cmdargs.texi 45.3 KB
Newer Older
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1 2
@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2001, 2002,
3
@c   2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010, 2011, 2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Emacs Invocation, X Resources, GNU Free Documentation License, Top
@appendix Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation
@cindex command line arguments
@cindex arguments (command line)
@cindex options (command line)
@cindex switches (command line)
@cindex startup (command line arguments)
@cindex invocation (command line arguments)

14 15 16 17 18
  Emacs supports command line arguments to request various actions
when invoking Emacs.  These are for compatibility with other editors
and for sophisticated activities.  We don't recommend using them for
ordinary editing (@xref{Emacs Server}, for a way to access an existing
Emacs job from the command line).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
19 20 21 22

  Arguments starting with @samp{-} are @dfn{options}, and so is
@samp{+@var{linenum}}.  All other arguments specify files to visit.
Emacs visits the specified files while it starts up.  The last file
23 24 25 26
specified on the command line becomes the current buffer; the other
files are also visited in other buffers.  As with most programs, the
special argument @samp{--} says that all subsequent arguments are file
names, not options, even if they start with @samp{-}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52

  Emacs command options can specify many things, such as the size and
position of the X window Emacs uses, its colors, and so on.  A few
options support advanced usage, such as running Lisp functions on files
in batch mode.  The sections of this chapter describe the available
options, arranged according to their purpose.

  There are two ways of writing options: the short forms that start with
a single @samp{-}, and the long forms that start with @samp{--}.  For
example, @samp{-d} is a short form and @samp{--display} is the
corresponding long form.

  The long forms with @samp{--} are easier to remember, but longer to
type.  However, you don't have to spell out the whole option name; any
unambiguous abbreviation is enough.  When a long option takes an
argument, you can use either a space or an equal sign to separate the
option name and the argument.  Thus, you can write either
@samp{--display sugar-bombs:0.0} or @samp{--display=sugar-bombs:0.0}.
We recommend an equal sign because it makes the relationship clearer,
and the tables below always show an equal sign.

@cindex initial options (command line)
@cindex action options (command line)
@vindex command-line-args
  Most options specify how to initialize Emacs, or set parameters for
the Emacs session.  We call them @dfn{initial options}.  A few options
53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61
specify things to do, such as loading libraries or calling Lisp
functions.  These are called @dfn{action options}.  These and file
names together are called @dfn{action arguments}.  The action
arguments are stored as a list of strings in the variable
@code{command-line-args}.  (Actually, when Emacs starts up,
@code{command-line-args} contains all the arguments passed from the
command line; during initialization, the initial arguments are removed
from this list when they are processed, leaving only the action
arguments.)
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

@menu
* Action Arguments::    Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
                          and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::    Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::              Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors::              Choosing display colors.
* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::           Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Misc X::              Other display options.
@end menu

@node Action Arguments
@appendixsec Action Arguments

83
  Here is a table of action arguments:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95

@table @samp
@item @var{file}
@opindex --file
@itemx --file=@var{file}
@opindex --find-file
@itemx --find-file=@var{file}
@opindex --visit
@itemx --visit=@var{file}
@cindex visiting files, command-line argument
@vindex inhibit-startup-buffer-menu
Visit @var{file} using @code{find-file}.  @xref{Visiting}.
96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110

When Emacs starts up, it displays the startup buffer in one window,
and the buffer visiting @var{file} in another window
(@pxref{Windows}).  If you supply more than one file argument, the
displayed file is the last one specified on the command line; the
other files are visited but their buffers are not shown.

If the startup buffer is disabled (@pxref{Entering Emacs}), then
@var{file} is visited in a single window if one file argument was
supplied; with two file arguments, Emacs displays the files in two
different windows; with more than two file argument, Emacs displays
the last file specified in one window, plus a Buffer Menu in a
different window (@pxref{Several Buffers}).  To inhibit using the
Buffer Menu for this, change the variable
@code{inhibit-startup-buffer-menu} to @code{t}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161

@item +@var{linenum} @var{file}
@opindex +@var{linenum}
Visit @var{file} using @code{find-file}, then go to line number
@var{linenum} in it.

@item +@var{linenum}:@var{columnnum} @var{file}
Visit @var{file} using @code{find-file}, then go to line number
@var{linenum} and put point at column number @var{columnnum}.

@item -l @var{file}
@opindex -l
@itemx --load=@var{file}
@opindex --load
@cindex loading Lisp libraries, command-line argument
Load a Lisp library named @var{file} with the function @code{load}.
@xref{Lisp Libraries}.  If @var{file} is not an absolute file name,
the library can be found either in the current directory, or in the
Emacs library search path as specified with @env{EMACSLOADPATH}
(@pxref{General Variables}).

@strong{Warning:} If previous command-line arguments have visited
files, the current directory is the directory of the last file
visited.

@item -L @var{dir}
@opindex -L
@itemx --directory=@var{dir}
@opindex --directory
Add directory @var{dir} to the variable @code{load-path}.

@item -f @var{function}
@opindex -f
@itemx --funcall=@var{function}
@opindex --funcall
@cindex call Lisp functions, command-line argument
Call Lisp function @var{function}.  If it is an interactive function
(a command), it reads the arguments interactively just as if you had
called the same function with a key sequence.  Otherwise, it calls the
function with no arguments.

@item --eval=@var{expression}
@opindex --eval
@itemx --execute=@var{expression}
@opindex --execute
@cindex evaluate expression, command-line argument
Evaluate Lisp expression @var{expression}.

@item --insert=@var{file}
@opindex --insert
@cindex insert file contents, command-line argument
162 163 164
Insert the contents of @var{file} into the @samp{*scratch*} buffer
(@pxref{Lisp Interaction}).  This is like what @kbd{M-x insert-file}
does (@pxref{Misc File Ops}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187

@item --kill
@opindex --kill
Exit from Emacs without asking for confirmation.

@item --help
@opindex --help
Print a usage message listing all available options, then exit
successfully.

@item --version
@opindex --version
Print Emacs version, then exit successfully.
@end table

@node Initial Options
@appendixsec Initial Options

  The initial options specify parameters for the Emacs session.  This
section describes the more general initial options; some other options
specifically related to the X Window System appear in the following
sections.

188 189 190 191 192 193
  Some initial options affect the loading of the initialization file.
The normal actions of Emacs are to first load @file{site-start.el} if
it exists, then your own initialization file @file{~/.emacs} if it
exists, and finally @file{default.el} if it exists.  @xref{Init File}.
Certain options prevent loading of some of these files or substitute
other files for them.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227

@table @samp
@item -t @var{device}
@opindex -t
@itemx --terminal=@var{device}
@opindex --terminal
@cindex device for Emacs terminal I/O
Use @var{device} as the device for terminal input and output.
@samp{--terminal} implies @samp{--no-window-system}.

@item -d @var{display}
@opindex -d
@itemx --display=@var{display}
@opindex --display
@cindex display for Emacs frame
Use the X Window System and use the display named @var{display} to open
the initial Emacs frame.  @xref{Display X}, for more details.

@item -nw
@opindex -nw
@itemx --no-window-system
@opindex --no-window-system
@cindex disable window system
Don't communicate directly with the window system, disregarding the
@env{DISPLAY} environment variable even if it is set.  This means that
Emacs uses the terminal from which it was launched for all its display
and input.

@cindex batch mode
@item -batch
@opindex --batch
@itemx --batch
Run Emacs in @dfn{batch mode}.  Batch mode is used for running
programs written in Emacs Lisp from shell scripts, makefiles, and so
228 229 230
on.  To invoke a Lisp program, use the @samp{-batch} option in
conjunction with one or more of @samp{-l}, @samp{-f} or @samp{--eval}
(@pxref{Action Arguments}).  @xref{Command Example}, for an example.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
231 232 233

In batch mode, Emacs does not display the text being edited, and the
standard terminal interrupt characters such as @kbd{C-z} and @kbd{C-c}
234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245
have their usual effect.  Emacs functions that normally print a
message in the echo area will print to either the standard output
stream (@code{stdout}) or the standard error stream (@code{stderr})
instead.  (To be precise, functions like @code{prin1}, @code{princ}
and @code{print} print to @code{stdout}, while @code{message} and
@code{error} print to @code{stderr}.)  Functions that normally read
keyboard input from the minibuffer take their input from the
terminal's standard input stream (@code{stdin}) instead.

@samp{--batch} implies @samp{-q} (do not load an initialization file),
but @file{site-start.el} is loaded nonetheless.  It also causes Emacs
to exit after processing all the command options.  In addition, it
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273
disables auto-saving except in buffers for which it has been
explicitly requested.

@item --script @var{file}
@opindex --script
@cindex script mode
Run Emacs in batch mode, like @samp{--batch}, and then read and
execute the Lisp code in @var{file}.

The normal use of this option is in executable script files that run
Emacs.  They can start with this text on the first line

@example
#!/usr/bin/emacs --script
@end example

@noindent
which will invoke Emacs with @samp{--script} and supply the name of
the script file as @var{file}.  Emacs Lisp then treats @samp{#!}  as a
comment delimiter.

@item -q
@opindex -q
@itemx --no-init-file
@opindex --no-init-file
@cindex bypassing init and @file{default.el} file
@cindex init file, not loading
@cindex @file{default.el} file, not loading
274 275 276 277 278
Do not load your Emacs initialization file, and do not load the file
@file{default.el} either (@pxref{Init File}).  Regardless of this
switch, @file{site-start.el} is still loaded.  When Emacs is invoked
like this, the Customize facility does not allow options to be saved
(@pxref{Easy Customization}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286

@item --no-site-file
@opindex --no-site-file
@cindex @file{site-start.el} file, not loading
Do not load @file{site-start.el}.  The options @samp{-q}, @samp{-u}
and @samp{--batch} have no effect on the loading of this file---this
option and @samp{-Q} are the only options that block it.

287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295
@item --no-splash
@opindex --no-splash
@vindex inhibit-startup-screen
@cindex splash screen
@cindex startup message
Do not display a startup screen.  You can also achieve this effect by
setting the variable @code{inhibit-startup-screen} to non-@code{nil}
in your initialization file (@pxref{Entering Emacs}).

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
296 297 298 299
@item -Q
@opindex -Q
@itemx --quick
@opindex --quick
300 301 302 303
Start emacs with minimum customizations, similar to using @samp{-q},
@samp{--no-site-file}, and @samp{--no-splash} together.  This also
stops Emacs from processing X resources by setting
@code{inhibit-x-resources} to @code{t} (@pxref{Resources}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
304

305 306 307 308
@item -daemon
@opindex -daemon
@itemx --daemon
@opindex --daemon
309 310 311 312 313
Start Emacs as a daemon---after Emacs starts up, it starts the Emacs
server and disconnects from the terminal without opening any frames.
You can then use the @command{emacsclient} command to connect to Emacs
for editing.  @xref{Emacs Server}, for information about using Emacs
as a daemon.
314

315
@item -daemon=@var{SERVER-NAME}
316 317
Start emacs in background as a daemon, and use @var{SERVER-NAME} as
the server name.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327

@item --no-desktop
@opindex --no-desktop
Do not reload any saved desktop.  @xref{Saving Emacs Sessions}.

@item -u @var{user}
@opindex -u
@itemx --user=@var{user}
@opindex --user
@cindex load init file of another user
328 329
Load @var{user}'s initialization file instead of your
own@footnote{This option has no effect on MS-Windows.}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
330 331 332 333 334 335 336

@item --debug-init
@opindex --debug-init
@cindex errors in init file
Enable the Emacs Lisp debugger for errors in the init file.
@xref{Error Debugging,, Entering the Debugger on an Error, elisp, The
GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
337
@end table
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417

@node Command Example
@appendixsec Command Argument Example

  Here is an example of using Emacs with arguments and options.  It
assumes you have a Lisp program file called @file{hack-c.el} which, when
loaded, performs some useful operation on the current buffer, expected
to be a C program.

@example
emacs --batch foo.c -l hack-c -f save-buffer >& log
@end example

@noindent
This says to visit @file{foo.c}, load @file{hack-c.el} (which makes
changes in the visited file), save @file{foo.c} (note that
@code{save-buffer} is the function that @kbd{C-x C-s} is bound to), and
then exit back to the shell (because of @samp{--batch}).  @samp{--batch}
also guarantees there will be no problem redirecting output to
@file{log}, because Emacs will not assume that it has a display terminal
to work with.

@node Resume Arguments
@appendixsec Resuming Emacs with Arguments

  You can specify action arguments for Emacs when you resume it after
a suspension.  To prepare for this, put the following code in your
@file{.emacs} file (@pxref{Hooks}):

@c `resume-suspend-hook' is correct.  It is the name of a function.
@example
(add-hook 'suspend-hook 'resume-suspend-hook)
(add-hook 'suspend-resume-hook 'resume-process-args)
@end example

  As further preparation, you must execute the shell script
@file{emacs.csh} (if you use csh as your shell) or @file{emacs.bash}
(if you use bash as your shell).  These scripts define an alias named
@code{edit}, which will resume Emacs giving it new command line
arguments such as files to visit.  The scripts are found in the
@file{etc} subdirectory of the Emacs distribution.

  Only action arguments work properly when you resume Emacs.  Initial
arguments are not recognized---it's too late to execute them anyway.

  Note that resuming Emacs (with or without arguments) must be done from
within the shell that is the parent of the Emacs job.  This is why
@code{edit} is an alias rather than a program or a shell script.  It is
not possible to implement a resumption command that could be run from
other subjobs of the shell; there is no way to define a command that could
be made the value of @env{EDITOR}, for example.  Therefore, this feature
does not take the place of the Emacs Server feature (@pxref{Emacs
Server}).

  The aliases use the Emacs Server feature if you appear to have a
server Emacs running.  However, they cannot determine this with complete
accuracy.  They may think that a server is still running when in
actuality you have killed that Emacs, because the file
@file{/tmp/esrv@dots{}} still exists.  If this happens, find that
file and delete it.

@node Environment
@appendixsec Environment Variables
@cindex environment variables

  The @dfn{environment} is a feature of the operating system; it
consists of a collection of variables with names and values.  Each
variable is called an @dfn{environment variable}; environment variable
names are case-sensitive, and it is conventional to use upper case
letters only.  The values are all text strings.

  What makes the environment useful is that subprocesses inherit the
environment automatically from their parent process.  This means you
can set up an environment variable in your login shell, and all the
programs you run (including Emacs) will automatically see it.
Subprocesses of Emacs (such as shells, compilers, and version-control
software) inherit the environment from Emacs, too.

@findex setenv
@findex getenv
418
@vindex initial-environment
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
419 420 421
  Inside Emacs, the command @kbd{M-x getenv} gets the value of an
environment variable.  @kbd{M-x setenv} sets a variable in the Emacs
environment.  (Environment variable substitutions with @samp{$} work
422 423 424
in the value just as in file names; see @ref{File Names with $}.)  The
variable @code{initial-environment} stores the initial environment
inherited by Emacs.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454

  The way to set environment variables outside of Emacs depends on the
operating system, and especially the shell that you are using.  For
example, here's how to set the environment variable @env{ORGANIZATION}
to @samp{not very much} using Bash:

@example
export ORGANIZATION="not very much"
@end example

@noindent
and here's how to do it in csh or tcsh:

@example
setenv ORGANIZATION "not very much"
@end example

  When Emacs is using the X Window System, various environment
variables that control X work for Emacs as well.  See the X
documentation for more information.

@menu
* General Variables::   Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::      Certain system-specific variables.
* MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows.
@end menu

@node General Variables
@appendixsubsec General Variables

455 456 457 458
  Here is an alphabetical list of environment variables that have
special meanings in Emacs.  Most of these variables are also used by
some other programs.  Emacs does not require any of these environment
variables to be set, but it uses their values if they are set.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467

@table @env
@item CDPATH
Used by the @code{cd} command to search for the directory you specify,
when you specify a relative directory name.
@item EMACSDATA
Directory for the architecture-independent files that come with Emacs.
This is used to initialize the Lisp variable @code{data-directory}.
@item EMACSDOC
468 469
Directory for the documentation string file, which is used to
initialize the Lisp variable @code{doc-directory}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592
@item EMACSLOADPATH
A colon-separated list of directories@footnote{
Here and below, whenever we say ``colon-separated list of directories,''
it pertains to Unix and GNU/Linux systems.  On MS-DOS and MS-Windows,
the directories are separated by semi-colons instead, since DOS/Windows
file names might include a colon after a drive letter.}
to search for Emacs Lisp files---used to initialize @code{load-path}.
@item EMACSPATH
A colon-separated list of directories to search for executable
files---used to initialize @code{exec-path}.
@item EMAIL
@vindex user-mail-address@r{, initialization}
Your email address; used to initialize the Lisp variable
@code{user-mail-address}, which the Emacs mail interface puts into
the @samp{From} header of outgoing messages (@pxref{Mail Headers}).
@item ESHELL
Used for shell-mode to override the @env{SHELL} environment variable.
@item HISTFILE
The name of the file that shell commands are saved in between logins.
This variable defaults to @file{~/.bash_history} if you use Bash, to
@file{~/.sh_history} if you use ksh, and to @file{~/.history}
otherwise.
@item HOME
The location of your files in the directory tree; used for
expansion of file names starting with a tilde (@file{~}).  On MS-DOS,
it defaults to the directory from which Emacs was started, with
@samp{/bin} removed from the end if it was present.  On Windows, the
default value of @env{HOME} is the @file{Application Data}
subdirectory of the user profile directory (normally, this is
@file{C:/Documents and Settings/@var{username}/Application Data},
where @var{username} is your user name), though for backwards
compatibility @file{C:/} will be used instead if a @file{.emacs} file
is found there.
@item HOSTNAME
The name of the machine that Emacs is running on.
@item INCPATH
A colon-separated list of directories.  Used by the @code{complete} package
to search for files.
@item INFOPATH
A colon-separated list of directories in which to search for Info files.
@item LC_ALL
@itemx LC_COLLATE
@itemx LC_CTYPE
@itemx LC_MESSAGES
@itemx LC_MONETARY
@itemx LC_NUMERIC
@itemx LC_TIME
@itemx LANG
The user's preferred locale.  The locale has six categories, specified
by the environment variables @env{LC_COLLATE} for sorting,
@env{LC_CTYPE} for character encoding, @env{LC_MESSAGES} for system
messages, @env{LC_MONETARY} for monetary formats, @env{LC_NUMERIC} for
numbers, and @env{LC_TIME} for dates and times.  If one of these
variables is not set, the category defaults to the value of the
@env{LANG} environment variable, or to the default @samp{C} locale if
@env{LANG} is not set.  But if @env{LC_ALL} is specified, it overrides
the settings of all the other locale environment variables.

On MS-Windows, if @env{LANG} is not already set in the environment
when Emacs starts, Emacs sets it based on the system-wide default
language, which you can set in the @samp{Regional Settings} Control Panel
on some versions of MS-Windows.

The value of the @env{LC_CTYPE} category is
matched against entries in @code{locale-language-names},
@code{locale-charset-language-names}, and
@code{locale-preferred-coding-systems}, to select a default language
environment and coding system.  @xref{Language Environments}.
@item LOGNAME
The user's login name.  See also @env{USER}.
@item MAIL
The name of your system mail inbox.
@item MH
Name of setup file for the mh system.  (The default is @file{~/.mh_profile}.)
@item NAME
Your real-world name.
@item NNTPSERVER
The name of the news server.  Used by the mh and Gnus packages.
@item ORGANIZATION
The name of the organization to which you belong.  Used for setting the
`Organization:' header in your posts from the Gnus package.
@item PATH
A colon-separated list of directories in which executables reside.  This
is used to initialize the Emacs Lisp variable @code{exec-path}.
@item PWD
If set, this should be the default directory when Emacs was started.
@item REPLYTO
If set, this specifies an initial value for the variable
@code{mail-default-reply-to}.  @xref{Mail Headers}.
@item SAVEDIR
The name of a directory in which news articles are saved by default.
Used by the Gnus package.
@item SHELL
The name of an interpreter used to parse and execute programs run from
inside Emacs.
@item SMTPSERVER
The name of the outgoing mail server.  Used by the SMTP library
(@pxref{Top,,,smtpmail,Sending mail via SMTP}).
@cindex background mode, on @command{xterm}
@item TERM
The type of the terminal that Emacs is using.  This variable must be
set unless Emacs is run in batch mode.  On MS-DOS, it defaults to
@samp{internal}, which specifies a built-in terminal emulation that
handles the machine's own display.  If the value of @env{TERM} indicates
that Emacs runs in non-windowed mode from @command{xterm} or a similar
terminal emulator, the background mode defaults to @samp{light}, and
Emacs will choose colors that are appropriate for a light background.
@item TERMCAP
The name of the termcap library file describing how to program the
terminal specified by the @env{TERM} variable.  This defaults to
@file{/etc/termcap}.
@item TMPDIR
Used by the Emerge package as a prefix for temporary files.
@item TZ
This specifies the current time zone and possibly also daylight
saving time information.  On MS-DOS, if @env{TZ} is not set in the
environment when Emacs starts, Emacs defines a default value as
appropriate for the country code returned by DOS.  On MS-Windows, Emacs
does not use @env{TZ} at all.
@item USER
The user's login name.  See also @env{LOGNAME}.  On MS-DOS, this
defaults to @samp{root}.
@item VERSION_CONTROL
593
Used to initialize the @code{version-control} variable (@pxref{Backup Names}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714
@end table

@node Misc Variables
@appendixsubsec Miscellaneous Variables

These variables are used only on particular configurations:

@table @env
@item COMSPEC
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, the name of the command interpreter to use
when invoking batch files and commands internal to the shell.  On MS-DOS
this is also used to make a default value for the @env{SHELL} environment
variable.

@item NAME
On MS-DOS, this variable defaults to the value of the @env{USER}
variable.

@item TEMP
@itemx TMP
On MS-DOS and MS-Windows, these specify the name of the directory for
storing temporary files in.

@item EMACSTEST
On MS-DOS, this specifies a file to use to log the operation of the
internal terminal emulator.  This feature is useful for submitting bug
reports.

@item EMACSCOLORS
On MS-DOS, this specifies the screen colors.  It is useful to set them
this way, since otherwise Emacs would display the default colors
momentarily when it starts up.

The value of this variable should be the two-character encoding of the
foreground (the first character) and the background (the second
character) colors of the default face.  Each character should be the
hexadecimal code for the desired color on a standard PC text-mode
display.  For example, to get blue text on a light gray background,
specify @samp{EMACSCOLORS=17}, since 1 is the code of the blue color and
7 is the code of the light gray color.

The PC display usually supports only eight background colors.  However,
Emacs switches the DOS display to a mode where all 16 colors can be used
for the background, so all four bits of the background color are
actually used.

@item PRELOAD_WINSOCK
On MS-Windows, if you set this variable, Emacs will load and initialize
the network library at startup, instead of waiting until the first
time it is required.

@item emacs_dir
On MS-Windows, @env{emacs_dir} is a special environment variable, which
indicates the full path of the directory in which Emacs is installed.
If Emacs is installed in the standard directory structure, it
calculates this value automatically.  It is not much use setting this
variable yourself unless your installation is non-standard, since
unlike other environment variables, it will be overridden by Emacs at
startup.  When setting other environment variables, such as
@env{EMACSLOADPATH}, you may find it useful to use @env{emacs_dir}
rather than hard-coding an absolute path.  This allows multiple
versions of Emacs to share the same environment variable settings, and
it allows you to move the Emacs installation directory, without
changing any environment or registry settings.
@end table

@node MS-Windows Registry
@appendixsubsec The MS-Windows System Registry
@pindex addpm, MS-Windows installation program
@cindex registry, setting environment variables and resources on MS-Windows

Under MS-Windows, the installation program @command{addpm.exe} adds
values for @env{emacs_dir}, @env{EMACSLOADPATH}, @env{EMACSDATA},
@env{EMACSPATH}, @env{EMACSDOC}, @env{SHELL} and @env{TERM} to the
@file{HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE} section of the system registry, under
@file{/Software/GNU/Emacs}.  It does this because there is no standard
place to set environment variables across different versions of
Windows.  Running @command{addpm.exe} is no longer strictly necessary
in recent versions of Emacs, but if you are upgrading from an older
version, running @command{addpm.exe} ensures that you do not have
older registry entries from a previous installation, which may not be
compatible with the latest version of Emacs.

When Emacs starts, as well as checking the environment, it also checks
the System Registry for those variables and for @env{HOME}, @env{LANG}
and @env{PRELOAD_WINSOCK}.

To determine the value of those variables, Emacs goes through the
following procedure.  First, the environment is checked.  If the
variable is not found there, Emacs looks for registry keys by that
name under @file{/Software/GNU/Emacs}; first in the
@file{HKEY_CURRENT_USER} section of the registry, and if not found
there, in the @file{HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE} section.  Finally, if Emacs
still cannot determine the values, compiled-in defaults are used.

In addition to the environment variables above, you can also add many
of the settings which on X belong in the @file{.Xdefaults} file
(@pxref{X Resources}) to the @file{/Software/GNU/Emacs} registry key.
Settings you add to the @file{HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE} section will affect
all users of the machine.  Settings you add to the
@file{HKEY_CURRENT_USER} section will only affect you, and will
override machine wide settings.

@node Display X
@appendixsec Specifying the Display Name
@cindex display name (X Window System)
@cindex @env{DISPLAY} environment variable

  The environment variable @env{DISPLAY} tells all X clients, including
Emacs, where to display their windows.  Its value is set by default
in ordinary circumstances, when you start an X server and run jobs
locally.  Occasionally you may need to specify the display yourself; for
example, if you do a remote login and want to run a client program
remotely, displaying on your local screen.

  With Emacs, the main reason people change the default display is to
let them log into another system, run Emacs on that system, but have the
window displayed at their local terminal.  You might need to log in
to another system because the files you want to edit are there, or
because the Emacs executable file you want to run is there.

715
  @env{DISPLAY} has the syntax
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
716 717
@samp{@var{host}:@var{display}.@var{screen}}, where @var{host} is the
host name of the X Window System server machine, @var{display} is an
718 719 720 721 722
arbitrarily-assigned number that distinguishes your server (X
terminal) from other servers on the same machine, and @var{screen} is
a rarely-used field that allows an X server to control multiple
terminal screens.  The period and the @var{screen} field are optional.
If included, @var{screen} is usually zero.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756

  For example, if your host is named @samp{glasperle} and your server is
the first (or perhaps the only) server listed in the configuration, your
@env{DISPLAY} is @samp{glasperle:0.0}.

  You can specify the display name explicitly when you run Emacs, either
by changing the @env{DISPLAY} variable, or with the option @samp{-d
@var{display}} or @samp{--display=@var{display}}.  Here is an example:

@smallexample
emacs --display=glasperle:0 &
@end smallexample

  You can inhibit the direct use of the window system and GUI with the
@samp{-nw} option.  It tells Emacs to display using ordinary @acronym{ASCII} on
its controlling terminal.  This is also an initial option.

  Sometimes, security arrangements prevent a program on a remote system
from displaying on your local system.  In this case, trying to run Emacs
produces messages like this:

@smallexample
Xlib:  connection to "glasperle:0.0" refused by server
@end smallexample

@noindent
You might be able to overcome this problem by using the @command{xhost}
command on the local system to give permission for access from your
remote machine.

@node Font X
@appendixsec Font Specification Options
@cindex font name (X Window System)

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
757 758 759
You can use the command line option @samp{-fn @var{font}} (or
@samp{--font}, which is an alias for @samp{-fn}) to specify a default
font:
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
760 761

@table @samp
762
@item -fn @var{font}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
763
@opindex -fn
764
@itemx --font=@var{font}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
765 766
@opindex --font
@cindex specify default font from the command line
767
Use @var{font} as the default font.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
768 769
@end table

770 771 772
When passing a font specification to Emacs on the command line, you
may need to ``quote'' it, by enclosing it in quotation marks, if it
contains characters that the shell treats specially (e.g. spaces).
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
773
For example:
774 775 776 777 778

@smallexample
emacs -fn "DejaVu Sans Mono-12"
@end smallexample

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
779 780
@xref{Fonts}, for other ways to specify the default font and font name
formats.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922

@node Colors
@appendixsec Window Color Options
@cindex color of window, from command line
@cindex text colors, from command line

@findex list-colors-display
@cindex available colors
  On a color display, you can specify which color to use for various
parts of the Emacs display.  To find out what colors are available on
your system, type @kbd{M-x list-colors-display}, or press
@kbd{C-Mouse-2} and select @samp{Display Colors} from the pop-up menu.
(A particular window system might support many more colors, but the
list displayed by @code{list-colors-display} shows their portable
subset that can be safely used on any display supported by Emacs.)
If you do not specify colors, on windowed displays the default for the
background is white and the default for all other colors is black.  On a
monochrome display, the foreground is black, the background is white,
and the border is gray if the display supports that.  On terminals, the
background is usually black and the foreground is white.

  Here is a list of the command-line options for specifying colors:

@table @samp
@item -fg @var{color}
@opindex -fg
@itemx --foreground-color=@var{color}
@opindex --foreground-color
@cindex foreground color, command-line argument
Specify the foreground color.  @var{color} should be a standard color
name, or a numeric specification of the color's red, green, and blue
components as in @samp{#4682B4} or @samp{RGB:46/82/B4}.
@item -bg @var{color}
@opindex -bg
@itemx --background-color=@var{color}
@opindex --background-color
@cindex background color, command-line argument
Specify the background color.
@item -bd @var{color}
@opindex -bd
@itemx --border-color=@var{color}
@opindex --border-color
@cindex border color, command-line argument
Specify the color of the border of the X window.
@item -cr @var{color}
@opindex -cr
@itemx --cursor-color=@var{color}
@opindex --cursor-color
@cindex cursor color, command-line argument
Specify the color of the Emacs cursor which indicates where point is.
@item -ms @var{color}
@opindex -ms
@itemx --mouse-color=@var{color}
@opindex --mouse-color
@cindex mouse pointer color, command-line argument
Specify the color for the mouse cursor when the mouse is in the Emacs window.
@item -r
@opindex -r
@itemx -rv
@opindex -rv
@itemx --reverse-video
@opindex --reverse-video
@cindex reverse video, command-line argument
Reverse video---swap the foreground and background colors.
@item --color=@var{mode}
@opindex --color
@cindex standard colors on a character terminal
@cindex override character terminal color support
For a character terminal only, specify the mode of color support.
This option is intended for overriding the number of supported colors
that the character terminal advertises in its @code{termcap} or
@code{terminfo} database.  The parameter @var{mode} can be one of the
following:
@table @samp
@item never
@itemx no
Don't use colors even if the terminal's capabilities specify color
support.
@item default
@itemx auto
Same as when @option{--color} is not used at all: Emacs detects at
startup whether the terminal supports colors, and if it does, turns on
colored display.
@item always
@itemx yes
@itemx ansi8
Turn on the color support unconditionally, and use color commands
specified by the ANSI escape sequences for the 8 standard colors.
@item @var{num}
Use color mode for @var{num} colors.  If @var{num} is -1, turn off
color support (equivalent to @samp{never}); if it is 0, use the
default color support for this terminal (equivalent to @samp{auto});
otherwise use an appropriate standard mode for @var{num} colors.
Depending on your terminal's capabilities, Emacs might be able to turn
on a color mode for 8, 16, 88, or 256 as the value of @var{num}.  If
there is no mode that supports @var{num} colors, Emacs acts as if
@var{num} were 0, i.e.@: it uses the terminal's default color support
mode.
@end table
If @var{mode} is omitted, it defaults to @var{ansi8}.
@end table

  For example, to use a coral mouse cursor and a slate blue text cursor,
enter:

@example
emacs -ms coral -cr 'slate blue' &
@end example

  You can reverse the foreground and background colors through the
@samp{-rv} option or with the X resource @samp{reverseVideo}.

  The @samp{-fg}, @samp{-bg}, and @samp{-rv} options function on
text-only terminals as well as on graphical displays.

@node Window Size X
@appendixsec Options for Window Size and Position
@cindex geometry of Emacs window
@cindex position and size of Emacs frame
@cindex width and height of Emacs frame
@cindex specifying fullscreen for Emacs frame

  Here is a list of the command-line options for specifying size and
position of the initial Emacs frame:

@table @samp
@item -g @var{width}x@var{height}@r{[@{}+-@r{@}}@var{xoffset}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{yoffset}@r{]]}
@opindex -g
@itemx --geometry=@var{width}x@var{height}@r{[@{}+-@r{@}}@var{xoffset}@r{@{}+-@r{@}}@var{yoffset}@r{]]}
@opindex --geometry
@cindex geometry, command-line argument
Specify the size @var{width} and @var{height} (measured in character
columns and lines), and positions @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset}
(measured in pixels).  The @var{width} and @var{height} parameters
apply to all frames, whereas @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset} only to
the initial frame.

@item -fs
@opindex -fs
@itemx --fullscreen
@opindex --fullscreen
@cindex fullscreen, command-line argument
923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932
Specify that width and height shall be the size of the screen. Normally
no window manager decorations are shown.

@item -mm
@opindex -mm
@itemx --maximized
@opindex --maximized
@cindex maximized, command-line argument
Specify that the Emacs frame shall be maximized.  This normally
means that the frame has window manager decorations.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 969 970 971

@item -fh
@opindex -fh
@itemx --fullheight
@opindex --fullheight
@cindex fullheight, command-line argument
Specify that the height shall be the height of the screen.

@item -fw
@opindex -fw
@itemx --fullwidth
@opindex --fullwidth
@cindex fullwidth, command-line argument
Specify that the width shall be the width of the screen.
@end table

@noindent
In the @samp{--geometry} option, @code{@r{@{}+-@r{@}}} means either a plus
 sign or a minus sign.  A plus
sign before @var{xoffset} means it is the distance from the left side of
the screen; a minus sign means it counts from the right side.  A plus
sign before @var{yoffset} means it is the distance from the top of the
screen, and a minus sign there indicates the distance from the bottom.
The values @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset} may themselves be positive or
negative, but that doesn't change their meaning, only their direction.

  Emacs uses the same units as @command{xterm} does to interpret the geometry.
The @var{width} and @var{height} are measured in characters, so a large font
creates a larger frame than a small font.  (If you specify a proportional
font, Emacs uses its maximum bounds width as the width unit.)  The
@var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset} are measured in pixels.

  You do not have to specify all of the fields in the geometry
specification.  If you omit both @var{xoffset} and @var{yoffset}, the
window manager decides where to put the Emacs frame, possibly by
letting you place it with the mouse.  For example, @samp{164x55}
specifies a window 164 columns wide, enough for two ordinary width
windows side by side, and 55 lines tall.

972
  The default frame width is 80 characters and the default height is
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
973 974 975
40 lines.  You can omit either the width or the height or both.  If
you start the geometry with an integer, Emacs interprets it as the
width.  If you start with an @samp{x} followed by an integer, Emacs
976 977
interprets it as the height.  Thus, @samp{81} specifies just the
width; @samp{x45} specifies just the height.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
978 979 980 981 982 983 984

  If you start with @samp{+} or @samp{-}, that introduces an offset,
which means both sizes are omitted.  Thus, @samp{-3} specifies the
@var{xoffset} only.  (If you give just one offset, it is always
@var{xoffset}.)  @samp{+3-3} specifies both the @var{xoffset} and the
@var{yoffset}, placing the frame near the bottom left of the screen.

985 986 987
  You can specify a default for any or all of the fields in your X
resource file (@pxref{Resources}), and then override selected fields
with a @samp{--geometry} option.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999

  Since the mode line and the echo area occupy the last 2 lines of the
frame, the height of the initial text window is 2 less than the height
specified in your geometry.  In non-X-toolkit versions of Emacs, the
menu bar also takes one line of the specified number.  But in the X
toolkit version, the menu bar is additional and does not count against
the specified height.  The tool bar, if present, is also additional.

  Enabling or disabling the menu bar or tool bar alters the amount of
space available for ordinary text.  Therefore, if Emacs starts up with
a tool bar (which is the default), and handles the geometry
specification assuming there is a tool bar, and then your
1000
initialization file disables the tool bar, you will end up with a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1001 1002 1003 1004 1005
frame geometry different from what you asked for.  To get the intended
size with no tool bar, use an X resource to specify ``no tool bar''
(@pxref{Table of Resources}); then Emacs will already know there's no
tool bar when it processes the specified geometry.

1006 1007
  When using one of @samp{--fullscreen}, @samp{--maximized}, @samp{--fullwidth}
or @samp{--fullheight} there may be some space around the frame
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1008 1009 1010 1011
anyway.  That is because Emacs rounds the sizes so they are an
even number of character heights and widths.

 Some window managers have options that can make them ignore both
1012 1013
program-specified and user-specified positions.  If these are set,
Emacs fails to position the window correctly.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080

@node Borders X
@appendixsec Internal and External Borders
@cindex borders (X Window System)

  An Emacs frame has an internal border and an external border.  The
internal border is an extra strip of the background color around the
text portion of the frame.  Emacs itself draws the internal border.
The external border is added by the window manager outside the frame;
depending on the window manager you use, it may contain various boxes
you can click on to move or iconify the window.

@table @samp
@item -ib @var{width}
@opindex -ib
@itemx --internal-border=@var{width}
@opindex --internal-border
@cindex internal border width, command-line argument
Specify @var{width} as the width of the internal border (between the text
and the main border), in pixels.

@item -bw @var{width}
@opindex -bw
@itemx --border-width=@var{width}
@opindex --border-width
@cindex main border width, command-line argument
Specify @var{width} as the width of the main border, in pixels.
@end table

  When you specify the size of the frame, that does not count the
borders.  The frame's position is measured from the outside edge of the
external border.

  Use the @samp{-ib @var{n}} option to specify an internal border
@var{n} pixels wide.  The default is 1.  Use @samp{-bw @var{n}} to
specify the width of the external border (though the window manager may
not pay attention to what you specify).  The default width of the
external border is 2.

@node Title X
@appendixsec Frame Titles

  An Emacs frame may or may not have a specified title.  The frame
title, if specified, appears in window decorations and icons as the
name of the frame.  If an Emacs frame has no specified title, the
default title has the form @samp{@var{invocation-name}@@@var{machine}}
(if there is only one frame) or the selected window's buffer name (if
there is more than one frame).

  You can specify a title for the initial Emacs frame with a command
line option:

@table @samp
@item -T @var{title}
@opindex -T
@itemx --title=@var{title}
@opindex --title
@cindex frame title, command-line argument
Specify @var{title} as the title for the initial Emacs frame.
@end table

  The @samp{--name} option (@pxref{Resources}) also specifies the title
for the initial Emacs frame.

@node Icons X
@appendixsec Icons
@cindex icons (X Window System)
1081
@cindex minimizing a frame at startup
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1082 1083

@table @samp
1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089
@item -iconic
@opindex --iconic
@itemx --iconic
@cindex start iconified, command-line argument
Start Emacs in an iconified (``minimized'') state.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097
@item -nbi
@opindex -nbi
@itemx --no-bitmap-icon
@opindex --no-bitmap-icon
@cindex Emacs icon, a gnu
Do not use a picture of a gnu as the Emacs icon.
@end table

1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104
  Most window managers allow you to ``iconify'' (or ``minimize'') an
Emacs frame, hiding it from sight.  Some window managers replace
iconified windows with tiny ``icons'', while others remove them
entirely from sight.  The @samp{-iconic} option tells Emacs to begin
running in an iconified state, rather than showing a frame right away.
The text frame doesn't appear until you deiconify (or ``un-minimize'')
it.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1105

1106 1107 1108 1109 1110
  By default, Emacs uses an icon containing the Emacs logo.  On
desktop environments such as Gnome, this icon is also displayed on the
``taskbar''.  The @samp{-nbi} or @samp{--no-bitmap-icon} option tells
Emacs to let the window manager choose what sort of icon to
use---usually just a small rectangle containing the frame's title.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1111 1112 1113 1114 1115

@node Misc X
@appendixsec Other Display Options

@table @samp
1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122
@c @item -hb
@c @opindex -hb
@c @itemx --horizontal-scroll-bars
@c @opindex --horizontal-scroll-bars
@c @c @cindex horizontal scroll bars, command-line argument
@c Enable horizontal scroll bars.  Since horizontal scroll bars
@c are not yet implemented, this actually does nothing.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155 1156 1157 1158 1159

@item -vb
@opindex -vb
@itemx --vertical-scroll-bars
@opindex --vertical-scroll-bars
@cindex vertical scroll bars, command-line argument
Enable vertical scroll bars.

@item -lsp @var{pixels}
@opindex -lsp
@itemx --line-spacing=@var{pixels}
@opindex --line-spacing
@cindex line spacing, command-line argument
Specify @var{pixels} as additional space to put between lines, in pixels.

@item -nbc
@opindex -nbc
@itemx --no-blinking-cursor
@opindex --no-blinking-cursor
@cindex blinking cursor disable, command-line argument
Disable the blinking cursor on graphical displays.

@item -D
@opindex -D
@itemx --basic-display
@opindex --basic-display
Disable the menu-bar, the tool-bar, the scroll-bars, and tool tips,
and turn off the blinking cursor.  This can be useful for making a
test case that simplifies debugging of display problems.
@end table

  The @samp{--xrm} option (@pxref{Resources}) specifies additional
X resource values.

@ignore
   arch-tag: fffecd9e-7329-4a51-a3cc-dd4a9889340e
@end ignore