print.c 56.1 KB
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/* Lisp object printing and output streams.
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   Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 88, 93, 94, 95, 97, 1998
	Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
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the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.  */
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#include <config.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include "lisp.h"
#include "buffer.h"
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#include "charset.h"
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#include "frame.h"
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#include "window.h"
#include "process.h"
#include "dispextern.h"
#include "termchar.h"
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#include "keyboard.h"
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#ifdef USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES
#include "intervals.h"
#endif

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Lisp_Object Vstandard_output, Qstandard_output;

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Lisp_Object Qtemp_buffer_setup_hook;

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/* These are used to print like we read.  */
extern Lisp_Object Qbackquote, Qcomma, Qcomma_at, Qcomma_dot, Qfunction;

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#ifdef LISP_FLOAT_TYPE
Lisp_Object Vfloat_output_format, Qfloat_output_format;
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/* Work around a problem that happens because math.h on hpux 7
   defines two static variables--which, in Emacs, are not really static,
   because `static' is defined as nothing.  The problem is that they are
   defined both here and in lread.c.
   These macros prevent the name conflict.  */
#if defined (HPUX) && !defined (HPUX8)
#define _MAXLDBL print_maxldbl
#define _NMAXLDBL print_nmaxldbl
#endif

#include <math.h>

#if STDC_HEADERS
#include <float.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#endif

/* Default to values appropriate for IEEE floating point.  */
#ifndef FLT_RADIX
#define FLT_RADIX 2
#endif
#ifndef DBL_MANT_DIG
#define DBL_MANT_DIG 53
#endif
#ifndef DBL_DIG
#define DBL_DIG 15
#endif
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#ifndef DBL_MIN
#define DBL_MIN 2.2250738585072014e-308
#endif

#ifdef DBL_MIN_REPLACEMENT
#undef DBL_MIN
#define DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_REPLACEMENT
#endif
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/* Define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND, an upper bound on the number of decimal digits
   needed to express a float without losing information.
   The general-case formula is valid for the usual case, IEEE floating point,
   but many compilers can't optimize the formula to an integer constant,
   so make a special case for it.  */
#if FLT_RADIX == 2 && DBL_MANT_DIG == 53
#define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND 17 /* IEEE floating point */
#else
#define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND ((int) ceil (log10 (pow (FLT_RADIX, DBL_MANT_DIG))))
#endif

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#endif /* LISP_FLOAT_TYPE */

/* Avoid actual stack overflow in print.  */
int print_depth;

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/* Detect most circularities to print finite output.  */
#define PRINT_CIRCLE 200
Lisp_Object being_printed[PRINT_CIRCLE];

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/* When printing into a buffer, first we put the text in this
   block, then insert it all at once.  */
char *print_buffer;

/* Size allocated in print_buffer.  */
int print_buffer_size;
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/* Chars stored in print_buffer.  */
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int print_buffer_pos;
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/* Bytes stored in print_buffer.  */
int print_buffer_pos_byte;
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/* Maximum length of list to print in full; noninteger means
   effectively infinity */

Lisp_Object Vprint_length;

/* Maximum depth of list to print in full; noninteger means
   effectively infinity.  */

Lisp_Object Vprint_level;

/* Nonzero means print newlines in strings as \n.  */

int print_escape_newlines;

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/* Nonzero means to print single-byte non-ascii characters in strings as
   octal escapes.  */

int print_escape_nonascii;

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/* Nonzero means to print multibyte characters in strings as hex escapes.  */

int print_escape_multibyte;

Lisp_Object Qprint_escape_newlines;
Lisp_Object Qprint_escape_multibyte, Qprint_escape_nonascii;

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/* Nonzero means print (quote foo) forms as 'foo, etc.  */

int print_quoted;

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/* Non-nil means print #: before uninterned symbols.  */
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Lisp_Object Vprint_gensym;
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/* Non-nil means print recursive structures using #n= and #n# syntax.  */
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Lisp_Object Vprint_circle;

/* Non-nil means keep continuous number for #n= and #n# syntax
   between several print functions.  */

Lisp_Object Vprint_continuous_numbering;

/* Vprint_number_table is a vector like [OBJ1 STAT1 OBJ2 STAT2 ...],
   where OBJn are objects going to be printed, and STATn are their status,
   which may be different meanings during process.  See the comments of
   the functions print and print_preprocess for details.
   print_number_index keeps the last position the next object should be added,
   twice of which is the actual vector position in Vprint_number_table.  */
int print_number_index;
Lisp_Object Vprint_number_table;

/* PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT returns the I'th object in Vprint_number_table TABLE.
   PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS returns the status of the I'th object in TABLE.
   See the comment of the variable Vprint_number_table.  */
#define PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT(table,i) XVECTOR ((table))->contents[(i) * 2]
#define PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS(table,i) XVECTOR ((table))->contents[(i) * 2 + 1]
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/* Nonzero means print newline to stdout before next minibuffer message.
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   Defined in xdisp.c */

extern int noninteractive_need_newline;
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extern int minibuffer_auto_raise;

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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
static int print_chars;
static int max_print;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
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void print_interval ();
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/* Low level output routines for characters and strings */
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/* Lisp functions to do output using a stream
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   must have the stream in a variable called printcharfun
   and must start with PRINTPREPARE, end with PRINTFINISH,
   and use PRINTDECLARE to declare common variables.
   Use PRINTCHAR to output one character,
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   or call strout to output a block of characters. */ 

#define PRINTDECLARE							\
   struct buffer *old = current_buffer;					\
   int old_point = -1, start_point;					\
   int old_point_byte, start_point_byte;				\
   int specpdl_count = specpdl_ptr - specpdl;				\
   int free_print_buffer = 0;						\
   int multibyte = !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);	\
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   Lisp_Object original

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#define PRINTPREPARE							\
   original = printcharfun;						\
   if (NILP (printcharfun)) printcharfun = Qt;				\
   if (BUFFERP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (XBUFFER (printcharfun) != current_buffer)			\
	 Fset_buffer (printcharfun);					\
       printcharfun = Qnil;						\
     }									\
   if (MARKERP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (!(XMARKER (original)->buffer))				\
         error ("Marker does not point anywhere");			\
       if (XMARKER (original)->buffer != current_buffer)		\
         set_buffer_internal (XMARKER (original)->buffer);		\
       old_point = PT;							\
       old_point_byte = PT_BYTE;					\
       SET_PT_BOTH (marker_position (printcharfun),			\
		    marker_byte_position (printcharfun));		\
       start_point = PT;						\
       start_point_byte = PT_BYTE;					\
       printcharfun = Qnil;						\
     }									\
   if (NILP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       Lisp_Object string;						\
       if (NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)		\
	   && ! print_escape_multibyte)					\
         specbind (Qprint_escape_multibyte, Qt);			\
       if (! NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)		\
	   && ! print_escape_nonascii)					\
         specbind (Qprint_escape_nonascii, Qt);				\
       if (print_buffer != 0)						\
	 {								\
	   string = make_string_from_bytes (print_buffer,		\
					    print_buffer_pos,		\
					    print_buffer_pos_byte);	\
	   record_unwind_protect (print_unwind, string);		\
	 }								\
       else								\
	 {								\
           print_buffer_size = 1000;					\
           print_buffer = (char *) xmalloc (print_buffer_size);		\
	   free_print_buffer = 1;					\
	 }								\
       print_buffer_pos = 0;						\
       print_buffer_pos_byte = 0;					\
     }									\
   if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt))						\
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     setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte);
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#define PRINTFINISH							\
   if (NILP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (print_buffer_pos != print_buffer_pos_byte			\
	   && NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters))	\
	 {								\
	   unsigned char *temp						\
	     = (unsigned char *) alloca (print_buffer_pos + 1);		\
	   copy_text (print_buffer, temp, print_buffer_pos_byte,	\
		      1, 0);						\
	   insert_1_both (temp, print_buffer_pos,			\
			  print_buffer_pos, 0, 1, 0);			\
	 }								\
       else								\
	 insert_1_both (print_buffer, print_buffer_pos,			\
			print_buffer_pos_byte, 0, 1, 0);		\
     }									\
   if (free_print_buffer)						\
     {									\
       xfree (print_buffer);						\
       print_buffer = 0;						\
     }									\
   unbind_to (specpdl_count, Qnil);					\
   if (MARKERP (original))						\
     set_marker_both (original, Qnil, PT, PT_BYTE);			\
   if (old_point >= 0)							\
     SET_PT_BOTH (old_point + (old_point >= start_point			\
			       ? PT - start_point : 0),			\
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		  old_point_byte + (old_point_byte >= start_point_byte	\
			       ? PT_BYTE - start_point_byte : 0));	\
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   if (old != current_buffer)						\
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     set_buffer_internal (old);
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#define PRINTCHAR(ch) printchar (ch, printcharfun)

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/* Nonzero if there is no room to print any more characters
   so print might as well return right away.  */

#define PRINTFULLP()					\
 (EQ (printcharfun, Qt) && !noninteractive		\
  && printbufidx >= FRAME_WIDTH (XFRAME (WINDOW_FRAME (XWINDOW (minibuf_window)))))

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/* This is used to restore the saved contents of print_buffer
   when there is a recursive call to print.  */
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static Lisp_Object
print_unwind (saved_text)
     Lisp_Object saved_text;
{
  bcopy (XSTRING (saved_text)->data, print_buffer, XSTRING (saved_text)->size);
}

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/* Print character CH using method FUN.  FUN nil means print to
   print_buffer.  FUN t means print to echo area or stdout if
   non-interactive.  If FUN is neither nil nor t, call FUN with CH as
   argument.  */
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static void
printchar (ch, fun)
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     unsigned int ch;
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     Lisp_Object fun;
{
#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  if (max_print)
    print_chars++;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */

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  if (!NILP (fun) && !EQ (fun, Qt))
    call1 (fun, make_number (ch));
  else
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    {
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      unsigned char work[4], *str;
      int len = CHAR_STRING (ch, work, str);
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      QUIT;
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      if (NILP (fun))
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	{
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	  if (print_buffer_pos_byte + len >= print_buffer_size)
	    print_buffer = (char *) xrealloc (print_buffer,
					      print_buffer_size *= 2);
	  bcopy (str, print_buffer + print_buffer_pos_byte, len);
	  print_buffer_pos += 1;
	  print_buffer_pos_byte += len;
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	}
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      else if (noninteractive)
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	{
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	  fwrite (str, 1, len, stdout);
	  noninteractive_need_newline = 1;
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	}
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      else
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	{
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	  int multibyte_p
	    = !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);
	  
	  if (!message_buf_print)
	    setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte_p);

	  insert_char (ch);
	  message_dolog (str, len, 0, multibyte_p);
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	}
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    }
}

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/* Output SIZE characters, SIZE_BYTE bytes from string PTR using
   method PRINTCHARFUN.  If SIZE < 0, use the string length of PTR for
   both SIZE and SIZE_BYTE.  PRINTCHARFUN nil means output to
   print_buffer.  PRINTCHARFUN t means output to the echo area or to
   stdout if non-interactive.  If neither nil nor t, call Lisp
   function PRINTCHARFUN for each character printed.  MULTIBYTE
   non-zero means PTR contains multibyte characters.  */

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static void
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strout (ptr, size, size_byte, printcharfun, multibyte)
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     char *ptr;
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     int size, size_byte;
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     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
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     int multibyte;
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{
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  if (size < 0)
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    size_byte = size = strlen (ptr);
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    {
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      if (print_buffer_pos_byte + size_byte > print_buffer_size)
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	{
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	  print_buffer_size = print_buffer_size * 2 + size_byte;
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	  print_buffer = (char *) xrealloc (print_buffer,
					    print_buffer_size);
	}
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      bcopy (ptr, print_buffer + print_buffer_pos_byte, size_byte);
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      print_buffer_pos += size;
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      print_buffer_pos_byte += size_byte;
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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
      if (max_print)
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        print_chars += size;
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#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
    }
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  else if (noninteractive)
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    {
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      fwrite (ptr, 1, size_byte, stdout);
      noninteractive_need_newline = 1;
    }
  else if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt))
    {
      /* Output to echo area.  We're trying to avoid a little overhead
	 here, that's the reason we don't call printchar to do the
	 job.  */
      int i;
      int multibyte_p
	= !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);
      
      if (!message_buf_print)
	setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte_p);
      
      message_dolog (ptr, size_byte, 0, multibyte_p);
      
      if (size == size_byte)
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	{
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	  for (i = 0; i < size; ++i)
	    insert_char (*ptr++);
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	}
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      else
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	{
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	  int len;
	  for (i = 0; i < size_byte; i += len)
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	    {
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	      int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (ptr + i, size_byte - i, len);
	      insert_char (ch);
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	    }
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	}
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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
      if (max_print)
        print_chars += size;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
    }
  else
    {
      /* PRINTCHARFUN is a Lisp function.  */
      int i = 0;
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      if (size == size_byte)
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	{
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	  while (i < size_byte)
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	    {
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	      int ch = ptr[i++];
	      PRINTCHAR (ch);
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	    }
	}
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      else
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	{
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	  while (i < size_byte)
	    {
	      /* Here, we must convert each multi-byte form to the
		 corresponding character code before handing it to
		 PRINTCHAR.  */
	      int len;
	      int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (ptr + i, size_byte - i, len);
	      PRINTCHAR (ch);
	      i += len;
	    }
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	}
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    }
}

/* Print the contents of a string STRING using PRINTCHARFUN.
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   It isn't safe to use strout in many cases,
   because printing one char can relocate.  */
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static void
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print_string (string, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object string;
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt) || NILP (printcharfun))
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    {
      int chars;

      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
	chars = XSTRING (string)->size;
      else if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt)
	       ? ! NILP (buffer_defaults.enable_multibyte_characters)
	       : ! NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters))
	chars = multibyte_chars_in_text (XSTRING (string)->data,
					 STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string)));
      else
	chars = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));

      /* strout is safe for output to a frame (echo area) or to print_buffer.  */
      strout (XSTRING (string)->data,
	      chars, STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string)),
	      printcharfun, STRING_MULTIBYTE (string));
    }
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  else
    {
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      /* Otherwise, string may be relocated by printing one char.
	 So re-fetch the string address for each character.  */
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      int i;
      int size = XSTRING (string)->size;
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      int size_byte = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
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      struct gcpro gcpro1;
      GCPRO1 (string);
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      if (size == size_byte)
	for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
	  PRINTCHAR (XSTRING (string)->data[i]);
      else
	for (i = 0; i < size_byte; i++)
	  {
	    /* Here, we must convert each multi-byte form to the
	       corresponding character code before handing it to PRINTCHAR.  */
	    int len;
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	    int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (XSTRING (string)->data + i,
					     size_byte - i, len);
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	    if (!CHAR_VALID_P (ch, 0))
	      {
		ch = XSTRING (string)->data[i];
		len = 1;
	      }
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	    PRINTCHAR (ch);
	    i += len;
	  }
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      UNGCPRO;
    }
}

DEFUN ("write-char", Fwrite_char, Swrite_char, 1, 2, 0,
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  "Output character CHARACTER to stream PRINTCHARFUN.\n\
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PRINTCHARFUN defaults to the value of `standard-output' (which see).")
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  (character, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object character, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
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  CHECK_NUMBER (character, 0);
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  PRINTPREPARE;
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  PRINTCHAR (XINT (character));
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return character;
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}

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/* Used from outside of print.c to print a block of SIZE
   single-byte chars at DATA on the default output stream.
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   Do not use this on the contents of a Lisp string.  */

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void
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write_string (data, size)
     char *data;
     int size;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  Lisp_Object printcharfun;

  printcharfun = Vstandard_output;

  PRINTPREPARE;
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  strout (data, size, size, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
}

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/* Used from outside of print.c to print a block of SIZE
   single-byte chars at DATA on a specified stream PRINTCHARFUN.
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   Do not use this on the contents of a Lisp string.  */

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void
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write_string_1 (data, size, printcharfun)
     char *data;
     int size;
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  PRINTPREPARE;
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  strout (data, size, size, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
}


void
temp_output_buffer_setup (bufname)
    char *bufname;
{
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  int count = specpdl_ptr - specpdl;
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  register struct buffer *old = current_buffer;
  register Lisp_Object buf;

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  record_unwind_protect (set_buffer_if_live, Fcurrent_buffer ());

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  Fset_buffer (Fget_buffer_create (build_string (bufname)));

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  current_buffer->directory = old->directory;
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  current_buffer->read_only = Qnil;
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  current_buffer->filename = Qnil;
  current_buffer->undo_list = Qt;
  current_buffer->overlays_before = Qnil;
  current_buffer->overlays_after = Qnil;
  current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters
    = buffer_defaults.enable_multibyte_characters;
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  Ferase_buffer ();
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  XSETBUFFER (buf, current_buffer);
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  call1 (Vrun_hooks, Qtemp_buffer_setup_hook);

  unbind_to (count, Qnil);

  specbind (Qstandard_output, buf);
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}

Lisp_Object
internal_with_output_to_temp_buffer (bufname, function, args)
     char *bufname;
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     Lisp_Object (*function) P_ ((Lisp_Object));
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     Lisp_Object args;
{
  int count = specpdl_ptr - specpdl;
  Lisp_Object buf, val;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;
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  GCPRO1 (args);
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  record_unwind_protect (Fset_buffer, Fcurrent_buffer ());
  temp_output_buffer_setup (bufname);
  buf = Vstandard_output;
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  UNGCPRO;
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  val = (*function) (args);

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  GCPRO1 (val);
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  temp_output_buffer_show (buf);
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  UNGCPRO;
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  return unbind_to (count, val);
}

DEFUN ("with-output-to-temp-buffer", Fwith_output_to_temp_buffer, Swith_output_to_temp_buffer,
       1, UNEVALLED, 0,
  "Bind `standard-output' to buffer BUFNAME, eval BODY, then show that buffer.\n\
The buffer is cleared out initially, and marked as unmodified when done.\n\
All output done by BODY is inserted in that buffer by default.\n\
The buffer is displayed in another window, but not selected.\n\
The value of the last form in BODY is returned.\n\
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If BODY does not finish normally, the buffer BUFNAME is not displayed.\n\
\n\
The hook `temp-buffer-setup-hook' is run before BODY,\n\
with the buffer BUFNAME temporarily current.\n\
The hook `temp-buffer-show-hook' is run after the buffer is displayed,\n\
with the buffer temporarily current, and the window that was used\n\
to display it temporarily selected.\n\
\n\
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If variable `temp-buffer-show-function' is non-nil, call it at the end\n\
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to get the buffer displayed instead of just displaying the non-selected\n\
buffer and calling the hook.  It gets one argument, the buffer to display.")
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  (args)
     Lisp_Object args;
{
  struct gcpro gcpro1;
  Lisp_Object name;
  int count = specpdl_ptr - specpdl;
  Lisp_Object buf, val;

  GCPRO1(args);
  name = Feval (Fcar (args));
  UNGCPRO;

  CHECK_STRING (name, 0);
  temp_output_buffer_setup (XSTRING (name)->data);
  buf = Vstandard_output;

  val = Fprogn (Fcdr (args));

  temp_output_buffer_show (buf);

  return unbind_to (count, val);
}
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static void print ();
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static void print_preprocess ();
#ifdef USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES
static void print_preprocess_string ();
#endif /* USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES */
static void print_object ();
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DEFUN ("terpri", Fterpri, Sterpri, 0, 1, 0,
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  "Output a newline to stream PRINTCHARFUN.\n\
If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted or nil, the value of `standard-output' is used.")
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  (printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
  PRINTFINISH;
  return Qt;
}

DEFUN ("prin1", Fprin1, Sprin1, 1, 2, 0,
  "Output the printed representation of OBJECT, any Lisp object.\n\
Quoting characters are printed when needed to make output that `read'\n\
can handle, whenever this is possible.\n\
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Output stream is PRINTCHARFUN, or value of `standard-output' (which see).")
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  (object, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  max_print = 0;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, 1);
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return object;
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}

/* a buffer which is used to hold output being built by prin1-to-string */
Lisp_Object Vprin1_to_string_buffer;

DEFUN ("prin1-to-string", Fprin1_to_string, Sprin1_to_string, 1, 2, 0,
  "Return a string containing the printed representation of OBJECT,\n\
any Lisp object.  Quoting characters are used when needed to make output\n\
that `read' can handle, whenever this is possible, unless the optional\n\
second argument NOESCAPE is non-nil.")
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  (object, noescape)
     Lisp_Object object, noescape;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
  Lisp_Object printcharfun;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2;
  Lisp_Object tem;

  /* Save and restore this--we are altering a buffer
     but we don't want to deactivate the mark just for that.
     No need for specbind, since errors deactivate the mark.  */
  tem = Vdeactivate_mark;
  GCPRO2 (object, tem);
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  printcharfun = Vprin1_to_string_buffer;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, NILP (noescape));
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  /* Make Vprin1_to_string_buffer be the default buffer after PRINTFINSH */
  PRINTFINISH;
  set_buffer_internal (XBUFFER (Vprin1_to_string_buffer));
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  object = Fbuffer_string ();
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  Ferase_buffer ();
  set_buffer_internal (old);
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  Vdeactivate_mark = tem;
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  UNGCPRO;

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  return object;
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}

DEFUN ("princ", Fprinc, Sprinc, 1, 2, 0,
  "Output the printed representation of OBJECT, any Lisp object.\n\
No quoting characters are used; no delimiters are printed around\n\
the contents of strings.\n\
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Output stream is PRINTCHARFUN, or value of standard-output (which see).")
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  (object, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return object;
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}

DEFUN ("print", Fprint, Sprint, 1, 2, 0,
  "Output the printed representation of OBJECT, with newlines around it.\n\
Quoting characters are printed when needed to make output that `read'\n\
can handle, whenever this is possible.\n\
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Output stream is PRINTCHARFUN, or value of `standard-output' (which see).")
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  (object, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;

#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  print_chars = 0;
  max_print = MAX_PRINT_CHARS;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
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  GCPRO1 (object);
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  PRINTPREPARE;
  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
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  print (object, printcharfun, 1);
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  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
  PRINTFINISH;
#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  max_print = 0;
  print_chars = 0;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
  UNGCPRO;
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  return object;
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}

/* The subroutine object for external-debugging-output is kept here
   for the convenience of the debugger.  */
Lisp_Object Qexternal_debugging_output;

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DEFUN ("external-debugging-output", Fexternal_debugging_output, Sexternal_debugging_output, 1, 1, 0,
  "Write CHARACTER to stderr.\n\
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You can call print while debugging emacs, and pass it this function\n\
to make it write to the debugging output.\n")
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  (character)
     Lisp_Object character;
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{
  CHECK_NUMBER (character, 0);
  putc (XINT (character), stderr);
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#ifdef WINDOWSNT
  /* Send the output to a debugger (nothing happens if there isn't one).  */
  {
    char buf[2] = {(char) XINT (character), '\0'};
    OutputDebugString (buf);
  }
#endif

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  return character;
}
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/* This is the interface for debugging printing.  */

void
debug_print (arg)
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
  Fprin1 (arg, Qexternal_debugging_output);
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  fprintf (stderr, "\r\n");
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}
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DEFUN ("error-message-string", Ferror_message_string, Serror_message_string,
       1, 1, 0,
  "Convert an error value (ERROR-SYMBOL . DATA) to an error message.")
  (obj)
     Lisp_Object obj;
{
  struct buffer *old = current_buffer;
  Lisp_Object original, printcharfun, value;
  struct gcpro gcpro1;

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  /* If OBJ is (error STRING), just return STRING.
     That is not only faster, it also avoids the need to allocate
     space here when the error is due to memory full.  */
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  if (CONSP (obj) && EQ (XCAR (obj), Qerror)
      && CONSP (XCDR (obj))
      && STRINGP (XCAR (XCDR (obj)))
      && NILP (XCDR (XCDR (obj))))
    return XCAR (XCDR (obj));
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  print_error_message (obj, Vprin1_to_string_buffer);
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  set_buffer_internal (XBUFFER (Vprin1_to_string_buffer));
  value = Fbuffer_string ();

  GCPRO1 (value);
  Ferase_buffer ();
  set_buffer_internal (old);
  UNGCPRO;

  return value;
}

/* Print an error message for the error DATA
   onto Lisp output stream STREAM (suitable for the print functions).  */

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void
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print_error_message (data, stream)
     Lisp_Object data, stream;
{
  Lisp_Object errname, errmsg, file_error, tail;
  struct gcpro gcpro1;
  int i;

  errname = Fcar (data);

  if (EQ (errname, Qerror))
    {
      data = Fcdr (data);
      if (!CONSP (data)) data = Qnil;
      errmsg = Fcar (data);
      file_error = Qnil;
    }
  else
    {
      errmsg = Fget (errname, Qerror_message);
      file_error = Fmemq (Qfile_error,
			  Fget (errname, Qerror_conditions));
    }

  /* Print an error message including the data items.  */

  tail = Fcdr_safe (data);
  GCPRO1 (tail);

  /* For file-error, make error message by concatenating
     all the data items.  They are all strings.  */
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  if (!NILP (file_error) && CONSP (tail))
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    errmsg = XCAR (tail), tail = XCDR (tail);
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  if (STRINGP (errmsg))
    Fprinc (errmsg, stream);
  else
    write_string_1 ("peculiar error", -1, stream);

  for (i = 0; CONSP (tail); tail = Fcdr (tail), i++)
    {
      write_string_1 (i ? ", " : ": ", 2, stream);
      if (!NILP (file_error))
	Fprinc (Fcar (tail), stream);
      else
	Fprin1 (Fcar (tail), stream);
    }
  UNGCPRO;
}

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#ifdef LISP_FLOAT_TYPE

/*
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 * The buffer should be at least as large as the max string size of the
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 * largest float, printed in the biggest notation.  This is undoubtedly
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 * 20d float_output_format, with the negative of the C-constant "HUGE"
 * from <math.h>.
 * 
 * On the vax the worst case is -1e38 in 20d format which takes 61 bytes.
 * 
 * I assume that IEEE-754 format numbers can take 329 bytes for the worst
 * case of -1e307 in 20d float_output_format. What is one to do (short of
 * re-writing _doprnt to be more sane)?
 * 			-wsr
 */
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void
float_to_string (buf, data)
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     unsigned char *buf;
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     double data;
{
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  unsigned char *cp;
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  int width;
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  /* Check for plus infinity in a way that won't lose
     if there is no plus infinity.  */
  if (data == data / 2 && data > 1.0)
    {
      strcpy (buf, "1.0e+INF");
      return;
    }
  /* Likewise for minus infinity.  */
  if (data == data / 2 && data < -1.0)
    {
      strcpy (buf, "-1.0e+INF");
      return;
    }
  /* Check for NaN in a way that won't fail if there are no NaNs.  */
  if (! (data * 0.0 >= 0.0))
    {
      strcpy (buf, "0.0e+NaN");
      return;
    }

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  if (NILP (Vfloat_output_format)
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      || !STRINGP (Vfloat_output_format))
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  lose:
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    {
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      /* Generate the fewest number of digits that represent the
	 floating point value without losing information.
	 The following method is simple but a bit slow.
	 For ideas about speeding things up, please see:

	 Guy L Steele Jr & Jon L White, How to print floating-point numbers
	 accurately.  SIGPLAN notices 25, 6 (June 1990), 112-126.

	 Robert G Burger & R Kent Dybvig, Printing floating point numbers
	 quickly and accurately, SIGPLAN notices 31, 5 (May 1996), 108-116.  */

      width = fabs (data) < DBL_MIN ? 1 : DBL_DIG;
      do
	sprintf (buf, "%.*g", width, data);
      while (width++ < DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND && atof (buf) != data);
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    }
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  else			/* oink oink */
    {
      /* Check that the spec we have is fully valid.
	 This means not only valid for printf,
	 but meant for floats, and reasonable.  */
      cp = XSTRING (Vfloat_output_format)->data;

      if (cp[0] != '%')
	goto lose;
      if (cp[1] != '.')
	goto lose;

      cp += 2;
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      /* Check the width specification.  */
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      width = -1;
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      if ('0' <= *cp && *cp <= '9')
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	{
	  width = 0;
	  do
	    width = (width * 10) + (*cp++ - '0');
	  while (*cp >= '0' && *cp <= '9');

	  /* A precision of zero is valid only for %f.  */
	  if (width > DBL_DIG
	      || (width == 0 && *cp != 'f'))
	    goto lose;
	}
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      if (*cp != 'e' && *cp != 'f' && *cp != 'g')
	goto lose;

      if (cp[1] != 0)
	goto lose;

      sprintf (buf, XSTRING (Vfloat_output_format)->data, data);
    }
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  /* Make sure there is a decimal point with digit after, or an
     exponent, so that the value is readable as a float.  But don't do
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     this with "%.0f"; it's valid for that not to produce a decimal
     point.  Note that width can be 0 only for %.0f.  */
  if (width != 0)
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    {
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      for (cp = buf; *cp; cp++)
	if ((*cp < '0' || *cp > '9') && *cp != '-')
	  break;
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      if (*cp == '.' && cp[1] == 0)
	{
	  cp[1] = '0';
	  cp[2] = 0;
	}

      if (*cp == 0)
	{
	  *cp++ = '.';
	  *cp++ = '0';
	  *cp++ = 0;
	}
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    }
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}
#endif /* LISP_FLOAT_TYPE */

static void
print (obj, printcharfun, escapeflag)
     Lisp_Object obj;
     register Lisp_Object printcharfun;
     int escapeflag;
{
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  print_depth = 0;
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  /* Reset print_number_index and Vprint_number_table only when
     the variable Vprint_continuous_numbering is nil.  Otherwise,
     the values of these variables will be kept between several
     print functions.  */
  if (NILP (Vprint_continuous_numbering))
    {
      print_number_index = 0;
      Vprint_number_table = Qnil;
    }
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  /* Construct Vprint_number_table for print-gensym and print-circle.  */
  if (!NILP (Vprint_gensym) || !NILP (Vprint_circle))
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    {
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      int i, index = 0;
      /* Construct Vprint_number_table.  */
      print_preprocess (obj);
      /* Remove unnecessary objects, which appear only once in OBJ;
	 that is, whose status is Qnil.  */
      for (i = 0; i < print_number_index; i++)
	if (!NILP (PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (Vprint_number_table, i)))
	  {
	    PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (Vprint_number_table, index)
	      = PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (Vprint_number_table, i);
	    /* Reset the status field for the next print step.  Now this
	       field means whether the object has already been printed.  */
	    PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (Vprint_number_table, index) = Qnil;
	    index++;
	  }
      print_number_index = index;
    }

  print_object (obj, printcharfun, escapeflag);
}

/* Construct Vprint_number_table according to the structure of OBJ.
   OBJ itself and all its elements will be added to Vprint_number_table
   recursively if it is a list, vector, compiled function, char-table,
   string (its text properties will be traced), or a symbol that has
   no obarray (this is for the print-gensym feature).
   The status fields of Vprint_number_table mean whether each object appears
   more than once in OBJ: Qnil at the first time, and Qt after that .  */
static void
print_preprocess (obj)
     Lisp_Object obj;
{
  int i, size;

 loop:
  if (STRINGP (obj) || CONSP (obj) || VECTORP (obj)
      || COMPILEDP (obj) || CHAR_TABLE_P (obj)
      || (! NILP (Vprint_gensym)
	  && SYMBOLP (obj) && NILP (XSYMBOL (obj)->obarray)))
    {
      for (i = 0; i < print_number_index; i++)
	if (PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (Vprint_number_table, i) == obj)
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	  {
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	    /* OBJ appears more than once.  Let's remember that.  */
	    PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (Vprint_number_table, i) = Qt;
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	    return;
	  }
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      /* OBJ is not yet recorded.  Let's add to the table.  */
      if (print_number_index == 0)
	{
	  /* Initialize the table.  */
	  Vprint_number_table = Fmake_vector (make_number (40), Qnil);
	}
      else if (XVECTOR (Vprint_number_table)->size == print_number_index * 2)
	{
	  /* Reallocate the table.  */
	  int i = print_number_index * 4;
	  Lisp_Object old_table = Vprint_number_table;
	  Vprint_number_table = Fmake_vector (make_number (i), Qnil);
	  for (i = 0; i < print_number_index; i++)
	    {
	      PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (Vprint_number_table, i)
		= PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (old_table, i);
	      PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (Vprint_number_table, i)
		= PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (old_table, i);
	    }
	}
      PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (Vprint_number_table, print_number_index) = obj;
      print_number_index++;

      switch (XGCTYPE (obj))
	{
	case Lisp_String:
#ifdef USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES
	  /* A string may have text properties, which can be circular.  */
	  traverse_intervals (XSTRING (obj)->intervals, 0, 0,
			      print_preprocess_string, Qnil);
#endif /* USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES */
	  break;

	case Lisp_Cons:
	  print_preprocess (XCAR (obj));
	  obj = XCDR (obj);
	  goto loop;

	case Lisp_Vectorlike:
	  size = XVECTOR (obj)->size & PSEUDOVECTOR_SIZE_MASK;
	  for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
	    print_preprocess (XVECTOR (obj)->contents[i]);
	}
    }
}

#ifdef USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES
static void
print_preprocess_string (interval, arg)
     INTERVAL interval;
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
  print_preprocess (interval->plist);
}
#endif /* USE_TEXT_PROPERTIES */

static void
print_object (obj, printcharfun, escapeflag)
     Lisp_Object obj;
     register Lisp_Object printcharfun;
     int escapeflag;
{
  char buf[30];

  QUIT;

  /* Detect circularities and truncate them.  */
  if (STRINGP (obj) || CONSP (obj) || VECTORP (obj)
      || COMPILEDP (obj) || CHAR_TABLE_P (obj)
      || (! NILP (Vprint_gensym)
	  && SYMBOLP (obj) && NILP (XSYMBOL (obj)->obarray)))
    {
      if (NILP (Vprint_circle) && NILP (Vprint_gensym))
	{
	  /* Simple but incomplete way.  */
	  int i;
	  for (i = 0; i < print_depth; i++)
	    if (EQ (obj, being_printed[i]))
	      {
		sprintf (buf, "#%d", i);
		strout (buf, -1, -1, printcharfun, 0);
		return;
	      }
	  being_printed[print_depth] = obj;
	}
      else
	{
	  /* With the print-circle feature.  */
	  int i;
	  for (i = 0; i < print_number_index; i++)
	    if (PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT (Vprint_number_table, i) == obj)
	      {
		if (NILP (PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (Vprint_number_table, i)))
		  {
		    /* Add a prefix #n= if OBJ has not yet been printed;
		       that is, its status field is nil.  */
		    sprintf (buf, "#%d=", i + 1);
		    strout (buf, -1, -1, printcharfun, 0);
		    /* OBJ is going to be printed.  Set the status to t.  */
		    PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS (Vprint_number_table, i) = Qt;
		    break;
		  }
		else
		  {
		    /* Just print #n# if OBJ has already been printed.  */
		    sprintf (buf, "#%d#", i + 1);
		    strout (buf, -1, -1, printcharfun, 0);
		    return;
		  }
	      }
	}
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    }

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  print_depth++;

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  if (print_depth > PRINT_CIRCLE)
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    error ("Apparently circular structure being printed");
#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  if (max_print && print_chars > max_print)
    {
      PRINTCHAR ('\n');
      print_chars = 0;
    }
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */

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  switch (XGCTYPE (obj))
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    {
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    case Lisp_Int:
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      if (sizeof (int) == sizeof (EMACS_INT))
	sprintf (buf, "%d", XINT (obj));
      else if (sizeof (long) == sizeof (EMACS_INT))
	sprintf (buf, "%ld", XINT (obj));
      else
	abort ();
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      strout (buf, -1, -1, printcharfun, 0);
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      break;

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#ifdef LISP_FLOAT_TYPE
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    case Lisp_Float:
      {
	char pigbuf[350];	/* see comments in float_to_string */
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	float_to_string (pigbuf, XFLOAT_DATA (obj));
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	strout (pigbuf, -1, -1, printcharfun, 0);
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      }
      break;
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#endif
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    case Lisp_String:
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      if (!escapeflag)
	print_string (obj, printcharfun);
      else
	{
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	  register int i, i_byte;
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	  register unsigned char c;
	  struct gcpro gcpro1;
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	  unsigned char *str;
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	  int size_byte;
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	  /* 1 means we must ensure that the next character we output
	     cannot be taken as part of a hex character escape.  */
	  int need_nonhex = 0;
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