respectively, to achieve their effect now.

*** General Changes

The variable `vc-checkout-carefully' is obsolete: the corresponding
checks are always done now.

VC Dired buffers are now kept up-to-date during all version control

`vc-diff' output is now displayed in `diff-mode'.
`vc-print-log' uses `log-view-mode'.
`vc-log-mode' (used for *VC-Log*) has been replaced by `log-edit-mode'.

The command C-x v m (vc-merge) now accepts an empty argument as the
first revision number.  This means that any recent changes on the
current branch should be picked up from the repository and merged into
the working file (``merge news'').

The commands C-x v s (vc-create-snapshot) and C-x v r
(vc-retrieve-snapshot) now ask for a directory name from which to work

*** Multiple Backends

VC now lets you register files in more than one backend.  This is
useful, for example, if you are working with a slow remote CVS
repository.  You can then use RCS for local editing, and occasionally
commit your changes back to CVS, or pick up changes from CVS into your
local RCS archives.

To make this work, the ``more local'' backend (RCS in our example)
should come first in `vc-handled-backends', and the ``more remote''
backend (CVS) should come later.  (The default value of
`vc-handled-backends' already has it that way.)

You can then commit changes to another backend (say, RCS), by typing
C-u C-x v v RCS RET (i.e. vc-next-action now accepts a backend name as
a revision number).  VC registers the file in the more local backend
if that hasn't already happened, and commits to a branch based on the
current revision number from the more remote backend.

If a file is registered in multiple backends, you can switch to
another one using C-x v b (vc-switch-backend).  This does not change
any files, it only changes VC's perspective on the file.  Use this to
pick up changes from CVS while working under RCS locally.

After you are done with your local RCS editing, you can commit your
changes back to CVS using C-u C-x v v CVS RET.  In this case, the
local RCS archive is removed after the commit, and the log entry
buffer is initialized to contain the entire RCS change log of the file.

*** Changes for CVS

There is a new user option, `vc-cvs-stay-local'.  If it is `t' (the
default), then VC avoids network queries for files registered in
remote repositories.  The state of such files is then only determined
by heuristics and past information.  `vc-cvs-stay-local' can also be a
regexp to match against repository hostnames; only files from hosts
that match it are treated locally.  If the variable is nil, then VC
queries the repository just as often as it does for local files.

If `vc-cvs-stay-local' is on, then VC also makes local backups of
repository versions.  This means that ordinary diffs (C-x v =) and
revert operations (C-x v u) can be done completely locally, without
any repository interactions at all.  The name of a local version
backup of FILE is FILE.~REV.~, where REV is the repository version
number.  This format is similar to that used by C-x v ~
(vc-version-other-window), except for the trailing dot.  As a matter
of fact, the two features can each use the files created by the other,
the only difference being that files with a trailing `.' are deleted
automatically after commit.  (This feature doesn't work on MS-DOS,
since DOS disallows more than a single dot in the trunk of a file

If `vc-cvs-stay-local' is on, and there have been changes in the
repository, VC notifies you about it when you actually try to commit.
If you want to check for updates from the repository without trying to
commit, you can either use C-x v m RET to perform an update on the
current file, or you can use C-x v r RET to get an update for an
entire directory tree.

The new user option `vc-cvs-use-edit' indicates whether VC should call
"cvs edit" to make files writeable; it defaults to `t'.  (This option
is only meaningful if the CVSREAD variable is set, or if files are
"watched" by other developers.)

The commands C-x v s (vc-create-snapshot) and C-x v r
(vc-retrieve-snapshot) are now also implemented for CVS.  If you give
an empty snapshot name to the latter, that performs a `cvs update',
starting at the given directory.

*** Lisp Changes in VC

VC has been restructured internally to make it modular.  You can now
add support for arbitrary version control backends by writing a
library that provides a certain set of backend-specific functions, and
then telling VC to use that library.  For example, to add support for
a version system named SYS, you write a library named vc-sys.el, which
provides a number of functions vc-sys-... (see commentary at the top
of vc.el for a detailed list of them).  To make VC use that library,
you need to put it somewhere into Emacs' load path and add the symbol
`SYS' to the list `vc-handled-backends'.

** The customizable EDT emulation package now supports the EDT
SUBS command and EDT scroll margins.  It also works with more
terminal/keyboard configurations and it now works under XEmacs.
See etc/edt-user.doc for more information.

** New modes and packages

*** The new global minor mode `minibuffer-electric-default-mode'
automatically hides the `(default ...)' part of minibuffer prompts when
the default is not applicable.

*** Artist is an Emacs lisp package that allows you to draw lines,
rectangles and ellipses by using your mouse and/or keyboard.  The
shapes are made up with the ascii characters |, -, / and \.

Features are:

- Intersecting: When a `|' intersects with a `-', a `+' is
  drawn, like this:   |         \ /
                    --+--        X
                      |         / \

- Rubber-banding: When drawing lines you can interactively see the
  result while holding the mouse button down and moving the mouse.  If
  your machine is not fast enough (a 386 is a bit too slow, but a
  pentium is well enough), you can turn this feature off.  You will
  then see 1's and 2's which mark the 1st and 2nd endpoint of the line
  you are drawing.

- Arrows: After having drawn a (straight) line or a (straight)
  poly-line, you can set arrows on the line-ends by typing < or >.

- Flood-filling: You can fill any area with a certain character by

- Cut copy and paste: You can cut, copy and paste rectangular
  regions.  Artist also interfaces with the rect package (this can be
  turned off if it causes you any trouble) so anything you cut in
  artist can be yanked with C-x r y and vice versa.

- Drawing with keys: Everything you can do with the mouse, you can
  also do without the mouse.

- Aspect-ratio: You can set the variable artist-aspect-ratio to
  reflect the height-width ratio for the font you are using. Squares
  and circles are then drawn square/round.  Note, that once your
  ascii-file is shown with font with a different height-width ratio,
  the squares won't be square and the circles won't be round.

- Drawing operations: The following drawing operations are implemented:

    lines		straight-lines
    rectangles		squares
    poly-lines		straight poly-lines
    ellipses		circles
    text (see-thru)	text (overwrite)
    spray-can		setting size for spraying
    vaporize line	vaporize lines
    erase characters	erase rectangles

  Straight lines are lines that go horizontally, vertically or
  diagonally.  Plain lines go in any direction.  The operations in
  the right column are accessed by holding down the shift key while

  It is possible to vaporize (erase) entire lines and connected lines
  (rectangles for example) as long as the lines being vaporized are
  straight and connected at their endpoints.  Vaporizing is inspired
  by the drawrect package by Jari Aalto <>.

- Picture mode compatibility: Artist is picture mode compatible (this
  can be turned off).

*** The new package Eshell is an operating system command shell
implemented entirely in Emacs Lisp.  Use `M-x eshell' to invoke it.
It functions similarly to bash and zsh, and allows running of Lisp
functions and external commands using the same syntax.  It supports
history lists, aliases, extended globbing, smart scrolling, etc.  It
will work on any platform Emacs has been ported to.  And since most of
the basic commands -- ls, rm, mv, cp, ln, du, cat, etc. -- have been
rewritten in Lisp, it offers an operating-system independent shell,
all within the scope of your Emacs process.

*** The new package timeclock.el is a mode is for keeping track of time
intervals.  You can use it for whatever purpose you like, but the
typical scenario is to keep track of how much time you spend working
on certain projects.

*** The new package hi-lock.el provides commands to highlight matches
of interactively entered regexps.  For example,

  M-x highlight-regexp RET clearly RET RET

will highlight all occurrences of `clearly' using a yellow background
face.  New occurrences of `clearly' will be highlighted as they are
typed.  `M-x unhighlight-regexp RET' will remove the highlighting.
Any existing face can be used for highlighting and a set of
appropriate faces is provided.  The regexps can be written into the
current buffer in a form that will be recognized the next time the
corresponding file is read.  There are commands to highlight matches
to phrases and to highlight entire lines containing a match.

*** The new package zone.el plays games with Emacs' display when
Emacs is idle.

*** The new package tildify.el allows to add hard spaces or other text
fragments in accordance with the current major mode.

*** The new package xml.el provides a simple but generic XML
parser. It doesn't parse the DTDs however.

*** The comment operations are now provided by the newcomment.el
package which allows different styles of comment-region and should
be more robust while offering the same functionality.
`comment-region' now doesn't always comment a-line-at-a-time, but only
comments the region, breaking the line at point if necessary.

*** The Ebrowse package implements a C++ class browser and tags
facilities tailored for use with C++.  It is documented in a
separate Texinfo file.

*** The PCL-CVS package available by either running M-x cvs-examine or
by visiting a CVS administrative directory (with a prefix argument)
provides an alternative interface to VC-dired for CVS.  It comes with
`log-view-mode' to view RCS and SCCS logs and `log-edit-mode' used to
enter check-in log messages.

*** The new package called `woman' allows to browse Unix man pages
without invoking external programs.

The command `M-x woman' formats manual pages entirely in Emacs Lisp
and then displays them, like `M-x manual-entry' does.  Unlike
`manual-entry', `woman' does not invoke any external programs, so it
is useful on systems such as MS-DOS/MS-Windows where the `man' and
Groff or `troff' commands are not readily available.

The command `M-x woman-find-file' asks for the file name of a man
page, then formats and displays it like `M-x woman' does.

*** The new command M-x re-builder offers a convenient interface for
authoring regular expressions with immediate visual feedback.

The buffer from which the command was called becomes the target for
the regexp editor popping up in a separate window.  Matching text in
the target buffer is immediately color marked during the editing.
Each sub-expression of the regexp will show up in a different face so
even complex regexps can be edited and verified on target data in a
single step.

On displays not supporting faces the matches instead blink like
matching parens to make them stand out.  On such a setup you will
probably also want to use the sub-expression mode when the regexp
contains such to get feedback about their respective limits.

*** glasses-mode is a minor mode that makes
unreadableIdentifiersLikeThis readable.  It works as glasses, without
actually modifying content of a buffer.

*** The package ebnf2ps translates an EBNF to a syntactic chart in

Currently accepts ad-hoc EBNF, ISO EBNF and Bison/Yacc.

The ad-hoc default EBNF syntax has the following elements:

    ;		comment (until end of line)
    A		non-terminal
    "C"		terminal
    ?C?		special
    $A		default non-terminal
    $"C"	default terminal
    $?C?	default special
    A = B.	production (A is the header and B the body)
    C D		sequence (C occurs before D)
    C | D	alternative (C or D occurs)
    A - B	exception (A excluding B, B without any non-terminal)
    n * A	repetition (A repeats n (integer) times)
    (C)		group (expression C is grouped together)
    [C]		optional (C may or not occurs)
    C+		one or more occurrences of C
    {C}+	one or more occurrences of C
    {C}*	zero or more occurrences of C
    {C}		zero or more occurrences of C
    C / D	equivalent to: C {D C}*
    {C || D}+	equivalent to: C {D C}*
    {C || D}*	equivalent to: [C {D C}*]
    {C || D}	equivalent to: [C {D C}*]

Please, see ebnf2ps documentation for EBNF syntax and how to use it.

*** The package align.el will align columns within a region, using M-x
align.  Its mode-specific rules, based on regular expressions,
determine where the columns should be split.  In C and C++, for
example, it will align variable names in declaration lists, or the
equal signs of assignments.

*** `paragraph-indent-minor-mode' is a new minor mode supporting
paragraphs in the same style as `paragraph-indent-text-mode'.

*** bs.el is a new package for buffer selection similar to
list-buffers or electric-buffer-list.  Use M-x bs-show to display a
buffer menu with this package.  See the Custom group `bs'.

*** find-lisp.el is a package emulating the Unix find command in Lisp.

*** calculator.el is a small calculator package that is intended to
replace desktop calculators such as xcalc and calc.exe.  Actually, it
is not too small - it has more features than most desktop calculators,
and can be customized easily to get many more functions.  It should
not be confused with "calc" which is a much bigger mathematical tool
which answers different needs.

*** The minor modes cwarn-mode and global-cwarn-mode highlights
suspicious C and C++ constructions.  Currently, assignments inside
expressions, semicolon following `if', `for' and `while' (except, of
course, after a `do .. while' statement), and C++ functions with
reference parameters are recognized.  The modes require font-lock mode
to be enabled.

*** smerge-mode.el provides `smerge-mode', a simple minor-mode for files
containing diff3-style conflict markers, such as generated by RCS.

*** 5x5.el is a simple puzzle game.

*** hl-line.el provides `hl-line-mode', a minor mode to highlight the
current line in the current buffer.  It also provides
`global-hl-line-mode' to provide the same behavior in all buffers.

*** ansi-color.el translates ANSI terminal escapes into text-properties.

Please note: if `ansi-color-for-comint-mode' and
`global-font-lock-mode' are non-nil, loading ansi-color.el will
disable font-lock and add `ansi-color-apply' to
`comint-preoutput-filter-functions' for all shell-mode buffers.  This
displays the output of "ls --color=yes" using the correct foreground
and background colors.

*** delphi.el provides a major mode for editing the Delphi (Object
Pascal) language.

*** quickurl.el provides a simple method of inserting a URL based on
the text at point.

*** sql.el provides an interface to SQL data bases.

*** fortune.el uses the fortune program to create mail/news signatures.

*** whitespace.el is a package for warning about and cleaning bogus
whitespace in a file.

*** PostScript mode (ps-mode) is a new major mode for editing PostScript
files. It offers: interaction with a PostScript interpreter, including
(very basic) error handling; fontification, easily customizable for
interpreter messages; auto-indentation; insertion of EPSF templates and
often used code snippets; viewing of BoundingBox; commenting out /
uncommenting regions; conversion of 8bit characters to PostScript octal
codes. All functionality is accessible through a menu.

*** delim-col helps to prettify columns in a text region or rectangle.

Here is an example of columns:

horse	apple	bus
dog	pineapple	car	EXTRA
porcupine	strawberry	airplane

Doing the following settings:

   (setq delimit-columns-str-before "[ ")
   (setq delimit-columns-str-after " ]")
   (setq delimit-columns-str-separator ", ")
   (setq delimit-columns-separator "\t")

Selecting the lines above and typing:

   M-x delimit-columns-region

It results:

[ horse    , apple     , bus     ,       ]
[ dog      , pineapple , car     , EXTRA ]
[ porcupine, strawberry, airplane,       ]

delim-col has the following options:

   delimit-columns-str-before		Specify a string to be inserted
					before all columns.

   delimit-columns-str-separator	Specify a string to be inserted
					between each column.

   delimit-columns-str-after		Specify a string to be inserted
					after all columns.

   delimit-columns-separator		Specify a regexp which separates
					each column.

delim-col has the following commands:

   delimit-columns-region	Prettify all columns in a text region.
   delimit-columns-rectangle	Prettify all columns in a text rectangle.

*** Recentf mode maintains a menu for visiting files that were
operated on recently.  User option recentf-menu-filter specifies a
menu filter function to change the menu appearance. For example, the
recent file list can be displayed:

- organized by major modes, directories or user defined rules.
- sorted by file paths, file names, ascending or descending.
- showing paths relative to the current default-directory

The `recentf-filter-changer' menu filter function allows to
dynamically change the menu appearance.

*** elide-head.el provides a mechanism for eliding boilerplate header

*** footnote.el provides `footnote-mode', a minor mode supporting use
of footnotes.  It is intended for use with Message mode, but isn't
specific to Message mode.

*** diff-mode.el provides `diff-mode', a major mode for
viewing/editing context diffs (patches).  It is selected for files
with extension `.diff', `.diffs', `.patch' and `.rej'.

*** EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client, provides a common user
interface to access directory servers using different directory
protocols.  It has a separate manual.

*** autoconf.el provides a major mode for editing files
for Autoconf, selected automatically.

*** windmove.el provides moving between windows.

*** crm.el provides a facility to read multiple strings from the
minibuffer with completion.

*** todo-mode.el provides management of TODO lists and integration
with the diary features.

*** autoarg.el provides a feature reported from Twenex Emacs whereby
numeric keys supply prefix args rather than self inserting.

*** The function `turn-off-auto-fill' unconditionally turns off Auto
Fill mode.

*** pcomplete.el is a library that provides programmable completion
facilities for Emacs, similar to what zsh and tcsh offer.  The main
difference is that completion functions are written in Lisp, meaning
they can be profiled, debugged, etc.

*** antlr-mode is a new major mode for editing ANTLR grammar files.
It is automatically turned on for files whose names have the extension

** Changes in sort.el

The function sort-numeric-fields interprets numbers starting with `0'
as octal and numbers starting with `0x' or `0X' as hexadecimal.  The
new user-option sort-numeric-base can be used to specify a default
numeric base.

** Changes to Ange-ftp

*** Ange-ftp allows you to specify of a port number in remote file
names cleanly.  It is appended to the host name, separated by a hash
sign, e.g. `/'.  (This syntax comes from EFS.)

*** If the new user-option `ange-ftp-try-passive-mode' is set, passive
ftp mode will be used if the ftp client supports that.

*** Ange-ftp handles the output of the w32-style clients which
output ^M at the end of lines.

** The recommended way of using Iswitchb is via the new global minor
mode `iswitchb-mode'.

** Just loading the msb package doesn't switch on Msb mode anymore.
If you have `(require 'msb)' in your .emacs, please replace it with
`(msb-mode 1)'.

** Changes in Flyspell mode

*** Flyspell mode has various new options.  See the `flyspell' Custom

*** The variable `flyspell-generic-check-word-p' has been renamed
to `flyspell-generic-check-word-predicate'.  The old name is still
available as alias.

** The user option `backward-delete-char-untabify-method' controls the
behavior of `backward-delete-char-untabify'.  The following values
are recognized:

`untabify' -- turn a tab to many spaces, then delete one space;
`hungry'   -- delete all whitespace, both tabs and spaces;
`all'      -- delete all whitespace, including tabs, spaces and newlines;
nil        -- just delete one character.

Default value is `untabify'.

[This change was made in Emacs 20.3 but not mentioned then.]

** In Cperl mode `cperl-invalid-face' should now be a normal face
symbol, not double-quoted.

** Some packages are declared obsolete, to be removed in a future
version.  They are:  auto-show, c-mode, hilit19, hscroll, ooutline,
profile, rnews, rnewspost, and sc.  Their implementations have been
moved to lisp/obsolete.

** auto-compression mode is no longer enabled just by loading jka-compr.el.
To control it, set `auto-compression-mode' via Custom or use the
`auto-compression-mode' command.

** `browse-url-gnome-moz' is a new option for
`browse-url-browser-function', invoking Mozilla in GNOME, and
`browse-url-kde' can be chosen for invoking the KDE browser.

** The user-option `browse-url-new-window-p' has been renamed to

** The functions `keep-lines', `flush-lines' and `how-many' now
operate on the active region in Transient Mark mode.

** `gnus-user-agent' is a new possibility for `mail-user-agent'.  It
is like `message-user-agent', but with all the Gnus paraphernalia.

** The Strokes package has been updated.  If your Emacs has XPM
support, you can use it for pictographic editing.  In Strokes mode,
use C-mouse-2 to compose a complex stoke and insert it into the
buffer.  You can encode or decode a strokes buffer with new commands
M-x strokes-encode-buffer and M-x strokes-decode-buffer.  There is a
new command M-x strokes-list-strokes.

** Hexl contains a new command `hexl-insert-hex-string' which inserts
a string of hexadecimal numbers read from the mini-buffer.

** Hexl mode allows to insert non-ASCII characters.

The non-ASCII characters are encoded using the same encoding as the
file you are visiting in Hexl mode.

** Shell script mode changes.

Shell script mode (sh-script) can now indent scripts for shells
derived from sh and rc.  The indentation style is customizable, and
sh-script can attempt to "learn" the current buffer's style.

** Etags changes.

*** In DOS, etags looks for file.cgz if it cannot find file.c.

*** New option --ignore-case-regex is an alternative to --regex.  It is now
possible to bind a regexp to a language, by prepending the regexp with
{lang}, where lang is one of the languages that `etags --help' prints out.
This feature is useful especially for regex files, where each line contains
a regular expression.  The manual contains details.

*** In C and derived languages, etags creates tags for function
declarations when given the --declarations option.

*** In C++, tags are created for "operator".  The tags have the form
"operator+", without spaces between the keyword and the operator.

*** You shouldn't generally need any more the -C or -c++ option: etags
automatically switches to C++ parsing when it meets the `class' or
`template' keywords.

*** Etags now is able to delve at arbitrary deeps into nested structures in
C-like languages.  Previously, it was limited to one or two brace levels.

*** New language Ada: tags are functions, procedures, packages, tasks, and

*** In Fortran, `procedure' is not tagged.

*** In Java, tags are created for "interface".

*** In Lisp, "(defstruct (foo", "(defun (operator" and similar constructs
are now tagged.

*** In makefiles, tags the targets.

*** In Perl, the --globals option tags global variables.  my and local
variables are tagged.

*** New language Python: def and class at the beginning of a line are tags.

Juanma Barranquero's avatar
Juanma Barranquero committed
*** .ss files are Scheme files, .pdb is PostScript with C syntax, .psw is
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