org.texi 357 KB
Newer Older
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1 2
\input texinfo
@c %**start of header
3
@setfilename ../../info/org
4
@settitle The Org Manual
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
5

6 7
@set VERSION 6.02b
@set DATE April 2008
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
8 9 10 11 12 13 14

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Org Mode: (org).      Outline-based notes management and organizer
@end direntry

@c Version and Contact Info
15
@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
16 17
@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
18 19
@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35
@c %**end of header
@finalout

@c Macro definitions

@c Subheadings inside a table.
@macro tsubheading{text}
@ifinfo
@subsubheading \text\
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@copying
36
This manual is for Org (version @value{VERSION}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
37

38
Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
39 40 41

@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
42
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.2 or
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
43 44 45 46
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
47
License'' in the Emacs manual.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
48

49 50 51
(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
52 53 54 55 56

This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this document
separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
57 58 59 60
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
61
@title The Org Manual
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83

@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Manual

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Introduction::                Getting started
84
* Document Structure::          A tree works like your brain
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
85 86
* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::                  Notes in context
87
* TODO Items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
88
* Tags::                        Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
89 90
* Properties and Columns::      Storing information about an entry
* Dates and Times::             Making items useful for planning
91
* Remember::                    Quickly adding nodes to the outline tree
92
* Agenda Views::                Collecting information into views
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
93 94
* Embedded LaTeX::              LaTeX fragments and formulas
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
95
* Publishing::                  Create a web site of linked Org files
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
96 97
* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Extensions and Hacking::      It is possible to write add-on code
98 99
* History and Acknowledgments::  How Org came into being
* Main Index::                  An index of Org's concepts and features
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
100 101 102 103 104 105 106
* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

107 108 109
* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
110
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
111
* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
112 113 114

Document Structure

115 116
* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
117 118 119 120 121 122 123
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
124
* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133

Archiving

* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file

Tables

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
134
* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
135
* Column groups::               Grouping to trigger vertical lines
136 137
* Orgtbl mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* The spreadsheet::             The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151

The spreadsheet

* References::                  How to refer to another field or range
* Formula syntax for Calc::     Using Calc to compute stuff
* Formula syntax for Lisp::     Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
* Field formulas::              Formulas valid for a single field
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for an entire column
* Editing and debugging formulas::  Fixing formulas
* Updating the table::          Recomputing all dependent fields
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc

Hyperlinks

152
* Link format::                 How links in Org are formatted
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
153 154 155
* Internal links::              Links to other places in the current file
* External links::              URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
156
* Using links outside Org::     Linking from my C source code?
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
157 158 159 160 161 162
* Link abbreviations::          Shortcuts for writing complex links
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough

Internal links

163
* Radio targets::               Make targets trigger links in plain text
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
164

165
TODO Items
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
166 167 168

* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
169
* Progress logging::            Dates and notes for progress
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
170 171 172 173 174 175 176
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::         Splitting a task into manageable pieces
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists

Extended use of TODO keywords

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
177
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred does the rest
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
178
* Multiple sets in one file::   Mixing it all, and still finding your way
179 180 181 182
* Fast access to TODO states::  Single letter selection of a state
* Per-file keywords::           Different files, different requirements
* Faces for TODO keywords::     Highlighting states

183
Progress logging
184 185 186

* Closing items::               When was this entry marked DONE?
* Tracking TODO state changes::  When did the status change?
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196

Tags

* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags

Properties and Columns

* Property syntax::             How properties are spelled out
197
* Special properties::          Access to other Org mode features
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
198
* Property searches::           Matching property values
199
* Property inheritance::        Passing values down the tree
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
200 201 202
* Column view::                 Tabular viewing and editing
* Property API::                Properties for Lisp programmers

203
Column view
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
204 205 206

* Defining columns::            The COLUMNS format property
* Using column view::           How to create and use column view
207
* Capturing column view::       A dynamic block for column view
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
208

209
Defining columns
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
210 211 212 213

* Scope of column definitions::  Where defined, where valid?
* Column attributes::           Appearance and content of a column

214
Dates and Times
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
215

216
* Timestamps::                  Assigning a time to a tree entry
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
217 218
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Deadlines and scheduling::    Planning your work
219 220
* Clocking work time::          Tracking how long you spend on a task
* Effort estimates::            Planning work effort in advance
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
221 222 223

Creating timestamps

224 225
* The date/time prompt::        How Org mode helps you entering date and time
* Custom time format::          Making dates look different
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
226

227
Deadlines and scheduling
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
228 229 230 231

* Inserting deadline/schedule::  Planning items
* Repeated tasks::              Items that show up again and again

232
Remember
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
233

234
* Setting up Remember::         Some code for .emacs to get things going
235 236 237
* Remember templates::          Define the outline of different note types
* Storing notes::               Directly get the note to where it belongs
* Refiling notes::              Moving a note or task to a project
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
238 239 240 241 242 243 244

Agenda Views

* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::           Keyboard access to agenda views
* Built-in agenda views::       What is available out of the box?
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
245
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of Org trees
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
246
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views
247
* Agenda column view::          Using column view for collected entries
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
248 249 250

The built-in agenda views

251
* Weekly/daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
252 253 254
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching tags and properties::  Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
255
* Keyword search::              Finding entries by keyword
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268
* Stuck projects::              Find projects you need to review

Presentation and sorting

* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things

Custom agenda views

* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
269 270
* Exporting Agenda Views::      Writing agendas to files
* Using the agenda elsewhere::  Using agenda information in other programs
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
271 272 273 274

Embedded LaTeX

* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
275
* Subscripts and superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas

Exporting

* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* LaTeX export::                Exporting to LaTeX
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format
* Text interpretation::         How the exporter looks at the file

HTML export

* HTML Export commands::        How to invoke LaTeX export
292
* Quoting HTML tags::           Using direct HTML in Org mode
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
293 294
* Links::                       Transformation of links for HTML
* Images::                      How to include images
295 296
* CSS support::                 Changing the appearance of the output
* Javascript support::          Info and Folding in a web browser
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
297 298 299 300 301

LaTeX export

* LaTeX export commands::       How to invoke LaTeX export
* Quoting LaTeX code::          Incorporating literal LaTeX code
302
* Sectioning structure::        Changing sectioning in LaTeX output
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
303 304 305 306 307 308

Text interpretation by the exporter

* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported
* Initial text::                Text before the first headline
* Footnotes::                   Numbers like [1]
309
* Quoted examples::             Inserting quoted chunks of text
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336
* Enhancing text::              Subscripts, symbols and more
* Export options::              How to influence the export settings

Publishing

* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands

Configuration

* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files

Sample configuration

* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example

Miscellaneous

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
337
* Customization::               Adapting Org to your taste
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
338 339 340
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
341
* TTY keys::                    Using Org on a tty
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
342 343 344 345 346
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly

Interaction with other packages

347
* Cooperation::                 Packages Org cooperates with
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
348 349 350 351
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts

Extensions, Hooks and Hacking

352
* Extensions::                  Existing 3rd-party extensions
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
353 354 355 356 357 358
* Adding hyperlink types::      New custom link types
* Tables in arbitrary syntax::  Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
* Special agenda views::        Customized views
* Using the property API::      Writing programs that use entry properties

359
Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
360 361 362 363

* Radio tables::                Sending and receiving
* A LaTeX example::             Step by step, almost a tutorial
* Translator functions::        Copy and modify
364
* Radio lists::                 Doing the same for lists
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
365 366 367 368

@end detailmenu
@end menu

369
@node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
370 371 372 373
@chapter Introduction
@cindex introduction

@menu
374 375 376
* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
377
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
378
* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
379 380 381 382 383 384
@end menu

@node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
@section Summary
@cindex summary

385
Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
386 387
project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

388 389 390
Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
lists or information about projects as plain text.  Org is
implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
391 392
content of large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and
structure editing help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created
393
with a built-in table editor.  Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
394 395 396 397
time stamps, and scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an
agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
and diary.  Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
398
For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
399
structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
400
iCalendar file.  It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
401
linked web pages.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
402

403
An important design aspect that distinguishes Org from for example
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
404 405
Planner/Muse is that it encourages to store every piece of information
only once.  In Planner, you have project pages, day pages and possibly
406
other files, duplicating some information such as tasks.  In Org,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
407 408 409 410 411
you only have notes files.  In your notes you mark entries as tasks,
label them with tags and timestamps.  All necessary lists like a
schedule for the day, the agenda for a meeting, tasks lists selected by
tags etc are created dynamically when you need them.

412
Org keeps simple things simple.  When first fired up, it should
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
413 414
feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner.  Complexity is not
imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
415
it.  Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways, for
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425
example as:

@example
@r{@bullet{} outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
@r{@bullet{} ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
@r{@bullet{} ASCII table editor with spreadsheet-like capabilities}
@r{@bullet{} TODO list editor}
@r{@bullet{} full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
@r{@bullet{} environment to implement David Allen's GTD system}
@r{@bullet{} a basic database application}
426
@r{@bullet{} simple hypertext system, with HTML and LaTeX export}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
427 428 429
@r{@bullet{} publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
@end example

430
Org's automatic, context sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
431
capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
432
minor Orgtbl mode.  Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
433
tables in arbitrary file types, for example in La@TeX{}.  The structure
434 435
editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
the minor Orgstruct mode.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
436 437

@cindex FAQ
438 439
There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
440
questions (FAQ), links to tutorials etc.  This page is located at
441
@uref{http://orgmode.org}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450

@page


@node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
@section Installation
@cindex installation
@cindex XEmacs

451
@b{Important:} @i{If Org is part of the Emacs distribution or an
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
452 453 454
XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly to
@ref{Activation}.}

455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463
If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
or @file{.tar} file, or as a GIT archive, you must take the following steps
to install it: Go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
top section of the file @file{Makefile}.  You must set the name of the Emacs
binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept.  If you don't have
access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
Emacs load path.  To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
464 465

@example
466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
@end example

@noindent
If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
step for this directory:

@example
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
475 476 477
@end example

@b{XEmacs users now need to install the file @file{noutline.el} from
478
the @file{xemacs} sub-directory of the Org distribution.  Use the
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
479 480 481 482 483 484
command:}

@example
@b{make install-noutline}
@end example

485
@noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
486 487 488 489 490

@example
make
@end example

491 492
@noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
all.  If you want to install into the system directories, use
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
493 494

@example
495
make install
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
496 497 498 499 500 501
make install-info
@end example

@noindent Then add to @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
502
;; This line only if Org is not part of the X/Emacs distribution.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
503 504 505
(require 'org-install)
@end lisp

506

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
507 508 509 510
@node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
@section Activation
@cindex activation
@cindex autoload
511 512
@cindex global key bindings
@cindex key bindings, global
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522

@iftex
@b{Important:} @i{If you use copy-and-paste to copy lisp code from the
PDF documentation as viewed by Acrobat reader to your .emacs file, the
single quote character comes out incorrectly and the code will not work.
You need to fix the single quotes by hand, or copy from Info
documentation.}
@end iftex

Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.  The last two lines
523 524 525
define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link},
@command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} - please choose suitable
keys yourself.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
526 527 528 529 530 531

@lisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
(global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
(global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
532
(global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
533 534
@end lisp

535
Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in Org
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
536 537 538 539 540
buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
active.  You can do this with either one of the following two lines
(XEmacs user must use the second option):
@lisp
(global-font-lock-mode 1)                     ; for all buffers
541
(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)  ; Org buffers only
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
542 543
@end lisp

544
@cindex Org mode, turning on
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
545
With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
546
into Org mode.  As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
547 548 549 550 551 552
like this:

@example
MY PROJECTS    -*- mode: org; -*-
@end example

553
@noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
554 555 556
the file's name is.  See also the variable
@code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.

557
@node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
558 559 560 561 562 563
@section Feedback
@cindex feedback
@cindex bug reports
@cindex maintainer
@cindex author

564
If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
565 566 567 568 569
or ideas about it, please contact the maintainer @value{MAINTAINER} at
@value{MAINTAINEREMAIL}.

For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible,
including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{C-h v emacs-version
570 571
@key{RET}}) and Org (@kbd{C-h v org-version @key{RET}}), as well as
the Org related setup in @file{.emacs}.  If an error occurs, a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584
backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to create one).  Often a
small example file helps, along with clear information about:

@enumerate
@item What exactly did you do?
@item What did you expect to happen?
@item What happened instead?
@end enumerate
@noindent Thank you for helping to improve this mode.

@subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace

@cindex backtrace of an error
585
If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613
understand, you may have hit a bug.  The best way to report this is by
providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{Backtrace}.
This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
error occurred.  Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:

@enumerate
@item
Start a fresh Emacs or XEmacs, and make sure that it will load the
original Lisp code in @file{org.el} instead of the compiled version in
@file{org.elc}.  The backtrace contains much more information if it is
produced with uncompiled code.  To do this, either rename @file{org.elc}
to something else before starting Emacs, or ask Emacs explicitly to load
@file{org.el} by using the command line
@example
emacs -l /path/to/org.el
@end example
@item
Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
(XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
@item
Do whatever you have to do to hit the error.  Don't forget to
document the steps you take.
@item
When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
screen.  Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
attach it to your bug report.
@end enumerate

614 615 616
@node Conventions,  , Feedback, Introduction
@section Typesetting conventions used in this manual

617
Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634
names.  In this manual we use the following conventions:

@table @code
@item TODO
@itemx WAITING
TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
user-defined.
@item boss
@itemx ARCHIVE
User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
meaning are written with all capitals.
@item Release
@itemx PRIORITY
User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
special meaning are written with all capitals.
@end table

635
@node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
636 637 638 639
@chapter Document Structure
@cindex document structure
@cindex structure of document

640
Org is based on outline mode and provides flexible commands to
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
641 642 643
edit the structure of the document.

@menu
644 645
* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
646 647 648 649 650 651 652
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
653
* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
654 655
@end menu

656
@node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
657 658
@section Outlines
@cindex outlines
659
@cindex Outline mode
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
660

661
Org is implemented on top of Outline mode.  Outlines allow a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
662 663 664 665
document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts.  An overview
of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
document to show only the general document structure and the parts
666
currently being worked on.  Org greatly simplifies the use of
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
667 668 669
outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
command @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.

670
@node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
671 672 673 674 675
@section Headlines
@cindex headlines
@cindex outline tree

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in
676
Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700
the variable @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e} to configure special behavior
of @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} in headlines.}.  For example:

@example
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text

* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
starters.  @ref{Clean view} describes a setup to realize this.

An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
will be hidden when the subtree is folded.  However, if you leave at
least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view.  See the
variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.

701
@node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709
@section Visibility cycling
@cindex cycling, visibility
@cindex visibility cycling
@cindex trees, visibility
@cindex show hidden text
@cindex hide text

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
710
Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749
@kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.

@cindex subtree visibility states
@cindex subtree cycling
@cindex folded, subtree visibility state
@cindex children, subtree visibility state
@cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
@emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states

@example
,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'
@end example

The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.  When the cursor is at the
beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
@key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}.  Also when called with a prefix
argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.

@cindex global visibility states
@cindex global cycling
@cindex overview, global visibility state
@cindex contents, global visibility state
@cindex show all, global visibility state
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
@itemx C-u @key{TAB}
@emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states

@example
,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'
@end example

750 751 752
When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown.  Note that inside
tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
753 754 755 756 757 758 759

@cindex show all, command
@kindex C-c C-a
@item C-c C-a
Show all.
@kindex C-c C-r
@item C-c C-r
760 761 762 763
Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
and the hierarchy above.  Useful for working near a location that has been
exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
(@pxref{Agenda commands}).  With a prefix argument show, on each
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776
level, all sibling headings.
@kindex C-c C-x b
@item C-c C-x b
Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
buffer
@ifinfo
(@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
(see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
@end ifnotinfo
will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
tree.  Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
777 778 779
but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}.  With a numeric
prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree.  If N is
negative then go up that many levels.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
780 781 782
the previously used indirect buffer.
@end table

783
When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794
OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
buffer:

@example
#+STARTUP: overview
#+STARTUP: content
#+STARTUP: showall
@end example

795
@node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833
@section Motion
@cindex motion, between headlines
@cindex jumping, to headlines
@cindex headline navigation
The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Next heading.
@kindex C-c C-p
@item C-c C-p
Previous heading.
@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Next heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-b
@item C-c C-b
Previous heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-u
@item C-c C-u
Backward to higher level heading.
@kindex C-c C-j
@item C-c C-j
Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
visibility.  Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
you can use the following keys to find your destination:
@example
@key{TAB}         @r{Cycle visibility.}
@key{down} / @key{up}   @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
n / p        @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
f / b        @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
u            @r{One level up.}
0-9          @r{Digit argument.}
@key{RET}         @r{Select this location.}
@end example
@end table

834
@node Structure editing, Archiving, Motion, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850
@section Structure editing
@cindex structure editing
@cindex headline, promotion and demotion
@cindex promotion, of subtrees
@cindex demotion, of subtrees
@cindex subtree, cut and paste
@cindex pasting, of subtrees
@cindex cutting, of subtrees
@cindex copying, of subtrees
@cindex subtrees, cut and paste

@table @kbd
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new heading with same level as current.  If the cursor is in a
plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}).  To force
851
creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or first press @key{RET}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
852 853
to get to the beginning of the next line.  When this command is used in
the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861
the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.  If the
command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
created before the current line.  If at the beginning of any other line,
the content of that line is made the new heading.  If the command is
used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end
of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted
after the end of the subtree.
862 863 864 865
@kindex C-@key{RET}
@item C-@key{RET}
Insert a new heading after the current subtree, same level as the
current headline.  This command works from anywhere in the entry.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892
@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.
@kindex M-@key{left}
@item M-@key{left}
Promote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{right}
Demote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Promote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Demote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
level).
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
@kindex C-c C-x C-w
@kindex C-c C-x C-k
@item C-c C-x C-w
@itemx C-c C-x C-k
Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
893
With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
894 895
@kindex C-c C-x M-w
@item C-c C-x M-w
896 897
Copy subtree to kill ring.  With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
sequential subtrees.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
898 899 900
@kindex C-c C-x C-y
@item C-c C-x C-y
Yank subtree from kill ring.  This does modify the level of the subtree to
901 902
make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position.  The yank level can
also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
903
headline marker like @samp{****}.
904 905 906
@kindex C-c C-w
@item C-c C-w
Refile entry to a different location.  @xref{Refiling notes}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
907 908
@kindex C-c ^
@item C-c ^
909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917
Sort same-level entries.  When there is an active region, all entries in the
region will be sorted.  Otherwise the children of the current headline are
sorted.  The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
alphabetically, numerically, by time (using the first time stamp in each
entry), by priority, or by TODO keyword (in the sequence the keywords have
been defined in the setup).  Reverse sorting is possible as well.  You can
also supply your own function to extract the sorting key.  With a @kbd{C-u}
prefix, sorting will be case-sensitive.  With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes,
duplicate entries will also be removed.
918 919 920 921 922 923 924
@kindex C-c *
@item C-c *
Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it
becomes a subheading at its location).  Also turn a headline into a
normal line by removing the stars.  If there is an active region, turn
all lines in the region into headlines.  Or, if the first line is a
headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
925 926 927 928
@end table

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
929 930
@cindex Transient mark mode
When there is an active region (Transient mark mode), promotion and
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
931 932 933 934 935 936 937
demotion work on all headlines in the region.  To select a region of
headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
just after the last headline to change.  Note that when the cursor is
inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
functionality.

938
@node Archiving, Sparse trees, Structure editing, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
939 940 941 942 943
@section Archiving
@cindex archiving

When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
944
agenda.  Org mode knows two ways of archiving.  You can mark a tree with
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970
the ARCHIVE tag, or you can move an entire (sub)tree to a different
location.

@menu
* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file
@end menu

@node ARCHIVE tag, Moving subtrees, Archiving, Archiving
@subsection The ARCHIVE tag
@cindex internal archiving

A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
@itemize @minus
@item
It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}).  You can force cycling archived
subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
@code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}.  Also normal outline commands like
@code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
@item
During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
@code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
@item
971
During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
972 973 974 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982
archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
@code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}.
@item
Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
is.  Configure the details using the variable
@code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
@end itemize

The following commands help managing the ARCHIVE tag:

@table @kbd
983 984
@kindex C-c C-x a
@item C-c C-x a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
985
Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.  When the tag is set,
986
the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
987
hidden.
988 989
@kindex C-u C-c C-x a
@item C-u C-c C-x a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003
Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.  If none are
found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child.  If the
cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
level 1 trees will be checked.
@kindex C-@kbd{TAB}
@item C-@kbd{TAB}
Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
@end table

@node Moving subtrees,  , ARCHIVE tag, Archiving
@subsection Moving subtrees
@cindex external archiving

1004 1005 1006
Once an entire project is finished, you may want to move it to a different
location.  Org can move it to an @emph{Attic Sibling} in the same tree, to a
different tree in the current file, or to a different file, the archive file.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1007 1008

@table @kbd
1009 1010
@kindex C-c C-x A
@item C-c C-x A
1011
Move the current entry to the @emph{Attic Sibling}.  This is a sibling of the
1012 1013 1014 1015
entry with the heading @samp{Attic} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}
(@pxref{ARCHIVE tag}).  The entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this
way retains a lot of its original context, including inherited tags and
approximate position in the outline.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1016 1017 1018 1019
@kindex C-c C-x C-s
@item C-c C-x C-s
Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
given by @code{org-archive-location}.  Context information that could be
1020
lost like the file name, the category, inherited tags, and the TODO
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036
state will be store as properties in the entry.
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-s
@item C-u C-c C-x C-s
Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
the archive.  To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
location.  If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
@end table

@cindex archive locations
The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
current file name.  For information and examples on how to change this,
see the documentation string of the variable
@code{org-archive-location}.  There is also an in-buffer option for
1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043
setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
each specifies the archive location for the text below it.  The first
such line also applies to any text before its definition.  However,
using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
with the outline structure of the document.  The correct method for
setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using a property.}:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049

@example
#+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
@end example

@noindent
1050 1051
If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
1052
location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1053

1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059
When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
record context information like the file from where the entry came, it's
outline path the archiving time etc.  Configure the variable
@code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
added.

1060
@node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Archiving, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066
@section Sparse trees
@cindex sparse trees
@cindex trees, sparse
@cindex folding, sparse trees
@cindex occur, command

1067
An important feature of Org mode is the ability to construct
1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075
@emph{sparse trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that
the entire document is folded as much as possible, but the selected
information is made visible along with the headline structure above
it@footnote{See also the variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above},
@code{org-show-following-heading}, and @code{org-show-siblings} for
detailed control on how much context is shown around each match.}.  Just
try it out and you will see immediately how it works.

1076
Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
1077
commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1078 1079 1080 1081

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c /
@item C-c /
1082 1083 1084
This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
@kindex C-c / r
@item C-c / r
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094
Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches.
If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible.  If the
match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible.
In order to provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of
headlines above the match is shown, as well as the headline following
the match.  Each match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear
when the buffer is changed by an editing command, or by pressing
@kbd{C-c C-c}.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous
highlights are kept, so several calls to this command can be stacked.
@end table
1095

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110
@noindent
For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
keyboard access to specific sparse trees.  These commands will then be
accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
For example:

@lisp
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
@end lisp

@noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.

1111 1112
The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123

@kindex C-c C-e v
@cindex printing sparse trees
@cindex visible text, printing
To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
@code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
part of the document and print the resulting file.

1124
@node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132
@section Plain lists
@cindex plain lists
@cindex lists, plain
@cindex lists, ordered
@cindex ordered lists

Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
additional structure.  They also provide a way to create lists of
1133
checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}).  Org supports editing such lists,
1134
and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1135

1136
Org knows ordered and unordered lists.  Unordered list items start
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1137 1138 1139 1140 1141
with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a
bullet, lines must be indented or they will be seen as top-level
headlines.  Also, when you are hiding leading stars to get a clean
outline view, plain list items starting with a star are visually
indistinguishable from true headlines.  In short: even though @samp{*}
1142 1143 1144
is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
bullets.  Ordered list items start with a numeral followed by either a
period or a right parenthesis, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}.  Items
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169
belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
line.  In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then
the 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers
in the list.  Indentation also determines the end of a list item.  It
ends before the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or
less.  Empty lines are part of the previous item, so you can have
several paragraphs in one item.  If you would like an empty line to
terminate all currently open plain lists, configure the variable
@code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.  Here is an example:

@example
@group
** Lord of the Rings
   My favorite scenes are (in this order)
   1. The attack of the Rohirrim
   2. Eowyns fight with the witch king
      + this was already my favorite scene in the book
      + I really like Miranda Otto.
   3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
       - on DVD only
      He makes a really funny face when it happens.
   But in the end, not individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
@end group
@end example

1170 1171
Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to
deal with them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1172 1173
settings for Emacs.  For XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones'
@file{filladapt.el}.  To turn this on,  put into @file{.emacs}:
1174
@code{(require 'filladapt)}}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 1180 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 1188

The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line
of an item (the line with the bullet or number).

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Items can be folded just like headline levels if you set the variable
@code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}.  The level of an item is then
given by the indentation of the bullet/number.  Items are always
subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies remain
completely separated.

If @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists} has not been set, @key{TAB}
1189
fixes the indentation of the current line in a heuristic way.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1190 1191
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200
Insert new item at current level.  With a prefix argument, force a new
heading (@pxref{Structure editing}).  If this command is used in the middle
of a line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new
item@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
@code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.  If this command is executed in the
@emph{whitespace before a bullet or number}, the new item is created
@emph{before} the current item.  If the command is executed in the white
space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain the
bullet, a bullet is added to the current line.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1201 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208 1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214 1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 1228
@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Jump to the previous/next item in the current list.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{up}
@itemx M-S-@key{down}
Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
of same indentation).  If the list is ordered, renumbering is
automatic.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{left}
@itemx M-S-@key{right}
Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
When these commands are executed several times in direct succession,
the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation
would imply a different hierarchy.  To use the new hierarchy, break
the command chain with a cursor motion or so.
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
1229 1230
state of the checkbox.  If not, this command makes sure that all the
items on this list level use the same bullet.  Furthermore, if this is
1231
an ordered list, make sure the numbering is OK.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1232 1233
@kindex C-c -
@item C-c -
1234 1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240
Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
(@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}).  With a numeric prefix
argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list.  If there is an active
region when calling this, all lines will be converted to list items.  If the
first line already was a list item, any item markers will be removed from the
list.  Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
converted into a list item.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1241 1242
@end table

1243
@node Drawers, Orgstruct mode, Plain lists, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1244 1245 1246 1247 1248
@section Drawers
@cindex drawers
@cindex visibility cycling, drawers

Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
1249
normally don't want to see it.  For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
1250 1251 1252
Drawers need to be configured with the variable
@code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}.  Drawers
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1253 1254 1255 1256 1257 1258 1259 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266
look like this:

@example
** This is a headline
   Still outside the drawer
   :DRAWERNAME:
      This is inside the drawer.
   :END:
   After the drawer.
@end example

Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will
hide and show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line.
In order to look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the
1267 1268
drawer line and press @key{TAB} there.  Org mode uses a drawer for
storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1269

1270
@node Orgstruct mode,  , Drawers, Document Structure
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1271
@section The Orgstruct minor mode
1272
@cindex Orgstruct mode
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1273 1274
@cindex minor mode for structure editing

1275
If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1276
formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes
1277
like Text mode or Mail mode as well.  The minor mode Orgstruct mode
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1278
makes this possible.  You can always toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x
1279
orgstruct-mode}.  To turn it on by default, for example in Mail mode,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286
use

@lisp
(add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
@end lisp

When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to
1287
Org like a headline of the first line of a list item, most
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1288 1289
structure editing commands will work, even if the same keys normally
have different functionality in the major mode you are using.  If the
1290
cursor is not in one of those special lines, Orgstruct mode lurks
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1291 1292
silently in the shadow.

1293
@node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1294 1295 1296 1297
@chapter Tables
@cindex tables
@cindex editing tables

1298
Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor.  Spreadsheet-like
1299
calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
1300
package