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;;; byte-opt.el --- the optimization passes of the emacs-lisp byte compiler -*- lexical-binding: t -*-
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;; Copyright (C) 1991, 1994, 2000-2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Author: Jamie Zawinski <jwz@lucid.com>
;;	Hallvard Furuseth <hbf@ulrik.uio.no>
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;; Maintainer: emacs-devel@gnu.org
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;; Keywords: internal
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;; Package: emacs
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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

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;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
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;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.
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;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
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;;; Commentary:

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;; ========================================================================
;; "No matter how hard you try, you can't make a racehorse out of a pig.
;; You can, however, make a faster pig."
;;
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;; Or, to put it another way, the Emacs byte compiler is a VW Bug.  This code
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;; makes it be a VW Bug with fuel injection and a turbocharger...  You're
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;; still not going to make it go faster than 70 mph, but it might be easier
;; to get it there.
;;
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;; TO DO:
;;
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;; (apply (lambda (x &rest y) ...) 1 (foo))
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;;
;; maintain a list of functions known not to access any global variables
;; (actually, give them a 'dynamically-safe property) and then
;;   (let ( v1 v2 ... vM vN ) <...dynamically-safe...> )  ==>
;;   (let ( v1 v2 ... vM ) vN <...dynamically-safe...> )
;; by recursing on this, we might be able to eliminate the entire let.
;; However certain variables should never have their bindings optimized
;; away, because they affect everything.
;;   (put 'debug-on-error 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 'debug-on-abort 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 'debug-on-next-call 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 'inhibit-quit 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 'quit-flag 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 't 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 'nil 'binding-is-magic t)
;; possibly also
;;   (put 'gc-cons-threshold 'binding-is-magic t)
;;   (put 'track-mouse 'binding-is-magic t)
;; others?
;;
;; Simple defsubsts often produce forms like
;;    (let ((v1 (f1)) (v2 (f2)) ...)
;;       (FN v1 v2 ...))
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;; It would be nice if we could optimize this to
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;;    (FN (f1) (f2) ...)
;; but we can't unless FN is dynamically-safe (it might be dynamically
;; referring to the bindings that the lambda arglist established.)
;; One of the uncountable lossages introduced by dynamic scope...
;;
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;; Maybe there should be a control-structure that says "turn on
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;; fast-and-loose type-assumptive optimizations here."  Then when
;; we see a form like (car foo) we can from then on assume that
;; the variable foo is of type cons, and optimize based on that.
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;; But, this won't win much because of (you guessed it) dynamic
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;; scope.  Anything down the stack could change the value.
;; (Another reason it doesn't work is that it is perfectly valid
;; to call car with a null argument.)  A better approach might
;; be to allow type-specification of the form
;;   (put 'foo 'arg-types '(float (list integer) dynamic))
;;   (put 'foo 'result-type 'bool)
;; It should be possible to have these types checked to a certain
;; degree.
;;
;; collapse common subexpressions
;;
;; It would be nice if redundant sequences could be factored out as well,
;; when they are known to have no side-effects:
;;   (list (+ a b c) (+ a b c))   -->  a b add c add dup list-2
;; but beware of traps like
;;   (cons (list x y) (list x y))
;;
;; Tail-recursion elimination is not really possible in Emacs Lisp.
;; Tail-recursion elimination is almost always impossible when all variables
;; have dynamic scope, but given that the "return" byteop requires the
;; binding stack to be empty (rather than emptying it itself), there can be
;; no truly tail-recursive Emacs Lisp functions that take any arguments or
;; make any bindings.
;;
;; Here is an example of an Emacs Lisp function which could safely be
;; byte-compiled tail-recursively:
;;
;;  (defun tail-map (fn list)
;;    (cond (list
;;           (funcall fn (car list))
;;           (tail-map fn (cdr list)))))
;;
;; However, if there was even a single let-binding around the COND,
;; it could not be byte-compiled, because there would be an "unbind"
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;; byte-op between the final "call" and "return."  Adding a
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;; Bunbind_all byteop would fix this.
;;
;;   (defun foo (x y z) ... (foo a b c))
;;   ... (const foo) (varref a) (varref b) (varref c) (call 3) END: (return)
;;   ... (varref a) (varbind x) (varref b) (varbind y) (varref c) (varbind z) (goto 0) END: (unbind-all) (return)
;;   ... (varref a) (varset x) (varref b) (varset y) (varref c) (varset z) (goto 0) END: (return)
;;
;; this also can be considered tail recursion:
;;
;;   ... (const foo) (varref a) (call 1) (goto X) ... X: (return)
;; could generalize this by doing the optimization
;;   (goto X) ... X: (return)  -->  (return)
;;
;; But this doesn't solve all of the problems: although by doing tail-
;; recursion elimination in this way, the call-stack does not grow, the
;; binding-stack would grow with each recursive step, and would eventually
;; overflow.  I don't believe there is any way around this without lexical
;; scope.
;;
;; Wouldn't it be nice if Emacs Lisp had lexical scope.
;;
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;; Idea: the form (lexical-scope) in a file means that the file may be
;; compiled lexically.  This proclamation is file-local.  Then, within
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;; that file, "let" would establish lexical bindings, and "let-dynamic"
;; would do things the old way.  (Or we could use CL "declare" forms.)
;; We'd have to notice defvars and defconsts, since those variables should
;; always be dynamic, and attempting to do a lexical binding of them
;; should simply do a dynamic binding instead.
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;; But!  We need to know about variables that were not necessarily defvared
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;; in the file being compiled (doing a boundp check isn't good enough.)
;; Fdefvar() would have to be modified to add something to the plist.
;;
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;; A major disadvantage of this scheme is that the interpreter and compiler
;; would have different semantics for files compiled with (dynamic-scope).
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;; Since this would be a file-local optimization, there would be no way to
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;; modify the interpreter to obey this (unless the loader was hacked
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;; in some grody way, but that's a really bad idea.)
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;; Other things to consider:

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;; ;; Associative math should recognize subcalls to identical function:
;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (+ (+ (foo) 1) (+ (bar) 2))))
;; ;; This should generate the same as (1+ x) and (1- x)
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;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (cons (+ x 1) (- x 1))))
;; ;; An awful lot of functions always return a non-nil value.  If they're
;; ;; error free also they may act as true-constants.
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;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (and (point) (foo))))
;; ;; When
;; ;;   - all but one arguments to a function are constant
;; ;;   - the non-constant argument is an if-expression (cond-expression?)
;; ;; then the outer function can be distributed.  If the guarding
;; ;; condition is side-effect-free [assignment-free] then the other
;; ;; arguments may be any expressions.  Since, however, the code size
;; ;; can increase this way they should be "simple".  Compare:
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;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (eq (if (point) 'a 'b) 'c)))
;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (if (point) (eq 'a 'c) (eq 'b 'c))))
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;; ;; (car (cons A B)) -> (prog1 A B)
;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (car (cons (foo) 42))))
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;; ;; (cdr (cons A B)) -> (progn A B)
;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (cdr (cons 42 (foo)))))
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;; ;; (car (list A B ...)) -> (prog1 A B ...)
;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (car (list (foo) 42 (bar)))))
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;; ;; (cdr (list A B ...)) -> (progn A (list B ...))
;; (disassemble (lambda (x) (cdr (list 42 (foo) (bar)))))
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;;; Code:
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(require 'bytecomp)
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(eval-when-compile (require 'cl-lib))
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(require 'macroexp)
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(eval-when-compile (require 'subr-x))
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(defun byte-compile-log-lap-1 (format &rest args)
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  ;; Newer byte codes for stack-ref make the slot 0 non-nil again.
  ;; But the "old disassembler" is *really* ancient by now.
  ;; (if (aref byte-code-vector 0)
  ;;     (error "The old version of the disassembler is loaded.  Reload new-bytecomp as well"))
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  (byte-compile-log-1
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   (apply #'format-message format
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     (let (c a)
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       (mapcar (lambda (arg)
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		  (if (not (consp arg))
		      (if (and (symbolp arg)
			       (string-match "^byte-" (symbol-name arg)))
			  (intern (substring (symbol-name arg) 5))
			arg)
		    (if (integerp (setq c (car arg)))
			(error "non-symbolic byte-op %s" c))
		    (if (eq c 'TAG)
			(setq c arg)
		      (setq a (cond ((memq c byte-goto-ops)
				     (car (cdr (cdr arg))))
				    ((memq c byte-constref-ops)
				     (car (cdr arg)))
				    (t (cdr arg))))
		      (setq c (symbol-name c))
		      (if (string-match "^byte-." c)
			  (setq c (intern (substring c 5)))))
		    (if (eq c 'constant) (setq c 'const))
		    (if (and (eq (cdr arg) 0)
			     (not (memq c '(unbind call const))))
			c
		      (format "(%s %s)" c a))))
	       args)))))

(defmacro byte-compile-log-lap (format-string &rest args)
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  `(and (memq byte-optimize-log '(t byte))
	(byte-compile-log-lap-1 ,format-string ,@args)))
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;;; byte-compile optimizers to support inlining

(put 'inline 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-inline-handler)

(defun byte-optimize-inline-handler (form)
  "byte-optimize-handler for the `inline' special-form."
  (cons 'progn
	(mapcar
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	 (lambda (sexp)
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	   (let ((f (car-safe sexp)))
	     (if (and (symbolp f)
		      (or (cdr (assq f byte-compile-function-environment))
			  (not (or (not (fboundp f))
				   (cdr (assq f byte-compile-macro-environment))
				   (and (consp (setq f (symbol-function f)))
					(eq (car f) 'macro))
				   (subrp f)))))
		 (byte-compile-inline-expand sexp)
	       sexp)))
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	 (cdr form))))

(defun byte-compile-inline-expand (form)
  (let* ((name (car form))
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         (localfn (cdr (assq name byte-compile-function-environment)))
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	 (fn (or localfn (symbol-function name))))
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    (when (autoloadp fn)
      (autoload-do-load fn)
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      (setq fn (or (symbol-function name)
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                   (cdr (assq name byte-compile-function-environment)))))
    (pcase fn
      (`nil
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       (byte-compile-warn "attempt to inline `%s' before it was defined"
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                          name)
       form)
      (`(autoload . ,_)
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       (error "File `%s' didn't define `%s'" (nth 1 fn) name))
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      ((and (pred symbolp) (guard (not (eq fn t)))) ;A function alias.
       (byte-compile-inline-expand (cons fn (cdr form))))
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      ((pred byte-code-function-p)
       ;; (message "Inlining byte-code for %S!" name)
       ;; The byte-code will be really inlined in byte-compile-unfold-bcf.
       `(,fn ,@(cdr form)))
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      ((or `(lambda . ,_) `(closure . ,_))
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       (if (not (or (eq fn localfn)     ;From the same file => same mode.
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                    (eq (car fn)        ;Same mode.
                        (if lexical-binding 'closure 'lambda))))
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           ;; While byte-compile-unfold-bcf can inline dynbind byte-code into
           ;; letbind byte-code (or any other combination for that matter), we
           ;; can only inline dynbind source into dynbind source or letbind
           ;; source into letbind source.
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           (progn
             ;; We can of course byte-compile the inlined function
             ;; first, and then inline its byte-code.
             (byte-compile name)
             `(,(symbol-function name) ,@(cdr form)))
         (let ((newfn (if (eq fn localfn)
                          ;; If `fn' is from the same file, it has already
                          ;; been preprocessed!
                          `(function ,fn)
                        (byte-compile-preprocess
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                         (byte-compile--reify-function fn)))))
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           (if (eq (car-safe newfn) 'function)
               (byte-compile-unfold-lambda `(,(cadr newfn) ,@(cdr form)))
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             ;; This can happen because of macroexp-warn-and-return &co.
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             (byte-compile-warn
              "Inlining closure %S failed" name)
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             form))))
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      (_ ;; Give up on inlining.
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       form))))
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;; ((lambda ...) ...)
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(defun byte-compile-unfold-lambda (form &optional name)
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  ;; In lexical-binding mode, let and functions don't bind vars in the same way
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  ;; (let obey special-variable-p, but functions don't).  But luckily, this
  ;; doesn't matter here, because function's behavior is underspecified so it
  ;; can safely be turned into a `let', even though the reverse is not true.
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  (or name (setq name "anonymous lambda"))
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  (let* ((lambda (car form))
         (values (cdr form))
         (arglist (nth 1 lambda))
         (body (cdr (cdr lambda)))
         optionalp restp
         bindings)
    (if (and (stringp (car body)) (cdr body))
        (setq body (cdr body)))
    (if (and (consp (car body)) (eq 'interactive (car (car body))))
        (setq body (cdr body)))
    ;; FIXME: The checks below do not belong in an optimization phase.
    (while arglist
      (cond ((eq (car arglist) '&optional)
             ;; ok, I'll let this slide because funcall_lambda() does...
             ;; (if optionalp (error "multiple &optional keywords in %s" name))
             (if restp (error "&optional found after &rest in %s" name))
             (if (null (cdr arglist))
                 (error "nothing after &optional in %s" name))
             (setq optionalp t))
            ((eq (car arglist) '&rest)
             ;; ...but it is by no stretch of the imagination a reasonable
             ;; thing that funcall_lambda() allows (&rest x y) and
             ;; (&rest x &optional y) in arglists.
             (if (null (cdr arglist))
                 (error "nothing after &rest in %s" name))
             (if (cdr (cdr arglist))
                 (error "multiple vars after &rest in %s" name))
             (setq restp t))
            (restp
             (setq bindings (cons (list (car arglist)
                                        (and values (cons 'list values)))
                                  bindings)
                   values nil))
            ((and (not optionalp) (null values))
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             (byte-compile-warn "attempt to open-code `%s' with too few arguments" name)
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             (setq arglist nil values 'too-few))
            (t
             (setq bindings (cons (list (car arglist) (car values))
                                  bindings)
                   values (cdr values))))
      (setq arglist (cdr arglist)))
    (if values
        (progn
          (or (eq values 'too-few)
              (byte-compile-warn
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               "attempt to open-code `%s' with too many arguments" name))
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          form)

	                                ;; The following leads to infinite recursion when loading a
	                                ;; file containing `(defsubst f () (f))', and then trying to
	                                ;; byte-compile that file.
                       ;(setq body (mapcar 'byte-optimize-form body)))

      (let ((newform
             (if bindings
                 (cons 'let (cons (nreverse bindings) body))
               (cons 'progn body))))
        (byte-compile-log "  %s\t==>\t%s" form newform)
        newform))))
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;;; implementing source-level optimizers

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(defun byte-optimize-form-code-walker (form for-effect)
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  ;;
  ;; For normal function calls, We can just mapcar the optimizer the cdr.  But
  ;; we need to have special knowledge of the syntax of the special forms
  ;; like let and defun (that's why they're special forms :-).  (Actually,
  ;; the important aspect is that they are subrs that don't evaluate all of
  ;; their args.)
  ;;
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  (let ((fn (car-safe form))
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	tmp)
    (cond ((not (consp form))
	   (if (not (and for-effect
			 (or byte-compile-delete-errors
			     (not (symbolp form))
			     (eq form t))))
	     form))
	  ((eq fn 'quote)
	   (if (cdr (cdr form))
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	       (byte-compile-warn "malformed quote form: `%s'"
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				  (prin1-to-string form)))
	   ;; map (quote nil) to nil to simplify optimizer logic.
	   ;; map quoted constants to nil if for-effect (just because).
	   (and (nth 1 form)
		(not for-effect)
		form))
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	  ((eq (car-safe fn) 'lambda)
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	   (let ((newform (byte-compile-unfold-lambda form)))
	     (if (eq newform form)
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		 ;; Some error occurred, avoid infinite recursion
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		 form
	       (byte-optimize-form-code-walker newform for-effect))))
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	  ((eq (car-safe fn) 'closure) form)
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	  ((memq fn '(let let*))
	   ;; recursively enter the optimizer for the bindings and body
	   ;; of a let or let*.  This for depth-firstness: forms that
	   ;; are more deeply nested are optimized first.
	   (cons fn
	     (cons
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	      (mapcar (lambda (binding)
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			 (if (symbolp binding)
			     binding
			   (if (cdr (cdr binding))
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			       (byte-compile-warn "malformed let binding: `%s'"
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						  (prin1-to-string binding)))
			   (list (car binding)
				 (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 binding) nil))))
		      (nth 1 form))
	      (byte-optimize-body (cdr (cdr form)) for-effect))))
	  ((eq fn 'cond)
	   (cons fn
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		 (mapcar (lambda (clause)
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			    (if (consp clause)
				(cons
				 (byte-optimize-form (car clause) nil)
				 (byte-optimize-body (cdr clause) for-effect))
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			      (byte-compile-warn "malformed cond form: `%s'"
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						 (prin1-to-string clause))
			      clause))
			 (cdr form))))
	  ((eq fn 'progn)
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	   ;; As an extra added bonus, this simplifies (progn <x>) --> <x>.
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	   (if (cdr (cdr form))
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               (macroexp-progn (byte-optimize-body (cdr form) for-effect))
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	     (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) for-effect)))
	  ((eq fn 'prog1)
	   (if (cdr (cdr form))
	       (cons 'prog1
		     (cons (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) for-effect)
			   (byte-optimize-body (cdr (cdr form)) t)))
	     (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) for-effect)))
	  ((eq fn 'prog2)
	   (cons 'prog2
	     (cons (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) t)
	       (cons (byte-optimize-form (nth 2 form) for-effect)
		     (byte-optimize-body (cdr (cdr (cdr form))) t)))))
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	  ((memq fn '(save-excursion save-restriction save-current-buffer))
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	   ;; those subrs which have an implicit progn; it's not quite good
	   ;; enough to treat these like normal function calls.
	   ;; This can turn (save-excursion ...) into (save-excursion) which
	   ;; will be optimized away in the lap-optimize pass.
	   (cons fn (byte-optimize-body (cdr form) for-effect)))
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	  ((eq fn 'with-output-to-temp-buffer)
	   ;; this is just like the above, except for the first argument.
	   (cons fn
	     (cons
	      (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) nil)
	      (byte-optimize-body (cdr (cdr form)) for-effect))))
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	  ((eq fn 'if)
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	   (when (< (length form) 3)
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	     (byte-compile-warn "too few arguments for `if'"))
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	   (cons fn
	     (cons (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) nil)
	       (cons
		(byte-optimize-form (nth 2 form) for-effect)
		(byte-optimize-body (nthcdr 3 form) for-effect)))))
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	  ((memq fn '(and or))  ; Remember, and/or are control structures.
	   ;; Take forms off the back until we can't any more.
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	   ;; In the future it could conceivably be a problem that the
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	   ;; subexpressions of these forms are optimized in the reverse
	   ;; order, but it's ok for now.
	   (if for-effect
	       (let ((backwards (reverse (cdr form))))
		 (while (and backwards
			     (null (setcar backwards
					   (byte-optimize-form (car backwards)
							       for-effect))))
		   (setq backwards (cdr backwards)))
		 (if (and (cdr form) (null backwards))
		     (byte-compile-log
		      "  all subforms of %s called for effect; deleted" form))
		 (and backwards
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		      (cons fn (nreverse (mapcar 'byte-optimize-form
                                                 backwards)))))
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	     (cons fn (mapcar 'byte-optimize-form (cdr form)))))

	  ((eq fn 'interactive)
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	   (byte-compile-warn "misplaced interactive spec: `%s'"
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			      (prin1-to-string form))
	   nil)
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	  ((eq fn 'function)
	   ;; This forms is compiled as constant or by breaking out
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	   ;; all the subexpressions and compiling them separately.
	   form)

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	  ((eq fn 'condition-case)
           (if byte-compile--use-old-handlers
               ;; Will be optimized later.
               form
             `(condition-case ,(nth 1 form) ;Not evaluated.
                  ,(byte-optimize-form (nth 2 form) for-effect)
                ,@(mapcar (lambda (clause)
                            `(,(car clause)
                              ,@(byte-optimize-body (cdr clause) for-effect)))
                          (nthcdr 3 form)))))

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	  ((eq fn 'unwind-protect)
	   ;; the "protected" part of an unwind-protect is compiled (and thus
	   ;; optimized) as a top-level form, so don't do it here.  But the
	   ;; non-protected part has the same for-effect status as the
	   ;; unwind-protect itself.  (The protected part is always for effect,
	   ;; but that isn't handled properly yet.)
	   (cons fn
		 (cons (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) for-effect)
		       (cdr (cdr form)))))
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	  ((eq fn 'catch)
	   (cons fn
		 (cons (byte-optimize-form (nth 1 form) nil)
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                       (if byte-compile--use-old-handlers
                           ;; The body of a catch is compiled (and thus
                           ;; optimized) as a top-level form, so don't do it
                           ;; here.
                           (cdr (cdr form))
                         (byte-optimize-body (cdr form) for-effect)))))
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	  ((eq fn 'ignore)
	   ;; Don't treat the args to `ignore' as being
	   ;; computed for effect.  We want to avoid the warnings
	   ;; that might occur if they were treated that way.
	   ;; However, don't actually bother calling `ignore'.
	   `(prog1 nil . ,(mapcar 'byte-optimize-form (cdr form))))

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          ;; Needed as long as we run byte-optimize-form after cconv.
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          ((eq fn 'internal-make-closure) form)
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          ((byte-code-function-p fn)
           (cons fn (mapcar #'byte-optimize-form (cdr form))))

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	  ((not (symbolp fn))
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	   (byte-compile-warn "`%s' is a malformed function"
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			      (prin1-to-string fn))
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	   form)

	  ((and for-effect (setq tmp (get fn 'side-effect-free))
		(or byte-compile-delete-errors
		    (eq tmp 'error-free)
		    (progn
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		      (byte-compile-warn "value returned from %s is unused"
					 (prin1-to-string form))
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		      nil)))
	   (byte-compile-log "  %s called for effect; deleted" fn)
	   ;; appending a nil here might not be necessary, but it can't hurt.
	   (byte-optimize-form
	    (cons 'progn (append (cdr form) '(nil))) t))
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	  (t
	   ;; Otherwise, no args can be considered to be for-effect,
	   ;; even if the called function is for-effect, because we
	   ;; don't know anything about that function.
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	   (let ((args (mapcar #'byte-optimize-form (cdr form))))
	     (if (and (get fn 'pure)
		      (byte-optimize-all-constp args))
		   (list 'quote (apply fn (mapcar #'eval args)))
	       (cons fn args)))))))

(defun byte-optimize-all-constp (list)
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  "Non-nil if all elements of LIST satisfy `macroexp-const-p'."
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  (let ((constant t))
    (while (and list constant)
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      (unless (macroexp-const-p (car list))
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	(setq constant nil))
      (setq list (cdr list)))
    constant))
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(defun byte-optimize-form (form &optional for-effect)
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  "The source-level pass of the optimizer."
  ;;
  ;; First, optimize all sub-forms of this one.
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  (setq form (byte-optimize-form-code-walker form for-effect))
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  ;;
  ;; after optimizing all subforms, optimize this form until it doesn't
  ;; optimize any further.  This means that some forms will be passed through
  ;; the optimizer many times, but that's necessary to make the for-effect
  ;; processing do as much as possible.
  ;;
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  (let (opt new)
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    (if (and (consp form)
	     (symbolp (car form))
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	     (or ;; (and for-effect
		 ;;      ;; We don't have any of these yet, but we might.
		 ;;      (setq opt (get (car form)
                 ;;                     'byte-for-effect-optimizer)))
		 (setq opt (function-get (car form) 'byte-optimizer)))
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	     (not (eq form (setq new (funcall opt form)))))
	(progn
;;	  (if (equal form new) (error "bogus optimizer -- %s" opt))
	  (byte-compile-log "  %s\t==>\t%s" form new)
	  (setq new (byte-optimize-form new for-effect))
	  new)
      form)))


(defun byte-optimize-body (forms all-for-effect)
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  ;; Optimize the cdr of a progn or implicit progn; all forms is a list of
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  ;; forms, all but the last of which are optimized with the assumption that
  ;; they are being called for effect.  the last is for-effect as well if
  ;; all-for-effect is true.  returns a new list of forms.
  (let ((rest forms)
	(result nil)
	fe new)
    (while rest
      (setq fe (or all-for-effect (cdr rest)))
      (setq new (and (car rest) (byte-optimize-form (car rest) fe)))
      (if (or new (not fe))
	  (setq result (cons new result)))
      (setq rest (cdr rest)))
    (nreverse result)))


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;; some source-level optimizers
;;
;; when writing optimizers, be VERY careful that the optimizer returns
;; something not EQ to its argument if and ONLY if it has made a change.
;; This implies that you cannot simply destructively modify the list;
;; you must return something not EQ to it if you make an optimization.
;;
;; It is now safe to optimize code such that it introduces new bindings.
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(defsubst byte-compile-trueconstp (form)
  "Return non-nil if FORM always evaluates to a non-nil value."
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  (while (eq (car-safe form) 'progn)
    (setq form (car (last (cdr form)))))
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  (cond ((consp form)
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         (pcase (car form)
           (`quote (cadr form))
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           ;; Can't use recursion in a defsubst.
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           ;; (`progn (byte-compile-trueconstp (car (last (cdr form)))))
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           ))
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        ((not (symbolp form)))
        ((eq form t))
        ((keywordp form))))

(defsubst byte-compile-nilconstp (form)
  "Return non-nil if FORM always evaluates to a nil value."
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  (while (eq (car-safe form) 'progn)
    (setq form (car (last (cdr form)))))
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  (cond ((consp form)
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         (pcase (car form)
           (`quote (null (cadr form)))
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           ;; Can't use recursion in a defsubst.
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           ;; (`progn (byte-compile-nilconstp (car (last (cdr form)))))
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           ))
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        ((not (symbolp form)) nil)
        ((null form))))
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;; If the function is being called with constant integer args,
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;; evaluate as much as possible at compile-time.  This optimizer
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;; assumes that the function is associative, like min or max.
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(defun byte-optimize-associative-math (form)
  (let ((args nil)
	(constants nil)
	(rest (cdr form)))
    (while rest
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      (if (integerp (car rest))
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	  (setq constants (cons (car rest) constants))
	  (setq args (cons (car rest) args)))
      (setq rest (cdr rest)))
    (if (cdr constants)
	(if args
	    (list (car form)
		  (apply (car form) constants)
		  (if (cdr args)
		      (cons (car form) (nreverse args))
		      (car args)))
	    (apply (car form) constants))
	form)))

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;; Portable Emacs integers fall in this range.
(defconst byte-opt--portable-max #x1fffffff)
(defconst byte-opt--portable-min (- -1 byte-opt--portable-max))

;; True if N is a number that works the same on all Emacs platforms.
;; Portable Emacs fixnums are exactly representable as floats on all
;; Emacs platforms, and (except for -0.0) any floating-point number
;; that equals one of these integers must be the same on all
;; platforms.  Although other floating-point numbers such as 0.5 are
;; also portable, it can be tricky to characterize them portably so
;; they are not optimized.
(defun byte-opt--portable-numberp (n)
  (and (numberp n)
       (<= byte-opt--portable-min n byte-opt--portable-max)
       (= n (floor n))
       (not (and (floatp n) (zerop n)
                 (condition-case () (< (/ n) 0) (error))))))

;; Use OP to reduce any leading prefix of portable numbers in the list
;; (cons ACCUM ARGS) down to a single portable number, and return the
;; resulting list A of arguments.  The idea is that applying OP to A
;; is equivalent to (but likely more efficient than) applying OP to
;; (cons ACCUM ARGS), on any Emacs platform.  Do not make any special
;; provision for (- X) or (/ X); for example, it is the caller’s
;; responsibility that (- 1 0) should not be "optimized" to (- 1).
(defun byte-opt--arith-reduce (op accum args)
  (when (byte-opt--portable-numberp accum)
    (let (accum1)
      (while (and (byte-opt--portable-numberp (car args))
                  (byte-opt--portable-numberp
                   (setq accum1 (condition-case ()
                                    (funcall op accum (car args))
                                  (error))))
                  (= accum1 (funcall op (float accum) (car args))))
        (setq accum accum1)
        (setq args (cdr args)))))
  (cons accum args))

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(defun byte-optimize-plus (form)
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  (let ((args (remq 0 (byte-opt--arith-reduce #'+ 0 (cdr form)))))
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    (cond
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     ;; (+) -> 0
     ((null args) 0)
     ;; (+ n) -> n, where n is a number
     ((and (null (cdr args)) (numberp (car args))) (car args))
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     ;; (+ x 1) --> (1+ x) and (+ x -1) --> (1- x).
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     ((and (null (cddr args)) (or (memq 1 args) (memq -1 args)))
      (let* ((arg1 (car args)) (arg2 (cadr args))
             (integer-is-first (memq arg1 '(1 -1)))
             (integer (if integer-is-first arg1 arg2))
             (other (if integer-is-first arg2 arg1)))
        (list (if (eq integer 1) '1+ '1-) other)))
     ;; not further optimized
     ((equal args (cdr form)) form)
     (t (cons '+ args)))))
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(defun byte-optimize-minus (form)
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  (let ((args (cdr form)))
    (if (and (cdr args)
             (null (cdr (setq args (byte-opt--arith-reduce
                                    #'- (car args) (cdr args)))))
             (numberp (car args)))
        ;; The entire argument list reduced to a constant; return it.
        (car args)
      ;; Remove non-leading zeros, except for (- x 0).
      (when (memq 0 (cdr args))
        (setq args (cons (car args) (or (remq 0 (cdr args)) (list 0)))))
      (cond
       ;; (- x 1) --> (1- x)
       ((equal (cdr args) '(1))
        (list '1- (car args)))
       ;; (- x -1) --> (1+ x)
       ((equal (cdr args) '(-1))
        (list '1+ (car args)))
       ;; (- n) -> -n, where n and -n are portable numbers.
       ;; This must be done separately since byte-opt--arith-reduce
       ;; is not applied to (- n).
       ((and (null (cdr args))
             (byte-opt--portable-numberp (car args))
             (byte-opt--portable-numberp (- (car args))))
        (- (car args)))
       ;; not further optimized
       ((equal args (cdr form)) form)
       (t (cons '- args))))))

(defun byte-optimize-1+ (form)
  (let ((args (cdr form)))
    (when (null (cdr args))
      (let ((n (car args)))
        (when (and (byte-opt--portable-numberp n)
                   (byte-opt--portable-numberp (1+ n)))
          (setq form (1+ n))))))
  form)

(defun byte-optimize-1- (form)
  (let ((args (cdr form)))
    (when (null (cdr args))
      (let ((n (car args)))
        (when (and (byte-opt--portable-numberp n)
                   (byte-opt--portable-numberp (1- n)))
          (setq form (1- n))))))
  form)
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(defun byte-optimize-multiply (form)
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  (let* ((args (remq 1 (byte-opt--arith-reduce #'* 1 (cdr form)))))
    (cond
     ;; (*) -> 1
     ((null args) 1)
     ;; (* n) -> n, where n is a number
     ((and (null (cdr args)) (numberp (car args))) (car args))
     ;; not further optimized
     ((equal args (cdr form)) form)
     (t (cons '* args)))))
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(defun byte-optimize-divide (form)
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  (let ((args (cdr form)))
    (if (and (cdr args)
             (null (cdr (setq args (byte-opt--arith-reduce
                                    #'/ (car args) (cdr args)))))
             (numberp (car args)))
        ;; The entire argument list reduced to a constant; return it.
        (car args)
      ;; Remove non-leading 1s, except for (/ x 1).
      (when (memq 1 (cdr args))
        (setq args (cons (car args) (or (remq 1 (cdr args)) (list 1)))))
      (if (equal args (cdr form))
          form
        (cons '/ args)))))
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(defun byte-optimize-binary-predicate (form)
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  (cond
   ((or (not (macroexp-const-p (nth 1 form)))
        (nthcdr 3 form)) ;; In case there are more than 2 args.
    form)
   ((macroexp-const-p (nth 2 form))
    (condition-case ()
        (list 'quote (eval form))
      (error form)))
   (t ;; This can enable some lapcode optimizations.
    (list (car form) (nth 2 form) (nth 1 form)))))
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(defun byte-optimize-predicate (form)
  (let ((ok t)
	(rest (cdr form)))
    (while (and rest ok)
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      (setq ok (macroexp-const-p (car rest))
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	    rest (cdr rest)))
    (if ok
	(condition-case ()
	    (list 'quote (eval form))
	  (error form))
	form)))

(defun byte-optimize-identity (form)
  (if (and (cdr form) (null (cdr (cdr form))))
      (nth 1 form)
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    (byte-compile-warn "identity called with %d arg%s, but requires 1"
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		       (length (cdr form))
		       (if (= 1 (length (cdr form))) "" "s"))
    form))

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(defun byte-optimize-memq (form)
  ;; (memq foo '(bar)) => (and (eq foo 'bar) '(bar))
  (if (/= (length (cdr form)) 2)
      (byte-compile-warn "memq called with %d arg%s, but requires 2"
		         (length (cdr form))
		         (if (= 1 (length (cdr form))) "" "s"))
    (let ((list (nth 2 form)))
      (when (and (eq (car-safe list) 'quote)
                 (listp (setq list (cadr list)))
                 (= (length list) 1))
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        (setq form (byte-optimize-and
                    `(and ,(byte-optimize-predicate
                            `(eq ,(nth 1 form) ',(nth 0 list)))
                          ',list)))))
    (byte-optimize-predicate form)))
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(put 'identity 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-identity)
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(put 'memq 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-memq)
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(put '+   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-plus)
(put '*   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-multiply)
(put '-   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-minus)
(put '/   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-divide)
(put 'max 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-associative-math)
(put 'min 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-associative-math)

(put '=   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-binary-predicate)
(put 'eq  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-binary-predicate)
(put 'equal   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-binary-predicate)
(put 'string= 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-binary-predicate)
(put 'string-equal 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-binary-predicate)

(put '<   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put '>   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put '<=  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put '>=  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
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(put '1+  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-1+)
(put '1-  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-1-)
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(put 'not 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'null  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'consp 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'listp 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'symbolp 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'stringp 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'string< 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'string-lessp 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)

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(put 'logand 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'logior 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'logxor 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
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(put 'lognot 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)

(put 'car 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'cdr 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'car-safe 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)
(put 'cdr-safe 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-predicate)

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;; I'm not convinced that this is necessary.  Doesn't the optimizer loop
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;; take care of this? - Jamie
;; I think this may some times be necessary to reduce ie (quote 5) to 5,
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;; so arithmetic optimizers recognize the numeric constant.  - Hallvard
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(put 'quote 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-quote)
(defun byte-optimize-quote (form)
  (if (or (consp (nth 1 form))
	  (and (symbolp (nth 1 form))
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	       (not (macroexp--const-symbol-p form))))
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      form
    (nth 1 form)))

(defun byte-optimize-and (form)
  ;; Simplify if less than 2 args.
  ;; if there is a literal nil in the args to `and', throw it and following
  ;; forms away, and surround the `and' with (progn ... nil).
  (cond ((null (cdr form)))
	((memq nil form)
	 (list 'progn
	       (byte-optimize-and
		(prog1 (setq form (copy-sequence form))
		  (while (nth 1 form)
		    (setq form (cdr form)))
		  (setcdr form nil)))
	       nil))
	((null (cdr (cdr form)))
	 (nth 1 form))
	((byte-optimize-predicate form))))

(defun byte-optimize-or (form)
  ;; Throw away nil's, and simplify if less than 2 args.
  ;; If there is a literal non-nil constant in the args to `or', throw away all
  ;; following forms.
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  (setq form (remq nil form))
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  (let ((rest form))
    (while (cdr (setq rest (cdr rest)))
      (if (byte-compile-trueconstp (car rest))
	  (setq form (copy-sequence form)
		rest (setcdr (memq (car rest) form) nil))))
    (if (cdr (cdr form))
	(byte-optimize-predicate form)
      (nth 1 form))))

(defun byte-optimize-cond (form)
  ;; if any clauses have a literal nil as their test, throw them away.
  ;; if any clause has a literal non-nil constant as its test, throw
  ;; away all following clauses.
  (let (rest)
    ;; This must be first, to reduce (cond (t ...) (nil)) to (progn t ...)
    (while (setq rest (assq nil (cdr form)))
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      (setq form (remq rest form)))
    (setq form (remq nil form))
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    (setq rest form)
    (while (setq rest (cdr rest))
      (cond ((byte-compile-trueconstp (car-safe (car rest)))
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             ;; This branch will always be taken: kill the subsequent ones.
	     (cond ((eq rest (cdr form)) ;First branch of `cond'.
		    (setq form `(progn ,@(car rest))))
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		   ((cdr rest)
		    (setq form (copy-sequence form))
		    (setcdr (memq (car rest) form) nil)))
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	     (setq rest nil))
            ((and (consp (car rest))
                  (byte-compile-nilconstp (caar rest)))
             ;; This branch will never be taken: kill its body.
             (setcdr (car rest) nil)))))
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  ;;
  ;; Turn (cond (( <x> )) ... ) into (or <x> (cond ... ))
  (if (eq 'cond (car-safe form))
      (let ((clauses (cdr form)))
	(if (and (consp (car clauses))
		 (null (cdr (car clauses))))
	    (list 'or (car (car clauses))
		  (byte-optimize-cond
		   (cons (car form) (cdr (cdr form)))))
	  form))
    form))

(defun byte-optimize-if (form)
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  ;; (if (progn <insts> <test>) <rest>) ==> (progn <insts> (if <test> <rest>))
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  ;; (if <true-constant> <then> <else...>) ==> <then>
  ;; (if <false-constant> <then> <else...>) ==> (progn <else...>)
  ;; (if <test> nil <else...>) ==> (if (not <test>) (progn <else...>))
  ;; (if <test> <then> nil) ==> (if <test> <then>)
  (let ((clause (nth 1 form)))
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    (cond ((and (eq (car-safe clause) 'progn)
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                (proper-list-p clause))
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           (if (null (cddr clause))
               ;; A trivial `progn'.
               (byte-optimize-if `(if ,(cadr clause) ,@(nthcdr 2 form)))
             (nconc (butlast clause)
                    (list
                     (byte-optimize-if
                      `(if ,(car (last clause)) ,@(nthcdr 2 form)))))))
          ((byte-compile-trueconstp clause)
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	   `(progn ,clause ,(nth 2 form)))
	  ((byte-compile-nilconstp clause)
           `(progn ,clause ,@(nthcdr 3 form)))
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	  ((nth 2 form)
	   (if (equal '(nil) (nthcdr 3 form))
	       (list 'if clause (nth 2 form))
	     form))
	  ((or (nth 3 form) (nthcdr 4 form))
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	   (list 'if
		 ;; Don't make a double negative;
		 ;; instead, take away the one that is there.
		 (if (and (consp clause) (memq (car clause) '(not null))
			  (= (length clause) 2)) ; (not xxxx) or (not (xxxx))
		     (nth 1 clause)
		   (list 'not clause))
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		 (if (nthcdr 4 form)
		     (cons 'progn (nthcdr 3 form))
		   (nth 3 form))))
	  (t
	   (list 'progn clause nil)))))

(defun byte-optimize-while (form)
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  (when (< (length form) 2)
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    (byte-compile-warn "too few arguments for `while'"))
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  (if (nth 1 form)
      form))

(put 'and   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-and)
(put 'or    'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-or)
(put 'cond  'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-cond)
(put 'if    'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-if)
(put 'while 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-while)

;; byte-compile-negation-optimizer lives in bytecomp.el
(put '/= 'byte-optimizer 'byte-compile-negation-optimizer)
(put 'atom 'byte-optimizer 'byte-compile-negation-optimizer)
(put 'nlistp 'byte-optimizer 'byte-compile-negation-optimizer)


(defun byte-optimize-funcall (form)
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  ;; (funcall (lambda ...) ...) ==> ((lambda ...) ...)
  ;; (funcall foo ...) ==> (foo ...)
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  (let ((fn (nth 1 form)))
    (if (memq (car-safe fn) '(quote function))
	(cons (nth 1 fn) (cdr (cdr form)))
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      form)))
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(defun byte-optimize-apply (form)
  ;; If the last arg is a literal constant, turn this into a funcall.
  ;; The funcall optimizer can then transform (funcall 'foo ...) -> (foo ...).
  (let ((fn (nth 1 form))
	(last (nth (1- (length form)) form))) ; I think this really is fastest
    (or (if (or (null last)
		(eq (car-safe last) 'quote))
	    (if (listp (nth 1 last))
		(let ((butlast (nreverse (cdr (reverse (cdr (cdr form)))))))
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		  (nconc (list 'funcall fn) butlast
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			 (mapcar (lambda (x) (list 'quote x)) (nth 1 last))))
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	      (byte-compile-warn
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	       "last arg to apply can't be a literal atom: `%s'"
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	       (prin1-to-string last))
	      nil))
	form)))

(put 'funcall 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-funcall)
(put 'apply   'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-apply)


(put 'let 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-letX)
(put 'let* 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-letX)
(defun byte-optimize-letX (form)
  (cond ((null (nth 1 form))
	 ;; No bindings
	 (cons 'progn (cdr (cdr form))))
	((or (nth 2 form) (nthcdr 3 form))
	 form)
	 ;; The body is nil
	((eq (car form) 'let)
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	 (append '(progn) (mapcar 'car-safe (mapcar 'cdr-safe (nth 1 form)))
		 '(nil)))
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	(t
	 (let ((binds (reverse (nth 1 form))))
	   (list 'let* (reverse (cdr binds)) (nth 1 (car binds)) nil)))))


(put 'nth 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-nth)
(defun byte-optimize-nth (form)
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  (if (= (safe-length form) 3)
      (if (memq (nth 1 form) '(0 1))
	  (list 'car (if (zerop (nth 1 form))
			 (nth 2 form)
		       (list 'cdr (nth 2 form))))
	(byte-optimize-predicate form))
    form))
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(put 'nthcdr 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-nthcdr)
(defun byte-optimize-nthcdr (form)
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  (if (= (safe-length form) 3)
      (if (memq (nth 1 form) '(0 1 2))
	  (let ((count (nth 1 form)))
	    (setq form (nth 2 form))
	    (while (>= (setq count (1- count)) 0)
	      (setq form (list 'cdr form)))
	    form)
	(byte-optimize-predicate form))
    form))
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;; Fixme: delete-char -> delete-region (byte-coded)
;; optimize string-as-unibyte, string-as-multibyte, string-make-unibyte,
;; string-make-multibyte for constant args.

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(put 'set 'byte-optimizer 'byte-optimize-set)
(defun byte-optimize-set (form)
  (let ((var (car-safe (cdr-safe form))))
    (cond
     ((and (eq (car-safe var) 'quote) (consp (cdr var)))
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      `(setq ,(cadr var) ,@(cddr form)))
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     ((and (eq (car-safe var) 'make-local-variable)
	   (eq (car-safe (setq var (car-safe (cdr var)))) 'quote)
	   (consp (cdr var)))
      `(progn ,(cadr form) (setq ,(cadr var) ,@(cddr form))))
     (t form))))
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;; enumerating those functions which need not be called if the returned
;; value is not used.  That is, something like
;;    (progn (list (something-with-side-effects) (yow))
;;           (foo))
;; may safely be turned into
;;    (progn (progn (something-with-side-effects) (yow))
;;           (foo))
;; Further optimizations will turn (progn (list 1 2 3) 'foo) into 'foo.

;; Some of these functions have the side effect of allocating memory
;; and it would be incorrect to replace two calls with one.
;; But we don't try to do those kinds of optimizations,
;; so it is safe to list such functions here.
;; Some of these functions return values that depend on environment
;; state, so that constant folding them would be wrong,
;; but we don't do constant folding based on this list.

;; However, at present the only optimization we normally do
;; is delete calls that need not occur, and we only do that
;; with the error-free functions.

;; I wonder if I missed any :-\)
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(let ((side-effect-free-fns
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