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\input texinfo

@setfilename ../info/emacs
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@settitle GNU Emacs Manual
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@c The edition number appears in several places in this file
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@set EDITION   Fourteenth
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@set EMACSVER  21.3.50
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@copying
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This is the @value{EDITION} edition of the @cite{GNU Emacs Manual},
updated for Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.
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Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
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1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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@quotation
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Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``The GNU Manifesto'', ``Distribution'' and
``GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE'', with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU
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Manual,'' and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
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license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
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License.''
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(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
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@end quotation
@end copying

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Emacs: (emacs).	The extensible self-documenting text editor.
@end direntry
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@c in general, keep the following line commented out, unless doing a
@c copy of this manual that will be published.  the manual should go
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@c onto the distribution in the full, 8.5 x 11" size.
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@c @smallbook
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@setchapternewpage odd
@defcodeindex op
@synindex pg cp

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@iftex
@kbdinputstyle code

@shorttitlepage GNU Emacs Manual
@end iftex
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@titlepage
@sp 6
@center @titlefont{GNU Emacs Manual}
@sp 4
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@center @value{EDITION} Edition, Updated for Emacs Version @value{EMACSVER}.
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@sp 5
@center Richard Stallman
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
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@insertcopying
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@sp 2
ISBN 1-882114-06-X @*
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Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
59 Temple Place, Suite 330 @*
Boston, MA  02111-1307 USA

@sp 2
Cover art by Etienne Suvasa.

@end titlepage
@page
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@ifnottex
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@node Top, Distrib, (dir), (dir)
@top The Emacs Editor

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
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some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version
@value{EMACSVER}.
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@ifinfo
If you never before used the Info documentation system, type @kbd{h},
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and Emacs will take you to a programmed instruction sequence for the
Info commands.
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@end ifinfo

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For information on extending Emacs, see @ref{Top, Emacs Lisp,, elisp, The
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Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
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@end ifnottex
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@ignore
These subcategories have been deleted for simplicity
and to avoid conflicts.
Completion
Backup Files
Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters
Snapshots
Text Mode
Outline Mode
@TeX{} Mode
Formatted Text
Fortran Mode
Fortran Indentation
Shell Command History

The ones for Dired and Rmail have had the items turned into :: items
to avoid conflicts.
Also Running Shell Commands from Emacs
and Sending Mail and Registers and Minibuffer.
@end ignore

@menu
* Distrib::	        How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
* Copying::	        The GNU General Public License gives you permission
			  to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms;
			  it also explains that there is no warranty.
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* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
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* Intro::	        An introduction to Emacs concepts.
* Glossary::	        The glossary.
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* Antinews::	        Information about Emacs version 20.
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* Mac OS::              Using Emacs in the Mac.
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* MS-DOS::              Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as "MS-DOG").
* Manifesto::	        What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!
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* Acknowledgments::     Major contributors to GNU Emacs.
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Indexes (nodes containing large menus)
* Key Index::	        An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
* Command Index::       An item for each command name.
* Variable Index::      An item for each documented variable.
* Concept Index::       An item for each concept.
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@c This is last because @ifnottex leaves an empty line.
@ifnottex
* Option Index::        An item for every command-line option.
@end ifnottex
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Important General Concepts
* Screen::	        How to interpret what you see on the screen.
* User Input::	        Kinds of input events (characters, buttons,
                          function keys).
* Keys::	        Key sequences: what you type to request one
                          editing action.
* Commands::	        Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
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* Text Characters::     Character set for text (the contents of buffers
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			  and strings).
* Entering Emacs::      Starting Emacs from the shell.
* Exiting::	        Stopping or killing Emacs.
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* Emacs Invocation::    Hairy startup options.
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Fundamental Editing Commands
* Basic::	        The most basic editing commands.
* Minibuffer::	        Entering arguments that are prompted for.
* M-x::		        Invoking commands by their names.
* Help::	        Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.

Important Text-Changing Commands
* Mark::	        The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
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* Killing::	        Killing (cutting) text.
* Yanking::	        Recovering killed text.  Moving text. (Pasting.)
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* Accumulating Text::   Other ways of copying text.
* Rectangles::	        Operating on the text inside a rectangle on the screen.
* Registers::	        Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
* Display::	        Controlling what text is displayed.
* Search::	        Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
* Fixit::	        Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
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* Keyboard Macros::	A keyboard macro records a sequence of
			  keystrokes to be replayed with a single command.
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Major Structures of Emacs
* Files::	        All about handling files.
* Buffers::	        Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
* Windows::	        Viewing two pieces of text at once.
* Frames::	        Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
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* International::       Using non-@acronym{ASCII} character sets (the MULE features).
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Advanced Features
* Major Modes::	        Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode ...
* Indentation::	        Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
* Text::	        Commands and modes for editing English.
* Programs::	        Commands and modes for editing programs.
* Building::	        Compiling, running and debugging programs.
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* Maintaining::         Features for maintaining large programs.
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* Abbrevs::	        How to define text abbreviations to reduce
			  the number of characters you must type.
* Picture::	        Editing pictures made up of characters
			  using the quarter-plane screen model.
* Sending Mail::        Sending mail in Emacs.
* Rmail::	        Reading mail in Emacs.
* Dired::	        You can ``edit'' a directory to manage files in it.
* Calendar/Diary::      The calendar and diary facilities.
* Gnus::	        How to read netnews with Emacs.
* Shell::	        Executing shell commands from Emacs.
* Emacs Server::        Using Emacs as an editing server for @code{mail}, etc.
* Hardcopy::	        Printing buffers or regions.
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* PostScript::	        Printing buffers or regions as PostScript.
* PostScript Variables::
                        Customizing the PostScript printing commands.
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* Sorting::	        Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
* Narrowing::	        Restricting display and editing to a portion
		          of the buffer.
* Two-Column::	        Splitting apart columns to edit them
		          in side-by-side windows.
* Editing Binary Files::
                        Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
* Saving Emacs Sessions::
                        Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
* Recursive Edit::      A command can allow you to do editing
			  "within the command".  This is called a
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			  "recursive editing level".
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* Emulation::	        Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
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* Hyperlinking::        Following links in buffers.
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* Dissociated Press::   Dissociating text for fun.
* Amusements::	        Various games and hacks.
* Customization::       Modifying the behavior of Emacs.
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* X Resources::         X resources for customizing Emacs.
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Recovery from Problems
* Quitting::	        Quitting and aborting.
* Lossage::	        What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
* Bugs::	        How and when to report a bug.
* Contributing::        How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
* Service::	        How to get help for your own Emacs needs.

Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

The Organization of the Screen

* Point::	        The place in the text where editing commands operate.
* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
* Mode Line::	        Interpreting the mode line.
* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

Basic Editing Commands

* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
* Moving Point::        How to move the cursor to the place where you want to
			  change something.
* Erasing::	        Deleting and killing text.
* Undo::	        Undoing recent changes in the text.
* Files: Basic Files.   Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Help: Basic Help.     Asking what a character does.
* Blank Lines::	        Commands to make or delete blank lines.
* Continuation Lines::  Lines too wide for the screen.
* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
* Arguments::	        Numeric arguments for repeating a command.

The Minibuffer

* Minibuffer File::     Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Minibuffer Edit::     How to edit in the minibuffer.
* Completion::		An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::	Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::		Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.

Help

* Help Summary::	Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::		Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::		Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::		Asking what pertains to a given topic.
* Library Keywords::	Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
* Misc Help::		Other help commands.

The Mark and the Region

* Setting Mark::	Commands to set the mark.
* Transient Mark::	How to make Emacs highlight the region--
			  when there is one.
* Using Region::	Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Marking Objects::	Commands to put region around textual units.
* Mark Ring::		Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
* Global Mark Ring::	Previous mark positions in various buffers.

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Killing
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* Deletion::		Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
			  blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::	How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
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			  syntactic units such as words and sentences.
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* Graphical Kill::      The kill ring on graphical terminals:
                          yanking between applications.
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Yanking

* Kill Ring::		Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::	Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::	Yanking something killed some time ago.

Registers

* RegPos::      	Saving positions in registers.
* RegText::     	Saving text in registers.
* RegRect::     	Saving rectangles in registers.
* RegConfig::           Saving window configurations in registers.
* RegFiles::    	File names in registers.
* Bookmarks::           Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

Controlling the Display

* Scrolling::	           Moving text up and down in a window.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text is normally displayed.
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* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.
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Searching and Replacement

* Incremental Search::	   Search happens as you type the string.
* Nonincremental Search::  Specify entire string and then search.
* Word Search::		   Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::	   Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::		   Syntax of regular expressions.
* Search Case::		   To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::		   Search, and replace some or all matches.
* Other Repeating Search:: Operating on all matches for some regexp.

Replacement Commands

* Unconditional Replace::  Replacing all matches for a string.
* Regexp Replace::	   Replacing all matches for a regexp.
* Replacement and Case::   How replacements preserve case of letters.
* Query Replace::	   How to use querying.

Commands for Fixing Typos

* Kill Errors::         Commands to kill a batch of recently entered text.
* Transpose::	        Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
* Fixing Case::         Correcting case of last word entered.
* Spelling::	        Apply spelling checker to a word or a whole buffer.

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Keyboard Macros

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit::   Interactively executing and editing a keyboard macro.

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File Handling

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Version Control::     Version control systems (RCS, CVS and SCCS).
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.

Saving Files

* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.

Version Control

* Introduction to VC::  How version control works in general.
* VC Mode Line::     How the mode line shows version control status.
* Basic VC Editing::    How to edit a file under version control.
* Old Versions::        Examining and comparing old versions.
* Secondary VC Commands::    The commands used a little less frequently.
* Branches::            Multiple lines of development.
* Snapshots::           Sets of file versions treated as a unit.
* Miscellaneous VC::    Various other commands and features of VC.
* Customizing VC::      Variables that change VC's behavior.

Using Multiple Buffers

* Select Buffer::       Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers::        Getting a list of buffers that exist.
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* Misc Buffer::	        Renaming; changing read-onliness; copying text.
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* Kill Buffer::	        Killing buffers you no longer need.
* Several Buffers::     How to go through the list of all buffers
			  and operate variously on several of them.
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* Indirect Buffers::    An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
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Multiple Windows

* Basic Window::        Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window::        New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window::        Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window::       Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Force Same Window::   Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
                          window rather than in another window.
* Change Window::       Deleting windows and changing their sizes.

Frames and X Windows

* Mouse Commands::      Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
* Secondary Selection:: Cutting without altering point and mark.
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* Clipboard::           Using the clipboard for selections.
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* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
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* Frame Commands::      Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
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* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
* Scroll Bars::	        How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
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* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
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* Menu Bars::	        Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
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* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
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* Faces::	        How to change the display style using faces.
* Font Lock::           Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
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* Highlight Changes::   Using colors to show where you changed the buffer.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
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* Useless Whitespace::  Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
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* Tooltips::            Showing "tooltips", AKA "ballon help" for active text.
* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
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* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
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* XTerm Mouse::         Using the mouse in an XTerm terminal emulator.
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International Character Set Support

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* International Chars::     Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
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* Enabling Multibyte::      Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments::   Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods::           Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method::     Specifying your choice of input methods.
* Coding Systems::          Character set conversion when you read and
                              write files, and so on.
* Recognize Coding::        How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
* Specify Coding::          Various ways to choose which conversion to use.
* Fontsets::                Fontsets are collections of fonts
                              that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
* Defining Fontsets::       Defining a new fontset.
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* Single-Byte Character Support::
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                            You can pick one European character set
                            to use without multibyte characters.

Major Modes

* Choosing Modes::      How major modes are specified or chosen.

Indentation

* Indentation Commands::  Various commands and techniques for indentation.
* Tab Stops::		  You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
			    indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
* Just Spaces::		  You can request indentation using just spaces.

Commands for Human Languages

* Words::	        Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::	        Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::	        Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::	        Moving over pages.
* Filling::	        Filling or justifying text.
* Case::	        Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::	        The major modes for editing text files.
* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
* TeX Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter TeX.
* Nroff Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter nroff.
* Formatted Text::      Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.

Filling Text

* Auto Fill::	        Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Fill Commands::       Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::	        Filling paragraphs that are indented
                          or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::       How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.

Editing Programs

* Program Modes::       Major modes for editing programs.
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* Defuns::              Commands to operate on major top-level parts
                          of a program.
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* Program Indent::      Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Comments::	        Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
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* Parentheses::         Commands that operate on parentheses.
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* Documentation::       Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
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* Hideshow::            Displaying blocks selectively.
* Symbol Completion::   Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
* Glasses::             Making identifiersLikeThis more readable.
* Misc for Programs::   Other Emacs features useful for editing programs.
* C Modes::             Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C,
                          Java, and Pike modes.
* Fortran::             Fortran mode and its special features.
* Asm Mode::            Asm mode and its special features.

Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns

* Left Margin Paren::   An open-paren or similar opening delimiter
                          starts a defun if it is at the left margin.
* Moving by Defuns::    Commands to move over or mark a major definition.
* Imenu::               Making buffer indexes as menus.
* Which Function::      Which Function mode shows which function you are in.
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Indentation for Programs

* Basic Indent::	Indenting a single line.
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* Multi-line Indent::   Commands to reindent many lines at once.
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* Lisp Indent::		Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
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* C Indent::		Extra features for indenting C and related modes.
* Custom C Indent::	Controlling indentation style for C and related modes.
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Commands for Editing with Parentheses
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* Expressions::         Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* Moving by Parens::    Commands for moving up, down and across
                          in the structure of parentheses.
* Matching::	        Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
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Manipulating Comments
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* Comment Commands::    Inserting, killing, and indenting comments.
* Multi-Line Comments:: Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments.
* Options for Comments::Customizing the comment features.

Documentation Lookup

* Info Lookup::         Looking up library functions and commands
                          in Info files.
* Man Page::            Looking up man pages of library functions and commands.
* Lisp Doc::            Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc.

C and Related Modes

* Motion in C::         Commands to move by C statements, etc.
* Electric C::          Colon and other chars can automatically reindent.
* Hungry Delete::       A more powerful DEL command.
* Other C Commands::    Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros,
                          and other neat features.

Fortran Mode

* Motion: Fortran Motion.	 Moving point by statements or subprograms.
* Indent: Fortran Indent.	 Indentation commands for Fortran.
* Comments: Fortran Comments.	 Inserting and aligning comments.
* Autofill: Fortran Autofill.	 Auto fill minor mode for Fortran.
* Columns: Fortran Columns.	 Measuring columns for valid Fortran.
* Abbrev: Fortran Abbrev.	 Built-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords.
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Compiling and Testing Programs

* Compilation::		Compiling programs in languages other
			  than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
* Compilation Mode::    The mode for visiting compiler errors.
* Compilation Shell::   Customizing your shell properly
                          for use in the compilation buffer.
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* Debuggers::		Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
* Executing Lisp::	Various modes for editing Lisp programs,
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			  with different facilities for running
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* Lisp Libraries::      Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
* Lisp Interaction::    Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
* Lisp Eval::		Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
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* External Lisp::	Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.
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Running Debuggers Under Emacs

* Starting GUD::	How to start a debugger subprocess.
* Debugger Operation::	Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
* Commands of GUD::	Key bindings for common commands.
* GUD Customization::	Defining your own commands for GUD.

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Maintaining Programs

* Change Log::	        Maintaining a change history for your program.
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* Authors::             Maintaining the Emacs @file{AUTHORS} file.
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* Tags::	        Go direct to any function in your program in one
			  command.  Tags remembers which file it is in.
* Emerge::	        A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.

Tags Tables

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* Tag Syntax::		Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
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* Create Tags Table::	Creating a tags table with @code{etags}.
* Select Tags Table::	How to visit a tags table.
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* Find Tag::		Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
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* Tags Search::		Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
* List Tags::		Listing and finding tags defined in a file.

Merging Files with Emerge

* Overview of Emerge::	How to start Emerge.  Basic concepts.
* Submodes of Emerge::	Fast mode vs. Edit mode.
			  Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode.
* State of Difference::	You do the merge by specifying state A or B
			  for each difference.
* Merge Commands::	Commands for selecting a difference,
			  changing states of differences, etc.
* Exiting Emerge::	What to do when you've finished the merge.
* Combining in Emerge::	    How to keep both alternatives for a difference.
* Fine Points of Emerge::   Misc.

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Abbrevs

* Abbrev Concepts::     Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
* Defining Abbrevs::    Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
* Expanding Abbrevs::   Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
* Editing Abbrevs::     Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
* Saving Abbrevs::      Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
* Dynamic Abbrevs::     Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.

Editing Pictures

* Basic Picture::	Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
* Insert in Picture::	Controlling direction of cursor motion
			  after "self-inserting" characters.
* Tabs in Picture::	Various features for tab stops and indentation.
* Rectangles in Picture:: Clearing and superimposing rectangles.

Sending Mail

* Mail Format:: 	Format of the mail being composed.
* Mail Headers::        Details of permitted mail header fields.
* Mail Aliases::        Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
* Mail Mode::   	Special commands for editing mail being composed.
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* Mail Amusements::     Distract the NSA's attention; add a fortune to a msg.
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* Mail Methods::        Using alternative mail-composition methods.

Reading Mail with Rmail

* Rmail Basics::        Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
* Rmail Scrolling::     Scrolling through a message.
* Rmail Motion::        Moving to another message.
* Rmail Deletion::      Deleting and expunging messages.
* Rmail Inbox::         How mail gets into the Rmail file.
* Rmail Files::         Using multiple Rmail files.
* Rmail Output::        Copying message out to files.
* Rmail Labels::        Classifying messages by labeling them.
* Rmail Attributes::    Certain standard labels, called attributes.
* Rmail Reply::         Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
* Rmail Summary::       Summaries show brief info on many messages.
* Rmail Sorting::       Sorting messages in Rmail.
* Rmail Display::       How Rmail displays a message; customization.
* Rmail Editing::       Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
* Rmail Digest::        Extracting the messages from a digest message.
* Out of Rmail::	Converting an Rmail file to mailbox format.
* Rmail Rot13::         Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
* Movemail::            More details of fetching new mail.

Dired, the Directory Editor

* Dired Enter:: 	     How to invoke Dired.
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* Dired Navigation::         How to move in the Dired buffer.
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* Dired Deletion::           Deleting files with Dired.
* Flagging Many Files::      Flagging files based on their names.
* Dired Visiting::           Other file operations through Dired.
* Marks vs Flags::	     Flagging for deletion vs marking.
* Operating on Files::	     How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc.
			       either one file or several files.
* Shell Commands in Dired::  Running a shell command on the marked files.
* Transforming File Names::  Using patterns to rename multiple files.
* Comparison in Dired::	     Running `diff' by way of Dired.
* Subdirectories in Dired::  Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
* Subdirectory Motion::	     Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
* Hiding Subdirectories::    Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
* Dired Updating::           Discarding lines for files of no interest.
* Dired and Find::	     Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.

The Calendar and the Diary

* Calendar Motion::     Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar::     Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days::       How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar::    Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* LaTeX Calendar::        Print a calendar using LaTeX.
* Holidays::            Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset::      Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases::        Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars::     Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary::               Displaying events from your diary.
* Appointments::	Reminders when it's time to do something.
* Daylight Savings::    How to specify when daylight savings time is active.

Movement in the Calendar

* Calendar Unit Motion::      Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End::  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
* Specified Dates::	      Moving to the current date or another
				specific date.

Conversion To and From Other Calendars

* Calendar Systems::	   The calendars Emacs understands
			     (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar::	   Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar::	   Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.

The Diary

* Diary Commands::	   Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File::   Entering events in your diary.
* Date Formats::	   Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary::	   Commands to create diary entries.
* Special Diary Entries::  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.

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Gnus
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* Buffers of Gnus::	The group, summary, and article buffers.
* Gnus Startup::	What you should know about starting Gnus.
* Summary of Gnus::	A short description of the basic Gnus commands.

Running Shell Commands from Emacs

* Single Shell::	How to run one shell command and return.
* Interactive Shell::	Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
* Shell Mode::		Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
* Shell History::       Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
* Shell Options::       Options for customizing Shell mode.
* Remote Host::		Connecting to another computer.

Customization

* Minor Modes::		Each minor mode is one feature you can turn on
			  independently of any others.
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* Easy Customization::
                        Convenient way to browse and change user options.
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* Variables::		Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
			  to decide what to do; by setting variables,
			  you can control their functioning.
* Key Bindings::	The keymaps say what command each key runs.
			  By changing them, you can "redefine keys".
* Keyboard Translations::
                        If your keyboard passes an undesired code
			   for a key, you can tell Emacs to
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			   substitute another code.
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* Syntax::		The syntax table controls how words and
			   expressions are parsed.
* Init File::		How to write common customizations in the
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Variables

* Examining::	        Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Hooks::	        Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
		          of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals::	        Per-buffer values of variables.
* File Variables::      How files can specify variable values.

Customizing Key Bindings

* Keymaps::             Generalities.  The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps::      Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps::       Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps::     The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding::           How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding::      Rebinding keys with your init file, @file{.emacs}.
* Function Keys::       Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Named ASCII Chars::   Distinguishing @key{TAB} from @kbd{C-i}, and so on.
* Mouse Buttons::       Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling::           Disabling a command means confirmation is required
                          before it can be executed.  This is done to protect
                          beginners from surprises.

The Init File, @file{~/.emacs}

* Init Syntax::	        Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
* Init Examples::       How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init::       Each terminal type can have an init file.
* Find Init::	        How Emacs finds the init file.

Dealing with Emacs Trouble

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* DEL Does Not Delete:: What to do if @key{DEL} doesn't delete.
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* Stuck Recursive::     `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
* Screen Garbled::      Garbage on the screen.
* Text Garbled::        Garbage in the text.
* Unasked-for Search::  Spontaneous entry to incremental search.
* Memory Full::         How to cope when you run out of memory.
* Emergency Escape::    Emergency escape---
                          What to do if Emacs stops responding.
* Total Frustration::   When you are at your wits' end.

Reporting Bugs

* Criteria:  Bug Criteria.	 Have you really found a bug?
* Understanding Bug Reporting::	 How to report a bug effectively.
* Checklist::			 Steps to follow for a good bug report.
* Sending Patches::		 How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.

Command Line Options and Arguments

* Action Arguments::	Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
			  and call functions.
* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
* Resume Arguments::	Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
* Font X::	        Choosing a font for text, under X.
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* Colors::	        Choosing display colors.
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* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
* Borders X::	        Internal and external borders, under X.
* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
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* Misc X::              Other display options.
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X Resources

* Resources::           Using X resources with Emacs (in general).
* Table of Resources::  Table of specific X resources that affect Emacs.
* Face Resources::      X resources for customizing faces.
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* Lucid Resources::     X resources for Lucid menus.
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* LessTif Resources::   X resources for LessTif and Motif menus.
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Environment Variables

* General Variables::	Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::	Certain system specific variables.

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* MS-DOS Input::        Keyboard and mouse usage on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Display::      Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS File Names::   File-name conventions on MS-DOS.
* Text and Binary::     Text files on MS-DOS use CRLF to separate lines.
* MS-DOS Printing::     How to specify the printer on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Processes::    Running subprocesses on MS-DOS.
* Windows Processes::   Running subprocesses on Windows.
* Windows System Menu:: Controlling what the ALT key does.
@end menu

@iftex
@unnumbered Preface

  This manual documents the use and simple customization of the Emacs
editor.  The reader is not expected to be a programmer; simple
customizations do not require programming skill.  But the user who is not
interested in customizing can ignore the scattered customization hints.

  This is primarily a reference manual, but can also be used as a
primer.  For complete beginners, it is a good idea to start with the
on-line, learn-by-doing tutorial, before reading the manual.  To run the
tutorial, start Emacs and type @kbd{C-h t}.  This way you can learn
Emacs by using Emacs on a specially designed file which describes
commands, tells you when to try them, and then explains the results you
see.

  On first reading, just skim chapters 1 and 2, which describe the
notational conventions of the manual and the general appearance of the
Emacs display screen.  Note which questions are answered in these
chapters, so you can refer back later.  After reading chapter 4, you
should practice the commands there.  The next few chapters describe
fundamental techniques and concepts that are used constantly.  You need
to understand them thoroughly, experimenting with them if necessary.

  Chapters 14 through 19 describe intermediate-level features that are
useful for all kinds of editing.  Chapter 20 and following chapters
describe features that you may or may not want to use; read those
chapters when you need them.

  Read the Trouble chapter if Emacs does not seem to be working
properly.  It explains how to cope with some common problems
(@pxref{Lossage}), as well as when and how to report Emacs bugs
(@pxref{Bugs}).
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  To find the documentation on a particular command, look in the index.
Keys (character commands) and command names have separate indexes.  There
is also a glossary, with a cross reference for each term.

  This manual is available as a printed book and also as an Info file.
The Info file is for on-line perusal with the Info program, which will
be the principal way of viewing documentation on-line in the GNU system.
Both the Info file and the Info program itself are distributed along
with GNU Emacs.  The Info file and the printed book contain
substantially the same text and are generated from the same source
files, which are also distributed along with GNU Emacs.

  GNU Emacs is a member of the Emacs editor family.  There are many Emacs
editors, all sharing common principles of organization.  For information on
the underlying philosophy of Emacs and the lessons learned from its
development, write for a copy of AI memo 519a, ``Emacs, the Extensible,
Customizable Self-Documenting Display Editor,'' to Publications Department,
Artificial Intelligence Lab, 545 Tech Square, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA@.  At
last report they charge $2.25 per copy.  Another useful publication is LCS
TM-165, ``A Cookbook for an Emacs,'' by Craig Finseth, available from
Publications Department, Laboratory for Computer Science, 545 Tech Square,
Cambridge, MA 02139, USA@.  The price today is $3.

This edition of the manual is intended for use with GNU Emacs installed
on GNU and Unix systems.  GNU Emacs can also be used on VMS, MS-DOS
(also called MS-DOG), Windows NT, and Windows 95 systems.  Those systems use
different file name syntax; in addition, VMS and MS-DOS do not support
all GNU Emacs features.  We don't try to describe VMS usage in this
manual.  @xref{MS-DOS}, for information about using Emacs on MS-DOS.
@end iftex

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@node Distrib, Intro, Top, Top
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@unnumbered Distribution

GNU Emacs is @dfn{free software}; this means that everyone is free to
use it and free to redistribute it on certain conditions.  GNU Emacs is
not in the public domain; it is copyrighted and there are restrictions
on its distribution, but these restrictions are designed to permit
everything that a good cooperating citizen would want to do.  What is
not allowed is to try to prevent others from further sharing any version
of GNU Emacs that they might get from you.  The precise conditions are
found in the GNU General Public License that comes with Emacs and also
appears following this section.

One way to get a copy of GNU Emacs is from someone else who has it.  You
need not ask for our permission to do so, or tell any one else; just
copy it.  If you have access to the Internet, you can get the latest
distribution version of GNU Emacs by anonymous FTP; see the file
@file{etc/FTP} in the Emacs distribution for more information.

You may also receive GNU Emacs when you buy a computer.  Computer
manufacturers are free to distribute copies on the same terms that apply to
everyone else.  These terms require them to give you the full sources,
including whatever changes they may have made, and to permit you to
redistribute the GNU Emacs received from them under the usual terms of the
General Public License.  In other words, the program must be free for you
when you get it, not just free for the manufacturer.

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You can also order copies of GNU Emacs from the Free Software
Foundation.  This is a convenient and reliable way to get a copy; it
is also a good way to help fund our work.  (The Foundation has always
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received most of its funds in this way.)  An order form is included in
the file @file{etc/ORDERS} in the Emacs distribution, and on our web
site in @url{http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html}.  For further
information, write to

@display
Free Software Foundation
59 Temple Place, Suite 330
Boston, MA  02111-1307 USA
USA
@end display

The income from distribution fees goes to support the foundation's
purpose: the development of new free software, and improvements to our
existing programs including GNU Emacs.

If you find GNU Emacs useful, please @strong{send a donation} to the
Free Software Foundation to support our work.  Donations to the Free
Software Foundation are tax deductible in the US.  If you use GNU Emacs
at your workplace, please suggest that the company make a donation.  If
company policy is unsympathetic to the idea of donating to charity, you
might instead suggest ordering a CD-ROM from the Foundation
occasionally, or subscribing to periodic updates.

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@iftex
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@node Acknowledgments, Intro, Distrib, Top
@unnumberedsec Acknowledgments
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Contributors to GNU Emacs include Per Abrahamsen, Jay K. Adams, Joe
Arceneaux, Boaz Ben-Zvi, Jim Blandy, Terrence Brannon, Frank Bresz,
Peter Breton, Kevin Broadey, Vincent Broman, David M. Brown, Bill
Carpenter, Hans Chalupsky, Bob Chassell, James Clark, Mike Clarkson,
Glynn Clements, Andrew Csillag, Doug Cutting, Michael DeCorte, Gary
Delp, Matthieu Devin, Eri Ding, Carsten Dominik, Scott Draves, Viktor
Dukhovni, John Eaton, Rolf Ebert, Stephen Eglen, Torbj@"orn Einarsson,
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Tsugutomo Enami, Hans Henrik Eriksen, Michael Ernst, Ata Etemadi,
Frederick Farnbach, Fred Fish, Karl Fogel, Gary Foster, Noah Friedman,
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Keith Gabryelski, Kevin Gallagher, Kevin Gallo, Howard Gayle, Stephen
Gildea, David Gillespie, Bob Glickstein, Boris Goldowsky, Michelangelo
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Grigni, Michael Gschwind, Henry Guillaume, Doug Gwyn, Ken'ichi Handa,
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Chris Hanson, K. Shane Hartman, John Heidemann, Markus Heritsch, Karl
Heuer, Manabu Higashida, Anders Holst, Kurt Hornik, Tom Houlder, Lars
Ingebrigtsen, Andrew Innes, Michael K. Johnson, Kyle Jones, Tomoji
Kagatani, Brewster Kahle, David Kaufman, Henry Kautz, Howard Kaye,
Michael Kifer, Richard King, Larry K. Kolodney, Robert Krawitz,
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Sebastian Kremer, Geoff Kuenning, David K@aa{}gedal, Daniel LaLiberte,
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Aaron Larson, James R. Larus, Frederic Lepied, Lars Lindberg, Eric
Ludlam, Neil M. Mager, Ken Manheimer, Bill Mann, Brian Marick, Simon
Marshall, Bengt Martensson, Charlie Martin, Thomas May, Roland McGrath,
David Megginson, Wayne Mesard, Richard Mlynarik, Keith Moore, Erik
Naggum, Thomas Neumann, Mike Newton, Jurgen Nickelsen, Jeff Norden,
Andrew Norman, Jeff Peck, Damon Anton Permezel, Tom Perrine, Jens
Petersen, Daniel Pfeiffer, Fred Pierresteguy, Christian Plaunt,
Francesco A. Potorti, Michael D. Prange, Ashwin Ram, Eric S. Raymond,
Paul Reilly, Edward M. Reingold, Rob Riepel, Roland B. Roberts, John
Robinson, Danny Roozendaal, William Rosenblatt, Guillermo J. Rozas, Ivar
Rummelhoff, Wolfgang Rupprecht, James B. Salem, Masahiko Sato, William
Schelter, Ralph Schleicher, Gregor Schmid, Michael Schmidt, Ronald
S. Schnell, Philippe Schnoebelen, Stephen Schoef, Randal Schwartz,
Manuel Serrano, Stanislav Shalunov, Mark Shapiro, Richard Sharman, Olin
Shivers, Espen Skoglund, Rick Sladkey, Lynn Slater, Chris Smith, David
Smith, Paul D. Smith, William Sommerfeld, Michael Staats, Sam Steingold,
Ake Stenhoff, Peter Stephenson, Jonathan Stigelman, Steve Strassman,
Jens T. Berger Thielemann, Spencer Thomas, Jim Thompson, Masanobu Umeda,
Neil W. Van Dyke, Ulrik Vieth, Geoffrey Voelker, Johan Vromans, Barry
Warsaw, Morten Welinder, Joseph Brian Wells, Rodney Whitby, Ed
Wilkinson, Mike Williams, Steven A. Wood, Dale R. Worley, Felix
S. T. Wu, Tom Wurgler, Eli Zaretskii, Jamie Zawinski, Ian T. Zimmermann,
Reto Zimmermann, and Neal Ziring.
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@end iftex
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@node Intro, Glossary, Distrib, Top
@unnumbered Introduction

  You are reading about GNU Emacs, the GNU incarnation of the advanced,
self-documenting, customizable, extensible real-time display editor Emacs.
(The `G' in `GNU' is not silent.)

  We say that Emacs is a @dfn{display} editor because normally the text
being edited is visible on the screen and is updated automatically as you
type your commands.  @xref{Screen,Display}.

  We call it a @dfn{real-time} editor because the display is updated very
frequently, usually after each character or pair of characters you
type.  This minimizes the amount of information you must keep in your
head as you edit.  @xref{Basic,Real-time,Basic Editing}.

  We call Emacs advanced because it provides facilities that go beyond
simple insertion and deletion: controlling subprocesses; automatic
indentation of programs; viewing two or more files at once; editing
formatted text; and dealing in terms of characters, words, lines,
sentences, paragraphs, and pages, as well as expressions and comments in
several different programming languages.

  @dfn{Self-documenting} means that at any time you can type a special
character, @kbd{Control-h}, to find out what your options are.  You can
also use it to find out what any command does, or to find all the commands
that pertain to a topic.  @xref{Help}.

  @dfn{Customizable} means that you can change the definitions of Emacs
commands in little ways.  For example, if you use a programming language in
which comments start with @samp{<**} and end with @samp{**>}, you can tell
the Emacs comment manipulation commands to use those strings
(@pxref{Comments}).  Another sort of customization is rearrangement of the
command set.  For example, if you prefer the four basic cursor motion
commands (up, down, left and right) on keys in a diamond pattern on the
keyboard, you can rebind the keys that way.  @xref{Customization}.

  @dfn{Extensible} means that you can go beyond simple customization and
write entirely new commands, programs in the Lisp language to be run by
Emacs's own Lisp interpreter.  Emacs is an ``on-line extensible''
system, which means that it is divided into many functions that call
each other, any of which can be redefined in the middle of an editing
session.  Almost any part of Emacs can be replaced without making a
separate copy of all of Emacs.  Most of the editing commands of Emacs
are written in Lisp; the few exceptions could have been written
in Lisp but are written in C for efficiency.  Although only a programmer
can write an extension, anybody can use it afterward.  If you want to
learn Emacs Lisp programming, we recommend the @cite{Introduction to
Emacs Lisp} by Robert J. Chassell, also published by the Free Software
Foundation.

   When run under the X Window System, Emacs provides its own menus and
convenient bindings to mouse buttons.  But Emacs can provide many of the
benefits of a window system on a text-only terminal.  For instance, you
can look at or edit several files at once, move text between files, and
edit files while running shell commands.

@include screen.texi
@include commands.texi
@include entering.texi
@include basic.texi
@include mini.texi
@include m-x.texi
@include help.texi
@include mark.texi
@include killing.texi
@include regs.texi
@include display.texi
@include search.texi
@include fixit.texi
@include kmacro.texi
@include files.texi
@include buffers.texi
@include windows.texi
@include frames.texi
@include mule.texi
@include major.texi
@include indent.texi
@include text.texi
@include programs.texi
@include building.texi
@include maintaining.texi
@include abbrevs.texi
@include picture.texi
@include sending.texi
@include rmail.texi
@include dired.texi
@include calendar.texi
@include misc.texi
@include custom.texi
@include trouble.texi

@node Copying, GNU Free Documentation License, Service, Top
@appendix GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE
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@center Version 2, June 1991

@display
Copyright @copyright{} 1989, 1991 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA  02111-1307  USA

Everyone is permitted to copy and distribute verbatim copies
of this license document, but changing it is not allowed.
@end display

@unnumberedsec Preamble

  The licenses for most software are designed to take away your
freedom to share and change it.  By contrast, the GNU General Public
License is intended to guarantee your freedom to share and change free
software---to make sure the software is free for all its users.  This
General Public License applies to most of the Free Software
Foundation's software and to any other program whose authors commit to
using it.  (Some other Free Software Foundation software is covered by
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the GNU Library General Public License instead.)  You can apply it to
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your programs, too.

  When we speak of free software, we are referring to freedom, not
price.  Our General Public Licenses are designed to make sure that you
have the freedom to distribute copies of free software (and charge for
this service if you wish), that you receive source code or can get it
if you want it, that you can change the software or use pieces of it
in new free programs; and that you know you can do these things.

  To protect your rights, we need to make restrictions that forbid
anyone to deny you these rights or to ask you to surrender the rights.
These restrictions translate to certain responsibilities for you if you
distribute copies of the software, or if you modify it.

  For example, if you distribute copies of such a program, whether
gratis or for a fee, you must give the recipients all the rights that
you have.  You must make sure that they, too, receive or can get the
source code.  And you must show them these terms so they know their
rights.

  We protect your rights with two steps: (1) copyright the software, and
(2) offer you this license which gives you legal permission to copy,
distribute and/or modify the software.

  Also, for each author's protection and ours, we want to make certain
that everyone understands that there is no warranty for this free
software.  If the software is modified by someone else and passed on, we
want its recipients to know that what they have is not the original, so
that any problems introduced by others will not reflect on the original
authors' reputations.

  Finally, any free program is threatened constantly by software
patents.  We wish to avoid the danger that redistributors of a free
program will individually obtain patent licenses, in effect making the
program proprietary.  To prevent this, we have made it clear that any
patent must be licensed for everyone's free use or not licensed at all.

  The precise terms and conditions for copying, distribution and
modification follow.

@iftex
@unnumberedsec TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center TERMS AND CONDITIONS FOR COPYING, DISTRIBUTION AND MODIFICATION
@end ifinfo

@enumerate 0
@item
This License applies to any program or other work which contains
a notice placed by the copyright holder saying it may be distributed
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under the terms of this General Public License.  The ``Program,'' below,
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refers to any such program or work, and a ``work based on the Program''
means either the Program or any derivative work under copyright law:
that is to say, a work containing the Program or a portion of it,
either verbatim or with modifications and/or translated into another
language.  (Hereinafter, translation is included without limitation in
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the term ``modification.'')  Each licensee is addressed as ``you.''
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Activities other than copying, distribution and modification are not
covered by this License; they are outside its scope.  The act of
running the Program is not restricted, and the output from the Program
is covered only if its contents constitute a work based on the
Program (independent of having been made by running the Program).
Whether that is true depends on what the Program does.

@item
You may copy and distribute verbatim copies of the Program's
source code as you receive it, in any medium, provided that you
conspicuously and appropriately publish on each copy an appropriate
copyright notice and disclaimer of warranty; keep intact all the
notices that refer to this License and to the absence of any warranty;
and give any other recipients of the Program a copy of this License
along with the Program.

You may charge a fee for the physical act of transferring a copy, and
you may at your option offer warranty protection in exchange for a fee.

@item
You may modify your copy or copies of the Program or any portion
of it, thus forming a work based on the Program, and copy and
distribute such modifications or work under the terms of Section 1
above, provided that you also meet all of these conditions:

@enumerate a
@item
You must cause the modified files to carry prominent notices
stating that you changed the files and the date of any change.

@item
You must cause any work that you distribute or publish, that in
whole or in part contains or is derived from the Program or any
part thereof, to be licensed as a whole at no charge to all third
parties under the terms of this License.

@item
If the modified program normally reads commands interactively
when run, you must cause it, when started running for such
interactive use in the most ordinary way, to print or display an
announcement including an appropriate copyright notice and a
notice that there is no warranty (or else, saying that you provide
a warranty) and that users may redistribute the program under
these conditions, and telling the user how to view a copy of this
License.  (Exception: if the Program itself is interactive but
does not normally print such an announcement, your work based on
the Program is not required to print an announcement.)
@end enumerate

These requirements apply to the modified work as a whole.  If
identifiable sections of that work are not derived from the Program,
and can be reasonably considered independent and separate works in
themselves, then this License, and its terms, do not apply to those
sections when you distribute them as separate works.  But when you
distribute the same sections as part of a whole which is a work based
on the Program, the distribution of the whole must be on the terms of
this License, whose permissions for other licensees extend to the
entire whole, and thus to each and every part regardless of who wrote it.

Thus, it is not the intent of this section to claim rights or contest
your rights to work written entirely by you; rather, the intent is to
exercise the right to control the distribution of derivative or
collective works based on the Program.

In addition, mere aggregation of another work not based on the Program
with the Program (or with a work based on the Program) on a volume of
a storage or distribution medium does not bring the other work under
the scope of this License.

@item
You may copy and distribute the Program (or a work based on it,
under Section 2) in object code or executable form under the terms of
Sections 1 and 2 above provided that you also do one of the following:

@enumerate a
@item
Accompany it with the complete corresponding machine-readable
source code, which must be distributed under the terms of Sections
1 and 2 above on a medium customarily used for software interchange; or,

@item
Accompany it with a written offer, valid for at least three
years, to give any third party, for a charge no more than your
cost of physically performing source distribution, a complete
machine-readable copy of the corresponding source code, to be
distributed under the terms of Sections 1 and 2 above on a medium
customarily used for software interchange; or,

@item
Accompany it with the information you received as to the offer
to distribute corresponding source code.  (This alternative is
allowed only for noncommercial distribution and only if you
received the program in object code or executable form with such
an offer, in accord with Subsection b above.)
@end enumerate

The source code for a work means the preferred form of the work for
making modifications to it.  For an executable work, complete source
code means all the source code for all modules it contains, plus any
associated interface definition files, plus the scripts used to
control compilation and installation of the executable.  However, as a
special exception, the source code distributed need not include
anything that is normally distributed (in either source or binary
form) with the major components (compiler, kernel, and so on) of the
operating system on which the executable runs, unless that component
itself accompanies the executable.

If distribution of executable or object code is made by offering
access to copy from a designated place, then offering equivalent
access to copy the source code from the same place counts as
distribution of the source code, even though third parties are not
compelled to copy the source along with the object code.

@item
You may not copy, modify, sublicense, or distribute the Program
except as expressly provided under this License.  Any attempt
otherwise to copy, modify, sublicense or distribute the Program is
void, and will automatically terminate your rights under this License.
However, parties who have received copies, or rights, from you under
this License will not have their licenses terminated so long as such
parties remain in full compliance.

@item
You are not required to accept this License, since you have not
signed it.  However, nothing else grants you permission to modify or
distribute the Program or its derivative works.  These actions are
prohibited by law if you do not accept this License.  Therefore, by
modifying or distributing the Program (or any work based on the
Program), you indicate your acceptance of this License to do so, and
all its terms and conditions for copying, distributing or modifying
the Program or works based on it.

@item
Each time you redistribute the Program (or any work based on the
Program), the recipient automatically receives a license from the
original licensor to copy, distribute or modify the Program subject to
these terms and conditions.  You may not impose any further
restrictions on the recipients' exercise of the rights granted herein.
You are not responsible for enforcing compliance by third parties to
this License.

@item
If, as a consequence of a court judgment or allegation of patent
infringement or for any other reason (not limited to patent issues),
conditions are imposed on you (whether by court order, agreement or
otherwise) that contradict the conditions of this License, they do not
excuse you from the conditions of this License.  If you cannot
distribute so as to satisfy simultaneously your obligations under this
License and any other pertinent obligations, then as a consequence you
may not distribute the Program at all.  For example, if a patent
license would not permit royalty-free redistribution of the Program by
all those who receive copies directly or indirectly through you, then
the only way you could satisfy both it and this License would be to
refrain entirely from distribution of the Program.

If any portion of this section is held invalid or unenforceable under
any particular circumstance, the balance of the section is intended to
apply and the section as a whole is intended to apply in other
circumstances.

It is not the purpose of this section to induce you to infringe any
patents or other property right claims or to contest validity of any
such claims; this section has the sole purpose of protecting the
integrity of the free software distribution system, which is
implemented by public license practices.  Many people have made
generous contributions to the wide range of software distributed
through that system in reliance on consistent application of that
system; it is up to the author/donor to decide if he or she is willing
to distribute software through any other system and a licensee cannot
impose that choice.

This section is intended to make thoroughly clear what is believed to
be a consequence of the rest of this License.

@item
If the distribution and/or use of the Program is restricted in
certain countries either by patents or by copyrighted interfaces, the
original copyright holder who places the Program under this License
may add an explicit geographical distribution limitation excluding
those countries, so that distribution is permitted only in or among
countries not thus excluded.  In such case, this License incorporates
the limitation as if written in the body of this License.

@item
The Free Software Foundation may publish revised and/or new versions
of the General Public License from time to time.  Such new versions will
be similar in spirit to the present version, but may differ in detail to
address new problems or concerns.

Each version is given a distinguishing version number.  If the Program
specifies a version number of this License which applies to it and ``any
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later version,'' you have the option of following the terms and conditions
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either of that version or of any later version published by the Free
Software Foundation.  If the Program does not specify a version number of
this License, you may choose any version ever published by the Free Software
Foundation.

@item
If you wish to incorporate parts of the Program into other free
programs whose distribution conditions are different, write to the author
to ask for permission.  For software which is copyrighted by the Free
Software Foundation, write to the Free Software Foundation; we sometimes
make exceptions for this.  Our decision will be guided by the two goals
of preserving the free status of all derivatives of our free software and
of promoting the sharing and reuse of software generally.

@iftex
@heading NO WARRANTY
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center NO WARRANTY
@end ifinfo

@item
BECAUSE THE PROGRAM IS LICENSED FREE OF CHARGE, THERE IS NO WARRANTY
FOR THE PROGRAM, TO THE EXTENT PERMITTED BY APPLICABLE LAW@.  EXCEPT WHEN
OTHERWISE STATED IN WRITING THE COPYRIGHT HOLDERS AND/OR OTHER PARTIES
PROVIDE THE PROGRAM ``AS IS'' WITHOUT WARRANTY OF ANY KIND, EITHER EXPRESSED
OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING, BUT NOT LIMITED TO, THE IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF
MERCHANTABILITY AND FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE@.  THE ENTIRE RISK AS
TO THE QUALITY AND PERFORMANCE OF THE PROGRAM IS WITH YOU@.  SHOULD THE
PROGRAM PROVE DEFECTIVE, YOU ASSUME THE COST OF ALL NECESSARY SERVICING,
REPAIR OR CORRECTION.

@item
IN NO EVENT UNLESS REQUIRED BY APPLICABLE LAW OR AGREED TO IN WRITING
WILL ANY COPYRIGHT HOLDER, OR ANY OTHER PARTY WHO MAY MODIFY AND/OR
REDISTRIBUTE THE PROGRAM AS PERMITTED ABOVE, BE LIABLE TO YOU FOR DAMAGES,
INCLUDING ANY GENERAL, SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL OR CONSEQUENTIAL DAMAGES ARISING
OUT OF THE USE OR INABILITY TO USE THE PROGRAM (INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED
TO LOSS OF DATA OR DATA BEING RENDERED INACCURATE OR LOSSES SUSTAINED BY
YOU OR THIRD PARTIES OR A FAILURE OF THE PROGRAM TO OPERATE WITH ANY OTHER
PROGRAMS), EVEN IF SUCH HOLDER OR OTHER PARTY HAS BEEN ADVISED OF THE
POSSIBILITY OF SUCH DAMAGES.
@end enumerate

@iftex
@heading END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
@end iftex
@ifinfo
@center END OF TERMS AND CONDITIONS
@end ifinfo

@page
@unnumberedsec How to Apply These Terms to Your New Programs

  If you develop a new program, and you want it to be of the greatest
possible use to the public, the best way to achieve this is to make it
free software which everyone can redistribute and change under these terms.

  To do so, attach the following notices to the program.  It is safest
to attach them to the start of each source file to most effectively
convey the exclusion of warranty; and each file should have at least
the ``copyright'' line and a pointer to where the full notice is found.

@smallexample
@var{one line to give the program's name and an idea of what it does.}
Copyright (C) 19@var{yy}  @var{name of author}

This program is free software; you can redistribute it and/or
modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License
as published by the Free Software Foundation; either version 2
of the License, or (at your option) any later version.

This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE@.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along
with this program; if not, write to the Free Software Foundation, Inc.,
59 Temple Place, Suite 330, Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
@end smallexample

Also add information on how to contact you by electronic and paper mail.

If the program is interactive, make it output a short notice like this
when it starts in an interactive mode:

@smallexample
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Gnomovision version 69, Copyright (C) 20@var{yy} @var{name of author}
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Gnomovision comes with ABSOLUTELY NO WARRANTY; for details
type `show w'.  This is free software, and you are welcome
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to redistribute it under certain conditions; type `show c'
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for details.
@end smallexample

The hypothetical commands @samp{show w} and @samp{show c} should show
the appropriate parts of the General Public License.  Of course, the
commands you use may be called something other than @samp{show w} and
@samp{show c}; they could even be mouse-clicks or menu items---whatever
suits your program.

You should also get your employer (if you work as a programmer) or your
school, if any, to sign a ``copyright disclaimer'' for the program, if
necessary.  Here is a sample; alter the names:

@smallexample
@group
Yoyodyne, Inc., hereby disclaims all copyright
interest in the program `Gnomovision'
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(which makes passes at compilers) written
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by James Hacker.

@var{signature of Ty Coon}, 1 April 1989
Ty Coon, President of Vice
@end group
@end smallexample

This General Public License does not permit incorporating your program into
proprietary programs.  If your program is a subroutine library, you may
consider it more useful to permit linking proprietary applications with the
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library.  If this is what you want to do, use the GNU Library General
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Public License instead of this License.

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@include doclicense.texi
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@include cmdargs.texi
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@include xresources.texi
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@include anti.texi
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@include macos.texi
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@include msdog.texi
@include gnu.texi
@include glossary.texi
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@ifnottex
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@include ack.texi
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@end ifnottex
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@c The Option Index is produced only in the on-line version,
@c because the index entries related to command-line options
@c tend to point to the same pages and all begin with a dash.
@c This, and the need to keep the node links consistent, are
@c the reasons for the funky @iftex/@ifnottex dance below.
@c The Option Index is _not_ before Key Index, because that
@c would require changes in the glossary.texi's @node line.
@c It is not after Concept Index for similar reasons.

@iftex
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@node Key Index, Command Index, Glossary, Top
@unnumbered Key (Character) Index
@printindex ky
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@end iftex

@ifnottex
@node Key Index, Option Index, Glossary, Top
@unnumbered Key (Character) Index
@printindex ky

@node Option Index, Command Index, Key Index, Top
@unnumbered Command-Line Options Index
@printindex op
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@node Command Index, Variable Index, Option Index, Top
@unnumbered Command and Function Index
@printindex fn
@end ifnottex

@iftex
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@node Command Index, Variable Index, Key Index, Top
@unnumbered Command and Function Index
@printindex fn
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@end iftex
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@node Variable Index, Concept Index, Command Index, Top
@unnumbered Variable Index
@printindex vr

@node Concept Index, Acknowledgments, Variable Index, Top
@unnumbered Concept Index
@printindex cp

@summarycontents
@contents
@bye

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@ignore
   arch-tag: ed48740a-410b-46ea-9387-c9a9252a3392
@end ignore