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;;; package.el --- Simple package system for Emacs  -*- lexical-binding:t -*-
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;; Copyright (C) 2007-2018 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Author: Tom Tromey <tromey@redhat.com>
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;;         Daniel Hackney <dan@haxney.org>
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;; Created: 10 Mar 2007
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;; Version: 1.1.0
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;; Keywords: tools
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;; Package-Requires: ((tabulated-list "1.0"))
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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

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;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
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;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.
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;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
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;;; Commentary:

;; The idea behind package.el is to be able to download packages and
;; install them.  Packages are versioned and have versioned
;; dependencies.  Furthermore, this supports built-in packages which
;; may or may not be newer than user-specified packages.  This makes
;; it possible to upgrade Emacs and automatically disable packages
;; which have moved from external to core.  (Note though that we don't
;; currently register any of these, so this feature does not actually
;; work.)

;; A package is described by its name and version.  The distribution
;; format is either  a tar file or a single .el file.

;; A tar file should be named "NAME-VERSION.tar".  The tar file must
;; unpack into a directory named after the package and version:
;; "NAME-VERSION".  It must contain a file named "PACKAGE-pkg.el"
;; which consists of a call to define-package.  It may also contain a
;; "dir" file and the info files it references.

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;; A .el file is named "NAME-VERSION.el" in the remote archive, but is
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;; installed as simply "NAME.el" in a directory named "NAME-VERSION".

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;; The downloader downloads all dependent packages.  By default,
;; packages come from the official GNU sources, but others may be
;; added by customizing the `package-archives' alist.  Packages get
;; byte-compiled at install time.
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;; At activation time we will set up the load-path and the info path,
;; and we will load the package's autoloads.  If a package's
;; dependencies are not available, we will not activate that package.

;; Conceptually a package has multiple state transitions:
;;
;; * Download.  Fetching the package from ELPA.
;; * Install.  Untar the package, or write the .el file, into
;;   ~/.emacs.d/elpa/ directory.
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;; * Autoload generation.
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;; * Byte compile.  Currently this phase is done during install,
;;   but we may change this.
;; * Activate.  Evaluate the autoloads for the package to make it
;;   available to the user.
;; * Load.  Actually load the package and run some code from it.

;; Other external functions you may want to use:
;;
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;; M-x list-packages
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;;    Enters a mode similar to buffer-menu which lets you manage
;;    packages.  You can choose packages for install (mark with "i",
;;    then "x" to execute) or deletion (not implemented yet), and you
;;    can see what packages are available.  This will automatically
;;    fetch the latest list of packages from ELPA.
;;
;; M-x package-install-from-buffer
;;    Install a package consisting of a single .el file that appears
;;    in the current buffer.  This only works for packages which
;;    define a Version header properly; package.el also supports the
;;    extension headers Package-Version (in case Version is an RCS id
;;    or similar), and Package-Requires (if the package requires other
;;    packages).
;;
;; M-x package-install-file
;;    Install a package from the indicated file.  The package can be
;;    either a tar file or a .el file.  A tar file must contain an
;;    appropriately-named "-pkg.el" file; a .el file must be properly
;;    formatted as with package-install-from-buffer.

;;; Thanks:
;;; (sorted by sort-lines):

;; Jim Blandy <jimb@red-bean.com>
;; Karl Fogel <kfogel@red-bean.com>
;; Kevin Ryde <user42@zip.com.au>
;; Lawrence Mitchell
;; Michael Olson <mwolson@member.fsf.org>
;; Sebastian Tennant <sebyte@smolny.plus.com>
;; Stefan Monnier <monnier@iro.umontreal.ca>
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;; Vinicius Jose Latorre <viniciusjl.gnu@gmail.com>
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;; Phil Hagelberg <phil@hagelb.org>

;;; ToDo:

;; - putting info dirs at the start of the info path means
;;   users see a weird ordering of categories.  OTOH we want to
;;   override later entries.  maybe emacs needs to enforce
;;   the standard layout?
;; - put bytecode in a separate directory tree
;; - perhaps give users a way to recompile their bytecode
;;   or do it automatically when emacs changes
;; - give users a way to know whether a package is installed ok
;; - give users a way to view a package's documentation when it
;;   only appears in the .el
;; - use/extend checkdoc so people can tell if their package will work
;; - "installed" instead of a blank in the status column
;; - tramp needs its files to be compiled in a certain order.
;;   how to handle this?  fix tramp?
;; - maybe we need separate .elc directories for various emacs versions
;;   and also emacs-vs-xemacs.  That way conditional compilation can
;;   work.  But would this break anything?
;; - William Xu suggests being able to open a package file without
;;   installing it
;; - Interface with desktop.el so that restarting after an install
;;   works properly
;; - Use hierarchical layout.  PKG/etc PKG/lisp PKG/info
;;   ... except maybe lisp?
;; - It may be nice to have a macro that expands to the package's
;;   private data dir, aka ".../etc".  Or, maybe data-directory
;;   needs to be a list (though this would be less nice)
;;   a few packages want this, eg sokoban
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;; - Allow multiple versions on the server, so that if a user doesn't
;;   meet the requirements for the most recent version they can still
;;   install an older one.
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;; - Allow optional package dependencies
;;   then if we require 'bbdb', bbdb-specific lisp in lisp/bbdb
;;   and just don't compile to add to load path ...?
;; - Our treatment of the info path is somewhat bogus

;;; Code:

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(eval-when-compile (require 'subr-x))
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(eval-when-compile (require 'cl-lib))
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(eval-when-compile (require 'epg))      ;For setf accessors.
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(require 'seq)
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(require 'tabulated-list)
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(require 'macroexp)
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(require 'url-handlers)
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(defgroup package nil
  "Manager for Emacs Lisp packages."
  :group 'applications
  :version "24.1")

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;;; Customization options
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;;;###autoload
(defcustom package-enable-at-startup t
  "Whether to activate installed packages when Emacs starts.
If non-nil, packages are activated after reading the init file
and before `after-init-hook'.  Activation is not done if
`user-init-file' is nil (e.g. Emacs was started with \"-q\").

Even if the value is nil, you can type \\[package-initialize] to
activate the package system at any time."
  :type 'boolean
  :version "24.1")

(defcustom package-load-list '(all)
  "List of packages for `package-initialize' to load.
Each element in this list should be a list (NAME VERSION), or the
symbol `all'.  The symbol `all' says to load the latest installed
versions of all packages not specified by other elements.

For an element (NAME VERSION), NAME is a package name (a symbol).
VERSION should be t, a string, or nil.
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If VERSION is t, the most recent version is activated.
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If VERSION is a string, only that version is ever loaded.
 Any other version, even if newer, is silently ignored.
 Hence, the package is \"held\" at that version.
If VERSION is nil, the package is not loaded (it is \"disabled\")."
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  :type '(repeat (choice (const all)
                         (list :tag "Specific package"
                               (symbol :tag "Package name")
                               (choice :tag "Version"
                                (const :tag "disable" nil)
                                (const :tag "most recent" t)
                                (string :tag "specific version")))))
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  :risky t
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  :version "24.1")

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(defcustom package-archives `(("gnu" .
                               ,(format "http%s://elpa.gnu.org/packages/"
                                        (if (gnutls-available-p) "s" ""))))
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  "An alist of archives from which to fetch.
The default value points to the GNU Emacs package repository.
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Each element has the form (ID . LOCATION).
 ID is an archive name, as a string.
 LOCATION specifies the base location for the archive.
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  If it starts with \"http(s):\", it is treated as an HTTP(S) URL;
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  otherwise it should be an absolute directory name.
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  (Other types of URL are currently not supported.)

Only add locations that you trust, since fetching and installing
a package can run arbitrary code."
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  :type '(alist :key-type (string :tag "Archive name")
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                :value-type (string :tag "URL or directory name"))
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  :risky t
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  :version "26.1")                      ; gnutls test
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(defcustom package-menu-hide-low-priority 'archive
  "If non-nil, hide low priority packages from the packages menu.
A package is considered low priority if there's another version
of it available such that:
    (a) the archive of the other package is higher priority than
    this one, as per `package-archive-priorities';
  or
    (b) they both have the same archive priority but the other
    package has a higher version number.

This variable has three possible values:
    nil: no packages are hidden;
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    `archive': only criterion (a) is used;
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    t: both criteria are used.

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This variable has no effect if `package-menu--hide-packages' is
nil, so it can be toggled with \\<package-menu-mode-map> \\[package-menu-toggle-hiding]."
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  :type '(choice (const :tag "Don't hide anything" nil)
                 (const :tag "Hide per package-archive-priorities"
                        archive)
                 (const :tag "Hide per archive and version number" t))
  :version "25.1")

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(defcustom package-archive-priorities nil
  "An alist of priorities for packages.

Each element has the form (ARCHIVE-ID . PRIORITY).

When installing packages, the package with the highest version
number from the archive with the highest priority is
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selected.  When higher versions are available from archives with
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lower priorities, the user has to select those manually.

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Archives not in this list have the priority 0.

See also `package-menu-hide-low-priority'."
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  :type '(alist :key-type (string :tag "Archive name")
                :value-type (integer :tag "Priority (default is 0)"))
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  :risky t
  :version "25.1")

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(defcustom package-pinned-packages nil
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  "An alist of packages that are pinned to specific archives.
This can be useful if you have multiple package archives enabled,
and want to control which archive a given package gets installed from.

Each element of the alist has the form (PACKAGE . ARCHIVE), where:
 PACKAGE is a symbol representing a package
 ARCHIVE is a string representing an archive (it should be the car of
an element in `package-archives', e.g. \"gnu\").

Adding an entry to this variable means that only ARCHIVE will be
considered as a source for PACKAGE.  If other archives provide PACKAGE,
they are ignored (for this package).  If ARCHIVE does not contain PACKAGE,
the package will be unavailable."
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  :type '(alist :key-type (symbol :tag "Package")
                :value-type (string :tag "Archive name"))
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  ;; I don't really see why this is risky...
  ;; I suppose it could prevent you receiving updates for a package,
  ;; via an entry (PACKAGE . NON-EXISTING).  Which could be an issue
  ;; if PACKAGE has a known vulnerability that is fixed in newer versions.
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  :risky t
  :version "24.4")

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(defcustom package-user-dir (locate-user-emacs-file "elpa")
  "Directory containing the user's Emacs Lisp packages.
The directory name should be absolute.
Apart from this directory, Emacs also looks for system-wide
packages in `package-directory-list'."
  :type 'directory
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  :risky t
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  :version "24.1")

(defcustom package-directory-list
  ;; Defaults are subdirs named "elpa" in the site-lisp dirs.
  (let (result)
    (dolist (f load-path)
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      (and (stringp f)
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           (equal (file-name-nondirectory f) "site-lisp")
           (push (expand-file-name "elpa" f) result)))
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    (nreverse result))
  "List of additional directories containing Emacs Lisp packages.
Each directory name should be absolute.

These directories contain packages intended for system-wide; in
contrast, `package-user-dir' contains packages for personal use."
  :type '(repeat directory)
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  :risky t
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  :version "24.1")

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(declare-function epg-find-configuration "epg-config"
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                  (protocol &optional no-cache program-alist))
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(defcustom package-gnupghome-dir (expand-file-name "gnupg" package-user-dir)
  "Directory containing GnuPG keyring or nil.
This variable specifies the GnuPG home directory used by package.
That directory is passed via the option \"--homedir\" to GnuPG.
If nil, do not use the option \"--homedir\", but stick with GnuPG's
default directory."
  :type `(choice
          (const
           :tag "Default Emacs package management GnuPG home directory"
           ,(expand-file-name "gnupg" package-user-dir))
          (const
           :tag "Default GnuPG directory (GnuPG option --homedir not used)"
           nil)
          (directory :tag "A specific GnuPG --homedir"))
  :risky t
  :version "26.1")

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(defcustom package-check-signature
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  (if (and (require 'epg-config)
           (epg-find-configuration 'OpenPGP))
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      'allow-unsigned)
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  "Non-nil means to check package signatures when installing.
The value `allow-unsigned' means to still install a package even if
it is unsigned.

This also applies to the \"archive-contents\" file that lists the
contents of the archive."
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  :type '(choice (const nil :tag "Never")
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                 (const allow-unsigned :tag "Allow unsigned")
                 (const t :tag "Check always"))
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  :risky t
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  :version "24.4")
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(defcustom package-unsigned-archives nil
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  "List of archives where we do not check for package signatures."
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  :type '(repeat (string :tag "Archive name"))
  :risky t
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  :version "24.4")
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(defcustom package-selected-packages nil
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  "Store here packages installed explicitly by user.
This variable is fed automatically by Emacs when installing a new package.
This variable is used by `package-autoremove' to decide
which packages are no longer needed.
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You can use it to (re)install packages on other machines
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by running `package-install-selected-packages'.
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To check if a package is contained in this list here, use
`package--user-selected-p', as it may populate the variable with
a sane initial value."
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  :version "25.1"
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  :type '(repeat symbol))
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(defcustom package-menu-async t
  "If non-nil, package-menu will use async operations when possible.
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Currently, only the refreshing of archive contents supports
asynchronous operations.  Package transactions are still done
synchronously."
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  :type 'boolean
  :version "25.1")

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;;; `package-desc' object definition
;; This is the struct used internally to represent packages.
;; Functions that deal with packages should generally take this object
;; as an argument.  In some situations (e.g. commands that query the
;; user) it makes sense to take the package name as a symbol instead,
;; but keep in mind there could be multiple `package-desc's with the
;; same name.
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(defvar package--default-summary "No description available.")

(cl-defstruct (package-desc
               ;; Rename the default constructor from `make-package-desc'.
               (:constructor package-desc-create)
               ;; Has the same interface as the old `define-package',
               ;; which is still used in the "foo-pkg.el" files. Extra
               ;; options can be supported by adding additional keys.
               (:constructor
                package-desc-from-define
                (name-string version-string &optional summary requirements
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                 &rest rest-plist
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                 &aux
                 (name (intern name-string))
                 (version (version-to-list version-string))
                 (reqs (mapcar #'(lambda (elt)
                                   (list (car elt)
                                         (version-to-list (cadr elt))))
                               (if (eq 'quote (car requirements))
                                   (nth 1 requirements)
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                                 requirements)))
                 (kind (plist-get rest-plist :kind))
                 (archive (plist-get rest-plist :archive))
                 (extras (let (alist)
                           (while rest-plist
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                             (unless (memq (car rest-plist) '(:kind :archive))
                               (let ((value (cadr rest-plist)))
                                 (when value
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                                   (push (cons (car rest-plist)
                                               (if (eq (car-safe value) 'quote)
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                                                   (cadr value)
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                                                 value))
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                                         alist))))
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                             (setq rest-plist (cddr rest-plist)))
                           alist)))))
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  "Structure containing information about an individual package.
Slots:

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`name'	Name of the package, as a symbol.
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`version' Version of the package, as a version list.

`summary' Short description of the package, typically taken from
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        the first line of the file.
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`reqs'	Requirements of the package. A list of (PACKAGE
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        VERSION-LIST) naming the dependent package and the minimum
        required version.
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`kind'	The distribution format of the package. Currently, it is
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        either `single' or `tar'.
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`archive' The name of the archive (as a string) whence this
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        package came.
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`dir'	The directory where the package is installed (if installed),
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        `builtin' if it is built-in, or nil otherwise.
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`extras' Optional alist of additional keyword-value pairs.

`signed' Flag to indicate that the package is signed by provider."
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  name
  version
  (summary package--default-summary)
  reqs
  kind
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  archive
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  dir
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  extras
  signed)
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(defun package--from-builtin (bi-desc)
  (package-desc-create :name (pop bi-desc)
                       :version (package--bi-desc-version bi-desc)
                       :summary (package--bi-desc-summary bi-desc)
                       :dir 'builtin))

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;; Pseudo fields.
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(defun package-version-join (vlist)
  "Return the version string corresponding to the list VLIST.
This is, approximately, the inverse of `version-to-list'.
\(Actually, it returns only one of the possible inverses, since
`version-to-list' is a many-to-one operation.)"
  (if (null vlist)
      ""
    (let ((str-list (list "." (int-to-string (car vlist)))))
      (dolist (num (cdr vlist))
        (cond
         ((>= num 0)
          (push (int-to-string num) str-list)
          (push "." str-list))
         ((< num -4)
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          (error "Invalid version list `%s'" vlist))
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         (t
          ;; pre, or beta, or alpha
          (cond ((equal "." (car str-list))
                 (pop str-list))
                ((not (string-match "[0-9]+" (car str-list)))
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                 (error "Invalid version list `%s'" vlist)))
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          (push (cond ((= num -1) "pre")
                      ((= num -2) "beta")
                      ((= num -3) "alpha")
                      ((= num -4) "snapshot"))
                str-list))))
      (if (equal "." (car str-list))
          (pop str-list))
      (apply 'concat (nreverse str-list)))))

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(defun package-desc-full-name (pkg-desc)
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  (format "%s-%s"
          (package-desc-name pkg-desc)
          (package-version-join (package-desc-version pkg-desc))))
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(defun package-desc-suffix (pkg-desc)
  (pcase (package-desc-kind pkg-desc)
    (`single ".el")
    (`tar ".tar")
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    (`dir "")
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    (kind (error "Unknown package kind: %s" kind))))

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(defun package-desc--keywords (pkg-desc)
  (let ((keywords (cdr (assoc :keywords (package-desc-extras pkg-desc)))))
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    (if (eq (car-safe keywords) 'quote)
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        (nth 1 keywords)
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      keywords)))

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(defun package-desc-priority (p)
  "Return the priority of the archive of package-desc object P."
  (package-archive-priority (package-desc-archive p)))

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;; Package descriptor format used in finder-inf.el and package--builtins.
(cl-defstruct (package--bi-desc
               (:constructor package-make-builtin (version summary))
               (:type vector))
  version
  reqs
  summary)

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;;; Installed packages
;; The following variables store information about packages present in
;; the system.  The most important of these is `package-alist'.  The
;; command `package-initialize' is also closely related to this
;; section, but it is left for a later section because it also affects
;; other stuff.
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(defvar package--builtins nil
  "Alist of built-in packages.
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The actual value is initialized by loading the library
`finder-inf'; this is not done until it is needed, e.g. by the
function `package-built-in-p'.

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Each element has the form (PKG . PACKAGE-BI-DESC), where PKG is a package
name (a symbol) and DESC is a `package--bi-desc' structure.")
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(put 'package--builtins 'risky-local-variable t)
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(defvar package-alist nil
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  "Alist of all packages available for activation.
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Each element has the form (PKG . DESCS), where PKG is a package
name (a symbol) and DESCS is a non-empty list of `package-desc' structure,
sorted by decreasing versions.
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This variable is set automatically by `package-load-descriptor',
called via `package-initialize'.  To change which packages are
loaded and/or activated, customize `package-load-list'.")
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(put 'package-alist 'risky-local-variable t)
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(defvar package-activated-list nil
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  ;; FIXME: This should implicitly include all builtin packages.
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  "List of the names of currently activated packages.")
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(put 'package-activated-list 'risky-local-variable t)
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;;;; Populating `package-alist'.
;; The following functions are called on each installed package by
;; `package-load-all-descriptors', which ultimately populates the
;; `package-alist' variable.
(defun package-process-define-package (exp)
  (when (eq (car-safe exp) 'define-package)
    (let* ((new-pkg-desc (apply #'package-desc-from-define (cdr exp)))
           (name (package-desc-name new-pkg-desc))
           (version (package-desc-version new-pkg-desc))
           (old-pkgs (assq name package-alist)))
      (if (null old-pkgs)
          ;; If there's no old package, just add this to `package-alist'.
          (push (list name new-pkg-desc) package-alist)
        ;; If there is, insert the new package at the right place in the list.
        (while
            (if (and (cdr old-pkgs)
                     (version-list-< version
                                     (package-desc-version (cadr old-pkgs))))
                (setq old-pkgs (cdr old-pkgs))
              (push new-pkg-desc (cdr old-pkgs))
              nil)))
      new-pkg-desc)))
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(defun package-load-descriptor (pkg-dir)
  "Load the description file in directory PKG-DIR."
  (let ((pkg-file (expand-file-name (package--description-file pkg-dir)
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                                    pkg-dir))
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        (signed-file (concat pkg-dir ".signed")))
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    (when (file-exists-p pkg-file)
      (with-temp-buffer
        (insert-file-contents pkg-file)
        (goto-char (point-min))
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        (let ((pkg-desc (or (package-process-define-package
                             (read (current-buffer)))
                            (error "Can't find define-package in %s" pkg-file))))
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          (setf (package-desc-dir pkg-desc) pkg-dir)
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          (if (file-exists-p signed-file)
              (setf (package-desc-signed pkg-desc) t))
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          pkg-desc)))))
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(defun package-load-all-descriptors ()
  "Load descriptors for installed Emacs Lisp packages.
This looks for package subdirectories in `package-user-dir' and
`package-directory-list'.  The variable `package-load-list'
controls which package subdirectories may be loaded.

In each valid package subdirectory, this function loads the
description file containing a call to `define-package', which
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updates `package-alist'."
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  (dolist (dir (cons package-user-dir package-directory-list))
    (when (file-directory-p dir)
      (dolist (subdir (directory-files dir))
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        (unless (equal subdir "..")
          (let ((pkg-dir (expand-file-name subdir dir)))
            (when (file-directory-p pkg-dir)
              (package-load-descriptor pkg-dir))))))))
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(defun define-package (_name-string _version-string
                                    &optional _docstring _requirements
                                    &rest _extra-properties)
  "Define a new package.
NAME-STRING is the name of the package, as a string.
VERSION-STRING is the version of the package, as a string.
DOCSTRING is a short description of the package, a string.
REQUIREMENTS is a list of dependencies on other packages.
 Each requirement is of the form (OTHER-PACKAGE OTHER-VERSION),
 where OTHER-VERSION is a string.

EXTRA-PROPERTIES is currently unused."
  ;; FIXME: Placeholder!  Should we keep it?
  (error "Don't call me!"))


;;; Package activation
;; Section for functions used by `package-activate', which see.
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(defun package-disabled-p (pkg-name version)
  "Return whether PKG-NAME at VERSION can be activated.
The decision is made according to `package-load-list'.
Return nil if the package can be activated.
Return t if the package is completely disabled.
Return the max version (as a string) if the package is held at a lower version."
  (let ((force (assq pkg-name package-load-list)))
    (cond ((null force) (not (memq 'all package-load-list)))
          ((null (setq force (cadr force))) t) ; disabled
          ((eq force t) nil)
          ((stringp force)              ; held
           (unless (version-list-= version (version-to-list force))
             force))
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          (t (error "Invalid element in `package-load-list'")))))
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(defun package-built-in-p (package &optional min-version)
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  "Return non-nil if PACKAGE is built-in to Emacs.
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Optional arg MIN-VERSION, if non-nil, should be a version list
specifying the minimum acceptable version."
  (if (package-desc-p package) ;; was built-in and then was converted
      (eq 'builtin (package-desc-dir package))
    (let ((bi (assq package package--builtin-versions)))
      (cond
       (bi (version-list-<= min-version (cdr bi)))
       ((remove 0 min-version) nil)
       (t
        (require 'finder-inf nil t) ; For `package--builtins'.
        (assq package package--builtins))))))

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(defun package--autoloads-file-name (pkg-desc)
  "Return the absolute name of the autoloads file, sans extension.
PKG-DESC is a `package-desc' object."
  (expand-file-name
   (format "%s-autoloads" (package-desc-name pkg-desc))
   (package-desc-dir pkg-desc)))

(defun package--activate-autoloads-and-load-path (pkg-desc)
  "Load the autoloads file and add package dir to `load-path'.
PKG-DESC is a `package-desc' object."
  (let* ((old-lp load-path)
         (pkg-dir (package-desc-dir pkg-desc))
         (pkg-dir-dir (file-name-as-directory pkg-dir)))
    (with-demoted-errors "Error loading autoloads: %s"
      (load (package--autoloads-file-name pkg-desc) nil t))
    (when (and (eq old-lp load-path)
               (not (or (member pkg-dir load-path)
                        (member pkg-dir-dir load-path))))
      ;; Old packages don't add themselves to the `load-path', so we have to
      ;; do it ourselves.
      (push pkg-dir load-path))))

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(defvar Info-directory-list)
(declare-function info-initialize "info" ())

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(defun package--load-files-for-activation (pkg-desc reload)
  "Load files for activating a package given by PKG-DESC.
Load the autoloads file, and ensure `load-path' is setup.  If
RELOAD is non-nil, also load all files in the package that
correspond to previously loaded files."
  (let* ((loaded-files-list (when reload
                              (package--list-loaded-files (package-desc-dir pkg-desc)))))
    ;; Add to load path, add autoloads, and activate the package.
    (package--activate-autoloads-and-load-path pkg-desc)
    ;; Call `load' on all files in `package-desc-dir' already present in
    ;; `load-history'.  This is done so that macros in these files are updated
    ;; to their new definitions.  If another package is being installed which
    ;; depends on this new definition, not doing this update would cause
    ;; compilation errors and break the installation.
    (with-demoted-errors "Error in package--load-files-for-activation: %s"
      (mapc (lambda (feature) (load feature nil t))
            ;; Skip autoloads file since we already evaluated it above.
            (remove (file-truename (package--autoloads-file-name pkg-desc))
                    loaded-files-list)))))

(defun package-activate-1 (pkg-desc &optional reload deps)
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  "Activate package given by PKG-DESC, even if it was already active.
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If DEPS is non-nil, also activate its dependencies (unless they
are already activated).
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If RELOAD is non-nil, also `load' any files inside the package which
correspond to previously loaded files (those returned by
`package--list-loaded-files')."
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  (let* ((name (package-desc-name pkg-desc))
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         (pkg-dir (package-desc-dir pkg-desc)))
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    (unless pkg-dir
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      (error "Internal error: unable to find directory for `%s'"
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             (package-desc-full-name pkg-desc)))
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    (catch 'exit
      ;; Activate its dependencies recursively.
      ;; FIXME: This doesn't check whether the activated version is the
      ;; required version.
      (when deps
        (dolist (req (package-desc-reqs pkg-desc))
          (unless (package-activate (car req))
            (message "Unable to activate package `%s'.\nRequired package `%s-%s' is unavailable"
                     name (car req) (package-version-join (cadr req)))
            (throw 'exit nil))))
      (package--load-files-for-activation pkg-desc reload)
      ;; Add info node.
      (when (file-exists-p (expand-file-name "dir" pkg-dir))
        ;; FIXME: not the friendliest, but simple.
        (require 'info)
        (info-initialize)
        (push pkg-dir Info-directory-list))
      (push name package-activated-list)
      ;; Don't return nil.
      t)))
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(declare-function find-library-name "find-func" (library))
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(defun package--list-loaded-files (dir)
  "Recursively list all files in DIR which correspond to loaded features.
Returns the `file-name-sans-extension' of each file, relative to
DIR, sorted by most recently loaded last."
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  (let* ((history (delq nil
                        (mapcar (lambda (x)
                                  (let ((f (car x)))
                                    (and f (file-name-sans-extension f))))
                                load-history)))
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         (dir (file-truename dir))
         ;; List all files that have already been loaded.
         (list-of-conflicts
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          (delq
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           nil
           (mapcar
               (lambda (x) (let* ((file (file-relative-name x dir))
                             ;; Previously loaded file, if any.
                             (previous
                              (ignore-errors
                                (file-name-sans-extension
                                 (file-truename (find-library-name file)))))
                             (pos (when previous (member previous history))))
                        ;; Return (RELATIVE-FILENAME . HISTORY-POSITION)
                        (when pos
                          (cons (file-name-sans-extension file) (length pos)))))
             (directory-files-recursively dir "\\`[^\\.].*\\.el\\'")))))
    ;; Turn the list of (FILENAME . POS) back into a list of features.  Files in
    ;; subdirectories are returned relative to DIR (so not actually features).
    (let ((default-directory (file-name-as-directory dir)))
      (mapcar (lambda (x) (file-truename (car x)))
        (sort list-of-conflicts
              ;; Sort the files by ascending HISTORY-POSITION.
              (lambda (x y) (< (cdr x) (cdr y))))))))

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;;;; `package-activate'
;; This function activates a newer version of a package if an older
;; one was already activated.  It also loads a features of this
;; package which were already loaded.
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(defun package-activate (package &optional force)
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  "Activate the package named PACKAGE.
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If FORCE is true, (re-)activate it if it's already activated.
Newer versions are always activated, regardless of FORCE."
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  (let ((pkg-descs (cdr (assq package package-alist))))
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    ;; Check if PACKAGE is available in `package-alist'.
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    (while
        (when pkg-descs
          (let ((available-version (package-desc-version (car pkg-descs))))
            (or (package-disabled-p package available-version)
                ;; Prefer a builtin package.
                (package-built-in-p package available-version))))
      (setq pkg-descs (cdr pkg-descs)))
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    (cond
     ;; If no such package is found, maybe it's built-in.
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     ((null pkg-descs)
      (package-built-in-p package))
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     ;; If the package is already activated, just return t.
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     ((and (memq package package-activated-list) (not force))
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      t)
     ;; Otherwise, proceed with activation.
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     (t (package-activate-1 (car pkg-descs) nil 'deps)))))
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;;; Installation -- Local operations
;; This section contains a variety of features regarding installing a
;; package to/from disk.  This includes autoload generation,
;; unpacking, compiling, as well as defining a package from the
;; current buffer.
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;;;; Unpacking
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(defvar tar-parse-info)
(declare-function tar-untar-buffer "tar-mode" ())
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(declare-function tar-header-name "tar-mode" (tar-header) t)
(declare-function tar-header-link-type "tar-mode" (tar-header) t)
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(defun package-untar-buffer (dir)
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  "Untar the current buffer.
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This uses `tar-untar-buffer' from Tar mode.  All files should
untar into a directory named DIR; otherwise, signal an error."
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  (require 'tar-mode)
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  (tar-mode)
  ;; Make sure everything extracts into DIR.
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  (let ((regexp (concat "\\`" (regexp-quote (expand-file-name dir)) "/"))
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        (case-fold-search (file-name-case-insensitive-p dir)))
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    (dolist (tar-data tar-parse-info)
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      (let ((name (expand-file-name (tar-header-name tar-data))))
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        (or (string-match regexp name)
            ;; Tarballs created by some utilities don't list
            ;; directories with a trailing slash (Bug#13136).
            (and (string-equal dir name)
                 (eq (tar-header-link-type tar-data) 5))
            (error "Package does not untar cleanly into directory %s/" dir)))))
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  (tar-untar-buffer))
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(defun package--alist-to-plist-args (alist)
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  (mapcar 'macroexp-quote
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          (apply #'nconc
                 (mapcar (lambda (pair) (list (car pair) (cdr pair))) alist))))
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(defun package-unpack (pkg-desc)
  "Install the contents of the current buffer as a package."
  (let* ((name (package-desc-name pkg-desc))
         (dirname (package-desc-full-name pkg-desc))
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         (pkg-dir (expand-file-name dirname package-user-dir)))
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    (pcase (package-desc-kind pkg-desc)
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      (`dir
       (make-directory pkg-dir t)
       (let ((file-list
              (directory-files
               default-directory 'full "\\`[^.].*\\.el\\'" 'nosort)))
         (dolist (source-file file-list)
           (let ((target-el-file
                  (expand-file-name (file-name-nondirectory source-file) pkg-dir)))
             (copy-file source-file target-el-file t)))
         ;; Now that the files have been installed, this package is
         ;; indistinguishable from a `tar' or a `single'. Let's make
         ;; things simple by ensuring we're one of them.
         (setf (package-desc-kind pkg-desc)
               (if (> (length file-list) 1) 'tar 'single))))
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      (`tar
       (make-directory package-user-dir t)
       ;; FIXME: should we delete PKG-DIR if it exists?
       (let* ((default-directory (file-name-as-directory package-user-dir)))
         (package-untar-buffer dirname)))
      (`single
       (let ((el-file (expand-file-name (format "%s.el" name) pkg-dir)))
         (make-directory pkg-dir t)
         (package--write-file-no-coding el-file)))
      (kind (error "Unknown package kind: %S" kind)))
    (package--make-autoloads-and-stuff pkg-desc pkg-dir)
    ;; Update package-alist.
    (let ((new-desc (package-load-descriptor pkg-dir)))
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      (unless (equal (package-desc-full-name new-desc)
                     (package-desc-full-name pkg-desc))
        (error "The retrieved package (`%s') doesn't match what the archive offered (`%s')"
               (package-desc-full-name new-desc) (package-desc-full-name pkg-desc)))
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      ;; Activation has to be done before compilation, so that if we're
      ;; upgrading and macros have changed we load the new definitions
      ;; before compiling.
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      (when (package-activate-1 new-desc :reload :deps)
        ;; FIXME: Compilation should be done as a separate, optional, step.
        ;; E.g. for multi-package installs, we should first install all packages
        ;; and then compile them.
        (package--compile new-desc)
        ;; After compilation, load again any files loaded by
        ;; `activate-1', so that we use the byte-compiled definitions.
        (package--load-files-for-activation new-desc :reload)))
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    pkg-dir))

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(defun package-generate-description-file (pkg-desc pkg-file)
  "Create the foo-pkg.el file for single-file packages."
  (let* ((name (package-desc-name pkg-desc)))
    (let ((print-level nil)
          (print-quoted t)
          (print-length nil))
      (write-region
       (concat
        ";;; -*- no-byte-compile: t -*-\n"
        (prin1-to-string
         (nconc
          (list 'define-package
                (symbol-name name)
                (package-version-join (package-desc-version pkg-desc))
                (package-desc-summary pkg-desc)
                (let ((requires (package-desc-reqs pkg-desc)))
                  (list 'quote
                        ;; Turn version lists into string form.
                        (mapcar
                         (lambda (elt)
                           (list (car elt)
                                 (package-version-join (cadr elt))))
                         requires))))
          (package--alist-to-plist-args
           (package-desc-extras pkg-desc))))
        "\n")
       nil pkg-file nil 'silent))))

;;;; Autoload
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(declare-function autoload-rubric "autoload" (file &optional type feature))

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(defun package-autoload-ensure-default-file (file)
  "Make sure that the autoload file FILE exists and if not create it."
  (unless (file-exists-p file)
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    (require 'autoload)
    (write-region (autoload-rubric file "package" nil) nil file nil 'silent))
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  file)

(defvar generated-autoload-file)
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(defvar autoload-timestamps)
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(defvar version-control)

(defun package-generate-autoloads (name pkg-dir)
  (let* ((auto-name (format "%s-autoloads.el" name))
         ;;(ignore-name (concat name "-pkg.el"))
         (generated-autoload-file (expand-file-name auto-name pkg-dir))
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         ;; We don't need 'em, and this makes the output reproducible.
         (autoload-timestamps nil)
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         ;; Silence `autoload-generate-file-autoloads'.
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         (noninteractive inhibit-message)
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         (backup-inhibited t)
         (version-control 'never))
    (package-autoload-ensure-default-file generated-autoload-file)
    (update-directory-autoloads pkg-dir)
    (let ((buf (find-buffer-visiting generated-autoload-file)))
      (when buf (kill-buffer buf)))
    auto-name))

(defun package--make-autoloads-and-stuff (pkg-desc pkg-dir)
  "Generate autoloads, description file, etc.. for PKG-DESC installed at PKG-DIR."
  (package-generate-autoloads (package-desc-name pkg-desc) pkg-dir)
  (let ((desc-file (expand-file-name (package--description-file pkg-dir)
                                     pkg-dir)))
    (unless (file-exists-p desc-file)
      (package-generate-description-file pkg-desc desc-file)))
  ;; FIXME: Create foo.info and dir file from foo.texi?
  )

;;;; Compilation
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(defvar warning-minimum-level)
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(defun package--compile (pkg-desc)
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  "Byte-compile installed package PKG-DESC.
This assumes that `pkg-desc' has already been activated with
`package-activate-1'."
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  (let ((warning-minimum-level :error)
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        (save-silently inhibit-message)
        (load-path load-path))
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    (byte-recompile-directory (package-desc-dir pkg-desc) 0 t)))
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;;;; Inferring package from current buffer
(defun package-read-from-string (str)
  "Read a Lisp expression from STR.
Signal an error if the entire string was not used."
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  (pcase-let ((`(,expr . ,offset) (read-from-string str)))
    (condition-case ()
        ;; The call to `ignore' suppresses a compiler warning.
        (progn (ignore (read-from-string str offset))
               (error "Can't read whole string"))
      (end-of-file expr))))
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(defun package--prepare-dependencies (deps)
  "Turn DEPS into an acceptable list of dependencies.

Any parts missing a version string get a default version string
of \"0\" (meaning any version) and an appropriate level of lists
is wrapped around any parts requiring it."
  (cond
   ((not (listp deps))
    (error "Invalid requirement specifier: %S" deps))
   (t (mapcar (lambda (dep)
                (cond
                 ((symbolp dep) `(,dep "0"))
                 ((stringp dep)
                  (error "Invalid requirement specifier: %S" dep))
                 ((and (listp dep) (null (cdr dep)))
                  (list (car dep) "0"))
                 (t dep)))
              deps))))

(declare-function lm-header "lisp-mnt" (header))
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(declare-function lm-homepage "lisp-mnt" (&optional file))
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(declare-function lm-maintainer "lisp-mnt" (&optional file))
(declare-function lm-authors "lisp-mnt" (&optional file))
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(defun package-buffer-info ()
  "Return a `package-desc' describing the package in the current buffer.

If the buffer does not contain a conforming package, signal an
error.  If there is a package, narrow the buffer to the file's
boundaries."
  (goto-char (point-min))
  (unless (re-search-forward "^;;; \\([^ ]*\\)\\.el ---[ \t]*\\(.*?\\)[ \t]*\\(-\\*-.*-\\*-[ \t]*\\)?$" nil t)
    (error "Package lacks a file header"))
  (let ((file-name (match-string-no-properties 1))
        (desc      (match-string-no-properties 2))
        (start     (line-beginning-position)))
    (unless (search-forward (concat ";;; " file-name ".el ends here"))
      (error "Package lacks a terminating comment"))
    ;; Try to include a trailing newline.
    (forward-line)
    (narrow-to-region start (point))
    (require 'lisp-mnt)
    ;; Use some headers we've invented to drive the process.
    (let* ((requires-str (lm-header "package-requires"))
           ;; Prefer Package-Version; if defined, the package author
           ;; probably wants us to use it.  Otherwise try Version.
           (pkg-version
            (or (package-strip-rcs-id (lm-header "package-version"))
                (package-strip-rcs-id (lm-header "version"))))
           (homepage (lm-homepage)))
      (unless pkg-version
        (error
            "Package lacks a \"Version\" or \"Package-Version\" header"))
      (package-desc-from-define
       file-name pkg-version desc
       (if requires-str
           (package--prepare-dependencies
            (package-read-from-string requires-str)))
       :kind 'single
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       :url homepage
       :maintainer (lm-maintainer)
       :authors (lm-authors)))))
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(defun package--read-pkg-desc (kind)
  "Read a `define-package' form in current buffer.
Return the pkg-desc, with desc-kind set to KIND."
  (goto-char (point-min))
  (unwind-protect
      (let* ((pkg-def-parsed (read (current-buffer)))
             (pkg-desc
              (when (eq (car pkg-def-parsed) 'define-package)
                (apply #'package-desc-from-define
                  (append (cdr pkg-def-parsed))))))
        (when pkg-desc
          (setf (package-desc-kind pkg-desc) kind)
          pkg-desc))))

(declare-function tar-get-file-descriptor "tar-mode" (file))
(declare-function tar--extract "tar-mode" (descriptor))

(defun package-tar-file-info ()
  "Find package information for a tar file.
The return result is a `package-desc'."
  (cl-assert (derived-mode-p 'tar-mode))
  (let* ((dir-name (file-name-directory
                    (tar-header-name (car tar-parse-info))))
         (desc-file (package--description-file dir-name))
         (tar-desc (tar-get-file-descriptor (concat dir-name desc-file))))
    (unless tar-desc
      (error "No package descriptor file found"))
    (with-current-buffer (tar--extract tar-desc)
      (unwind-protect
          (or (package--read-pkg-desc 'tar)
              (error "Can't find define-package in %s"
                (tar-header-name tar-desc)))
        (kill-buffer (current-buffer))))))

(defun package-dir-info ()
  "Find package information for a directory.
The return result is a `package-desc'."
  (cl-assert (derived-mode-p 'dired-mode))
  (let* ((desc-file (package--description-file default-directory)))
    (if (file-readable-p desc-file)
        (with-temp-buffer
          (insert-file-contents desc-file)
          (package--read-pkg-desc 'dir))
      (let ((files (directory-files default-directory t "\\.el\\'" t))
            info)
        (while files
          (with-temp-buffer
            (insert-file-contents (pop files))
            ;; When we find the file with the data,
            (when (setq info (ignore-errors (package-buffer-info)))
              ;; stop looping,
              (setq files nil)
              ;; set the 'dir kind,
              (setf (package-desc-kind info) 'dir))))
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        (unless info
          (error "No .el files with package headers in `%s'" default-directory))
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        ;; and return the info.
        info))))


;;; Communicating with Archives
;; Set of low-level functions for communicating with archives and
;; signature checking.
(defun package--write-file-no-coding (file-name)
  (let ((buffer-file-coding-system 'no-conversion))
    (write-region (point-min) (point-max) file-name nil 'silent)))

(declare-function url-http-file-exists-p "url-http" (url))
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(defun package--archive-file-exists-p (location file)
  (let ((http (string-match "\\`https?:" location)))
    (if http
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        (progn
          (require 'url-http)
          (url-http-file-exists-p (concat location file)))
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      (file-exists-p (expand-file-name file location)))))

(declare-function epg-make-context "epg"
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                  (&optional protocol armor textmode include-certs
                             cipher-algorithm
                             digest-algorithm
                             compress-algorithm))
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(declare-function epg-verify-string "epg" (context signature
1117
                                                   &optional signed-text))
1118
(declare-function epg-context-result-for "epg" (context name))
1119
(declare-function epg-signature-status "epg" (signature) t)
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(declare-function epg-signature-to-string "epg" (signature))

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(defun package--display-verify-error (context sig-file)
  (unless (equal (epg-context-error-output context) "")
    (with-output-to-temp-buffer "*Error*"
      (with-current-buffer standard-output
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        (if (epg-context-result-for context 'verify)
            (insert (format "Failed to verify signature %s:\n" sig-file)
                    (mapconcat #'epg-signature-to-string
                               (epg-context-result-for context 'verify)
                               "\n"))
          (insert (format "Error while verifying signature %s:\n" sig-file)))
        (insert "\nCommand output:\n" (epg-context-error-output context))))))
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(defmacro package--with-work-buffer (location file &rest body)
  "Run BODY in a buffer containing the contents of FILE at LOCATION.
LOCATION is the base location of a package archive, and should be
one of the URLs (or file names) specified in `package-archives'.
FILE is the name of a file relative to that base location.

This macro retrieves FILE from LOCATION into a temporary buffer,
and evaluates BODY while that buffer is current.  This work
buffer is killed afterwards.  Return the last value in BODY."
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  (declare (indent 2) (debug t)
           (obsolete package--with-response-buffer "25.1"))
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  `(with-temp-buffer
     (if (string-match-p "\\`https?:" ,location)
         (url-insert-file-contents (concat ,location ,file))
       (unless (file-name-absolute-p ,location)
         (error "Archive location %s is not an absolute file name"
           ,location))
       (insert-file-contents (expand-file-name ,file ,location)))
     ,@body))

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(cl-defmacro package--with-response-buffer (url &rest body &key async file error-form noerror &allow-other-keys)
  "Access URL and run BODY in a buffer containing the response.
Point is after the headers when BODY runs.
FILE, if provided, is added to URL.
URL can be a local file name, which must be absolute.
ASYNC, if non-nil, runs the request asynchronously.
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ERROR-FORM is run only if a connection error occurs.  If NOERROR
is non-nil, don't propagate connection errors (does not apply to
errors signaled by ERROR-FORM or by BODY).
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\(fn URL &key ASYNC FILE ERROR-FORM NOERROR &rest BODY)"
  (declare (indent defun) (debug t))
  (while (keywordp (car body))
    (setq body (cdr (cdr body))))
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  (macroexp-let2* nil ((url-1 url)
                       (noerror-1 noerror))
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    (let ((url-sym (make-symbol "url"))
          (b-sym (make-symbol "b-sym")))
      `(cl-macrolet ((unless-error (body-2 &rest before-body)
                                   (let ((err (make-symbol "err")))
                                     `(with-temp-buffer
                                        (when (condition-case ,err
                                                  (progn ,@before-body t)
                                                ,(list 'error ',error-form
                                                       (list 'unless ',noerror-1
                                                             `(signal (car ,err) (cdr ,err)))))
                                          ,@body-2)))))
         (if (string-match-p "\\`https?:" ,url-1)
             (let ((,url-sym (concat ,url-1 ,file)))
               (if ,async
                   (unless-error nil
                                 (url-retrieve ,url-sym
                                               (lambda (status)
                                                 (let ((,b-sym (current-buffer)))
                                                   (require 'url-handlers)
                                                   (unless-error ,body
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                                                                 (when-let* ((er (plist-get status :error)))
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                                                                   (error "Error retrieving: %s %S" ,url-sym er))
                                                                 (with-current-buffer ,b-sym
                                                                   (goto-char (point-min))
                                                                   (unless (search-forward-regexp "^\r?\n\r?" nil 'noerror)
                                                                     (error "Error retrieving: %s %S" ,url-sym "incomprehensible buffer")))
                                                                 (url-insert-buffer-contents ,b-sym ,url-sym)
                                                                 (kill-buffer ,b-sym)
                                                                 (goto-char (point-min)))))
                                               nil
                                               'silent))
                 (unless-error ,body (url-insert-file-contents ,url-sym))))
           (unless-error ,body
                         (let ((url (expand-file-name ,file ,url-1)))
                           (unless (file-name-absolute-p url)
                             (error "Location %s is not a url nor an absolute file name" url))
                           (insert-file-contents url))))))))
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(define-error 'bad-signature "Failed to verify signature")
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(defun package--check-signature-content (content string &optional sig-file)
  "Check signature CONTENT against STRING.
SIG-FILE is the name of the signature file, used when signaling
errors."
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  (let ((context (epg-make-context 'OpenPGP)))
    (when package-gnupghome-dir
      (setf (epg-context-home-directory context) package-gnupghome-dir))
1217
    (condition-case error
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        (epg-verify-string context content string)
      (error (package--display-verify-error context sig-file)
1220
             (signal 'bad-signature error)))
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    (let (good-signatures had-fatal-error)
      ;; The .sig file may contain multiple signatures.  Success if one
      ;; of the signatures is good.
      (dolist (sig (epg-context-result-for context 'verify))
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        (if (eq (epg-signature-status sig) 'good)
            (push sig good-signatures)
          ;; If package-check-signature is allow-unsigned, don't
          ;; signal error when we can't verify signature because of
          ;; missing public key.  Other errors are still treated as
          ;; fatal (bug#17625).
          (unless (and (eq package-check-signature 'allow-unsigned)
                       (eq (epg-signature-status sig) 'no-pubkey))
            (setq had-fatal-error t))))
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      (when (or (null good-signatures) had-fatal-error)
1235
        (package--display-verify-error context sig-file)
1236
        (signal 'bad-signature (list sig-file)))
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      good-signatures)))
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