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\input texinfo  @c -*-texinfo-*-
@c This file is used for printing the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
@c in two volumes.  It is a modified version of elisp.texi.
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@c Copyright (C) 1990-1995, 1998-1999, 2001-2012
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@c   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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@c %**start of header
@setfilename elisp
@settitle GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual: Volume 1
@c %**end of header

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@c See two-volume-cross-refs.txt.
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@tex
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\message{Formatting for two volume edition...Volume 1...}
%
% Read special toc file, set up in two-volume.make.
\gdef\tocreadfilename{elisp1-toc-ready.toc}
%
% Don't make outlines, they're not needed and \readdatafile can't pay
% attention to the special definition above.
\global\let\pdfmakeoutlines=\relax
%
% Start volume 1 chapter numbering at 1; this must be listed as chapno0.
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\global\chapno=0
@end tex

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@c Version of the manual and of Emacs.
@c Please remember to update the edition number in README as well.
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@set VERSION  3.0
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@include emacsver.texi
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@set DATE July 2009
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@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Elisp: (elisp).       The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual.
@end direntry
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@c in general, keep the following line commented out, unless doing a
@c copy of this manual that will be published.  the manual should go
@c onto the distribution in the full, 8.5 x 11" size.
@set smallbook
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@ifset smallbook
@smallbook
@end ifset
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@c per rms and peterb, use 10pt fonts for the main text, mostly to
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@c save on paper cost.
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@c Do this inside @tex for now, so current makeinfo does not complain.
@tex
@ifset smallbook
@fonttextsize 10
\global\let\urlcolor=\Black % don't print links in grayscale
\global\let\linkcolor=\Black
@end ifset
\global\hbadness=6666 % don't worry about not-too-underfull boxes
@end tex
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@c Combine indices.
@synindex cp fn
@syncodeindex vr fn
@syncodeindex ky fn
@syncodeindex pg fn
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@c We use the "type index" to index new functions and variables.
@c @syncodeindex tp fn

@copying
This is edition @value{VERSION} of the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual,@*
corresponding to Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.

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Copyright @copyright{} 1990-1996, 1998-2012  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
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under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
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any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``GNU General Public License,'' with the
Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,'' and with the Back-Cover
Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license is included in the
section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''

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(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
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developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
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@end quotation
@end copying

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@titlepage
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@title GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
@subtitle Volume 1
@subtitle For Emacs Version @value{EMACSVER}
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@subtitle Revision @value{VERSION}, @value{DATE}
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@author by Bil Lewis, Dan LaLiberte, Richard Stallman
@author and the GNU Manual Group
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@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
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@insertcopying
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@sp 2

Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
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51 Franklin St, Fifth Floor @*
Boston, MA 02110-1301 @*
USA @*
ISBN 1-882114-74-4
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@sp 2
Cover art by Etienne Suvasa.
@end titlepage


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@c Print the tables of contents
@summarycontents
@contents


@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Emacs Lisp

This Info file contains edition @value{VERSION} of the GNU Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual, corresponding to GNU Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.
@end ifnottex
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@menu
* Introduction::            Introduction and conventions used.

* Lisp Data Types::         Data types of objects in Emacs Lisp.
* Numbers::                 Numbers and arithmetic functions.
* Strings and Characters::  Strings, and functions that work on them.
* Lists::                   Lists, cons cells, and related functions.
* Sequences Arrays Vectors::  Lists, strings and vectors are called sequences.
                                Certain functions act on any kind of sequence.
                                The description of vectors is here as well.
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* Hash Tables::             Very fast lookup-tables.
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* Symbols::                 Symbols represent names, uniquely.

* Evaluation::              How Lisp expressions are evaluated.
* Control Structures::      Conditionals, loops, nonlocal exits.
* Variables::               Using symbols in programs to stand for values.
* Functions::               A function is a Lisp program
                              that can be invoked from other functions.
* Macros::                  Macros are a way to extend the Lisp language.
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* Customization::           Writing customization declarations.
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* Loading::                 Reading files of Lisp code into Lisp.
* Byte Compilation::        Compilation makes programs run faster.
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* Advising Functions::      Adding to the definition of a function.
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* Debugging::               Tools and tips for debugging Lisp programs.

* Read and Print::          Converting Lisp objects to text and back.
* Minibuffers::             Using the minibuffer to read input.
* Command Loop::            How the editor command loop works,
                              and how you can call its subroutines.
* Keymaps::                 Defining the bindings from keys to commands.
* Modes::                   Defining major and minor modes.
* Documentation::           Writing and using documentation strings.

* Files::                   Accessing files.
* Backups and Auto-Saving:: Controlling how backups and auto-save
                              files are made.
* Buffers::                 Creating and using buffer objects.
* Windows::                 Manipulating windows and displaying buffers.
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* Frames::                  Making multiple system-level windows.
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* Positions::               Buffer positions and motion functions.
* Markers::                 Markers represent positions and update
                              automatically when the text is changed.

* Text::                    Examining and changing text in buffers.
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* Non-ASCII Characters::    Non-ASCII text in buffers and strings.
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* Searching and Matching::  Searching buffers for strings or regexps.
* Syntax Tables::           The syntax table controls word and list parsing.
* Abbrevs::                 How Abbrev mode works, and its data structures.

* Processes::               Running and communicating with subprocesses.
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* Display::                 Features for controlling the screen display.
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* System Interface::        Getting the user id, system type, environment
                              variables, and other such things.

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* Packaging::               Preparing Lisp code for distribution.

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Appendices

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* Antinews::                Info for users downgrading to Emacs 22.
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* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
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* GPL::                     Conditions for copying and changing GNU Emacs.
* Tips::                    Advice and coding conventions for Emacs Lisp.
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* GNU Emacs Internals::     Building and dumping Emacs;
                              internal data structures.
* Standard Errors::         List of all error symbols.
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* Standard Buffer-Local Variables::
                            List of variables buffer-local in all buffers.
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* Standard Keymaps::        List of standard keymaps.
* Standard Hooks::          List of standard hook variables.

* Index::                   Index including concepts, functions, variables,
                              and other terms.

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@ignore
* New Symbols::             New functions and variables in Emacs @value{EMACSVER}.
@end ignore

@c Do NOT modify the following 3 lines!  They must have this form to
@c be correctly identified by `texinfo-multiple-files-update'.  In
@c particular, the detailed menu header line MUST be identical to the
@c value of `texinfo-master-menu-header'.  See texnfo-upd.el.

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 ---------------------------------
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Here are other nodes that are subnodes of those already listed,
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mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

Introduction

* Caveats::                 Flaws and a request for help.
* Lisp History::            Emacs Lisp is descended from Maclisp.
* Conventions::             How the manual is formatted.
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* Version Info::            Which Emacs version is running?
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* Acknowledgements::        The authors, editors, and sponsors of this manual.

Conventions

* Some Terms::              Explanation of terms we use in this manual.
* nil and t::               How the symbols @code{nil} and @code{t} are used.
* Evaluation Notation::     The format we use for examples of evaluation.
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* Printing Notation::       The format we use when examples print text.
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* Error Messages::          The format we use for examples of errors.
* Buffer Text Notation::    The format we use for buffer contents in examples.
* Format of Descriptions::  Notation for describing functions, variables, etc.

Format of Descriptions

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* A Sample Function Description::  A description of an imaginary
                                     function, @code{foo}.
* A Sample Variable Description::  A description of an imaginary
                                     variable, @code{electric-future-map}.
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Lisp Data Types

* Printed Representation::  How Lisp objects are represented as text.
* Comments::                Comments and their formatting conventions.
* Programming Types::       Types found in all Lisp systems.
* Editing Types::           Types specific to Emacs.
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* Circular Objects::            Read syntax for circular structure.
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* Type Predicates::         Tests related to types.
* Equality Predicates::     Tests of equality between any two objects.

Programming Types

* Integer Type::        Numbers without fractional parts.
* Floating Point Type:: Numbers with fractional parts and with a large range.
* Character Type::      The representation of letters, numbers and
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                          control characters.
* Symbol Type::         A multi-use object that refers to a function,
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                        variable, or property list, and has a unique identity.
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* Sequence Type::       Both lists and arrays are classified as sequences.
* Cons Cell Type::      Cons cells, and lists (which are made from cons cells).
* Array Type::          Arrays include strings and vectors.
* String Type::         An (efficient) array of characters.
* Vector Type::         One-dimensional arrays.
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* Char-Table Type::     One-dimensional sparse arrays indexed by characters.
* Bool-Vector Type::    One-dimensional arrays of @code{t} or @code{nil}.
* Hash Table Type::     Super-fast lookup tables.
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* Function Type::       A piece of executable code you can call from elsewhere.
* Macro Type::          A method of expanding an expression into another
                          expression, more fundamental but less pretty.
* Primitive Function Type::     A function written in C, callable from Lisp.
* Byte-Code Type::      A function written in Lisp, then compiled.
* Autoload Type::       A type used for automatically loading seldom-used
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                          functions.

Character Type
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* Basic Char Syntax::       Syntax for regular characters.
* General Escape Syntax::   How to specify characters by their codes.
* Ctl-Char Syntax::         Syntax for control characters.
* Meta-Char Syntax::        Syntax for meta-characters.
* Other Char Bits::         Syntax for hyper-, super-, and alt-characters.
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Cons Cell and List Types

* Box Diagrams::            Drawing pictures of lists.
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* Dotted Pair Notation::    A general syntax for cons cells.
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* Association List Type::   A specially constructed list.

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String Type

* Syntax for Strings::      How to specify Lisp strings.
* Non-ASCII in Strings::    International characters in strings.
* Nonprinting Characters::  Literal unprintable characters in strings.
* Text Props and Strings::  Strings with text properties.

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Editing Types

* Buffer Type::             The basic object of editing.
* Marker Type::             A position in a buffer.
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* Window Type::             Buffers are displayed in windows.
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* Frame Type::              Windows subdivide frames.
* Terminal Type::           A terminal device displays frames.
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* Window Configuration Type::  Recording the way a frame is subdivided.
* Frame Configuration Type::   Recording the status of all frames.
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* Process Type::            A subprocess of Emacs running on the underlying OS.
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* Stream Type::             Receive or send characters.
* Keymap Type::             What function a keystroke invokes.
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* Overlay Type::            How an overlay is represented.
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* Font Type::               Fonts for displaying text.
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Numbers

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* Integer Basics::          Representation and range of integers.
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* Float Basics::            Representation and range of floating point.
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* Predicates on Numbers::   Testing for numbers.
* Comparison of Numbers::   Equality and inequality predicates.
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* Numeric Conversions::     Converting float to integer and vice versa.
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* Arithmetic Operations::   How to add, subtract, multiply and divide.
* Rounding Operations::     Explicitly rounding floating point numbers.
* Bitwise Operations::      Logical and, or, not, shifting.
* Math Functions::          Trig, exponential and logarithmic functions.
* Random Numbers::          Obtaining random integers, predictable or not.
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Strings and Characters

* String Basics::           Basic properties of strings and characters.
* Predicates for Strings::  Testing whether an object is a string or char.
* Creating Strings::        Functions to allocate new strings.
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* Modifying Strings::         Altering the contents of an existing string.
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* Text Comparison::         Comparing characters or strings.
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* String Conversion::       Converting to and from characters and strings.
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* Formatting Strings::      @code{format}: Emacs's analogue of @code{printf}.
* Case Conversion::         Case conversion functions.
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* Case Tables::             Customizing case conversion.
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Lists

* Cons Cells::              How lists are made out of cons cells.
* List-related Predicates:: Is this object a list?  Comparing two lists.
* List Elements::           Extracting the pieces of a list.
* Building Lists::          Creating list structure.
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* List Variables::          Modifying lists stored in variables.
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* Modifying Lists::         Storing new pieces into an existing list.
* Sets And Lists::          A list can represent a finite mathematical set.
* Association Lists::       A list can represent a finite relation or mapping.
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* Rings::                   Managing a fixed-size ring of objects.
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Modifying Existing List Structure

* Setcar::                  Replacing an element in a list.
* Setcdr::                  Replacing part of the list backbone.
                              This can be used to remove or add elements.
* Rearrangement::           Reordering the elements in a list; combining lists.

Sequences, Arrays, and Vectors

* Sequence Functions::      Functions that accept any kind of sequence.
* Arrays::                  Characteristics of arrays in Emacs Lisp.
* Array Functions::         Functions specifically for arrays.
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* Vectors::                 Special characteristics of Emacs Lisp vectors.
* Vector Functions::        Functions specifically for vectors.
* Char-Tables::             How to work with char-tables.
* Bool-Vectors::            How to work with bool-vectors.

Hash Tables

* Creating Hash::           Functions to create hash tables.
* Hash Access::             Reading and writing the hash table contents.
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* Defining Hash::           Defining new comparison methods.
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* Other Hash::              Miscellaneous.
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Symbols

* Symbol Components::       Symbols have names, values, function definitions
                              and property lists.
* Definitions::             A definition says how a symbol will be used.
* Creating Symbols::        How symbols are kept unique.
* Property Lists::          Each symbol has a property list
                              for recording miscellaneous information.

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Property Lists

* Plists and Alists::       Comparison of the advantages of property
                              lists and association lists.
* Symbol Plists::           Functions to access symbols' property lists.
* Other Plists::            Accessing property lists stored elsewhere.

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Evaluation

* Intro Eval::              Evaluation in the scheme of things.
* Forms::                   How various sorts of objects are evaluated.
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* Quoting::                 Avoiding evaluation (to put constants in
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                              the program).
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* Backquote::               Easier construction of list structure.
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* Eval::                    How to invoke the Lisp interpreter explicitly.
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Kinds of Forms

* Self-Evaluating Forms::   Forms that evaluate to themselves.
* Symbol Forms::            Symbols evaluate as variables.
* Classifying Lists::       How to distinguish various sorts of list forms.
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* Function Indirection::    When a symbol appears as the car of a list,
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                              we find the real function via the symbol.
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* Function Forms::          Forms that call functions.
* Macro Forms::             Forms that call macros.
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* Special Forms::           "Special forms" are idiosyncratic primitives,
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                              most of them extremely important.
* Autoloading::             Functions set up to load files
                              containing their real definitions.

Control Structures

* Sequencing::              Evaluation in textual order.
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* Conditionals::            @code{if}, @code{cond}, @code{when}, @code{unless}.
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* Combining Conditions::    @code{and}, @code{or}, @code{not}.
* Iteration::               @code{while} loops.
* Nonlocal Exits::          Jumping out of a sequence.

Nonlocal Exits

* Catch and Throw::         Nonlocal exits for the program's own purposes.
* Examples of Catch::       Showing how such nonlocal exits can be written.
* Errors::                  How errors are signaled and handled.
* Cleanups::                Arranging to run a cleanup form if an
                              error happens.

Errors

* Signaling Errors::        How to report an error.
* Processing of Errors::    What Emacs does when you report an error.
* Handling Errors::         How you can trap errors and continue execution.
* Error Symbols::           How errors are classified for trapping them.

Variables

* Global Variables::        Variable values that exist permanently, everywhere.
* Constant Variables::      Certain "variables" have values that never change.
* Local Variables::         Variable values that exist only temporarily.
* Void Variables::          Symbols that lack values.
* Defining Variables::      A definition says a symbol is used as a variable.
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* Tips for Defining::       Things you should think about when you
                              define a variable.
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* Accessing Variables::     Examining values of variables whose names
                              are known only at run time.
* Setting Variables::       Storing new values in variables.
* Variable Scoping::        How Lisp chooses among local and global values.
* Buffer-Local Variables::  Variable values in effect only in one buffer.
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* File Local Variables::    Handling local variable lists in files.
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* Directory Local Variables:: Local variables common to all files in a
                                directory.
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* Frame-Local Variables::   Frame-local bindings for variables.
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* Variable Aliases::        Variables that are aliases for other variables.
* Variables with Restricted Values::  Non-constant variables whose value can
                                        @emph{not} be an arbitrary Lisp object.
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Scoping Rules for Variable Bindings

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* Scope::                   Scope means where in the program a value
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                              is visible.  Comparison with other languages.
* Extent::                  Extent means how long in time a value exists.
* Impl of Scope::           Two ways to implement dynamic scoping.
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* Using Scoping::           How to use dynamic scoping carefully and
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                              avoid problems.

Buffer-Local Variables

* Intro to Buffer-Local::   Introduction and concepts.
* Creating Buffer-Local::   Creating and destroying buffer-local bindings.
* Default Value::           The default value is seen in buffers
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                              that don't have their own buffer-local values.
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Functions

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* What Is a Function::      Lisp functions vs. primitives; terminology.
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* Lambda Expressions::      How functions are expressed as Lisp objects.
* Function Names::          A symbol can serve as the name of a function.
* Defining Functions::      Lisp expressions for defining functions.
* Calling Functions::       How to use an existing function.
* Mapping Functions::       Applying a function to each element of a list, etc.
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* Anonymous Functions::     Lambda expressions are functions with no names.
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* Function Cells::          Accessing or setting the function definition
                              of a symbol.
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* Closures::                Functions that enclose a lexical environment.
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* Obsolete Functions::      Declaring functions obsolete.
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* Inline Functions::        Defining functions that the compiler
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                              will open code.
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* Declaring Functions::     Telling the compiler that a function is defined.
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* Function Safety::         Determining whether a function is safe to call.
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* Related Topics::          Cross-references to specific Lisp primitives
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                              that have a special bearing on how
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                              functions work.

Lambda Expressions

* Lambda Components::       The parts of a lambda expression.
* Simple Lambda::           A simple example.
* Argument List::           Details and special features of argument lists.
* Function Documentation::  How to put documentation in a function.

Macros

* Simple Macro::            A basic example.
* Expansion::               How, when and why macros are expanded.
* Compiling Macros::        How macros are expanded by the compiler.
* Defining Macros::         How to write a macro definition.
* Problems with Macros::    Don't evaluate the macro arguments too many times.
                              Don't hide the user's variables.
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* Indenting Macros::        Specifying how to indent macro calls.

Common Problems Using Macros

* Wrong Time::             Do the work in the expansion, not in the macro.
* Argument Evaluation::    The expansion should evaluate each macro arg once.
* Surprising Local Vars::  Local variable bindings in the expansion
                              require special care.
* Eval During Expansion::  Don't evaluate them; put them in the expansion.
* Repeated Expansion::     Avoid depending on how many times expansion is done.

Writing Customization Definitions

* Common Keywords::         Common keyword arguments for all kinds of
                              customization declarations.
* Group Definitions::       Writing customization group definitions.
* Variable Definitions::    Declaring user options.
* Customization Types::     Specifying the type of a user option.

Customization Types

* Simple Types::            Simple customization types: sexp, integer, number,
                              string, file, directory, alist.
* Composite Types::         Build new types from other types or data.
* Splicing into Lists::     Splice elements into list with @code{:inline}.
* Type Keywords::           Keyword-argument pairs in a customization type.
* Defining New Types::      Give your type a name.
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Loading

* How Programs Do Loading:: The @code{load} function and others.
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* Load Suffixes::           Details about the suffixes that @code{load} tries.
* Library Search::          Finding a library to load.
* Loading Non-ASCII::       Non-@acronym{ASCII} characters in Emacs Lisp files.
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* Autoload::                Setting up a function to autoload.
* Repeated Loading::        Precautions about loading a file twice.
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* Named Features::          Loading a library if it isn't already loaded.
* Where Defined::           Finding which file defined a certain symbol.
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* Unloading::               How to "unload" a library that was loaded.
* Hooks for Loading::       Providing code to be run when
                              particular libraries are loaded.
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Byte Compilation

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* Speed of Byte-Code::      An example of speedup from byte compilation.
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* Compilation Functions::   Byte compilation functions.
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* Docs and Compilation::    Dynamic loading of documentation strings.
* Dynamic Loading::         Dynamic loading of individual functions.
* Eval During Compile::     Code to be evaluated when you compile.
* Compiler Errors::         Handling compiler error messages.
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* Byte-Code Objects::       The data type used for byte-compiled functions.
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* Disassembly::             Disassembling byte-code; how to read byte-code.

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Advising Emacs Lisp Functions

* Simple Advice::           A simple example to explain the basics of advice.
* Defining Advice::         Detailed description of @code{defadvice}.
* Around-Advice::           Wrapping advice around a function's definition.
* Computed Advice::         ...is to @code{defadvice} as @code{fset} is to @code{defun}.
* Activation of Advice::    Advice doesn't do anything until you activate it.
* Enabling Advice::         You can enable or disable each piece of advice.
* Preactivation::           Preactivation is a way of speeding up the
                              loading of compiled advice.
* Argument Access in Advice:: How advice can access the function's arguments.
* Combined Definition::     How advice is implemented.

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Debugging Lisp Programs

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* Debugger::                A debugger for the Emacs Lisp evaluator.
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* Edebug::                  A source-level Emacs Lisp debugger.
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* Syntax Errors::           How to find syntax errors.
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* Test Coverage::           Ensuring you have tested all branches in your code.
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The Lisp Debugger

* Error Debugging::         Entering the debugger when an error happens.
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* Infinite Loops::          Stopping and debugging a program that doesn't exit.
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* Function Debugging::      Entering it when a certain function is called.
* Explicit Debug::          Entering it at a certain point in the program.
* Using Debugger::          What the debugger does; what you see while in it.
* Debugger Commands::       Commands used while in the debugger.
* Invoking the Debugger::   How to call the function @code{debug}.
* Internals of Debugger::   Subroutines of the debugger, and global variables.

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Edebug

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* Using Edebug::            Introduction to use of Edebug.
* Instrumenting::           You must instrument your code
                              in order to debug it with Edebug.
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* Edebug Execution Modes::  Execution modes, stopping more or less often.
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* Jumping::                 Commands to jump to a specified place.
* Edebug Misc::             Miscellaneous commands.
* Breaks::                  Setting breakpoints to make the program stop.
* Trapping Errors::         Trapping errors with Edebug.
* Edebug Views::            Views inside and outside of Edebug.
* Edebug Eval::             Evaluating expressions within Edebug.
* Eval List::               Expressions whose values are displayed
                              each time you enter Edebug.
* Printing in Edebug::      Customization of printing.
* Trace Buffer::            How to produce trace output in a buffer.
* Coverage Testing::        How to test evaluation coverage.
* The Outside Context::     Data that Edebug saves and restores.
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* Edebug and Macros::       Specifying how to handle macro calls.
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* Edebug Options::          Option variables for customizing Edebug.
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Breaks

* Breakpoints::             Breakpoints at stop points.
* Global Break Condition::  Breaking on an event.
* Source Breakpoints::      Embedding breakpoints in source code.

The Outside Context

* Checking Whether to Stop::When Edebug decides what to do.
* Edebug Display Update::   When Edebug updates the display.
* Edebug Recursive Edit::   When Edebug stops execution.

Edebug and Macros

* Instrumenting Macro Calls::The basic problem.
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* Specification List::      How to specify complex patterns of evaluation.
* Backtracking::            What Edebug does when matching fails.
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* Specification Examples::  To help understand specifications.

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Debugging Invalid Lisp Syntax

* Excess Open::             How to find a spurious open paren or missing close.
* Excess Close::            How to find a spurious close paren or missing open.

Reading and Printing Lisp Objects

* Streams Intro::           Overview of streams, reading and printing.
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* Input Streams::           Various data types that can be used as
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                              input streams.
* Input Functions::         Functions to read Lisp objects from text.
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* Output Streams::          Various data types that can be used as
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                              output streams.
* Output Functions::        Functions to print Lisp objects as text.
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* Output Variables::        Variables that control what the printing
                              functions do.
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Minibuffers

* Intro to Minibuffers::    Basic information about minibuffers.
* Text from Minibuffer::    How to read a straight text string.
* Object from Minibuffer::  How to read a Lisp object or expression.
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* Minibuffer History::      Recording previous minibuffer inputs
                              so the user can reuse them.
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* Initial Input::           Specifying initial contents for the minibuffer.
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* Completion::              How to invoke and customize completion.
* Yes-or-No Queries::       Asking a question with a simple answer.
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* Multiple Queries::        Asking a series of similar questions.
* Reading a Password::      Reading a password from the terminal.
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* Minibuffer Commands::     Commands used as key bindings in minibuffers.
* Minibuffer Contents::     How such commands access the minibuffer text.
* Minibuffer Windows::      Operating on the special minibuffer windows.
* Recursive Mini::          Whether recursive entry to minibuffer is allowed.
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* Minibuffer Misc::         Various customization hooks and variables.

Completion

* Basic Completion::        Low-level functions for completing strings.
                              (These are too low level to use the minibuffer.)
* Minibuffer Completion::   Invoking the minibuffer with completion.
* Completion Commands::     Minibuffer commands that do completion.
* High-Level Completion::   Convenient special cases of completion
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                              (reading buffer name, file name, etc.).
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* Reading File Names::      Using completion to read file names and
                              shell commands.
* Completion Styles::       Specifying rules for performing completion.
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* Programmed Completion::   Writing your own completion-function.
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* Completion in Buffers::   Completing text in ordinary buffers.
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Command Loop

* Command Overview::    How the command loop reads commands.
* Defining Commands::   Specifying how a function should read arguments.
* Interactive Call::    Calling a command, so that it will read arguments.
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* Distinguish Interactive::     Making a command distinguish interactive calls.
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* Command Loop Info::   Variables set by the command loop for you to examine.
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* Adjusting Point::     Adjustment of point after a command.
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* Input Events::        What input looks like when you read it.
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* Reading Input::       How to read input events from the keyboard or mouse.
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* Special Events::      Events processed immediately and individually.
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* Waiting::             Waiting for user input or elapsed time.
* Quitting::            How @kbd{C-g} works.  How to catch or defer quitting.
* Prefix Command Arguments::    How the commands to set prefix args work.
* Recursive Editing::   Entering a recursive edit,
                          and why you usually shouldn't.
* Disabling Commands::  How the command loop handles disabled commands.
* Command History::     How the command history is set up, and how accessed.
* Keyboard Macros::     How keyboard macros are implemented.

Defining Commands

* Using Interactive::       General rules for @code{interactive}.
* Interactive Codes::       The standard letter-codes for reading arguments
                              in various ways.
* Interactive Examples::    Examples of how to read interactive arguments.

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Input Events

* Keyboard Events::         Ordinary characters--keys with symbols on them.
* Function Keys::           Function keys--keys with names, not symbols.
* Mouse Events::            Overview of mouse events.
* Click Events::            Pushing and releasing a mouse button.
* Drag Events::             Moving the mouse before releasing the button.
* Button-Down Events::      A button was pushed and not yet released.
* Repeat Events::           Double and triple click (or drag, or down).
* Motion Events::           Just moving the mouse, not pushing a button.
* Focus Events::            Moving the mouse between frames.
* Misc Events::             Other events the system can generate.
* Event Examples::          Examples of the lists for mouse events.
* Classifying Events::      Finding the modifier keys in an event symbol.
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                              Event types.
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* Accessing Mouse::         Functions to extract info from mouse events.
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* Accessing Scroll::        Functions to get info from scroll bar events.
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* Strings of Events::       Special considerations for putting
                              keyboard character events in a string.

Reading Input

* Key Sequence Input::      How to read one key sequence.
* Reading One Event::       How to read just one event.
* Event Mod::               How Emacs modifies events as they are read.
* Invoking the Input Method::   How reading an event uses the input method.
* Quoted Character Input::  Asking the user to specify a character.
* Event Input Misc::        How to reread or throw away input events.

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Keymaps

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* Key Sequences::           Key sequences as Lisp objects.
* Keymap Basics::           Basic concepts of keymaps.
* Format of Keymaps::       What a keymap looks like as a Lisp object.
* Creating Keymaps::        Functions to create and copy keymaps.
* Inheritance and Keymaps:: How one keymap can inherit the bindings
                              of another keymap.
* Prefix Keys::             Defining a key with a keymap as its definition.
* Active Keymaps::          How Emacs searches the active keymaps
                              for a key binding.
* Searching Keymaps::       A pseudo-Lisp summary of searching active maps.
* Controlling Active Maps:: Each buffer has a local keymap
                               to override the standard (global) bindings.
                               A minor mode can also override them.
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* Key Lookup::              Finding a key's binding in one keymap.
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* Functions for Key Lookup::    How to request key lookup.
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* Changing Key Bindings::   Redefining a key in a keymap.
* Remapping Commands::      A keymap can translate one command to another.
* Translation Keymaps::     Keymaps for translating sequences of events.
* Key Binding Commands::    Interactive interfaces for redefining keys.
* Scanning Keymaps::        Looking through all keymaps, for printing help.
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* Menu Keymaps::            Defining a menu as a keymap.
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Menu Keymaps

* Defining Menus::          How to make a keymap that defines a menu.
* Mouse Menus::             How users actuate the menu with the mouse.
* Keyboard Menus::          How users actuate the menu with the keyboard.
* Menu Example::            Making a simple menu.
* Menu Bar::                How to customize the menu bar.
* Tool Bar::                A tool bar is a row of images.
* Modifying Menus::         How to add new items to a menu.

Defining Menus

* Simple Menu Items::       A simple kind of menu key binding,
                              limited in capabilities.
* Extended Menu Items::     More powerful menu item definitions
                              let you specify keywords to enable
                              various features.
* Menu Separators::         Drawing a horizontal line through a menu.
* Alias Menu Items::        Using command aliases in menu items.

Major and Minor Modes

* Hooks::              How to use hooks; how to write code that provides hooks.
* Major Modes::        Defining major modes.
* Minor Modes::        Defining minor modes.
* Mode Line Format::   Customizing the text that appears in the mode line.
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* Imenu::              Providing a menu of definitions made in a buffer.
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* Font Lock Mode::     How modes can highlight text according to syntax.
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* Auto-Indentation::   How to teach Emacs to indent for a major mode.
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* Desktop Save Mode::  How modes can have buffer state saved between
                         Emacs sessions.
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Hooks

* Running Hooks::      How to run a hook.
* Setting Hooks::      How to put functions on a hook, or remove them.

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Major Modes

* Major Mode Conventions::  Coding conventions for keymaps, etc.
* Auto Major Mode::         How Emacs chooses the major mode automatically.
* Mode Help::               Finding out how to use a mode.
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* Derived Modes::           Defining a new major mode based on another major
                              mode.
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* Basic Major Modes::       Modes that other modes are often derived from.
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* Generic Modes::           Defining a simple major mode that supports
                              comment syntax and Font Lock mode.
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* Mode Hooks::              Hooks run at the end of major mode commands.
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* Example Major Modes::     Text mode and Lisp modes.
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Minor Modes

* Minor Mode Conventions::  Tips for writing a minor mode.
* Keymaps and Minor Modes:: How a minor mode can have its own keymap.
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* Defining Minor Modes::    A convenient facility for defining minor modes.
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Mode Line Format

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* Mode Line Basics::        Basic ideas of mode line control.
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* Mode Line Data::          The data structure that controls the mode line.
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* Mode Line Top::           The top level variable, mode-line-format.
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* Mode Line Variables::     Variables used in that data structure.
* %-Constructs::            Putting information into a mode line.
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* Properties in Mode::      Using text properties in the mode line.
* Header Lines::            Like a mode line, but at the top.
* Emulating Mode Line::     Formatting text as the mode line would.

Font Lock Mode

* Font Lock Basics::        Overview of customizing Font Lock.
* Search-based Fontification::  Fontification based on regexps.
* Customizing Keywords::    Customizing search-based fontification.
* Other Font Lock Variables::   Additional customization facilities.
* Levels of Font Lock::     Each mode can define alternative levels
                              so that the user can select more or less.
* Precalculated Fontification:: How Lisp programs that produce the buffer
                                  contents can also specify how to fontify it.
* Faces for Font Lock::     Special faces specifically for Font Lock.
* Syntactic Font Lock::     Fontification based on syntax tables.
* Multiline Font Lock::     How to coerce Font Lock into properly
                              highlighting multiline constructs.

Multiline Font Lock Constructs

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* Font Lock Multiline::     Marking multiline chunks with a text property.
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* Region to Refontify::     Controlling which region gets refontified
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                              after a buffer change.
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Documentation

* Documentation Basics::    Good style for doc strings.
                              Where to put them.  How Emacs stores them.
* Accessing Documentation:: How Lisp programs can access doc strings.
* Keys in Documentation::   Substituting current key bindings.
* Describing Characters::   Making printable descriptions of
                              non-printing characters and key sequences.
* Help Functions::          Subroutines used by Emacs help facilities.

Files

* Visiting Files::          Reading files into Emacs buffers for editing.
* Saving Buffers::          Writing changed buffers back into files.
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* Reading from Files::      Reading files into buffers without visiting.
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* Writing to Files::        Writing new files from parts of buffers.
* File Locks::              Locking and unlocking files, to prevent
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                              simultaneous editing by two people.
* Information about Files:: Testing existence, accessibility, size of files.
* Changing Files::          Renaming files, changing protection, etc.
* File Names::              Decomposing and expanding file names.
* Contents of Directories:: Getting a list of the files in a directory.
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* Create/Delete Dirs::      Creating and Deleting Directories.
* Magic File Names::        Defining "magic" special handling
                              for certain file names.
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* Format Conversion::       Conversion to and from various file formats.
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Visiting Files

* Visiting Functions::      The usual interface functions for visiting.
* Subroutines of Visiting:: Lower-level subroutines that they use.

Information about Files

* Testing Accessibility::   Is a given file readable?  Writable?
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* Kinds of Files::          Is it a directory?  A symbolic link?
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* Truenames::               Eliminating symbolic links from a file name.
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* File Attributes::         How large is it?  Any other names?  Etc.
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* Locating Files::          How to find a file in standard places.
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File Names

* File Name Components::    The directory part of a file name, and the rest.
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* Relative File Names::     Some file names are relative to a current directory.
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* Directory Names::         A directory's name as a directory
                              is different from its name as a file.
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* File Name Expansion::     Converting relative file names to absolute ones.
* Unique File Names::       Generating names for temporary files.
* File Name Completion::    Finding the completions for a given file name.
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* Standard File Names::     If your package uses a fixed file name,
                              how to handle various operating systems simply.
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File Format Conversion

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* Format Conversion Overview::   @code{insert-file-contents} and @code{write-region}.
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* Format Conversion Round-Trip:: Using @code{format-alist}.
* Format Conversion Piecemeal::  Specifying non-paired conversion.

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Backups and Auto-Saving

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* Backup Files::            How backup files are made; how their names
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                              are chosen.
* Auto-Saving::             How auto-save files are made; how their
                              names are chosen.
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* Reverting::               @code{revert-buffer}, and how to customize
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                              what it does.

Backup Files

* Making Backups::          How Emacs makes backup files, and when.
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* Rename or Copy::          Two alternatives: renaming the old file
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                              or copying it.
* Numbered Backups::        Keeping multiple backups for each source file.
* Backup Names::            How backup file names are computed; customization.

Buffers

* Buffer Basics::           What is a buffer?
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* Current Buffer::          Designating a buffer as current
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                              so that primitives will access its contents.
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* Buffer Names::            Accessing and changing buffer names.
* Buffer File Name::        The buffer file name indicates which file
                              is visited.
* Buffer Modification::     A buffer is @dfn{modified} if it needs to be saved.
* Modification Time::       Determining whether the visited file was changed
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                              ``behind Emacs's back''.
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* Read Only Buffers::       Modifying text is not allowed in a
                              read-only buffer.
* The Buffer List::         How to look at all the existing buffers.
* Creating Buffers::        Functions that create buffers.
* Killing Buffers::         Buffers exist until explicitly killed.
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* Indirect Buffers::        An indirect buffer shares text with some
                              other buffer.
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* Swapping Text::           Swapping text between two buffers.
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* Buffer Gap::              The gap in the buffer.
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Windows

* Basic Windows::           Basic information on using windows.
* Splitting Windows::       Splitting one window into two windows.
* Deleting Windows::        Deleting a window gives its space to other windows.
* Selecting Windows::       The selected window is the one that you edit in.
* Cyclic Window Ordering::  Moving around the existing windows.
* Buffers and Windows::     Each window displays the contents of a buffer.
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* Switching Buffers::       Higher-level functions for switching to a buffer.
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* Choosing Window::         How to choose a window for displaying a buffer.
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* Display Action Functions:: Subroutines for @code{display-buffer}.
* Choosing Window Options:: Extra options affecting how buffers are displayed.
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* Window History::          Each window remembers the buffers displayed in it.
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* Dedicated Windows::       How to avoid displaying another buffer in
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                              a specific window.
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* Window Point::            Each window has its own location of point.
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* Window Start and End::    Buffer positions indicating which text is
                              on-screen in a window.
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* Textual Scrolling::       Moving text up and down through the window.
* Vertical Scrolling::      Moving the contents up and down on the window.
* Horizontal Scrolling::    Moving the contents sideways on the window.
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* Size of Window::          Accessing the size of a window.
* Resizing Windows::        Changing the size of a window.
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* Coordinates and Windows:: Converting coordinates to windows.
* Window Tree::             The layout and sizes of all windows in a frame.
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* Window Configurations::   Saving and restoring the state of the screen.
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* Window Parameters::       Associating additional information with windows.
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* Window Hooks::            Hooks for scrolling, window size changes,
                              redisplay going past a certain point,
                              or window configuration changes.
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Frames

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* Creating Frames::         Creating additional frames.
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* Multiple Terminals::      Displaying on several different devices.
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* Frame Parameters::        Controlling frame size, position, font, etc.
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* Terminal Parameters::     Parameters common for all frames on terminal.
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* Frame Titles::            Automatic updating of frame titles.
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* Deleting Frames::         Frames last until explicitly deleted.
* Finding All Frames::      How to examine all existing frames.
* Frames and Windows::      A frame contains windows;
                              display of text always works through windows.
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* Minibuffers and Frames::  How a frame finds the minibuffer to use.
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* Input Focus::             Specifying the selected frame.
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* Visibility of Frames::    Frames may be visible or invisible, or icons.
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* Raising and Lowering::    Raising a frame makes it hide other windows;
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                              lowering it makes the others hide it.
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* Frame Configurations::    Saving the state of all frames.
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* Mouse Tracking::          Getting events that say when the mouse moves.
* Mouse Position::          Asking where the mouse is, or moving it.
* Pop-Up Menus::            Displaying a menu for the user to select from.
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* Dialog Boxes::            Displaying a box to ask yes or no.
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* Pointer Shape::           Specifying the shape of the mouse pointer.
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* Window System Selections::Transferring text to and from other X clients.
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* Drag and Drop::               Internals of Drag-and-Drop implementation.
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* Color Names::             Getting the definitions of color names.
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* Text Terminal Colors::    Defining colors for text-only terminals.
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* Resources::               Getting resource values from the server.
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* Display Feature Testing:: Determining the features of a terminal.

Frame Parameters

* Parameter Access::        How to change a frame's parameters.
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* Initial Parameters::      Specifying frame parameters when you make a frame.
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* Window Frame Parameters:: List of frame parameters for window systems.
* Size and Position::       Changing the size and position of a frame.
* Geometry::                Parsing geometry specifications.

Window Frame Parameters

* Basic Parameters::        Parameters that are fundamental.
* Position Parameters::     The position of the frame on the screen.
* Size Parameters::         Frame's size.
* Layout Parameters::       Size of parts of the frame, and
                              enabling or disabling some parts.
* Buffer Parameters::       Which buffers have been or should be shown.
* Management Parameters::   Communicating with the window manager.
* Cursor Parameters::       Controlling the cursor appearance.
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* Font and Color Parameters:: Fonts and colors for the frame text.
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Positions

* Point::                   The special position where editing takes place.
* Motion::                  Changing point.
* Excursions::              Temporary motion and buffer changes.
* Narrowing::               Restricting editing to a portion of the buffer.

Motion

* Character Motion::        Moving in terms of characters.
* Word Motion::             Moving in terms of words.
* Buffer End Motion::       Moving to the beginning or end of the buffer.
* Text Lines::              Moving in terms of lines of text.
* Screen Lines::            Moving in terms of lines as displayed.
* List Motion::             Moving by parsing lists and sexps.
* Skipping Characters::     Skipping characters belonging to a certain set.

Markers

* Overview of Markers::     The components of a marker, and how it relocates.
* Predicates on Markers::   Testing whether an object is a marker.
* Creating Markers::        Making empty markers or markers at certain places.
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* Information from Markers::Finding the marker's buffer or character position.
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* Marker Insertion Types::  Two ways a marker can relocate when you
                              insert where it points.
* Moving Markers::          Moving the marker to a new buffer or position.
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* The Mark::                How "the mark" is implemented with a marker.
* The Region::              How to access "the region".
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Text

* Near Point::              Examining text in the vicinity of point.
* Buffer Contents::         Examining text in a general fashion.
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* Comparing Text::          Comparing substrings of buffers.
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* Insertion::               Adding new text to a buffer.
* Commands for Insertion::  User-level commands to insert text.
* Deletion::                Removing text from a buffer.
* User-Level Deletion::     User-level commands to delete text.
* The Kill Ring::           Where removed text sometimes is saved for
                              later use.
* Undo::                    Undoing changes to the text of a buffer.
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* Maintaining Undo::        How to enable and disable undo information.
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                              How to control how much information is kept.
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* Filling::                 Functions for explicit filling.
* Margins::                 How to specify margins for filling commands.
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* Adaptive Fill::           Adaptive Fill mode chooses a fill prefix
                              from context.
* Auto Filling::            How auto-fill mode is implemented to break lines.
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* Sorting::                 Functions for sorting parts of the buffer.
* Columns::                 Computing horizontal positions, and using them.
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* Indentation::             Functions to insert or adjust indentation.
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* Case Changes::            Case conversion of parts of the buffer.
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* Text Properties::         Assigning Lisp property lists to text characters.
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* Substitution::            Replacing a given character wherever it appears.
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* Transposition::           Swapping two portions of a buffer.
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* Registers::               How registers are implemented.  Accessing
                              the text or position stored in a register.
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* Base 64::                 Conversion to or from base 64 encoding.
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* Checksum/Hash::           Computing "message digests"/"checksums"/"hashes".
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* Atomic Changes::          Installing several buffer changes "atomically".
* Change Hooks::            Supplying functions to be run when text is changed.
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The Kill Ring

* Kill Ring Concepts::      What text looks like in the kill ring.
* Kill Functions::          Functions that kill text.
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* Yanking::                 How yanking is done.
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* Yank Commands::           Commands that access the kill ring.
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* Low-Level Kill Ring::     Functions and variables for kill ring access.
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* Internals of Kill Ring::  Variables that hold kill ring data.
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Indentation

* Primitive Indent::        Functions used to count and insert indentation.
* Mode-Specific Indent::    Customize indentation for different modes.
* Region Indent::           Indent all the lines in a region.
* Relative Indent::         Indent the current line based on previous lines.
* Indent Tabs::             Adjustable, typewriter-like tab stops.
* Motion by Indent::        Move to first non-blank character.

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Text Properties

* Examining Properties::    Looking at the properties of one character.
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* Changing Properties::     Setting the properties of a range of text.
* Property Search::         Searching for where a property changes value.
* Special Properties::      Particular properties with special meanings.
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* Format Properties::       Properties for representing formatting of text.
* Sticky Properties::       How inserted text gets properties from
                              neighboring text.
* Lazy Properties::         Computing text properties in a lazy fashion
                              only when text is examined.
* Clickable Text::          Using text properties to make regions of text
                              do something when you click on them.
* Fields::                  The @code{field} property defines
                              fields within the buffer.
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* Not Intervals::           Why text properties do not use
                              Lisp-visible text intervals.
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Non-@acronym{ASCII} Characters
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* Text Representations::    How Emacs represents text.
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* Converting Representations::  Converting unibyte to multibyte and vice versa.
* Selecting a Representation::  Treating a byte sequence as unibyte or multi.
* Character Codes::         How unibyte and multibyte relate to
                                codes of individual characters.
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* Character Properties::    Character attributes that define their
                                behavior and handling.
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* Character Sets::          The space of possible character codes
                                is divided into various character sets.
* Scanning Charsets::       Which character sets are used in a buffer?
* Translation of Characters::   Translation tables are used for conversion.
* Coding Systems::          Coding systems are conversions for saving files.
* Input Methods::           Input methods allow users to enter various
                                non-ASCII characters without special keyboards.
* Locales::                 Interacting with the POSIX locale.

Coding Systems

* Coding System Basics::    Basic concepts.
* Encoding and I/O::        How file I/O functions handle coding systems.
* Lisp and Coding Systems:: Functions to operate on coding system names.
* User-Chosen Coding Systems::  Asking the user to choose a coding system.
* Default Coding Systems::  Controlling the default choices.
* Specifying Coding Systems::   Requesting a particular coding system
                                    for a single file operation.
* Explicit Encoding::       Encoding or decoding text without doing I/O.
* Terminal I/O Encoding::   Use of encoding for terminal I/O.
* MS-DOS File Types::       How DOS "text" and "binary" files
                                relate to coding systems.

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Searching and Matching

* String Search::           Search for an exact match.
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* Searching and Case::      Case-independent or case-significant searching.
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* Regular Expressions::     Describing classes of strings.
* Regexp Search::           Searching for a match for a regexp.
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* POSIX Regexps::           Searching POSIX-style for the longest match.
* Match Data::              Finding out which part of the text matched,
                              after a string or regexp search.
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* Search and Replace::      Commands that loop, searching and replacing.
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