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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2001-03-15
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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* Changes in Emacs 21.2

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** New user option `html-xhtml'.
When this option is enabled, HTML tags are inserted in XHTML style,
i.e., there is always a closing tag.

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** When the *scratch* buffer is recreated, its mode is set from
initial-major-mode, which normally is lisp-interaction-mode,
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instead of using default-major-mode.
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** Byte compiler warning and error messages have been brought more
in line with the output of other GNU tools.

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** Lisp-mode now uses font-lock-docstring-face for the docstrings.

** perl-mode has a new variable `perl-indent-continued-arguments'.

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** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and
`same-window'.

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** When pure storage overflows while dumping, Emacs now prints how
much pure storage it will approximately need.

** M-x setenv now expands environment variables of the form `$foo' and
`${foo}' in the specified new value of the environment variable.  To
include a `$' in the value, use `$$'.

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** File-name completion can now ignore directories.
If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.

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** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.

** Rmail now displays 5-digit message ids in its summary buffer.

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** When using M-x revert-buffer in a compilation buffer to rerun a
compilation, it is now made sure that the compilation buffer is reused
in case it has been renamed.

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** New modes and packages

*** The ruler-mode.el library provides a minor mode for displaying an
"active" ruler in the header line.  You can use the mouse to visually
change the `fill-column', `window-margins' and `tab-stop-list'
settings.

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*** master-mode.el implements a minor mode for scrolling a slave
buffer without leaving your current buffer, the master buffer.

It can be used by sql.el, for example: the SQL buffer is the master
and its SQLi buffer is the slave.  This allows you to scroll the SQLi
buffer containing the output from the SQL buffer containing the
commands.

This is how to use sql.el and master.el together: the variable
sql-buffer contains the slave buffer.  It is a local variable in the
SQL buffer.

(add-hook 'sql-mode-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-mode t)
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))
(add-hook 'sql-set-sqli-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))

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* Lisp Changes in Emacs 21.2

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** The variable `compilation-parse-errors-filename-function' can
be used to transform filenames found in compilation output.

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** Functions `file-name-sans-extension' and `file-name-extension' now
ignore the leading dots in file names, so that file names such as
`.emacs' are treated as extensionless.

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** Functions `user-uid' and `user-real-uid' now return floats if the
user UID doesn't fit in a Lisp integer.  Function `user-full-name'
accepts a float as UID parameter.

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** `define-key-after' now accepts keys longer than 1.

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** `define-derived-mode' now accepts nil as the parent.
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** The local variable `no-byte-compile' in elisp files is now obeyed.

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** New functions `keymap-prompt' and `current-active-maps'.

** New function `describe-buffer-bindings'.

** New vars `exec-suffixes' and `load-suffixes' used when
searching for an executable resp. an elisp file.

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** Variable aliases have been implemented

- Macro: defvaralias ALIAS-VAR BASE-VAR

This defines the symbol ALIAS-VAR as a variable alias for symbol
BASE-VAR.  This means that retrieving the value of ALIAS-VAR returns
the value of BASE-VAR, and changing the value of ALIAS-VAR changes the
value of BASE-VAR.

- Function: indirect-variable VARIABLE

This function returns the variable at the end of the chain of aliases
of VARIABLE.  If VARIABLE is not a symbol, or if VARIABLE is not
defined as an alias, the function returns VARIABLE.

It might be noteworthy that variables aliases work for all kinds of
variables, including buffer-local and frame-local variables.

** Functions from `post-gc-hook' are run at the end of garbage
collection.  The hook is run with GC inhibited, so use it with care.

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** If the second argument to `copy-file' is the name of a directory,
the file is copied to that directory instead of signaling an error.

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** The variables most-positive-fixnum and most-negative-fixnum
have been moved from the CL package to the core.

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** New packages:

*** The new package syntax.el provides an efficient way to find the
current syntactic context (as returned by parse-partial-sexp).

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

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See the INSTALL file for information on installing extra libraries and
fonts to take advantage of the new graphical features and extra
charsets in this release.

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** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

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** Support for LynxOS has been added.

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** There are new configure options associated with the support for
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images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in `configure'
to list them.
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** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
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support 64-bit executables and also on Irix 6.5.  This increases the
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maximum buffer size.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.  Changes to
build on other 64-bit systems should be straightforward modulo any
necessary changes to unexec.
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** There is a new configure option `--disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** There is a new configure option `--without-xim' that instructs
Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.

** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.
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** This version can be built for the Macintosh, but does not implement
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all of the new display features described below.  The port currently
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lacks unexec, asynchronous processes, and networking support.  See the
"Emacs and the Mac OS" appendix in the Emacs manual, for the
description of aspects specific to the Mac.
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** Note that the MS-Windows port does not yet implement various of the
new display features described below.

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* Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes such as `overline', `strike-through', and `box' are ignored
on terminals.

The command-line options `-fg COLOR', `-bg COLOR', and `-rv' are now
supported on character terminals.

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Emacs automatically remaps all X-style color specifications to one of
the colors supported by the terminal.  This means you could have the
same color customizations that work both on a windowed display and on
a TTY or when Emacs is invoked with the -nw option.

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** New default font is Courier 12pt under X.

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** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
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You must configure Emacs with the option `--with-sound=yes' to enable
sound support.
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** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs can resize the minibuffer window unless it
is on a frame of its own.  You can control resizing and the maximum
minibuffer window size by setting the following variables:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.

Default is 0.25.

- User option: resize-mini-windows

How to resize mini-windows.  If nil, don't resize.  If t, always
resize to fit the size of the text.  If `grow-only', let mini-windows
grow only, until they become empty, at which point they are shrunk
again.

Default is `grow-only'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see
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<http://www.lesstif.org>).  You will need version 0.92.26, or later.
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** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is
non-nil.

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** File selection dialog on MS-Windows is supported.

When a file is visited by clicking File->Open, the MS-Windows version
now pops up a standard file selection dialog where you can select a
file to visit.  File->Save As also pops up that dialog.

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** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scroll bars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scroll bar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring
Emacs.

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
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imake configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
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Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
of how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level
changes.  Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is
displayed and is on by default.  The appearance of the bar is improved
if Emacs has been built with XPM image support.  Otherwise monochrome
icons will be used.

To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
for specific modes (with copyright assignments).  Contributions would
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also be useful to touch up some of the PBM icons manually.
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** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  The Lisp package `tooltip' implements them.  You can
turn them off via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

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** Automatic Hscrolling

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
`automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be
customized.

If a window is scrolled horizontally with set-window-hscroll, or
scroll-left/scroll-right (C-x <, C-x >), this serves as a lower bound
for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling will scroll
the text more to the left if necessary, but won't scroll the text more
to the right than the column set with set-window-hscroll etc.

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** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  By default, when a window is selected, the cursor is
solid; otherwise, it is hollow.  The user-option
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`cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to display the
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cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is shown, if
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non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.
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** Fringes to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.
You can change its appearance by modifying the face `mode-line'.
In particular, setting the `:box' attribute to nil turns off the 3D
appearance of the mode line.  (The 3D appearance makes the mode line
occupy more space, and thus might cause the first or the last line of
the window to be partially obscured.)

The variable `mode-line-inverse-video', which was used in older
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versions of emacs to make the mode-line stand out, is now deprecated.
However, setting it to nil will cause the `mode-line' face to be
ignored, and mode-lines to be drawn using the default text face.
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** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

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Different parts of the mode line have been made mouse-sensitive on all
systems which support the mouse.  Moving the mouse to a
mouse-sensitive part in the mode line changes the appearance of the
mouse pointer to an arrow, and help about available mouse actions is
displayed either in the echo area, or in the tooltip window if you
have enabled one.
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Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line switches between two
buffers.

- Mouse-2 on the buffer-name switches to the next buffer, and
M-mouse-2 switches to the previous buffer in the buffer list.

- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name displays a buffer menu.

- Mouse-2 on the read-only or modified status in the mode line (`%' or
`*') toggles the status.

- Mouse-3 on the mode name displays a minor-mode menu.

** Hourglass pointer

Emacs can optionally display an hourglass pointer under X.  You can
turn the display on or off by customizing group `cursor'.

** Blinking cursor

M-x blink-cursor-mode toggles a blinking cursor under X and on
terminals having terminal capabilities `vi', `vs', and `ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group `cursor'.

** New font-lock support mode `jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to `lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function `jit-lock-mode' for more
details.

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

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** The default binding of the Delete key has changed.

The new user-option `normal-erase-is-backspace' can be set to
determine the effect of the Delete and Backspace function keys.

On window systems, the default value of this option is chosen
according to the keyboard used.  If the keyboard has both a Backspace
key and a Delete key, and both are mapped to their usual meanings, the
option's default value is set to t, so that Backspace can be used to
delete backward, and Delete can be used to delete forward.  On
keyboards which either have only one key (usually labeled DEL), or two
keys DEL and BS which produce the same effect, the option's value is
set to nil, and these keys delete backward.

If not running under a window system, setting this option accomplishes
a similar effect by mapping C-h, which is usually generated by the
Backspace key, to DEL, and by mapping DEL to C-d via
`keyboard-translate'.  The former functionality of C-h is available on
the F1 key.  You should probably not use this setting on a text-only
terminal if you don't have both Backspace, Delete and F1 keys.

Programmatically, you can call function normal-erase-is-backspace-mode
to toggle the behavior of the Delete and Backspace keys.

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** The default for user-option `next-line-add-newlines' has been
changed to nil, i.e. C-n will no longer add newlines at the end of a
buffer by default.

** The <home> and <end> keys now move to the beginning or end of the
current line, respectively.  C-<home> and C-<end> move to the
beginning and end of the buffer.

** Emacs now checks for recursive loads of Lisp files.  If the
recursion depth exceeds `recursive-load-depth-limit', an error is
signaled.

** When an error is signaled during the loading of the user's init
file, Emacs now pops up the *Messages* buffer.

** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set `load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

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The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs's byte
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compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

** Toggle buttons and radio buttons in menus.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
widgets for radio and toggle buttons in menus.  When configured for
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

** Item Save Options on the Options menu allows saving options set
using that menu.

** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face `trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the
whitespace.

** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

** The new user-option `confirm-kill-emacs' can be customized to
let Emacs ask for confirmation before exiting.

** The header line in an Info buffer is now displayed as an emacs
header-line (which is like a mode-line, but at the top of the window),
so that it remains visible even when the buffer has been scrolled.
This behavior may be disabled by customizing the option
`Info-use-header-line'.

** Polish, Czech, German, and French translations of Emacs' reference card
have been added.  They are named `pl-refcard.tex', `cs-refcard.tex',
`de-refcard.tex' and `fr-refcard.tex'.  Postscript files are included.

** An `Emacs Survival Guide', etc/survival.tex, is available.

** A reference card for Dired has been added.  Its name is
`dired-ref.tex'.  A French translation is available in
`fr-drdref.tex'.

** C-down-mouse-3 is bound differently.  Now if the menu bar is not
displayed it pops up a menu containing the items which would be on the
menu bar.  If the menu bar is displayed, it pops up the major mode
menu or the Edit menu if there is no major mode menu.

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** Variable `load-path' is no longer customizable through Customize.
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You can no longer use `M-x customize-variable' to customize `load-path'
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because it now contains a version-dependent component.  You can still
use `add-to-list' and `setq' to customize this variable in your
`~/.emacs' init file or to modify it from any Lisp program in general.
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** C-u C-x = provides detailed information about the character at
point in a pop-up window.

** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, use the `mouse-wheel-mode' command, or
customize the variable `mouse-wheel-mode'.

The variables `mouse-wheel-follow-mouse' and `mouse-wheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

** Emacs' auto-save list files are now by default stored in a
sub-directory `.emacs.d/auto-save-list/' of the user's home directory.
(On MS-DOS, this subdirectory's name is `_emacs.d/auto-save.list/'.)
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You can customize `auto-save-list-file-prefix' to change this location.
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** The function `getenv' is now callable interactively.

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** The new user-option `even-window-heights' can be set to nil
to prevent `display-buffer' from evening out window heights.

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** The new command M-x delete-trailing-whitespace RET will delete the
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trailing whitespace within the current restriction.  You can also add
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this function to `write-file-hooks' or `local-write-file-hooks'.

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** When visiting a file with M-x find-file-literally, no newlines will
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be added to the end of the buffer even if `require-final-newline' is
non-nil.
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** The new user-option `find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' can be
set to suppress warnings ``X and Y are the same file'' when visiting a
file that is already visited under a different name.

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** The new user-option `electric-help-shrink-window' can be set to
nil to prevent adjusting the help window size to the buffer size.

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** New command M-x describe-character-set reads a character set name
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and displays information about that.
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** The new variable `auto-mode-interpreter-regexp' contains a regular
expression matching interpreters, for file mode determination.

This regular expression is matched against the first line of a file to
determine the file's mode in `set-auto-mode' when Emacs can't deduce a
mode from the file's name.  If it matches, the file is assumed to be
interpreted by the interpreter matched by the second group of the
regular expression.  The mode is then determined as the mode
associated with that interpreter in `interpreter-mode-alist'.

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** New function executable-make-buffer-file-executable-if-script-p is
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suitable as an after-save-hook as an alternative to `executable-chmod'.
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** The most preferred coding-system is now used to save a buffer if
buffer-file-coding-system is `undecided' and it is safe for the buffer
contents.  (The most preferred is set by set-language-environment or
by M-x prefer-coding-system.)  Thus if you visit an ASCII file and
insert a non-ASCII character from your current language environment,
the file will be saved silently with the appropriate coding.
Previously you would be prompted for a safe coding system.

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** The many obsolete language `setup-...-environment' commands have
been removed -- use `set-language-environment'.

** The new Custom option `keyboard-coding-system' specifies a coding
system for keyboard input.

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** New variable `inhibit-iso-escape-detection' determines if Emacs'
coding system detection algorithm should pay attention to ISO2022's
escape sequences.  If this variable is non-nil, the algorithm ignores
such escape sequences.  The default value is nil, and it is
recommended not to change it except for the special case that you
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always want to read any escape code verbatim.  If you just want to
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read a specific file without decoding escape codes, use C-x RET c
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(`universal-coding-system-argument').  For instance, C-x RET c latin-1
RET C-x C-f filename RET.
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** Variable `default-korean-keyboard' is initialized properly from the
environment variable `HANGUL_KEYBOARD_TYPE'.

** New command M-x list-charset-chars reads a character set name and
displays all characters in that character set.

** M-x set-terminal-coding-system (C-x RET t) now allows CCL-based
coding systems such as cpXXX and cyrillic-koi8.

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** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.

** New language environments `Polish', `Latin-8' and `Latin-9'.
Latin-8 and Latin-9 correspond respectively to the ISO character sets
8859-14 (Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign).
GNU Intlfonts doesn't support these yet but recent X releases have
8859-15.  See etc/INSTALL for information on obtaining extra fonts.
There are new Leim input methods for Latin-8 and Latin-9 prefix (only)
and Polish `slash'.

** New language environments `Dutch' and `Spanish'.
These new environments mainly select appropriate translations
of the tutorial.

** In Ethiopic language environment, special key bindings for
function keys are changed as follows.  This is to conform to "Emacs
Lisp Coding Convention".

    new  command                            old-binding
    ---  -------                            -----------
    f3   ethio-fidel-to-sera-buffer         f5
    S-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-region         f5
    C-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-mail-or-marker f5

    f4   ethio-sera-to-fidel-buffer         unchanged
    S-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-region         unchanged
    C-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-mail-or-marker unchanged

    S-f5 ethio-toggle-punctuation           f3
    S-f6 ethio-modify-vowel                 f6
    S-f7 ethio-replace-space                f7
    S-f8 ethio-input-special-character      f8
    S-f9 ethio-replace-space                unchanged
    C-f9 ethio-toggle-space                 f2

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** There are new Leim input methods.
New input methods "turkish-postfix", "turkish-alt-postfix",
"greek-mizuochi", "TeX", and "greek-babel" are now part of the Leim
package.

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** The rule of input method "slovak" is slightly changed.  Now the
rules for translating "q" and "Q" to "`" (backquote) are deleted, thus
typing them inserts "q" and "Q" respectively.  Rules for translating
"=q", "+q", "=Q", and "+Q" to "`" are also deleted.  Now, to input
"`", you must type "=q".

** When your terminal can't display characters from some of the ISO
8859 character sets but can display Latin-1, you can display
more-or-less mnemonic sequences of ASCII/Latin-1 characters instead of
empty boxes (under a window system) or question marks (not under a
window system).  Customize the option `latin1-display' to turn this
on.

** M-; now calls comment-dwim which tries to do something clever based
on the context.  M-x kill-comment is now an alias to comment-kill,
defined in newcomment.el.  You can choose different styles of region
commenting with the variable `comment-style'.
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** New user options `display-time-mail-face' and
`display-time-use-mail-icon' control the appearance of mode-line mail
indicator used by the display-time package.  On a suitable display the
indicator can be an icon and is mouse-sensitive.

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** On window-systems, additional space can be put between text lines
on the display using several methods

- By setting frame parameter `line-spacing' to PIXELS.  PIXELS must be
a positive integer, and specifies that PIXELS number of pixels should
be put below text lines on the affected frame or frames.

- By setting X resource `lineSpacing', class `LineSpacing'.  This is
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equivalent to specifying the frame parameter.
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- By specifying `--line-spacing=N' or `-lsp N' on the command line.
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- By setting buffer-local variable `line-spacing'.  The meaning is
the same, but applies to the a particular buffer only.

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** The new command `clone-indirect-buffer' can be used to create
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an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current buffer.  The
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command `clone-indirect-buffer-other-window', bound to C-x 4 c,
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does the same but displays the indirect buffer in another window.
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`make-backup-file-name-function' control the placement of backups,
typically in a single directory or in an invisible sub-directory.
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** New commands iso-iso2sgml and iso-sgml2iso convert between Latin-1
characters and the corresponding SGML (HTML) entities.

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** New X resources recognized
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*** The X resource `synchronous', class `Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.

Example:

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  emacs.synchronous: true
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*** The X resource `visualClass, class `VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form `CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are

  TrueColor
  PseudoColor
  DirectColor
  StaticColor
  GrayScale
  StaticGray

Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
`pseudocolor', `Pseudocolor' and `PseudoColor' all have the same
meaning.

The program `xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
`visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default
visual.

Example:

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  emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8
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*** The X resource `privateColormap', class `PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are `true' or `on'.

Example:

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  emacs.privateColormap: true
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** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces `scroll-bar', `border', `cursor' and `mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters `scroll-bar-foreground' and
`scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
`scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter `border-color'
sets the background color of face `border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters `cursor-color' and face `cursor', and frame
parameter `mouse-color' and face `mouse'.

Changing frame parameter `font' sets font-related attributes of the
`default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
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`foreground-color' or `background-color' sets the colors of the
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`default' face and vice versa.

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** New face `menu'.

The face `menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.

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** New frame parameter `screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter `screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is `screenGamma', class
`ScreenGamma'.

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

	emacs.pane.menubar.margin: 5

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The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the
LessTif/Motif one.
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*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, as in
LessTif and Motif.
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** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
`x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
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bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi and Less).
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This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in `default-indicate-empty-lines'.

** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
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value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-up-aggressively' is a
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number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.
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When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
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value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-down-aggressively' is a
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number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.
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** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either
M-x clone-buffer, C-u m <entry> RET or C-u g <entry> RET.
M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and several other special
buffers.

** The command `Info-search' now uses a search history.

** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing
`directory-abbrev-alist'.

** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

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** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

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** The new command M-x string-insert-rectangle is like `string-rectangle',
but inserts text instead of replacing it.
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** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

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** M-x query-replace recognizes a new command `e' (or `E') that lets
you edit the replacement string.
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** The new command mail-abbrev-complete-alias, bound to `M-TAB'
(if you load the library `mailabbrev'), lets you complete mail aliases
in the text, analogous to lisp-complete-symbol.
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** The variable `echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.
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** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), `user-init-file' is set
to the source name (.emacs.el), if that exists, after loading it.
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** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
the property `:help HELP' is now displayed under X, on MS-Windows, and
MS-DOS, either in the echo area or with tooltips.  Many standard menus
displayed by Emacs now have help strings.
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--
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** New user option `read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to
read mail from the menu etc.
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** The environment variable `EMACSLOCKDIR' is no longer used on MS-Windows.
This environment variable was used when creating lock files.  Emacs on
MS-Windows does not use this variable anymore.  This change was made
before Emacs 21.1, but wasn't documented until now.
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** Highlighting of mouse-sensitive regions is now supported in the
MS-DOS version of Emacs.
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** The new command `msdos-set-mouse-buttons' forces the MS-DOS version
of Emacs to behave as if the mouse had a specified number of buttons.
This comes handy with mice that don't report their number of buttons
correctly.  One example is the wheeled mice, which report 3 buttons,
but clicks on the middle button are not passed to the MS-DOS version
of Emacs.
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** Customize changes
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*** Customize now supports comments about customized items.  Use the
`State' menu to add comments, or give a prefix argument to
M-x customize-set-variable or M-x customize-set-value.  Note that
customization comments will cause the customizations to fail in
earlier versions of Emacs.
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*** The new option `custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the
default).
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*** If Emacs was invoked with the `-q' or `--no-init-file' options, it
does not allow you to save customizations in your `~/.emacs' init
file.  This is because saving customizations from such a session would
wipe out all the other customizationss you might have on your init
file.
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** New features in evaluation commands
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*** The commands to evaluate Lisp expressions, such as C-M-x in Lisp
modes, C-j in Lisp Interaction mode, and M-:, now bind the variables
print-level, print-length, and debug-on-error based on the new
customizable variables eval-expression-print-level,
eval-expression-print-length, and eval-expression-debug-on-error.
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The default values for the first two of these variables are 12 and 4
respectively, which means that `eval-expression' now prints at most
the first 12 members of a list and at most 4 nesting levels deep (if
the list is longer or deeper than that, an ellipsis `...'  is
printed).

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<RET> or <mouse-2> on the printed text toggles between an abbreviated
printed representation and an unabbreviated one.
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The default value of eval-expression-debug-on-error is t, so any error
during evaluation produces a backtrace.

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*** The function `eval-defun' (M-C-x) now loads Edebug and instruments
code when called with a prefix argument.

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** CC mode changes.

Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback.  Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this
release.

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*** The hardcoded switch to "java" style in Java mode is gone.
CC Mode used to automatically set the style to "java" when Java mode
is entered.  This has now been removed since it caused too much
confusion.

However, to keep backward compatibility to a certain extent, the
default value for c-default-style now specifies the "java" style for
java-mode, but "gnu" for all other modes (as before).  So you won't
notice the change if you haven't touched that variable.

*** New cleanups, space-before-funcall and compact-empty-funcall.
Two new cleanups have been added to c-cleanup-list:

space-before-funcall causes a space to be inserted before the opening
parenthesis of a function call, which gives the style "foo (bar)".

compact-empty-funcall causes any space before a function call opening
parenthesis to be removed if there are no arguments to the function.
It's typically useful together with space-before-funcall to get the
style "foo (bar)" and "foo()".

*** Some keywords now automatically trigger reindentation.
Keywords like "else", "while", "catch" and "finally" have been made
"electric" to make them reindent automatically when they continue an
earlier statement.  An example:

for (i = 0; i < 17; i++)
  if (a[i])
    res += a[i]->offset;
else

Here, the "else" should be indented like the preceding "if", since it
continues that statement. CC Mode will automatically reindent it after
the "else" has been typed in full, since it's not until then it's
possible to decide whether it's a new statement or a continuation of
the preceding "if".

CC Mode uses Abbrev mode to achieve this, which is therefore turned on
by default.

*** M-a and M-e now moves by sentence in multiline strings.
Previously these two keys only moved by sentence in comments, which
meant that sentence movement didn't work in strings containing
documentation or other natural language text.

The reason it's only activated in multiline strings (i.e. strings that
contain a newline, even when escaped by a '\') is to avoid stopping in
the short strings that often reside inside statements.  Multiline
strings almost always contain text in a natural language, as opposed
to other strings that typically contain format specifications,
commands, etc.  Also, it's not that bothersome that M-a and M-e misses
sentences in single line strings, since they're short anyway.

*** Support for autodoc comments in Pike mode.
Autodoc comments for Pike are used to extract documentation from the
source, like Javadoc in Java.  Pike mode now recognize this markup in
comment prefixes and paragraph starts.

*** The comment prefix regexps on c-comment-prefix may be mode specific.
When c-comment-prefix is an association list, it specifies the comment
line prefix on a per-mode basis, like c-default-style does.  This
change came about to support the special autodoc comment prefix in
Pike mode only.

*** Better handling of syntactic errors.
The recovery after unbalanced parens earlier in the buffer has been
improved; CC Mode now reports them by dinging and giving a message
stating the offending line, but still recovers and indent the
following lines in a sane way (most of the time).  An "else" with no
matching "if" is handled similarly.  If an error is discovered while
indenting a region, the whole region is still indented and the error
is reported afterwards.

*** Lineup functions may now return absolute columns.
A lineup function can give an absolute column to indent the line to by
returning a vector with the desired column as the first element.

*** More robust and warning-free byte compilation.
Although this is strictly not a user visible change (well, depending
on the view of a user), it's still worth mentioning that CC Mode now
can be compiled in the standard ways without causing trouble.  Some
code have also been moved between the subpackages to enhance the
modularity somewhat.  Thanks to Martin Buchholz for doing the
groundwork.

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*** c-style-variables-are-local-p now defaults to t.
This is an incompatible change that has been made to make the behavior
of the style system wrt global variable settings less confusing for
non-advanced users.  If you know what this variable does you might
want to set it to nil in your .emacs, otherwise you probably don't
have to bother.

Defaulting c-style-variables-are-local-p to t avoids the confusing
situation that occurs when a user sets some style variables globally
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and edits both a Java and a non-Java file in the same Emacs session.
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If the style variables aren't buffer local in this case, loading of
the second file will cause the default style (either "gnu" or "java"
by default) to override the global settings made by the user.

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*** New initialization procedure for the style system.
When the initial style for a buffer is determined by CC Mode (from the
variable c-default-style), the global values of style variables now
take precedence over the values specified by the chosen style.  This
is different than the old behavior: previously, the style-specific
settings would override the global settings.  This change makes it
possible to do simple configuration in the intuitive way with
Customize or with setq lines in one's .emacs file.

By default, the global value of every style variable is the new
special symbol set-from-style, which causes the value to be taken from
the style system.  This means that in effect, only an explicit setting
of a style variable will cause the "overriding" behavior described
above.

Also note that global settings override style-specific settings *only*
when the initial style of a buffer is chosen by a CC Mode major mode
function.  When a style is chosen in other ways --- for example, by a
call like (c-set-style "gnu") in a hook, or via M-x c-set-style ---
then the style-specific values take precedence over any global style
values.  In Lisp terms, global values override style-specific values
only when the new second argument to c-set-style is non-nil; see the
function documentation for more info.

The purpose of these changes is to make it easier for users,
especially novice users, to do simple customizations with Customize or
with setq in their .emacs files.  On the other hand, the new system is
intended to be compatible with advanced users' customizations as well,
such as those that choose styles in hooks or whatnot.  This new system
is believed to be almost entirely compatible with current
configurations, in spite of the changed precedence between style and
global variable settings when a buffer's default style is set.

(Thanks to Eric Eide for clarifying this explanation a bit.)

**** c-offsets-alist is now a customizable variable.
This became possible as a result of the new initialization behavior.

This variable is treated slightly differently from the other style
variables; instead of using the symbol set-from-style, it will be
completed with the syntactic symbols it doesn't already contain when
the style is first initialized.  This means it now defaults to the
empty list to make all syntactic elements get their values from the
style system.

**** Compatibility variable to restore the old behavior.
In case your configuration doesn't work with this change, you can set
c-old-style-variable-behavior to non-nil to get the old behavior back
as far as possible.

*** Improvements to line breaking and text filling.
CC Mode now handles this more intelligently and seamlessly wrt the
surrounding code, especially inside comments.  For details see the new
chapter about this in the manual.

**** New variable to recognize comment line prefix decorations.
The variable c-comment-prefix-regexp has been added to properly
recognize the line prefix in both block and line comments.  It's
primarily used to initialize the various paragraph recognition and
adaptive filling variables that the text handling functions uses.

**** New variable c-block-comment-prefix.
This is a generalization of the now obsolete variable
c-comment-continuation-stars to handle arbitrary strings.

**** CC Mode now uses adaptive fill mode.
This to make it adapt better to the paragraph style inside comments.

It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages inside CC
Mode, notably Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt mode (http://wonderworks.com/).
A new convenience function c-setup-filladapt sets up Filladapt for use
inside CC Mode.

Note though that the 2.12 version of Filladapt lacks a feature that
causes it to work suboptimally when c-comment-prefix-regexp can match
the empty string (which it commonly does).  A patch for that is
available from the CC Mode web site (http://www.python.org/emacs/
cc-mode/).

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**** The variables `c-hanging-comment-starter-p' and
`c-hanging-comment-ender-p', which controlled how comment starters and
enders were filled, are not used anymore.  The new version of the
function `c-fill-paragraph' keeps the comment starters and enders as
they were before the filling.

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**** It's now possible to selectively turn off auto filling.
The variable c-ignore-auto-fill is used to ignore auto fill mode in
specific contexts, e.g. in preprocessor directives and in string
literals.

**** New context sensitive line break function c-context-line-break.
It works like newline-and-indent in normal code, and adapts the line
prefix according to the comment style when used inside comments.  If
you're normally using newline-and-indent, you might want to switch to
this function.

*** Fixes to IDL mode.
It now does a better job in recognizing only the constructs relevant
to IDL.  E.g. it no longer matches "class" as the beginning of a
struct block, but it does match the CORBA 2.3 "valuetype" keyword.
Thanks to Eric Eide.

*** Improvements to the Whitesmith style.
It now keeps the style consistently on all levels and both when
opening braces hangs and when they don't.

**** New lineup function c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block.

*** New lineup functions c-lineup-template-args and c-indent-multi-line-block.
See their docstrings for details.  c-lineup-template-args does a
better job of tracking the brackets used as parens in C++ templates,
and is used by default to line up continued template arguments.

*** c-lineup-comment now preserves alignment with a comment on the
previous line.  It used to instead preserve comments that started in
the column specified by comment-column.

*** c-lineup-C-comments handles "free form" text comments.
In comments with a long delimiter line at the start, the indentation
is kept unchanged for lines that start with an empty comment line
prefix.  This is intended for the type of large block comments that
contain documentation with its own formatting.  In these you normally
don't want CC Mode to change the indentation.

*** The `c' syntactic symbol is now relative to the comment start
instead of the previous line, to make integers usable as lineup
arguments.

*** All lineup functions have gotten docstrings.

*** More preprocessor directive movement functions.
c-down-conditional does the reverse of c-up-conditional.
c-up-conditional-with-else and c-down-conditional-with-else are
variants of these that also stops at "#else" lines (suggested by Don
Provan).

*** Minor improvements to many movement functions in tricky situations.

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** Dired changes
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*** New variable `dired-recursive-deletes' determines if the delete
command will delete non-empty directories recursively.  The default
is, delete only empty directories.
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*** New variable `dired-recursive-copies' determines if the copy
command will copy directories recursively.  The default is, do not
copy directories recursively.
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*** In command `dired-do-shell-command' (usually bound to `!') a `?'
in the shell command has a special meaning similar to `*', but with
the difference that the command will be run on each file individually.
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*** The new command `dired-find-alternate-file' (usually bound to `a')
replaces the Dired buffer with the buffer for an alternate file or
directory.
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*** The new command `dired-show-file-type' (usually bound to `y') shows
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a message in the echo area describing what type of file the point is on.
This command invokes the external program `file' do its work, and so
will only work on systems with that program, and will be only as
accurate or inaccurate as it is.

*** Dired now properly handles undo changes of adding/removing `-R'
from ls switches.

*** Dired commands that prompt for a destination file now allow the use
of the `M-n' command in the minibuffer to insert the source filename,
which the user can then edit.  This only works if there is a single
source file, not when operating on multiple marked files.
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** Gnus changes.
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The Gnus NEWS entries are short, but they reflect sweeping changes in
four areas: Article display treatment, MIME treatment,
internationalization and mail-fetching.
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*** The mail-fetching functions have changed.  See the manual for the
many details.  In particular, all procmail fetching variables are gone.
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If you used procmail like in
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(setq nnmail-use-procmail t)
(setq nnmail-spool-file 'procmail)
(setq nnmail-procmail-directory "~/mail/incoming/")
(setq nnmail-procmail-suffix "\\.in")
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this now has changed to
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(setq mail-sources
      '((directory :path "~/mail/incoming/"
		   :suffix ".in")))
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More information is available in the info doc at Select Methods ->
Getting Mail -> Mail Sources
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*** Gnus is now a MIME-capable reader.  This affects many parts of
Gnus, and adds a slew of new commands.  See the manual for details.
Separate MIME packages like RMIME, mime-compose etc., will probably no
longer work; remove them and use the native facilities.
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The FLIM/SEMI package still works with Emacs 21, but if you want to
use the native facilities, you must remove any mailcap.el[c] that was
installed by FLIM/SEMI version 1.13 or earlier.
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*** Gnus has also been multilingualized.  This also affects too many
parts of Gnus to summarize here, and adds many new variables.  There
are built-in facilities equivalent to those of gnus-mule.el, which is
now just a compatibility layer.
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*** gnus-mule.el is now just a compatibility layer over the built-in
Gnus facilities.

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*** gnus-auto-select-first can now be a function to be
called to position point.
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*** The user can now decide which extra headers should be included in
summary buffers and NOV files.
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*** `gnus-article-display-hook' has been removed.  Instead, a number
of variables starting with `gnus-treat-' have been added.
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*** The Gnus posting styles have been redone again and now work in a
subtly different manner.
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*** New web-based backends have been added: nnslashdot, nnwarchive
and nnultimate.  nnweb has been revamped, again, to keep up with
ever-changing layouts.
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*** Gnus can now read IMAP mail via nnimap.
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*** There is image support of various kinds and some sound support.
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** Changes in Texinfo mode.
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*** A couple of new key bindings have been added for inserting Texinfo
macros
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  Key binding	Macro
  -------------------------
  C-c C-c C-s	@strong
  C-c C-c C-e	@emph
  C-c C-c u	@uref
  C-c C-c q     @quotation
  C-c C-c m	@email
  C-c C-o       @<block> ... @end <block>
  M-RET         @item
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*** The " key now inserts either " or `` or '' depending on context.
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** Changes in Outline mode.
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There is now support for Imenu to index headings.  A new command
`outline-headers-as-kill' copies the visible headings in the region to
the kill ring, e.g. to produce a table of contents.
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** Changes to Emacs Server
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*** The new option `server-kill-new-buffers' specifies what to do
with buffers when done with them.  If non-nil, the default, buffers
are killed, unless they were already present before visiting them with
Emacs Server.  If nil, `server-temp-file-regexp' specifies which
buffers to kill, as before.
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Please note that only buffers are killed that still have a client,
i.e. buffers visited with `emacsclient --no-wait' are never killed in
this way.

** Both emacsclient and Emacs itself now accept command line options
of the form +LINE:COLUMN in addition to +LINE.

** Changes to Show Paren mode.

*** Overlays used by Show Paren mode now use a priority property.
The new user option show-paren-priority specifies the priority to
use.  Default is 1000.
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** New command M-x check-parens can be used to find unbalanced paren
groups and strings in buffers in Lisp mode (or other modes).
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** Changes to hideshow.el
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*** Generalized block selection and traversal
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A block is now recognized by its start and end regexps (both strings),
and an integer specifying which sub-expression in the start regexp
serves as the place where a `forward-sexp'-like function can operate.
See the documentation of variable `hs-special-modes-alist'.
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*** During incremental search, if Hideshow minor mode is active,
hidden blocks are temporarily shown.  The variable `hs-headline' can
be used in the mode line format to show the line at the beginning of
the open block.
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*** User option `hs-hide-all-non-comment-function' specifies a
function to be called at each top-level block beginning, instead of
the normal block-hiding function.
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*** The command `hs-show-region' has been removed.
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*** The key bindings have changed to fit the Emacs conventions,
roughly imitating those of Outline minor mode.  Notably, the prefix
for all bindings is now `C-c @'.  For details, see the documentation
for `hs-minor-mode'.
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*** The variable `hs-show-hidden-short-form' has been removed, and
hideshow.el now always behaves as if this variable were set to t.
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** Changes to Change Log mode and Add-Log functions
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*** If you invoke `add-change-log-entry' from a backup file, it makes
an entry appropriate for the file's parent.  This is useful for making
log entries by comparing a version with deleted functions.
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**** New command M-x change-log-merge merges another log into the
current buffer.
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*** New command M-x change-log-redate fixes any old-style date entries
in a log file.
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