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\input texinfo
@c %**start of header
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@c @setfilename org
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@setfilename ../info/org
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@settitle Org Mode Manual

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@set VERSION 3.13
@set DATE July 2005
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@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
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* Org Mode: (org).	Outline-based notes management and organizer
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@end direntry

@c Version and Contact Info
@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/org/,maintainers webpage}
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{dominik@@science.uva.nl}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:dominik@@science.uva.nl,contact the maintainer}
@c %**end of header
@finalout

@c Macro definitions

@c Subheadings inside a table.  Need a difference between info and the rest.
@macro tsubheading{text}
@ifinfo
@subsubheading \text\
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@copying
This manual is for Org-mode (version @value{VERSION}).

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Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005 Free Software Foundation
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@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License.''

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
@title Org Mode Manual

@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Manual

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Introduction::                Getting started
* Document Structure::          A tree works like your brain
* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::                  Notes in context
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* TODO items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
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* Timestamps::                  Assign date and time to items
* Timeline and Agenda::         Use time-stamped items to produce an agenda
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Index::                       The fast road to specific information
* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org-mode does
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* Installation and Activation::  How to install Org-mode
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* Feedback::                    Bug reportes, ideas, patches etc.
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Document Structure

* Outlines::                    Org-mode is based on outline-mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset org-tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show ad hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
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* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
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* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context

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Tables

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
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* Table calculations::          Compute a field from other fields
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* orgtbl-mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
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* table.el::                    Complex tables

Calculations in tables

* Formula syntax::              How to write a formula
* Applying a formula::          How to get a formula executed
* Recalculation::               Re-applying all formulas in a table
* Summing::                     Summing columns and rows
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Hyperlinks

* Links::                       URL-like links to the world
* Remember::                    Org-trees store quick notes

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TODO items

* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
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* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
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Extended use of TODO keywords

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred the rest
* Per file keywords::           Different files, different requirements

Timestamps

* Time stamps::                 Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps

Timeline and Agenda

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* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Agenda::                      Your weekly planner
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* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of org trees
* Calendar/Diary integration::  Integrating Anniversaries and more

Calendar/Diary integration

* Diary to agenda::             Agenda incorporates the diary
* Agenda to diary::             Diary incorporates the agenda

Exporting

* Export commands::             Commands which export and display
* HTML formatting::             Interpretation of the buffer content
* Export options::              How to influence exports
* Comment lines::               Lines which will not be exported

Miscellaneous

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* Customization::               Adapting Org-mode to your taste
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* FAQ::                         Frequently asked questions
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* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly
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* Acknowledgments::             These people provided feedback and more
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@end detailmenu
@end menu

@node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
@chapter Introduction
@cindex introduction

@menu
* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org-mode does
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* Installation and Activation::  How to install Org-mode
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* Feedback::                    Bug reportes, ideas, patches etc.
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@end menu

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@node Summary, Installation and Activation, Introduction, Introduction
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@section Summary
@cindex summary

Org-mode is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining ToDo lists, and doing
project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

Org-mode develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
information about projects as plain text.  Org-mode is implemented on
top of outline-mode, which makes it possible to keep the content of
large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and structure editing
help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created with a built-in
table editor.  Org-mode supports ToDo items, deadlines, time stamps,
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and scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an agenda that
utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar and diary.
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Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails, usenet
messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.  For
printing and sharing of notes, an Org-mode file can be exported as a
structured ASCII file, or as HTML.

Org-mode keeps simple things simple.  Not every outline branch needs
to be an action item, not every action item needs to have priority or
scheduling information associated with it.  Org-mode can be used on
different levels and in different ways, for example

@example
@r{@bullet{} as an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
@r{@bullet{} as an ASCII system and table editor to take structured notes}
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@r{@bullet{} as an ASCII table editor with some spreadsheet-like capabilities}
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@r{@bullet{} as a simple hypertext system, with HTML export}
@r{@bullet{} as a TODO list editor}
@r{@bullet{} as a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
@end example

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The Org-mode table editor can be integrated into any major mode by
activating the minor Orgtbl-mode.
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There is a website for Org-mode which provides links to the newest
version of Org-mode, as well as additional information, screen shots
and example files.  This page is located at
@uref{http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik/Tools/org/}.

@page

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@node Installation and Activation, Feedback, Summary, Introduction
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@section Installation and Activation
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@cindex installation
@cindex autoload
@cindex global keybindings
@cindex keybindings, global

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If Org-mode is part of the Emacs distribution or an XEmacs package,
you only need to copy the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.
The last two lines define @emph{global} keys for the commands
@command{org-store-link} and @command{org-agenda} - please choose
suitable keys yourself.
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@lisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org$" . org-mode))
(define-key global-map "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
(define-key global-map "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
@end lisp
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If you have downloaded Org-mode from the Web, you must byte-compile
@file{org.el} and put it on your load path.  In addition to the Emacs
Lisp lines above, you also need to add the following lines to
@file{.emacs}:
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@lisp
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;; These lines only if org-mode is not part of the X/Emacs distribution.
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(autoload 'org-mode "org" "Org mode" t)
(autoload 'org-diary "org" "Diary entries from Org mode")
(autoload 'org-agenda "org" "Multi-file agenda from Org mode" t)
(autoload 'org-store-link "org" "Store a link to the current location" t)
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(autoload 'orgtbl-mode "org" "Org tables as a minor mode" t)
(autoload 'turn-on-orgtbl "org" "Org tables as a minor mode")
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@end lisp

@cindex org-mode, turning on
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With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put into
Org-mode.  As an alternative, make the first line of a file look like
this:
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@example
MY PROJECTS    -*- mode: org; -*-
@end example

@noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
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the file's name is.  See also the variable
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@code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file'}.
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@node Feedback,  , Installation and Activation, Introduction
@section Feedback
@cindex feedback
@cindex bug reports
@cindex maintainer
@cindex author

If you find problems with Org-mode, or if you have questions, remarks,
or ideas about it, please contact the maintainer Carsten Dominik at
@value{MAINTAINEREMAIL}.

For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible,
including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{C-h v emacs-version
@key{RET}}) and Org-mode (@kbd{M-x org-version}), as well as the
Org-mode related setup in @file{.emacs}.  If an error occurs, a
traceback can be very useful.  Often a small example file helps, along
with clear information about:
@enumerate
@item What exactly did you do?
@item What did you expect to happen?
@item What happened instead?
@end enumerate
@noindent Thanks for helping to improve this mode.

@node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
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@chapter Document Structure
@cindex document structure
@cindex structure of document

Org-mode is based on outline mode and provides flexible commands to
edit the structure of the document.

@menu
* Outlines::                    Org-mode is based on outline-mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset org-tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show ad hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
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* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
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* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
@end menu

@node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
@section Outlines
@cindex outlines
@cindex outline-mode

Org-mode is implemented on top of outline-mode.  Outlines allow to
organize a document in a hierarchical structure, which (at least for
me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts.  Overview over
this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
document to show only the general document structure and the parts
currently being worked on.  Org-mode greatly simplifies the use of
outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a
single command @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB}
key.

@node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
@section Headlines
@cindex headlines
@cindex outline tree

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The Headlines in
Org-mode start with one or more stars, for example

@example
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text
* Another top level headline
@end example

@node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
@section Visibility cycling
@cindex visibility cycling
@cindex trees, visibility

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
Org-mode uses a single command bound to the @key{TAB} key to change
the visibility in the buffer.

@cindex subtree visibility states
@cindex folded, subtree visibility state
@cindex children, subtree visibility state
@cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Rotate current subtree between the states
@example
,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'
@end example
At the beginning of the buffer (or when called with @kbd{C-u}), this does
the same as the command @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} below.

@cindex global visibility states
@cindex overview, global visibility state
@cindex contents, global visibility state
@cindex show all, global visibility state
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
Rotate the entire buffer between the states
@example
,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'
@end example
Note that inside tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.

@cindex show all, command
@kindex C-c C-a
@item C-c C-a
Show all.
@end table

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When Emacs first visits an Org-mode file, the global state is set to
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OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
buffer:

@example
#+STARTUP: fold
#+STARTUP: nofold
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#+STARTUP: content
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@end example

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@node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
@section Motion
@cindex motion, between headlines
@cindex jumping, to headlines
The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Next heading.
@kindex C-c C-p
@item C-c C-p
Previous heading.
@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Next heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-b
@item C-c C-b
Previous heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-u
@item C-c C-u
Backward to higher level heading.
@kindex C-c C-j
@item C-c C-j
Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
visibility.  Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
you can use visibility cycling (@key{TAB}) to find your destination.
After pressing @key{RET}, the cursor moves to the selected location in
the original buffer, and the headings hierarchy above it is made
visible.
@end table

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@node Structure editing, Archiving, Motion, Document Structure
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@section Structure editing
@cindex structure editing
@cindex headline, promotion and demotion
@cindex promotion, of subtrees
@cindex demotion, of subtrees
@cindex subtree, cut and paste
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@cindex pasting, of subtrees
@cindex cutting, of subtrees
@cindex copying, of subtrees
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@table @kbd
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new heading with same level as current
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@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.
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@kindex M-@key{left}
@item M-@key{left}
Promote current heading by one level
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{right}
Demote current heading by one level
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Promote the current subtree by one level
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Demote the current subtree by one level
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same level)
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level)
@kindex C-c C-h C-w
@item C-c C-h C-w
Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
@kindex C-c C-h M-w
@item C-c C-h M-w
Copy subtree to kill ring.
@kindex C-c C-h C-y
@item C-c C-h C-y
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Yank subtree from kill ring.  This does modify the level of the subtree to
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make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position.  The yank
level can also be specified with a prefix arg, or by yanking after a
headline marker like @samp{****}.
@end table

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
@cindex transient-mark-mode
When there is an active region (transient-mark-mode), promotion and
demotion work on all headlines in the region.  To select a region of
headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
just after the last headline to change.  Note that when the cursor is
inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
functionality.

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@node Archiving, Sparse trees, Structure editing, Document Structure
@section Archiving
@cindex archiving

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When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
to move the tree to an archive place, either in the same file under a
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special top-level heading, or even to a different file.
@table @kbd
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@kindex C-c $
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@item @kbd{C-c $}
Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
given by @code{org-archive-location}.
@end table

@cindex archive locations
The default archive is a file in the same directory as the current
file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
current file name.  For information and examples on how to change
this, see the documentation string of the variable
@code{org-archive-location}.  If you are also using the Org-mode
agenda, archiving to a different file is a good way to keep archived
trees from contributing agenda items.

@node Sparse trees,  , Archiving, Document Structure
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@section Sparse trees
@cindex sparse trees
@cindex trees, sparse
@cindex folding, sparse trees
@cindex occur, command

An important feature of Org-mode is the ability to construct
@emph{sparse trees} for selected information in an outline tree.  A
sparse tree means that the entire document is folded as much as
possible, but the selected information is made visible along with the
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headline structure above it@footnote{See also the variable
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@code{org-show-following-heading}.}.  Just try it out and you will see
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immediately how it works.

Org-mode contains several commands creating such trees.  The most
basic one is @command{org-occur}:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c /
@item C-c /
Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches.
If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible.  If the
match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible.
In order to provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of
headlines above the match is shown, as well as the headline following
the match.
@end table

Other commands are using this feature as well.  For example @kbd{C-c
C-v} creates a sparse TODO tree (@pxref{TODO basics}).

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@kindex C-c C-x v
@cindex printing sparse trees
@cindex visible text, printing
To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
@code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
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of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
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XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties}.
Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-x v} to copy the visible part of
the document to another file (extension @file{.txt}) which then can be
printed in any desired way.

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@node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
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@chapter Tables
@cindex tables

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Org-mode has a very fast and intuitive table editor built-in.
Spreadsheet-like calculations are supported in connection with the
Emacs @file{calc} package.
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@menu
* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
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* Table calculations::          Compute a field from other fields
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* orgtbl-mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
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* table.el::                    Complex tables
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@end menu

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@node Built-in table editor, Table calculations, Tables, Tables
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@section The built-in table editor
@cindex table editor, builtin

Org-mode makes it easy to format tables in plain ASCII.  Any line with
@samp{|} as the first non-white character is considered part of a
table.  @samp{|} is also the column separator.  A table might look
like this:

@example
| Name  | Phone | Age |
|-------+-------+-----|
| Peter |  1234 |  17 |
| Anna  |  4321 |  25 |
@end example

A table is re-aligned automatically each time you press @key{TAB} or
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@key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} inside the table.  @key{TAB} also moves to
the next field (@key{RET} to the next row) and creates new table rows
at the end of the table or before horizontal lines.  The indentation
of the table is set by the first line.  Any line starting with
@samp{|-} is considered as a horizontal separator line and will be
expanded on the next re-align to span the whole table width.  So, to
create the above table, you would only type
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@example
|Name|Phone|Age
|-
@end example

@noindent and then press @key{TAB} to align the table and start filling in
fields.

@table @kbd
@tsubheading{Creation and conversion}
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@item M-x org-table-create
Creates an empty Org-mode table.  However, it is much easier to just
start typing, like @kbd{|Name|Phone|Age @key{RET} |- @key{TAB}}
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@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Convert region to table.  Works when the cursor is not in an existing
table, and when there is a region defined.  If every line contains at
least one TAB character, the function assumes that the material is tab
separated.  If not, lines are split at whitespace into fields.  You
can use a prefix argument to indicate how many consecutive spaces are
at least required to indicate a field separator (default: just one).

@tsubheading{Re-aligning and field motion}
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Re-align the table without moving the cursor.

@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Re-align the table, move to the next field.  Creates a new row if
necessary.

@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
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Re-align, move to previous field.
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@kindex @key{RET}
@item @key{RET}
Re-align the table and move down to next row.  Creates a new row if
necessary.  At the beginning or end of a line, @key{RET} still does
NEWLINE, so it can be used to split a table.

@tsubheading{Column and row editing}
@kindex M-@key{left}
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{left}
@itemx M-@key{right}
Move the current column left/right

@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Kill the current column.

@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Insert a new column to the left of the cursor position.

@kindex M-@key{up}
@kindex M-@key{down}
@item M-@key{up}
@itemx M-@key{down}
Move the current row up/down

@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Kill the current row or horizontal line.

@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Insert a new row above (with arg: below) the current row.

@kindex C-c -
@item C-c -
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Insert a horizontal line below current row. With prefix arg, the line
is created above the current line.
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@tsubheading{Regions}
@kindex C-c C-h M-w
@item C-c C-h M-w
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Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard.  Point
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and mark determine edge fields of the rectangle.  The process ignores
horizontal separator lines.
@kindex C-c C-h C-w
@item C-c C-h C-w
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Copy a rectangular region from a table to a special clipboard, and
blank all fields in the rectangle.  So this is the ``cut'' operation.
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@kindex C-c C-h C-y
@item C-c C-h C-y
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Paste a rectangular region into a table.
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The upper right corner ends up in the current field.  All involved fields
will be overwritten.  If the rectangle does not fit into the present table,
the table is enlarged as needed.  The process ignores horizontal separator
lines.
@kindex C-c C-q
@item C-c C-q
Wrap several fields in a column like a paragraph.  If there is an active
region, and both point and mark are in the same column, the text in the
column is wrapped to minimum width for the given number of lines.  A
prefix ARG may be used to change the number of desired lines.  If there
is no region, the current field is split at the cursor position and the
text fragment to the right of the cursor is prepended to the field one
line down. If there is no region, but you specify a prefix ARG, the
current field gets blank, and the content is appended to the field
above.

@tsubheading{Calculations}
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@cindex formula, in tables
@cindex calculations, in tables
@kindex C-c =
@item C-c =
Replace current field with the result of a formula.  When called with a
@kbd{C-u} prefix, apply the equation in the current field and down
through the current column to a horizonal separator line or the end of
the table.  For details, see @ref{Table calculations}.

@kindex C-c *
@item C-c *
Recalculate the current row by applying the stored formulas from left
to right.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix, recalculate the
entire table, starting with the first non-header line (i.e. below the
first horizontal separator line).  For details, see @ref{Table calculations}.

@kindex C-#
@item C-#
Rotate the recalculation mark in first column through the states
@samp{}, @samp{#}, @samp{*}, @samp{!}, @samp{$}.  For the meaning of
these marks see @ref{Table calculations}.  When there is an active
region, change all marks in the region.

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@kindex C-c ?
@item C-c ?
Which table column is the cursor in?  Displays number >0 in echo
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area.
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@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
@cindex transient-mark-mode
@kindex C-c +
@item C-c +
Sum the numbers in the current column, or in the rectangle defined by
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the active region.  The result is shown in the echo area and can
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be inserted with @kbd{C-y}.

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@kindex S-@key{RET}
@item S-@key{RET}
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When current field is empty, copy from first non-empty field above.
When not empty, copy current field down to next row and move cursor
along with it.  Depending on the variable
@code{org-table-copy-increment}, integer field values will be
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incremented during copy.  This key is also used by CUA-mode
(@pxref{Interaction}).
759

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@tsubheading{Miscellaneous}
@kindex C-c |
@item C-c |
Toggle the visibility of vertical lines in tables.  The lines are
still there, only made invisible with a text property.  Any @samp{|}
added by hand will become invisible on the next align.

@item M-x org-table-import
Import a file as a table.  The table should be TAB- or whitespace
separated.  Useful for example to import an Excel table or data from a
database, because these programs generally can write TAB-separated text
files.  This command works by inserting the file into the buffer and
then converting the region to a table.  Any prefix argument is passed on
to the converter, which uses it to determine the separator.

@item M-x org-table-export
Export the table as a TAB-separated file.  Useful for data exchange with
for example Excel or database programs.

@end table

If you don't like the automatic table editor because it gets into your
way in lines which you would like to start with @samp{|}, you can turn
it off with
@lisp
(setq org-enable-table-editor nil)
@end lisp
@noindent The only table command which then still works is
@kbd{C-c C-c} to do a manual re-align.

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@node Table calculations, orgtbl-mode, Built-in table editor, Tables
@section Calculations in tables
@cindex calculations, in tables

While the Org-mode table editor misses many features of a full
spreadsheet, it nevertheless has very useful capabilities to compute
fields.  In horizontal direction, it can use complex expressions to
compute a field from other fields @emph{in the same row}, using named
columns, constants and parameters.  The Emacs @file{calc} package is
required for this feature to work.  In vertical direction, only
summing is supported.

@menu
* Formula syntax::              How to write a formula
* Applying a formula::          How to get a formula executed
* Recalculation::               Re-applying all formulas in a table
* Summing::                     Summing columns and rows
@end menu

@node Formula syntax, Applying a formula, Table calculations, Table calculations
@subsection Formula syntax

A formula for horizontal computations can be any algebraic expression
understood by the Emacs @file{calc} package.  Before evaluation,
variable substitution takes place: @samp{$} is replaced by the field
the cursor is currently in, and $1..$n reference the fields in the
current row.  @samp{$name} is interpreted as the name of a column,
parameter or constant.  Constants are defined globally through the
variable @code{org-table-formula-constants}.  If you have the
@file{constants.el} package, it will also be used to resolve
constants, including natural constants like @samp{$k} for Plancks
constant, units like @samp{$km} for kilometers.  Column names and
parameters can be specified in special table lines.  These are
described below, see @ref{Recalculation}.

A formula can contain an optional mode string after a semicolon.  This
string consists of flags to influence calc's modes@footnote{By
default, Org-mode uses the standard calc modes (precision 12, angular
units degrees, fraction and symbolic modes off).  However, the display
format which has been changed to @code{(float 5)} to keep tables
compact.  The default settings can be configured using the variable
@code{org-calc-default-modes}.} during execution, e.g.  @samp{p20} to
switch the internal precision to 20 digits, @samp{n3}, @samp{s3},
@samp{e2} or @samp{f4} to switch to normal, scientific, engineering,
or fix display format, respectively, and @samp{D}, @samp{R}, @samp{F},
and @samp{S} to turn on degrees, radians, fraction and symbolic modes,
respectively.  In addition, you may provide a @code{printf} specifier
to reformat the final result.  A few examples:
@example
  $1+$2                @r{Sum of first and second field}
  $1+$2;%.2f           @r{Same, format result to two decimals}
  exp($2)+exp($1)      @r{Math functions can be used}
  $;%.1f               @r{Reformat current cell to 1 decimal}
  ($3-32)*5/9          @r{degrees F -> C conversion}
  $c/$1/$cm            @r{Hz -> cm conversion, using @file{constants.el}}
  tan($1);Dp3s1        @r{compute in degrees, precision 3, display SCI 1}
  vmean($2..$7)        @r{compute column range mean, using vector function}
  taylor($3,x=7,2)     @r{taylor series of $3, at x=7, second degree}
@end example

@node Applying a formula, Recalculation, Formula syntax, Table calculations
@subsection Applying a formula

To apply a formula to a field, type it directly into the field,
preceded by an equal sign, like @samp{=$1+$2}.  When you press
@key{TAB} or @key{RET} or @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still in the
field, the formula will be evaluated and replaced with the result.  If
the field contains only @samp{=}, the formula most recently applied
anywhere in the @emph{same column} will be used.

For each column, Org-mode will remember the most recently used
formula.  The information is stored in a special line directly below
the table.  When adding/deleting/moving columns with the appropriate
commands, the stored equations will be modified accordingly.  When a
column used in a calculation is removed, references to this column
become invalid and will cause an error upon applying the equation.

Instead of typing an equation into the field, you may also use the
command @kbd{C-c =}.  It prompts for a formula (with default taken
from the @samp{#+TBLFM:} line) and applies it to the current field.
If you use a prefix argument (i.e. @kbd{C-u C-c =}), the formula will
be applied to the current field and down to the next separator line
or the end of the table.  A numerical prefix will apply it to that
many fields in the current column.

When the evaluation of a formula leads to an error, the field content
becomes the string @samp{#ERROR}.  If you would like see what is going
on during variable substitution and calculation in order to find a
bug, turn on formula debugging in the menu and repeat the calculation
by pressing, for example by pressing @kbd{C-c = @key{RET}} in a field.
Detailed information will be displayed.

@node Recalculation, Summing, Applying a formula, Table calculations
@subsection Recalculation

To recompute all the fields in a line, use the command @kbd{C-c *}.
It re-applies all stored equations to the current row, from left to
right.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, this will be done to every line in
the table, so use this command it you want to make sure the entire
table is up-to-date.  A more automatic way of recalculating the
current line requires marking the line: If the first column of a row
contains only @samp{#}, the row will be re-computed with every
@key{TAB}, @key{RET}, and @kbd{C-c C-c} in this row.  Here is an
example of a table that collects exam results of students, with some
rows activated for semi-automatic computations.

@example
@group
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
|   | Student | Prob 1 | Prob 2 | Prob 3 | Total | Note |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
| ! |         |     P1 |     P2 |     P3 |   Tot |      |
| # | Maximum |     10 |     15 |     25 |    50 | 10.0 |
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| ^ |         |     m1 |     m2 |     m3 |    mt |      |
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|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
| # | Peter   |     10 |      8 |     23 |    41 |  8.2 |
| # | Sara    |      7 |     14 |     19 |    40 |  8.0 |
| # | Sam     |      2 |      4 |      3 |     9 |  1.8 |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
| $ | max=50  |        |        |        |       |      |
|---+---------+--------+--------+--------+-------+------|
#+TBLFM: $6=vsum($P1..$P3)::$7=10*$Tot/$max;%.1f
@end group
@end example
@noindent
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The example also demonstrates a number of features:
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@enumerate
@item
If the first field of a row contains only @samp{!}, this row defines
@emph{names} for the different columns so that you can write
@samp{$Tot} instead of @samp{$6} --- useful in larger tables,
when counting columns becomes error prone.
@item
If the first field of a row contains only @samp{$}, fields in this row
can define @emph{parameters} for formulas.  For example, if a field in
a @samp{$} row contains @samp{max=50}, then formulas in this table can
refer to the value 50 using @samp{$max}.  Parameters work exactly like
constants, only that they can be defined on a per-table basis.
Changing a parameter and then recalculating the table can be useful
and fun.
@item
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It the first field contains only @samp{^}, fields in this row define
names for the fields in the row above, for example @samp{$m1} for
@samp{10}.  Similarly, if the marking character is @samp{_}, the names
are valie for the fields in the row below.
@item
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A column range @samp{$P1..$P3} is expanded to a vector, so that calc's
vector functions (in this case @samp{vsum}, but there are many more)
can be applied to ranges.  For a range, columns may be referenced by
name or number, in either sequence.
@end enumerate

@noindent If a table contains any line with @samp{#} as the
first field, @kbd{C-u C-c *} will only change the marked lines and
leave all unmarked lines alone.  You can also mark a line with
@samp{*}.  These lines will also be recalculated with @kbd{C-u C-c *},
but not upon @key{TAB} and @key{RET}.  Use this for lines which are
slow to calculate.

Just to wet your appetite on what can be done with the fantastic
@file{calc} package, here is a table that computes the Taylor series
for a couple of functions (homework: try that with Excel :-)

@example
@group
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
|   | Func        | n | x   | Result                               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
| # | exp(x)      | 1 | x   | 1 + x                                |
| # | exp(x)      | 2 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2                      |
| # | exp(x)      | 3 | x   | 1 + x + x^2 / 2 + x^3 / 6            |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=0 | x*(0.5 / 0) + x^2 (2 - 0.25 / 0) / 2 |
| # | x^2+sqrt(x) | 2 | x=1 | 2 + 2.5 x - 2.5 + 0.875 (x - 1)^2    |
| * | tan(x)      | 3 | x   | 0.0175 x + 1.77e-6 x^3               |
|---+-------------+---+-----+--------------------------------------|
#+TBLFM: $5=taylor($2,$4,$3);n3
@end group
@end example

@node Summing,  , Recalculation, Table calculations
@subsection Summing

Finally, when typing a formula into a field, a number of special
keywords execute predefined sums over the current row or column and
enter the result into the current field.  These calculations are
one-off, the formula is not stored, and you will neet to re-enter it
in order to compute again.

@example
=       @r{Execute the stored formula valid in this column.}
=sum    @r{Sum all fields above the current (alias @code{=sumv}).}
=sumh   @r{Sum all fields to the left of the current field.}
=sum3   @r{Same as @samp{=sum}, but use just 3 fields above current.}
@end example

@node orgtbl-mode, table.el, Table calculations, Tables
@section The Orgtbl minor mode
@cindex orgtbl-mode
@cindex minor mode for tables

If you like the intuitive way the Org-mode table editor works, you
might want to use it also in other modes like text-mode or mail-mode.
The minor mode Orgtbl-mode makes this possible.  You can always toggle
the mode with @kbd{M-x orgtbl-mode}.  To turn it on by default, for
example in mail mode, use
@lisp
(add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgtbl)
@end lisp

@node table.el,  , orgtbl-mode, Tables
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@section The @file{table.el} package
@kindex C-c C-c
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@cindex table editor, @file{table.el}
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@cindex @file{table.el}

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Complex ASCII tables with automatic line wrapping, column- and
row-spanning, and alignment can be created using the Emacs table
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package by Takaaki Ota (@uref{http://sourceforge.net/projects/table}).
When @key{TAB} or @kbd{C-c C-c} is pressed in such a table, Org-mode
will call @command{table-recognize-table} and move the cursor into the
table.  Inside a table, the keymap of Org-mode is inactive.  In order
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to execute Org-mode-related commands, leave the table.
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@table @kbd
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@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
Recognize @file{table.el} table.  Works when the cursor is in a
table.el table.

@kindex C-c ~
@item C-c ~
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Insert a table.el table.  If there is already a table at point, this
command converts it between the table.el format and the Org-mode
format.  See the documentation string of the command
@code{org-convert-table} for the restrictions under which this is
possible.
@end table

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@node Hyperlinks, TODO items, Tables, Top
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@chapter Hyperlinks
@cindex hyperlinks

Just like HMTL, Org-mode provides links to other files, usenet
articles, emails and much more.

@menu
* Links::                       URL-like links to the world
* Remember::                    Org-trees store quick notes
@end menu

@node Links, Remember, Hyperlinks, Hyperlinks
@section Links
@cindex links
@cindex GNUS links
@cindex BBDB links
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@cindex URL links
@cindex file links
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@cindex VM links
@cindex RMAIL links
@cindex WANDERLUST links
@cindex USENET links
@cindex SHELL links

Org-mode supports links to files, websites, usenet and email messages;
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and BBDB database entries.  Links are just plain-text URL-like
locators, optionally enclosed by angular brackets.  The following list
shows examples for each link type.
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@example
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<http://www.astro.uva.nl/~dominik>         @r{on the web}
<file:/home/dominik/images/jupiter.jpg>    @r{file, absolute path}
<file:papers/last.pdf>                     @r{file, relative path}
<file:~/code/main.c:255>                   @r{file, with line number}
<news:comp.emacs>                          @r{Usenet link}
<mailto:adent@@galaxy.net>                  @r{Mail link}
<vm:folder>                                @r{VM folder link}
<vm:folder#id>                             @r{VM message link}
<vm://myself@@some.where.org/folder#id>     @r{VM on remote machine}
<wl:folder>                                @r{WANDERLUST folder link}
<wl:folder#id>                             @r{WANDERLUST message link}
<rmail:folder>                             @r{RMAIL folder link}
<rmail:folder#id>                          @r{RMAIL message link}
<gnus:group>                               @r{GNUS group link}
<gnus:group#id>                            @r{GNUS article link}
<bbdb:Richard Stallman>                    @r{BBDB link}
<shell:ls *.org>@footnote{Note that @samp{<} and @samp{>} cannot be part of a link, and therefore of a shell command.  If you need redirection, use @@@{ and @@@} instead.}                          @r{A shell command}
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@end example

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A link may contain space characters and is terminated by @samp{>} or by
the end of a line.  In tables, the end of a table field also terminates
a link.  Angle brackets around a link are not required, but are
recommended to avoid problems with punctuation and other text following
the link.  See also the variable @code{org-allow-space-in-links}.
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@cindex storing links
@table @kbd
@kindex C-c l
@item C-c l
Store a link to the current location.  This is a @emph{global} command
which can be used in any buffer to create a link.  The link will be
stored for later insertion into an Org-mode buffer (see below).  For VM,
RMAIL, WANDERLUST, GNUS and BBDB buffers, the link will point to the
current article/entry.  For W3 and W3M buffer, the link goes to the
current URL.  For any other files, the link will just point to the file.
The key binding @kbd{C-c l} is only a suggestion - see
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@ref{Installation and Activation}.
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@kindex C-c C-l
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@cindex completion, of links
@cindex completion, of file names
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@item C-c C-l
Insert a link.  This prompts for a link to be inserted into the
buffer.  You can just type a link, using one of the link type prefixes
mentioned in the examples above.  Through completion, all links stored
during the current session can be accessed.  When called with prefix
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arg, you can use file name completion to enter a file link.  The link
will be formatted as given in the variable @code{org-link-format} and
inserted into the buffer.  Note that you don't have to use this
command to insert a link.  Links in Org-mode are plain text, and you
can type or paste them straight into the buffer.
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@cindex inserting links
@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Open link at point.  This will launch a web browser for URLs (using
@command{browse-url-at-point}), run vm/gnus/bbdb for the corresponding
links, execute the command in a shell link, visit text files with
Emacs and select a suitable application for non-text files.
Classification of files is based on file extension only.  See option
@code{org-file-apps}.  If there is no link at point, the current
subtree will be searched for one.  If you want to override the default
application and visit the file with Emacs, use a @kbd{C-u} prefix.
If the cursor is on a time stamp, compiles the agenda for that date.

@strong{IMPORTANT}: Be careful not to use any dangerous commands in a
shell link.

@kindex mouse-2
@item mouse-2
On links, @kbd{mouse-2} will open the link just like @kbd{C-c C-o} would.

@kindex mouse-3
@item mouse-3
Like @kbd{mouse-2}, but force file links to be opened with Emacs.
@end table

@node Remember,  , Links, Hyperlinks
@section Remember
@cindex @file{remember.el}

Another way to create org entries with links to other files is through
the @emph{Remember} package by John Wiegley.  @emph{Remember} lets you
store quick notes with little interruption of your work flow.  See
@uref{http://www.emacswiki.org/cgi-bin/wiki/RememberMode} for more
information.  The notes produced by @emph{Remember} can be stored in
different ways, and Org-mode files are a good target.
Org-mode allows to file away notes either to a default file, or
directly to the correct location in your Org-mode outline tree.  The
following customization will tell @emph{Remember} to use org files as
target, and to create annotations compatible with Org-mode links.

@c FIXME: The autoload will not be necessary when Org-mode is part of Emacs
@example
(autoload 'org-remember-annotation "org")
(autoload 'org-remember-handler "org")
(setq org-directory "~/path/to/my/orgfiles/")
(setq org-default-notes-file "~/.notes")
(setq remember-annotation-functions '(org-remember-annotation))
(setq remember-handler-functions '(org-remember-handler))
@end example

When you compose a note with remember, you have to press @kbd{C-c C-c}
to exit remember-mode and to file away the note.  The handler first
prompts for a target file - if you press @key{RET}, the value of
@code{org-default-notes-file} is used.  Then the command offers the
headings tree of the selected file.  You can either immediately press
@key{RET} to get the note appended to the file.  Or you can use
vertical cursor motion (@key{up} and @key{down}) and visibility
cycling (@key{TAB}) to find a better place.  Pressing @key{RET} or
@key{left} or @key{right} leads to the following result.

@multitable @columnfractions 0.2 0.1 0.7
@item @b{Cursor position} @tab @b{Key} @tab @b{Note gets inserted}
@item buffer-start @tab @key{RET} @tab as level 2 heading at end of file
@item on headline @tab @key{RET} @tab as sublevel of the heading at cursor
@item             @tab @key{left}  @tab as same level, before current heading
@item             @tab @key{right} @tab as same level, after current heading
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@item not on headline @tab @key{RET}
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      @tab at cursor position, level taken from context.
           Or use prefix arg to specify level manually.
@end multitable

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So a fast way to store the note is to press @kbd{C-c C-c @key{RET}
@key{RET}} to append it to the default file.  Even shorter would be
@kbd{C-u C-c C-c}, which does the same without even showing the tree.
But with little extra effort, you can push it directly to the correct
location.
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Before inserting the text into a tree, the function ensures that the
text has a headline, i.e. a first line that starts with a @samp{*}.
If not, a headline is constructed from the current date and some
additional data.  If the variable @code{org-adapt-indentation} is
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non-nil, the entire text is also indented so that it starts in the
same column as the headline (after the asterisks).
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@node TODO items, Timestamps, Hyperlinks, Top
@chapter TODO items
@cindex TODO items

Org-mode does not maintain TODO lists as a separate document.  TODO
items are an integral part of the notes file, because TODO items
usually come up while taking notes!  With Org-mode, you simply mark
any entry in a tree as being a TODO item.  In this way, the
information is not duplicated, and the entire context from which the
item emerged is always present when you check.

Of course, this technique causes TODO items to be scattered throughout
your file.  Org-mode provides methods to give you an overview over all
things you have to do.

@menu
* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
@end menu

@node TODO basics, TODO extensions, TODO items, TODO items
@section Basic TODO functionality

Any headline can become a TODO item by starting it with the word TODO,
for example

@example
*** TODO Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end example

@noindent
The most important commands to work with TODO entries are:

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-t
@item C-c C-t
Rotate the TODO state of the current item between
@example
,-> (unmarked) -> TODO -> DONE --.
'--------------------------------'
@end example
The same rotation can also be done ``remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffers with the @kbd{t} command key (@pxref{Agenda commands}).
@kindex C-c C-v
@cindex sparse tree, for TODO
@item C-c C-v
View TODO items in a @emph{sparse tree} (@pxref{Sparse trees}).  Folds
the entire buffer, but shows all TODO items and the headings hierarchy
above them.  With prefix arg, show also the DONE entries.
@item C-u C-c a
A @kbd{C-u} argument to the @code{org-agenda command} (@pxref{Agenda})
collects all unfinished TODO items into a single place.
@end table

@node TODO extensions, Priorities, TODO basics, TODO items
@section Extended use of TODO keywords
@cindex extended TODO keywords

The default implementation of TODO entries is just two states:  TODO
and DONE.  You can, however, use the TODO feature for more
complicated things by configuring the variables
@code{org-todo-keywords} and @code{org-todo-interpretation}.  Using
special setup, you can even use TODO keywords in different ways in
different org files.

@menu
* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred the rest
* Per file keywords::           Different files, different requirements
@end menu

@node Workflow states, TODO types, TODO extensions, TODO extensions
@subsection TODO keywords as workflow states
@cindex TODO workflow
@cindex workflow states as TODO keywords

You can use TODO keywords to indicate different states in the process
of working on an item, for example

@lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords '("TODO" "FEEDBACK" "VERIFY" "DONE")
      org-todo-interpretation 'sequence)
@end lisp

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@cindex completion, of TODO keywords
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With this setup, the command @kbd{C-c C-t} will cycle an entry from
TODO to FEEDBACK, then to VERIFY, and finally too DONE.  You may also
use a prefix argument to quickly select a specific state.  For example
@kbd{C-3 C-c C-t} will change the state immediately to VERIFY.
If you define many keywords, you can use in-buffer completion (see
@ref{Completion}) to insert these words into the buffer.

@node TODO types, Per file keywords, Workflow states, TODO extensions
@subsection TODO keywords as types
@cindex TODO types
@cindex names as TODO keywords
@cindex types as TODO keywords

The second possibility is to use TODO keywords to indicate different
types of action items.  For example, you might want to indicate that
items are for ``work'' or ``home''.  Or, when you work with several
people on a single project, you might want to assign action items
directly to persons, by using their names as TODO keywords.  This
would be set up like this:

@lisp
(setq org-todo-keywords '("Fred" "Sara" "Lucy" "Mike" "DONE")
      org-todo-interpretation 'type)
@end lisp

In this case, different keywords do not indicate a sequence, but
rather different types.  So it is normally not useful to change from
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one type to another.  Therefore, in this case the behavior of the
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command @kbd{C-c C-t} is changed slightly@footnote{This is also true
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for the @kbd{t} command in the timeline and agenda buffers.}.  When
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used several times in succession, it will still cycle through all
names.  But when when you return to the item after some time and
execute @kbd{C-c C-t} again, it will switch from each name directly to
DONE.  Use prefix arguments or completion to quickly select a specific
name.

@node Per file keywords,  , TODO types, TODO extensions
@subsection Setting up TODO keywords for individual files
@cindex keyword options
@cindex per file keywords

It can be very useful to use different aspects of the TODO mechanism
in different files, which is not possible with the global settings
described above.  For file-local settings, you need to add special
lines to the file which set the keywords and interpretation for that
file only.  For example, to set one of the two examples discussed
above, you need one of the following lines, starting in column zero
anywhere in the file:

@example
#+SEQ_TODO: TODO FEEDBACK VERIFY DONE
#+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike DONE
@end example

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@cindex Completion, of option keywords
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@kindex M-@key{TAB}
@noindent To make sure you are using the correct keyword, type
@samp{#+} into the buffer and then use @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} completion.

@cindex DONE, final TODO keyword
Remember that the last keyword must always mean that the item is DONE
(you may use a different word, though).  Also note that in each file,
only one of the two aspects of TODO keywords can be used.  After
changing one of these lines, use @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor still
in the line to make the changes known to Org-mode@footnote{Org-mode
parses these lines only when Org-mode is activated after visiting a
file.  @kbd{C-c C-c} with the cursor in a line starting with @samp{#-}
is simply restarting Org-mode, making sure that these changes will be
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respected.}.
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If you want to use very many keywords, for example when working with a
large group of people, you may split the names over several lines:

@example
#+TYP_TODO: Fred Sara Lucy Mike
#+TYP_TODO: Luis George Jules Jessica
#+TYP_TODO: Kim Arnold Peter
#+TYP_TODO: DONE
@end example

@node Priorities,  , TODO extensions, TODO items
@section Priorities
@cindex priorities

If you use Org-mode extensively to organize your work, you may end up
with a number of TODO entries so large that you'd like to prioritize
them.  This can be done by placing a @emph{priority cookie} into the
headline, like this

@example
*** TODO [#A] Write letter to Sam Fortune
@end example

@noindent
With its standard setup, Org-mode supports priorities @samp{A},
@samp{B}, and @samp{C}.  @samp{A} is the highest priority.  An entry
without a cookie is treated as priority @samp{B}.  Priorities make a
difference only in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda}).

@table @kbd
@kindex @kbd{C-c ,}
@item @kbd{C-c ,}
Set the priority of the current item.  The command prompts for a
priority character @samp{A}, @samp{B} or @samp{C}.  When you press
@key{SPC} instead, the priority cookie is removed from the headline.
The priorities can also be changed ``remotely'' from the timeline and
agenda buffer with the @kbd{,} command (@pxref{Agenda commands}).

@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Increase/decrease priority of current item.  Note that these keys are
also used to modify time stamps (@pxref{Creating timestamps}).
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Furthermore, these keys are also used by CUA-mode
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(@pxref{Interaction}).
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@end table



@node Timestamps, Timeline and Agenda, TODO items, Top
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@chapter Timestamps

Items can be labeled with timestamps to make them useful for project
planning.

@menu
* Time stamps::                 Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
@end menu


@node Time stamps, Creating timestamps, Timestamps, Timestamps
@section Time stamps, deadlines and scheduling
@cindex time stamps
@cindex deadlines
@cindex scheduling

A time stamp is a specification of a date (possibly with time) in a
special format, either @samp{<2003-09-16 Tue>} or @samp{<2003-09-16
Tue 09:39>}.  A time stamp can appear anywhere in the headline or body
of an org-tree entry.  Its presence allows to show entries on specific
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dates in the agenda (@pxref{Agenda}).  We distinguish:
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@table @var
@cindex timestamp
@item TIMESTAMP
A simple time stamp just assigns a date/time to an item.  In the
timeline and agenda displays, the headline of the entry will be shown
exactly on that date.

@item TIMERANGE
@cindex timerange
Two time stamps connected by @samp{--} denote a time range.  The
headline will be shown on the first and last day of the range, and on
any dates that are displayed and fall in the range.  Here is an
example:

@example
** Meeting in Amsterdam
   <2004-08-23 Mon>--<2004-08-26 Thu>
@end example

@item DEADLINE
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@cindex DEADLINE keyword
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If a time stamp is preceded by the word @samp{DEADLINE:}, the task
(most likely a TODO item) is supposed to be finished on that date, and
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it will be listed then.  In addition, the compilation for @emph{today}
will carry a warning about the approaching or missed deadline,
starting @code{org-deadline-warning-days} before the due date, and
continuing until the entry is marked DONE.  An example:
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@example
*** TODO write article about the Earth for the Guide
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    The editor in charge is <bbdb:Ford Prefect>
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    DEADLINE: <2004-02-29 Sun>
@end example

@item SCHEDULED
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@cindex DEADLINE keyword
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If a time stamp is preceded by the word @samp{SCHEDULED:}, it means
you are planning to start working on that task on the given date.  The
headline will be listed under the given date.  In addition, a reminder
that the scheduled date has passed will be present in the compilation
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for @emph{today}, until the entry is marked DONE.  I.e., the
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task will automatically be forwarded.
@end table

@node Creating timestamps,  , Time stamps, Timestamps
@section Creating timestamps
@cindex creating timestamps

For Org-mode to recognize time stamps, they need to be in the specific
format.  All commands listed below produce time stamps in the correct
format.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c .
@item C-c .
Prompt for a date and insert a corresponding time stamp.  When the
cursor is at a previously used time stamp, it is updated to NOW.  When
this command is used twice in succession, a time range is inserted.

@kindex C-u C-c .
@item C-u C-c .
Like @kbd{C-c .}, but use the alternative format which contains date
and time.

@kindex C-c <
@item C-c <
Insert a time stamp corresponding to the cursor date in the Calendar.

@kindex C-c >
@item C-c >
Access the Emacs calendar for the current date.  If there is a
timestamp in the current line, goto the corresponding date
instead.

@kindex C-c C-o
@item C-c C-o
Access the agenda for the date given by the time stamp at point
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(@pxref{Agenda}).
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@kindex C-c C-d
@item C-c C-d
Insert @samp{DEADLINE} keyword along with a stamp.
@kindex C-c C-w
@cindex sparse tree, for deadlines
@item C-c C-w
Create a sparse tree with all deadlines that are either past-due, or
which will become due within @code{org-deadline-warning-days}.
With @kbd{C-u} prefix, show all deadlines in the file.  With a numeric
prefix, check that many days.  For example, @kbd{C-1 C-c C-w} shows
all deadlines due tomorrow.

@kindex C-c C-s
@item C-c C-s
Insert @samp{SCHEDULED} keyword along with a stamp.

@kindex S-@key{left}
@kindex S-@key{right}
@item S-@key{left}
@itemx S-@key{right}
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Change date at cursor by one day.  These key bindings conflict with
CUA-mode (@pxref{Interaction}).
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@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Change the item under the cursor in a timestamp.  The cursor can be on
a year, month, day, hour or minute.  Note that if the cursor is not at
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a time stamp, these same keys modify the priority of an item.
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(@pxref{Priorities}). The key bindings also conflict with CUA-mode
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(@pxref{Interaction}).

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@kindex C-c C-y
@cindex evaluate time range
@item C-c C-y
Evaluate a time range by computing the difference between start and
end.  With prefix arg, insert result after the time range (in a table:
into the following column).
@end table

@cindex date, reading in minibuffer
@cindex time, reading in minibuffer
@cindex calendar, for selecting date
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When Org-mode prompts for a date/time, the function reading your input
will replace anything you choose not to specify with the current date
and time.  For details, see the documentation string of
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