Newer Older
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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2001-03-15
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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Temporary note:
 +++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
 --- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so we will look at it

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.4

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** Emacs can now be built without sound support.

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** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.

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** By default, Emacs now uses a setgid helper program to update game
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scores.  The directory ${localstatedir}/games/emacs is the normal
place for game scores to be stored.  This may be controlled by the
configure option `--with-game-dir'.  The specific user that Emacs uses
to own the game scores is controlled by `--with-game-user'.  If access
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to a game user is not available, then scores will be stored separately
in each user's home directory.
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** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

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** Support for AIX 5.1 was added.

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** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

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** Support for BSD/OS 5.0 was added.

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** Support for MacOS X was added.
See the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

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* Changes in Emacs 21.4
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** The new options `buffers-menu-show-directories' and
`buffers-menu-show-status' let you control how buffers are displayed
in the menu dropped down when you click "Buffers" from the menu bar.

`buffers-menu-show-directories' controls whether the menu displays
leading directories as part of the file name visited by the buffer.
If its value is `unless-uniquify', the default, directories will be
shown unless uniquify-buffer-name-style' is non-nil.  The value of nil
and t turn the display of directories off and on, respectively.

`buffers-menu-show-status' controls whether the Buffers menu includes
the modified and read-only status of the buffers.  By default it is
t, and the status is shown.

Setting these variables directly does not take effect until next time
the Buffers menu is regenerated.

** `C-u C-x =' now displays text properties of the character at point.

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** The commands M-x customize-face and M-x customize-face-other-window
now look at the text at point.  If that text has a face specified,
the commands suggest to customize that face.

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** Limited support for charset unification has been added.
By default, Emacs now knows how to translate latin-N chars between their
charset and some other latin-N charset or unicode.  You can force a
more complete unification by calling (unify-8859-on-decoding-mode 1).

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** The scrollbar under Motif has a smoother drag-scrolling.
On the other hand, the size of the thumb does not represent the actual
amount of text shown any more (only a crude approximation of it).

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** Emacs can produce an underscore-like (horizontal bar) cursor.
The underscore cursor is set by putting `(cursor-type . hbar)' in
default-frame-alist.  It supports variable heights, like the `bar'
cursor does.

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** Filesets are collections of files.  You can define a fileset in
various ways, such as based on a directory tree or based on
program files that include other program files.

Once you have defined a fileset, you can perform various operations on
all the files in it, such as visiting them or searching and replacing
in them.

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** PO translation files are decoded according to their MIME headers
when Emacs visits them.

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** The game `mpuz' is enhanced.

`mpuz' now allows the 2nd factor not to have two identical digits.  By
default, all trivial operations involving whole lines are performed
automatically.  The game uses faces for better visual feedback.

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** On X and MS Windows, the blinking cursor's "off" state is now shown
as a hollow box or a thin bar.

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** Emacs now supports ICCCM Extended Segments in X selections.

Some versions of X, notably XFree86, use Extended Segments to encode
in X selections characters that belong to character sets which are not
part of the list of standard charsets supported by the ICCCM spec.
Examples of such non-standard character sets include ISO 8859-14, ISO
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8859-15, KOI8-R, and BIG5.  The new coding system
`compound-text-with-extensions' supports these extensions, and is now
used by default for encoding and decoding X selections.  If you don't
want this support, set `selection-coding-system' to `compound-text'.

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** The parameters of automatic hscrolling can now be customized.
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The variable `hscroll-margin' determines how many columns away from
the window edge point is allowed to get before automatic hscrolling
will horizontally scroll the window.  The default value is 5.

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The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns automatic
hscrolling will scroll the window when point gets too close to the
window edge.  If its value is zero, the default, Emacs scrolls the
window so as to center point.  If its value is an integer, it says how
many columns to scroll.  If the value is a floating-point number, it
gives the fraction of the window's width to scroll the window.

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** The user option `tex-start-options-string' has been replaced
by two new user options: `tex-start-options', which should hold
command-line options to feed to TeX, and `tex-start-commands' which should hold
TeX commands to use at startup.

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** The variable `automatic-hscrolling' was renamed to `auto-hscroll-mode'.
The old name is still available as an alias.

** New display feature: focus follows mouse.  If you set the variable
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mouse-autoselect-window to non-nil value, moving the mouse to a different
Emacs window will select that window (minibuffer window can be selected
only when it is active).  The default is nil, so that this feature is not
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** The new command `describe-text-at' pops up a buffer with description
of text properties, overlays, and widgets at point, and lets you get
more information about them, by clicking on mouse-sensitive areas or
moving there and pressing RET.

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** The new command `multi-occur' is just like `occur', except it can
search multiple buffers.  There is also a new command
`multi-occur-by-filename-regexp' which allows you to specify the
buffers to search by their filename.  Internally, Occur mode has been
rewritten, and now uses font-lock, among other changes.

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** Emacs normally highlights mouse sensitive text whenever the mouse
is over the text.  By setting the new variable `mouse-highlight', you
can optionally enable mouse highlighting only after you move the
mouse, so that highlighting disappears when you press a key.  You can
also disable mouse highlighting.

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** font-lock: in modes like C and Lisp where the fontification assumes that
an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of any string or comment,
font-lock now highlights any such open-paren-in-column-zero in bold-red
if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it can cause
trouble with fontification and/or indentation.

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** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.

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** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.

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The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

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** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (like
tool bar and the menu bar itself).  You can also move the vertical
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scroll bar to either side here or turn it off completely.  There is also
a menu-item to toggle displaying of current date and time, current line
and column number in the mode-line.
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** Speedbar has moved from the "Tools" top level menu to "Show/Hide".

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** Emacs can now indicate in the mode-line the presence of new e-mails in
directory in addition to file.  See the documentation of the user option

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** The new option `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' causes Info to behave
like the stand-alone Info reader (from the GNU Texinfo package) as far
as motion between nodes and their subnodes is concerned.  If it is t
(the default), Emacs behaves as before when you type SPC in a menu: it
visits the subnode pointed to by the first menu entry.  If this option
is nil, SPC scrolls to the end of the current node, and only then goes
to the first menu item, like the stand-alone reader does.

This change was already in Emacs 21.1, but wasn't advertised in the

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** LDAP support now defaults to ldapsearch from OpenLDAP version 2.

** You can now disable pc-selection-mode after enabling it.
M-x pc-selection-mode behaves like a proper minor mode, and with no
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argument it toggles the mode.

Turning off PC-Selection mode restores the global key bindings
that were replaced by turning on the mode.

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** Changes in support of colors on character terminals

*** The new command-line option --color=MODE lets you specify a standard
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mode for a tty color support.  It is meant to be used on character
terminals whose capabilities are not set correctly in the terminal
database, or with terminal emulators which support colors, but don't
set the TERM environment variable to a name of a color-capable
terminal.  "emacs --color" uses the same color commands as GNU `ls'
when invoked with "ls --color", so if your terminal can support colors
in "ls --color", it will support "emacs --color" as well.  See the
user manual for the possible values of the MODE parameter.

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*** Emacs now supports several character terminals which provide more
than 8 colors.  For example, for `xterm', 16-color, 88-color, and
256-color modes are supported.  Emacs automatically notes at startup
the extended number of colors, and defines the appropriate entries for
all of these colors.

*** There's a new support for colors on `rxvt' terminal emulator.

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** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.

When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
screen size.  (For now, this works only on GNU and Unix systems, and
not with every window manager.)

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** Info-index finally offers completion.

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** shell-mode now supports programmable completion using `pcomplete'.

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** The new command `comint-input-previous-argument' in comint-derived
modes (shell-mode etc) inserts arguments from previous command lines,
like bash's `ESC .' binding.  It is bound by default to `C-c .', but
otherwise behaves quite similarly to the bash version.

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** Controlling the left and right fringe widths.

The left and right fringe widths can now be controlled by setting the
`left-fringe' and `right-fringe' frame parameters to an integer value
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specifying the width in pixels.  Setting the width to 0 effectively
removes the corresponding fringe.

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The actual fringe widths may deviate from the specified widths, since
the combined fringe widths must match an integral number of columns.
The extra width is distributed evenly between the left and right fringe.
For force a specific fringe width, specify the width as a negative
integer (if both widths are negative, only the left fringe gets the
specified width).

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Setting the width to nil (the default), restores the default fringe
width which is the minimum number of pixels necessary to display any
of the currently defined fringe bitmaps.  The width of the built-in
fringe bitmaps is 8 pixels.

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** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

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C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.

- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.

- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
to new-kill-line, these commands now report:
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- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line

- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>

- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

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** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

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** Yanking text now discards certain text properties that can
be inconvenient when you did not expect them.  The variable
`yank-excluded-properties' specifies which ones.  Insertion
of register contents and rectangles also discards these properties.

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** M-x grep now tries to avoid appending `/dev/null' to the command line
by using GNU grep `-H' option instead.  M-x grep will automatically
detect whether this is possible or not the first time it is invoked.
When `-H' is used, the grep command line supplied by the user is passed
unchanged to the system to execute, which allows more complicated
command lines to be used than was possible before.

** The face-customization widget has been reworked to be less confusing.
In particular, when you enable a face attribute using the corresponding
check-box, there's no longer a redundant `*' option in value selection
for that attribute; the values you can choose are only those which make
sense for the attribute.  When an attribute is de-selected by unchecking
its check-box, then the (now ignored, but still present temporarily in
case you re-select the attribute) value is hidden.

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** In GUD mode when talking to GDB, C-x C-a C-j "jumps" the program
counter to the specified source line (the one where point is).

** GUD mode improvements for jdb:
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*** Search for source files using jdb classpath and class
    information. Fast startup since there is no need to scan all
    source files up front. There is also no need to create and maintain
    lists of source directories to scan. Look at `gud-jdb-use-classpath'
    and `gud-jdb-classpath' customization variables documentation.

*** Supports the standard breakpoint (gud-break, gud-clear)
    set/clear operations from java source files under the classpath, stack
    traversal (gud-up, gud-down), and run until current stack finish

*** Supports new jdb (Java 1.2 and later) in addition to oldjdb
    (Java 1.1 jdb).

*** The previous method of searching for source files has been
    preserved in case someone still wants/needs to use it.
    Set gud-jdb-use-classpath to nil.

  Added Customization Variables

*** gud-jdb-command-name.  What command line to use to invoke jdb.

*** gud-jdb-use-classpath. Allows selection of java source file searching
    method: set to t for new method, nil to scan gud-jdb-directories for
    java sources (previous method).

*** gud-jdb-directories. List of directories to scan and search for java
    classes using the original gud-jdb method (if gud-jdb-use-classpath
    is nil).

  Minor Improvements

*** Do not allow debugger output history variable to grow without bounds.

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** hide-ifdef-mode now uses overlays rather than selective-display
to hide its text.  This should be mostly transparent but slightly
changes the behavior of motion commands line C-e and C-p.

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** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
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special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

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** Dired's v command now runs external viewers to view certain
types of files.  The variable `dired-view-command-alist' controls
what external viewers to use and when.

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** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

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** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.
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If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
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example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.
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** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.  If
you hit M-C-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h (mark-paragraph), or
C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region will now be extended
each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC M-C-SPC,
for example.  This feature also works for mark-end-of-sentence, if you
bind that to a key.
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** Some commands do something special in Transient Mark mode when the
mark is active--for instance, they limit their operation to the
region.  Even if you don't normally use Transient Mark mode, you might
want to get this behavior from a particular command.  There are two
ways you can enable Transient Mark mode temporarily, and activate the
mark, for one command only.

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One is to type C-SPC C-SPC; this also sets the mark.  The other is to
type C-u C-x C-x, which does not alter the region.

After these commands, Transient Mark mode remains enabled
until you deactivate the mark--typically with a command that
alters the buffer, or typing C-g.
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** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
previous mark, i.e. C-u C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... will cycle through the
mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC to set the mark immediately after a jump.

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** In the *Occur* buffer, `o' switches to it in another window, and
C-o displays the current line's occurrence in another window without
switching to it.
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** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

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** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.
With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
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if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding
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** In Dired, the w command now copies the current line's file name
into the kill ring.

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** The variables dired-free-space-program and dired-free-space-args
have been renamed to directory-free-space-program and
directory-free-space-args, and they now apply whenever Emacs puts a
directory listing into a buffer.

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** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

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** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on
your current locale settings.  If it turns out that your terminal
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does not support the encoding implied by your locale (for example,
it inserts non-ASCII chars if you hit M-i), you will need to add
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	(set-keyboard-coding-system nil)

to your .emacs to revert to the old behavior.

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** A new coding system `euc-tw' has been added for traditional Chinese
in CNS encoding; it accepts both Big 5 and CNS as input; on saving,
Big 5 is then converted to CNS.

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** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
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automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
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according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.

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** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.
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** The default values of `tooltip-delay' and `tooltip-hide-delay'
were changed.

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** On terminals whose erase-char is ^H (Backspace), Emacs
now uses normal-erase-is-backspace-mode.

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** The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' now has a third element that
controls whether or not the function `make-auto-save-file-name' will
attempt to construct a unique auto-save name (e.g. for remote files).

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** VC Changes

*** There is a new user option `vc-cvs-global-switches' that allows
you to specify switches that are passed to any CVS command invoked
by VC.  These switches are used as "global options" for CVS, which
means they are inserted before the command name.  For example, this
allows you to specify a compression level using the "-z#" option for

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** EDiff changes.

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***  When comparing directories.
Typing D brings up a buffer that lists the differences between the contents of
directories. Now it is possible to use this buffer to copy the missing files
from one directory to another.

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*** When comparing files or buffers.
Typing the = key now offers to perform the word-by-word comparison of the
currently highlighted regions in an inferior Ediff session. If you answer 'n'
then it reverts to the old behavior and asks the user to select regions for

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** Etags changes.

*** In Prolog, etags creates tags for rules in addition to predicates.

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*** In Perl, packages are tags.
Subroutine tags are named from their package.  You can jump to sub tags
as you did before, by the sub name, or additionally by looking for

*** New language PHP: tags are functions, classes and defines.
If the --members option is specified to etags, tags are vars also.

*** Honour #line directives.
When Etags parses an input file that contains C preprocessor's #line
directives, it creates tags using the file name and line number
specified in those directives.  This is useful when dealing with code
created from Cweb source files.  When Etags tags the generated file, it
writes tags pointing to the source file.

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** The command line option --no-windows has been changed to
--no-window-system.  The old one still works, but is deprecated.

** `buffer-menu' and `list-buffers' now list buffers whose names begin
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with a space, if they visit files.

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** You can now customize fill-nobreak-predicate to control where
filling can break lines.  We provide two sample predicates,
fill-single-word-nobreak-p and fill-french-nobreak-p.
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** New user option `add-log-always-start-new-record'.
When this option is enabled, M-x add-change-log-entry will always
start a new record regardless of when the last record is.

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** New user option `sgml-xml'.
When this option is enabled, SGML tags are inserted in XML style,
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i.e., there is always a closing tag.
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When not customized, it becomes buffer-local when it can be inferred
from the file name or buffer contents.
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** New user option `isearch-resume-enabled'.
This option can be disabled, to avoid the normal behaviour of isearch
which puts calls to `isearch-resume' in the command history.

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** When the *scratch* buffer is recreated, its mode is set from
initial-major-mode, which normally is lisp-interaction-mode,
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instead of using default-major-mode.
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** Byte compiler warning and error messages have been brought more
in line with the output of other GNU tools.

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** Lisp-mode now uses font-lock-doc-face for the docstrings.
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** perl-mode has a new variable `perl-indent-continued-arguments'.

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** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and

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** When pure storage overflows while dumping, Emacs now prints how
much pure storage it will approximately need.

** M-x setenv now expands environment variables of the form `$foo' and
`${foo}' in the specified new value of the environment variable.  To
include a `$' in the value, use `$$'.

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** File-name completion can now ignore directories.
If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.

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** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.

** Rmail now displays 5-digit message ids in its summary buffer.

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** When using M-x revert-buffer in a compilation buffer to rerun a
compilation, it is now made sure that the compilation buffer is reused
in case it has been renamed.

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** On MS Windows, the "system caret" now follows the cursor.
This enables Emacs to work better with programs that need to track
the cursor, for example screen magnifiers and text to speech programs.

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** Tooltips now work on MS Windows.
See the Emacs 21.1 NEWS entry for tooltips for details.

** Some images are now supported on Windows.
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PBM and XBM images are supported, other formats which require external
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libraries may be supported in future.

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** Pointing devices with more than 3 buttons are now supported on MS Windows.
The new variable `w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system' controls
whether Emacs should handle the extra buttons itself (the default), or
pass them to Windows to be handled with system-wide functions.

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** Under X11, it is possible to swap Alt and Meta (and Super and Hyper).
The new variables `x-alt-keysym', `x-hyper-keysym', `x-meta-keysym',
and `x-super-keysym' can be used to choose which keysyms Emacs should
use for the modifiers.  For example, the following two lines swap
Meta and Alt:
    (setq x-alt-keysym 'meta)
    (setq x-meta-keysym 'alt)

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** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

** A French translation of the Emacs Tutorial is available.

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** Indentation of simple and extended loop forms has been added to the
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cl-indent package.  The new user options
`lisp-loop-keyword-indentation', `lisp-loop-forms-indentation', and
`lisp-simple-loop-indentation' can be used to customize the
indentation of keywords and forms in loop forms.

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** Indentation of backquoted forms has been made customizable in the
cl-indent package.  See the new user option `lisp-backquote-indentation'.

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** When emacs is configured to use `xaw3d' scroll-bars, emacs will
tell the scroll-bar library which colors to use for the bevels, to
prevent the library from using dithering.

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** New modes and packages

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*** The new cua package provides CUA-like keybindings using C-x for
cut (kill), C-c for copy, C-v for paste (yank), and C-z for undo.
With cua, the region can be set and extended using shifted movement
keys (like pc-selection-mode) and typed text replaces the active
region (like delete-selection-mode).  Do not enable these modes with
cua-mode.  Customize the variable `cua-mode' to enable cua.

In addition, cua provides unified rectangle support with visible
rectangle highlighting: Use S-return to start a rectangle, extend it
using the movement commands (or mouse-3), and cut or copy it using C-x
or C-c (using C-w and M-w also works).

Use M-o and M-c to `open' or `close' the rectangle, use M-b or M-f, to
fill it with blanks or another character, use M-u or M-l to upcase or
downcase the rectangle, use M-i to increment the numbers in the
rectangle, use M-n to fill the rectangle with a numeric sequence (such
as 10 20 30...), use M-r to replace a regexp in the rectangle, and use
M-' or M-/ to restrict command on the rectangle to a subset of the
rows.  See the commentary in cua-base.el for more rectangle commands.

Cua also provides unified support for registers:  Use a numeric
prefix argument between 0 and 9, i.e. M-0 .. M-9, for C-x, C-c, and
C-v to cut or copy into register 0-9, or paste from register 0-9.

The last text deleted (not killed) is automatically stored in
register 0.  This includes text deleted by typing text.

Finally, cua provides a global mark which is set using S-C-space.
When the global mark is active, any text which is cut or copied is
automatically inserted at the global mark position.  See the
commentary in cua-base.el for more global mark related commands.

The features of cua also works with the standard emacs bindings for
kill, copy, yank, and undo.  If you want to use cua mode, but don't
want the C-x, C-c, C-v, and C-z bindings, you may customize the
`cua-enable-cua-keys' variable.

*** The new keypad setup package provides simplified configuration
of the numeric keypad which is available on most keyboards.

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*** Calc is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Calc is an advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool written in
Emacs Lisp.  Its documentation is in a separate manual; within Emacs,
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type "C-h i m calc RET" to read that manual.  A reference card is
available in `etc/calccard.tex' and `etc/'.
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*** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

The ELisp reference manual in Info format is built as part of the
Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
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Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).

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*** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
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together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).

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*** The new global minor mode `read-file-name-electric-shadow-mode'
modifies the way filenames being entered by the user in the minibuffer are
displayed, so that it's clear when part of the entered filename will be
ignored due to emacs' filename parsing rules.  The ignored portion can be
made dim, invisible, or otherwise less visually noticable.  The display
method may be displayed by customizing the variable

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*** The ruler-mode.el library provides a minor mode for displaying an
"active" ruler in the header line.  You can use the mouse to visually
change the `fill-column', `window-margins' and `tab-stop-list'

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*** The reveal.el package provides the minor modes `reveal-mode' and
`global-reveal-mode' which will make text visible on the fly as you
move your cursor into hidden region of the buffer.
It should work with any package that uses overlays to hide parts
of a buffer, such as outline-minor-mode, hs-minor-mode, hide-ifdef-mode, ...

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*** master-mode.el implements a minor mode for scrolling a slave
buffer without leaving your current buffer, the master buffer.

It can be used by sql.el, for example: the SQL buffer is the master
and its SQLi buffer is the slave.  This allows you to scroll the SQLi
buffer containing the output from the SQL buffer containing the

This is how to use sql.el and master.el together: the variable
sql-buffer contains the slave buffer.  It is a local variable in the
SQL buffer.

(add-hook 'sql-mode-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-mode t)
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))
(add-hook 'sql-set-sqli-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))

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*** The new package ibuffer provides a powerful, completely
customizable replacement for buff-menu.el.

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** Support for `magic cooky' standout modes has been removed.
Emacs will still work on terminals that require magic cookies in order
to use standout mode, however they will not be able to display
mode-lines in inverse-video.

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* Lisp Changes in Emacs 21.4

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** The `defmacro' form may contain declarations specifying how to
indent the macro in Lisp mode and how to debug it with Edebug.  The
syntax of defmacro has been extended to


DECLARATION is a list `(declare DECLARATION-SPECIFIER ...)'.  The
declaration specifiers supported are:

(indent INDENT)
	Set NAME's `lisp-indent-function' property to INDENT.

(edebug DEBUG)
	Set NAME's `edebug-form-spec' property to DEBUG.  (This is
	equivalent to writing a `def-edebug-spec' for the macro.

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** Interactive commands can be remapped through keymaps.

This is an alternative to using defadvice or substitute-key-definition
to modify the behaviour of a key binding using the normal keymap
binding and lookup functionality.

When a key sequence is bound to a command, and that command is
remapped to another command, that command is run instead of the
original command.

Suppose that minor mode my-mode has defined the commands
my-kill-line and my-kill-word, and it wants C-k (and any other key
bound to kill-line) to run the command my-kill-line instead of
kill-line, and likewise it wants to run my-kill-word instead of

Instead of rebinding C-k and the other keys in the minor mode map,
command remapping allows you to directly map kill-line into
my-kill-line and kill-word into my-kill-word through the minor mode
map using define-key:

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   (define-key my-mode-map [remap kill-line] 'my-kill-line)
   (define-key my-mode-map [remap kill-word] 'my-kill-word)
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Now, when my-mode is enabled, and the user enters C-k or M-d,
the commands my-kill-line and my-kill-word are run.

Notice that only one level of remapping is supported.  In the above
example, this means that if my-kill-line is remapped to other-kill,
then C-k still runs my-kill-line.

The following changes have been made to provide command remapping:

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- Command remappings are defined using `define-key' with a prefix-key
  `remap', i.e. `(define-key MAP [remap CMD] DEF)' remaps command CMD
  to definition DEF in keymap MAP.  The definition is not limited to
  another command; it can be anything accepted for a normal binding.
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- The new function `remap-command' returns the binding for a remapped
  command in the current keymaps, or nil if it isn't remapped.
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- key-binding now remaps interactive commands unless the optional
  third argument NO-REMAP is non-nil.
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- where-is-internal now returns nil for a remapped command (e.g.
  kill-line if my-mode is enabled), and the actual key binding for
  the command it is remapped to (e.g. C-k for my-kill-line).
  It also has a new optional fifth argument, NO-REMAP, which inhibits
  remapping if non-nil (e.g. it returns C-k for kill-line and
  <kill-line> for my-kill-line).

- The new variable `this-original-command' contains the original
  command before remapping.  It is equal to `this-command' when the
  command was not remapped.

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** Atomic change groups.

To perform some changes in the current buffer "atomically" so that
they either all succeed or are all undone, use `atomic-change-group'
around the code that makes changes.  For instance:

    (insert foo)
    (delete-region x y))

If an error (or other nonlocal exit) occurs inside the body of
`atomic-change-group', it unmakes all the changes in that buffer that
were during the execution of the body.  The change group has no effect
on any other buffers--any such changes remain.

If you need something more sophisticated, you can directly call the
lower-level functions that `atomic-change-group' uses.  Here is how.

To set up a change group for one buffer, call `prepare-change-group'.
Specify the buffer as argument; it defaults to the current buffer.
This function returns a "handle" for the change group.  You must save
the handle to activate the change group and then finish it.

Before you change the buffer again, you must activate the change
group.  Pass the handle to `activate-change-group' afterward to
do this.

After you make the changes, you must finish the change group.  You can
either accept the changes or cancel them all.  Call
`accept-change-group' to accept the changes in the group as final;
call `cancel-change-group' to undo them all.

You should use `unwind-protect' to make sure the group is always
finished.  The call to `activate-change-group' should be inside the
`unwind-protect', in case the user types C-g just after it runs.
(This is one reason why `prepare-change-group' and
`activate-change-group' are separate functions.)  Once you finish the
group, don't use the handle again--don't try to finish the same group

To make a multibuffer change group, call `prepare-change-group' once
for each buffer you want to cover, then use `nconc' to combine the
returned values, like this:

  (nconc (prepare-change-group buffer-1)
         (prepare-change-group buffer-2))

You can then activate the multibuffer change group with a single call
to `activate-change-group', and finish it with a single call to
`accept-change-group' or `cancel-change-group'.

Nested use of several change groups for the same buffer works as you
would expect.  Non-nested use of change groups for the same buffer
will lead to undesirable results, so don't let it happen; the first
change group you start for any given buffer should be the last one

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** New function remove-list-of-text-properties.

The new function `remove-list-of-text-properties' is almost the same
as `remove-text-properties'.  The only difference is that it takes
a list of property names as argument rather than a property list.

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** New functions insert-for-yank and insert-buffer-substring-as-yank.

These functions work like `insert' and `insert-buffer-substring', but
removes the text properties in the `yank-excluded-properties' list.

** New function insert-buffer-substring-no-properties.

** Enhanced networking support.

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*** There is a new `make-network-process' function which supports
opening of stream and datagram connections to a server, as well as
create a stream or datagram server inside emacs.

- A server is started using :server t arg.
- Datagram connection is selected using :type 'datagram arg.
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- A server can open on a random port using :service t arg.
- Local sockets are supported using :family 'local arg.
- Non-blocking connect is supported using :nowait t arg.

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To test for the availability of a given feature, use featurep like this:
  (featurep 'make-network-process '(:type datagram))

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*** Original open-network-stream is now emulated using make-network-process.

*** New function open-network-stream-nowait.

This function initiates a non-blocking connect and returns immediately
before the connection is established.  The filter and sentinel
functions can be specified as arguments to open-network-stream-nowait.
When the non-blocking connect completes, the sentinel is called with
the status matching "open" or "failed".

*** New function open-network-stream-server.
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*** New functions process-datagram-address and set-process-datagram-address.
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*** By default, the function process-contact still returns (HOST SERVICE)
for a network process.  Using the new optional KEY arg, the complete list
of network process properties or a specific property can be selected.

Using :local and :remote as the KEY, the address of the local or
remote end-point is returned.  An Inet address is represented as a 5
element vector, where the first 4 elements contain the IP address and
the fifth is the port number.

*** Network processes can now be stopped and restarted with
`stop-process' and `continue-process'.  For a server process, no
connections are accepted in the stopped state.  For a client process,
no input is received in the stopped state.

*** Function list-processes now has an optional argument; if non-nil,
only the processes whose query-on-exit flag is set are listed.

*** New set-process-query-on-exit-flag and process-query-on-exit-flag
functions.  The existing process-kill-without-query function is still
supported, but new code should use the new functions.

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** New function substring-no-properties.

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** New function minibuffer-selected-window.

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** New function `call-process-shell-command'.

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** The dummy function keys made by easymenu
are now always lower case.  If you specify the
menu item name "Ada", for instance, it uses `ada'
as the "key" bound by that key binding.

This is relevant only if Lisp code looks for
the bindings that were made with easymenu.

** The function `commandp' takes an additional optional
argument.  If it is non-nil, then `commandp' checks
for a function that could be called with `call-interactively',
and does not return t for keyboard macros.

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** File local variables.

A file local variables list cannot specify a string with text
properties--any specified text properties are discarded.

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*** The meanings of scroll-up-aggressively and scroll-down-aggressively
have been interchanged, so that the former now controls scrolling up,
and the latter now controls scrolling down.

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** New function window-body-height.

This is like window-height but does not count the mode line
or the header line.

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** New functions `lax-plist-get' and `lax-plist-put'.

These functions are like `plist-get' and `plist-put' except that they
compare the property name using `equal' rather than `eq'.

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** New function `tool-bar-local-item-from-menu'

The `tool-bar-add-item-from-menu' most not be used (as previously
recommended) for making entries in the tool bar for local keymaps.
Instead, use the function `tool-bar-local-item-from-menu', which lets
you specify the map to use as an argument.

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** The function `atan' now accepts an optional second argument.

When called with 2 arguments, as in `(atan Y X)', `atan' returns the
angle in radians between the vector [X, Y] and the X axis.  (This is
equivalent to the standard C library function `atan2'.)

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** You can now make a window as short as one line.

A window that is just one line tall does not display either a mode
line or a header line, even if the variables `mode-line-format' and
`header-line-format' call for them.  A window that is two lines tall
cannot display both a mode line and a header line at once; if the
variables call for both, only the mode line actually appears.

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** The new frame parameter `tty-color-mode' specifies the mode to use
for color support on character terminal frames.  Its value can be a
number of colors to support, or a symbol.  See the Emacs Lisp
Reference manual for more detailed documentation.

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** Mode line display ignores text properties in the value
of a variable whose `risky-local-variables' property is nil.

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** Already true in Emacs 21.1, but not emphasized clearly enough:

Multibyte buffers can now faithfully record all 256 character codes
from 0 to 255.  As a result, most of the past reasons to use unibyte
buffers no longer exist.  We only know of three reasons to use them

1. If you prefer to use unibyte text all of the time.

2. For reading files into temporary buffers, when you want to avoid
the time it takes to convert the format.

3. For binary files where format conversion would be pointless and

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** If text has a `keymap' property, that keymap takes precedence
over minor mode keymaps.

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** A hex escape in a string forces the string to be multibyte.
An octal escape makes it unibyte.

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** Only one of the beginning or end of an invisible, intangible region is
considered an acceptable value for point; which one is determined by
examining how the invisible/intangible properties are inherited when new
text is inserted adjacent to them.  If text inserted at the beginning would
inherit the invisible/intangible properties, then that position is
considered unacceptable, and point is forced to the position following the
invisible/intangible text.  If text inserted at the end would inherit the
properties, then the opposite happens.

Thus, point can only go to one end of an invisible, intangible region, but
not the other one.  This prevents C-f and C-b from appearing to stand still
on the screen.

** field-beginning and field-end now accept an additional optional
argument, LIMIT.

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** define-abbrev now accepts an optional argument SYSTEM-FLAG.  If
non-nil, this marks the abbrev as a "system" abbrev, which means that
it won't be stored in the user's abbrevs file if he saves the abbrevs.
Major modes that predefine some abbrevs should always specify this

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** Support for Mocklisp has been removed.

** The function insert-string is now obsolete.

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** The precedence of file-name-handlers has been changed.
Instead of blindly choosing the first handler that matches,
find-file-name-handler now gives precedence to a file-name handler
that matches near the end of the file name.  More specifically, the
handler whose (match-beginning 0) is the largest is chosen.
In case of ties, the old "first matched" rule applies.

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** Dense keymaps now handle inheritance correctly.
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Previously a dense keymap would hide all of the simple-char key
bindings of the parent keymap.
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** jit-lock obeys a new text-property `jit-lock-defer-multiline'.
If a piece of text with that property gets contextually refontified
(see jit-lock-defer-contextually), then all of that text will
be refontified.  This is useful when the syntax of a textual element
depends on text several lines further down (and when font-lock-multiline
is not appropriate to solve that problem).  For example in Perl:


Adding/removing the last `e' changes the `bar' from being a piece of
text to being a piece of code, so you'd put a jit-lock-defer-multiline
property over the second half of the command to force (deferred)
refontification of `bar' whenever the `e' is added/removed.

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** describe-vector now takes a second argument `describer' which is
called to print the entries' values.  It defaults to `princ'.
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** face-attribute, face-foreground, face-background, and face-stipple now
accept a new optional argument, INHERIT, which controls how face
inheritance is used when determining the value of a face attribute.

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** defcustom and other custom declarations now use a default group
(the last group defined in the same file) when no :group was given.

** emacsserver now runs pre-command-hook and post-command-hook when
it receives a request from emacsclient.

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** The variable `recursive-load-depth-limit' has been deleted.
Emacs now signals an error if the same file is loaded with more
than 3 levels of nesting.

** The default values of paragraph-start and indent-line-function have
been changed to reflect those used in Text mode rather than those used
in Indented-Text mode.
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** If a major mode function has a non-nil `no-clone-indirect'
property, `clone-indirect-buffer' signals an error if you use
it in that buffer.

** If you set `query-replace-skip-read-only' non-nil,
`query-replace' and related functions simply ignore
a match if part of it has a read-only property.

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** In `replace-match', the replacement text no longer inherits
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properties from surrounding text.

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** New function `buffer-local-value'.

- Function: buffer-local-value variable buffer

This function returns the buffer-local binding of VARIABLE (a symbol)
in buffer BUFFER.  If VARIABLE does not have a buffer-local binding in
buffer BUFFER, it returns the default value of VARIABLE instead.
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** The default value of `paragraph-start' and `indent-line-function' has
been changed to reflect the one used in Text mode rather than the one
used in Indented Text mode.
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** New function `text-clone-create'.  Text clones are chunks of text
that are kept identical by transparently propagating changes from one
clone to the other.

** font-lock can manage arbitrary text-properties beside `face'.
*** the FACENAME returned in font-lock-keywords can be a list
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of the form (face FACE PROP1 VAL1 PROP2 VAL2 ...) so you can set
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other properties than `face'.
*** font-lock-extra-managed-props can be set to make sure those extra
properties are automatically cleaned up by font-lock.

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** The special treatment of faces whose names are of the form `fg:COLOR'
or `bg:COLOR' has been removed.  Lisp programs should use the
`defface' facility for defining faces with specific colors.

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** The new function `run-mode-hooks' and the new macro `delay-mode-hooks'
are used by define-derived-mode to make sure the mode hook for the
parent mode is run at the end of the child mode.

** `provide' and `featurep' now accept an optional second argument
to test/provide subfeatures.  Also `provide' now checks `after-load-alist'
and run any code associated with the provided feature.

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** The variable `compilation-parse-errors-filename-function' can
be used to transform filenames found in compilation output.

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** Functions `file-name-sans-extension' and `file-name-extension' now
ignore the leading dots in file names, so that file names such as
`.emacs' are treated as extensionless.

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** Functions `user-uid' and `user-real-uid' now return floats if the
user UID doesn't fit in a Lisp integer.  Function `user-full-name'
accepts a float as UID parameter.

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** `define-key-after' now accepts keys longer than 1.

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** `define-derived-mode' now accepts nil as the parent.
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** The local variable `no-byte-compile' in elisp files is now obeyed.

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** New functions `keymap-prompt' and `current-active-maps'.

** New function `describe-buffer-bindings'.

** New vars `exec-suffixes' and `load-suffixes' used when
searching for an executable resp. an elisp file.

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** Variable aliases have been implemented

- Macro: defvaralias ALIAS-VAR BASE-VAR

This defines the symbol ALIAS-VAR as a variable alias for symbol
BASE-VAR.  This means that retrieving the value of ALIAS-VAR returns
the value of BASE-VAR, and changing the value of ALIAS-VAR changes the
value of BASE-VAR.

- Function: indirect-variable VARIABLE

This function returns the variable at the end of the chain of aliases
of VARIABLE.  If VARIABLE is not a symbol, or if VARIABLE is not
defined as an alias, the function returns VARIABLE.

It might be noteworthy that variables aliases work for all kinds of
variables, including buffer-local and frame-local variables.

** Functions from `post-gc-hook' are run at the end of garbage
collection.  The hook is run with GC inhibited, so use it with care.

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** If the second argument to `copy-file' is the name of a directory,
the file is copied to that directory instead of signaling an error.

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** The variables most-positive-fixnum and most-negative-fixnum
have been moved from the CL package to the core.

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** On MS Windows, locale-coding-system is used to interact with the OS.
The Windows specific variable w32-system-coding-system, which was
formerly used for that purpose is now an alias for locale-coding-system.

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** Functions y-or-n-p, read-char, read-keysequence and alike that
display a prompt but don't use the minibuffer now display the prompt
using the text properties (esp. the face) of the prompt string.

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** New packages:

*** The new package syntax.el provides an efficient way to find the
current syntactic context (as returned by parse-partial-sexp).

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*** The TCL package tcl-mode.el was replaced by tcl.el.
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This was actually done in Emacs-21.1, and was not documented.

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*** The new package button.el implements simple and fast `clickable buttons'
in emacs buffers.  `buttons' are much lighter-weight than the `widgets'
implemented by widget.el, and can be used by lisp code that doesn't
require the full power of widgets.  Emacs uses buttons for such things
as help and apropos buffers.

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

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See the INSTALL file for information on installing extra libraries and
fonts to take advantage of the new graphical features and extra
charsets in this release.

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** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

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** Support for LynxOS has been added.

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** There are new configure options associated with the support for
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images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in `configure'
to list them.
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** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
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support 64-bit executables and also on Irix 6.5.  This increases the
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maximum buffer size.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.  Changes to
build on other 64-bit systems should be straightforward modulo any
necessary changes to unexec.
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** There is a new configure option `--disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** There is a new configure option `--without-xim' that instructs
Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.

** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.
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** This version can be built for the Macintosh, but does not implement
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all of the new display features described below.  The port currently
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lacks unexec, asynchronous processes, and networking support.  See the
"Emacs and the Mac OS" appendix in the Emacs manual, for the
description of aspects specific to the Mac.
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** Note that the MS-Windows port does not yet implement various of the
new display features described below.

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* Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes such as `overline', `strike-through', and `box' are ignored
on terminals.

The command-line options `-fg COLOR', `-bg COLOR', and `-rv' are now
supported on character terminals.

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Emacs automatically remaps all X-style color specifications to one of
the colors supported by the terminal.  This means you could have the
same color customizations that work both on a windowed display and on
a TTY or when Emacs is invoked with the -nw option.

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** New default font is Courier 12pt under X.

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** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
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You must configure Emacs with the option `--with-sound=yes' to enable
sound support.

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** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs can resize the minibuffer window unless it
is on a frame of its own.  You can control resizing and the maximum
minibuffer window size by setting the following variables:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.

Default is 0.25.

- User option: resize-mini-windows

How to resize mini-windows.  If nil, don't resize.  If t, always
resize to fit the size of the text.  If `grow-only', let mini-windows
grow only, until they become empty, at which point they are shrunk

Default is `grow-only'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see
<>).  You will need version 0.92.26, or later.
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** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is

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** File selection dialog on MS-Windows is supported.

When a file is visited by clicking File->Open, the MS-Windows version
now pops up a standard file selection dialog where you can select a
file to visit.  File->Save As also pops up that dialog.

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** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scroll bars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scroll bar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
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imake configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
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Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
of how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level
changes.  Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is
displayed and is on by default.  The appearance of the bar is improved
if Emacs has been built with XPM image support.  Otherwise monochrome
icons will be used.

To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
for specific modes (with copyright assignments).
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** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  The Lisp package `tooltip' implements them.  You can
turn them off via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

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** Automatic Hscrolling

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
`automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be

If a window is scrolled horizontally with set-window-hscroll, or
scroll-left/scroll-right (C-x <, C-x >), this serves as a lower bound
for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling will scroll
the text more to the left if necessary, but won't scroll the text more
to the right than the column set with set-window-hscroll etc.

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** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  By default, when a window is selected, the cursor is
solid; otherwise, it is hollow.  The user-option
`cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to display the
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cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is shown, if
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non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.
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** Fringes to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.
You can change its appearance by modifying the face `mode-line'.
In particular, setting the `:box' attribute to nil turns off the 3D
appearance of the mode line.  (The 3D appearance makes the mode line
occupy more space, and thus might cause the first or the last line of
the window to be partially obscured.)

The variable `mode-line-inverse-video', which was used in older
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versions of emacs to make the mode-line stand out, is now deprecated.
However, setting it to nil will cause the `mode-line' face to be
ignored, and mode-lines to be drawn using the default text face.
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** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

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Different parts of the mode line have been made mouse-sensitive on all
systems which support the mouse.  Moving the mouse to a
mouse-sensitive part in the mode line changes the appearance of the
mouse pointer to an arrow, and help about available mouse actions is
displayed either in the echo area, or in the tooltip window if you
have enabled one.
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Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line goes to the next buffer.
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- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name goes to the previous buffer.
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