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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2006-06-04
Copyright (C) 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006
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          Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
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If possible, use M-x report-emacs-bug.

This file is about changes in emacs version 22.

See files NEWS.21, NEWS.20, NEWS.19, NEWS.18, and NEWS.1-17 for changes
in older emacs versions.

You can narrow news to a specific version by calling `view-emacs-news'
with a prefix argument or by typing C-u C-h C-n.
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Temporary note:
 +++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
 --- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
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so we will look at it and add it to the manual.
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* Installation Changes in Emacs 22.1
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---
** Emacs comes with a new set of icons.
These icons are displayed on the taskbar and/or titlebar when Emacs
runs in a graphical environment.  Source files for these icons can be
found in etc/images/icons.  (You can't change the icons displayed by
Emacs by changing these files directly.  On X, the icon is compiled
into the Emacs executable; see gnu.h in the source tree.  On MS
Windows, see nt/icons/emacs.ico.)

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---
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** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.
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---
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** Emacs can now be built without sound support.
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---
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** You can build Emacs with Gtk+ widgets by specifying `--with-x-toolkit=gtk'
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when you run configure.  This requires Gtk+ 2.4 or newer.  This port
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provides a way to display multilingual text in menus (with some caveats).
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---
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** The `emacsserver' program has been removed, replaced with Lisp code.
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---
** The `yow' program has been removed.
Use the corresponding Emacs feature instead.

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---
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** By default, Emacs now uses a setgid helper program to update game
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scores.  The directory ${localstatedir}/games/emacs is the normal
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place for game scores to be stored.  You can control this with the
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configure option `--with-game-dir'.  The specific user that Emacs uses
to own the game scores is controlled by `--with-game-user'.  If access
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to a game user is not available, then scores will be stored separately
in each user's home directory.
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---
** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

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+++
** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

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The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual in Info format is built as part of the
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Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).

---
** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).

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---
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** New translations of the Emacs Tutorial are available in the
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following languages: Brasilian Portuguese, Bulgarian, Chinese (both
with simplified and traditional characters), French, and Italian.
Type `C-u C-h t' to choose one of them in case your language setup
doesn't automatically select the right one.
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---
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** A Portuguese translation of Emacs' reference card has been added.
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Its name is `pt-br-refcard.tex'.  The corresponding PostScript file is
also included.


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---
** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

---
** Emacs now includes support for loading image libraries on demand.
(Currently this feature is only used on MS Windows.)  You can configure
the supported image types and their associated dynamic libraries by
setting the variable `image-library-alist'.

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---
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** Support for a Cygwin build of Emacs was added.
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---
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** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

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---
** Support for GNU/Linux systems on S390 machines was added.

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** Support for MacOS X was added.
See the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

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---
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** Support for GNU/Linux systems on X86-64 machines was added.
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** Mac OS 9 port now uses the Carbon API by default.  You can also
create non-Carbon build by specifying `NonCarbon' as a target.  See
the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

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---
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** Building with -DENABLE_CHECKING does not automatically build with union
types any more.  Add -DUSE_LISP_UNION_TYPE if you want union types.
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---
** When pure storage overflows while dumping, Emacs now prints how
much pure storage it will approximately need.
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** The script etc/emacs-buffer.gdb can be used with gdb to retrieve the
contents of buffers from a core dump and save them to files easily, should
emacs crash.

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---
** The Emacs terminal emulation in term.el uses a different terminfo name.
The Emacs terminal emulation in term.el now uses "eterm-color" as its
terminfo name, since term.el now supports color.

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---
** Emacs Lisp source files are compressed by default if `gzip' is available.

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---
** All images used in Emacs have been consolidated in etc/images and subdirs.
See also the changes to `find-image', documented below.

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* Startup Changes in Emacs 22.1
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** New command line option -Q or --quick.
This is like using -q --no-site-file, but in addition it also disables
the fancy startup screen.
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** New command line option -D or --basic-display.
Disables the menu-bar, the tool-bar, the scroll-bars, tool tips, and
the blinking cursor.
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** New command line option -nbc or --no-blinking-cursor disables
the blinking cursor on graphical terminals.
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** The option --script FILE runs Emacs in batch mode and loads FILE.
It is useful for writing Emacs Lisp shell script files, because they
can start with this line:

   #!/usr/bin/emacs --script

+++
** The option --directory DIR now modifies `load-path' immediately.
Directories are added to the front of `load-path' in the order they
appear on the command line.  For example, with this command line:

  emacs -batch -L .. -L /tmp --eval "(require 'foo)"

Emacs looks for library `foo' in the parent directory, then in /tmp, then
in the other directories in `load-path'.  (-L is short for --directory.)

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** The command line option --no-windows has been changed to
--no-window-system.  The old one still works, but is deprecated.
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---
** If the environment variable DISPLAY specifies an unreachable X display,
Emacs will now startup as if invoked with the --no-window-system option.

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+++
** The -f option, used from the command line to call a function,
now reads arguments for the function interactively if it is
an interactively callable function.
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+++
** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

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** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.
When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
screen size.  (For now, this does not work with some window managers.)
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** Emacs now displays a splash screen by default even if command-line
arguments were given.  The new command-line option --no-splash
disables the splash screen; see also the variable
`inhibit-startup-message' (which is also aliased as
`inhibit-splash-screen').
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** The default is now to use a bitmap as the icon, so the command-line options
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--icon-type, -i has been replaced with options --no-bitmap-icon, -nbi to turn
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the bitmap icon off.

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** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.
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** Init file changes
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If the init file ~/.emacs does not exist, Emacs will try
~/.emacs.d/init.el or ~/.emacs.d/init.elc.  You can also put the shell
init file .emacs_SHELL under ~/.emacs.d.
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** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.
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** If the environment variable EMAIL is defined, Emacs now uses its value
to compute the default value of `use-mail-address', in preference to
concatenation of `user-login-name' with the name of your host machine.
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* Incompatible Editing Changes in Emacs 22.1

+++
** M-g is now a prefix key.
M-g g and M-g M-g run goto-line.
M-g n and M-g M-n run next-error (like C-x `).
M-g p and M-g M-p run previous-error.

+++
** C-u M-g M-g switches to the most recent previous buffer,
and goes to the specified line in that buffer.

When goto-line starts to execute, if there's a number in the buffer at
point then it acts as the default argument for the minibuffer.

+++
** The old bindings C-M-delete and C-M-backspace have been deleted,
since there are situations where one or the other will shut down
the operating system or your X server.

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** line-move-ignore-invisible now defaults to t.

+++
** When the undo information of the current command gets really large
(beyond the value of `undo-outer-limit'), Emacs discards it and warns
you about it.

+++
** `apply-macro-to-region-lines' now operates on all lines that begin
in the region, rather than on all complete lines in the region.

+++
** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
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previous mark if you set `set-mark-command-repeat-pop' to t.  I.e. C-u
C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... cycles through the mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC
to set the mark immediately after a jump.
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+++
** The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

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** In incremental search, C-w is changed.  M-%, C-M-w and C-M-y are special.

See below under "incremental search changes".

---
** C-x C-f RET, typing nothing in the minibuffer, is no longer a special case.

Since the default input is the current directory, this has the effect
of specifying the current directory.  Normally that means to visit the
directory with Dired.

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You can get the old behavior by typing C-x C-f M-n RET, which fetches
the actual file name into the minibuffer.

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+++
** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
it remains unchanged.

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** When Emacs prompts for file names, SPC no longer completes the file name.
This is so filenames with embedded spaces could be input without the
need to quote the space with a C-q.  The underlying changes in the
keymaps that are active in the minibuffer are described below under
"New keymaps for typing file names".

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** M-o now is the prefix key for setting text properties;
M-o M-o requests refontification.

+++
** You can now follow links by clicking Mouse-1 on the link.
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See below for more details.

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** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.
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* Editing Changes in Emacs 22.1

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+++
** !MEM FULL! at the start of the mode line indicates that Emacs
cannot get any more memory for Lisp data.  This often means it could
crash soon if you do things that use more memory.  On most systems,
killing buffers will get out of this state.  If killing buffers does
not make !MEM FULL! disappear, you should save your work and start
a new Emacs.

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+++
** The max size of buffers and integers has been doubled.
On 32bit machines, it is now 256M (i.e. 268435455).

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** You can now switch buffers in a cyclic order with C-x C-left
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(previous-buffer) and C-x C-right (next-buffer).  C-x left and
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C-x right can be used as well.  The functions keep a different buffer
cycle for each frame, using the frame-local buffer list.
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** `undo-only' does an undo which does not redo any previous undo.

+++
** M-SPC (just-one-space) when given a numeric argument N
converts whitespace around point to N spaces.
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---
** C-x 5 C-o displays a specified buffer in another frame
but does not switch to that frame.  It's the multi-frame
analogue of C-x 4 C-o.

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---
** New commands to operate on pairs of open and close characters:
`insert-pair', `delete-pair', `raise-sexp'.

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** New command `kill-whole-line' kills an entire line at once.
By default, it is bound to C-S-<backspace>.
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** Yanking text now discards certain text properties that can
be inconvenient when you did not expect them.  The variable
`yank-excluded-properties' specifies which ones.  Insertion
of register contents and rectangles also discards these properties.
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** The default values of paragraph-start and indent-line-function have
been changed to reflect those used in Text mode rather than those used
in Indented-Text mode.
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** M-x setenv now expands environment variable references.
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Substrings of the form `$foo' and `${foo}' in the specified new value
now refer to the value of environment variable foo.  To include a `$'
in the value, use `$$'.
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** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and
`same-window'.
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+++
** The default for the paper size (variable ps-paper-type) is taken
from the locale.

** Mark command changes:
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*** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
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previous mark, i.e. C-u C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... cycles through the
mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC to set the mark immediately after a jump.
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*** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.

If you type C-M-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h
(mark-paragraph), or C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region
extends each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC
M-C-SPC, for example.  This feature also works for
mark-end-of-sentence, if you bind that to a key.  It also extends the
region when the mark is active in Transient Mark mode, regardless of
the last command.  To start a new region with one of marking commands
in Transient Mark mode, you can deactivate the active region with C-g,
or set the new mark with C-SPC.
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*** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.
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With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding
paragraphs.
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*** Some commands do something special in Transient Mark mode when the
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mark is active--for instance, they limit their operation to the
region.  Even if you don't normally use Transient Mark mode, you might
want to get this behavior from a particular command.  There are two
ways you can enable Transient Mark mode and activate the mark, for one
command only.
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One method is to type C-SPC C-SPC; this enables Transient Mark mode
and sets the mark at point.  The other method is to type C-u C-x C-x.
This enables Transient Mark mode temporarily but does not alter the
mark or the region.
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After these commands, Transient Mark mode remains enabled until you
deactivate the mark.  That typically happens when you type a command
that alters the buffer, but you can also deactivate the mark by typing
C-g.
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*** Movement commands `beginning-of-buffer', `end-of-buffer',
`beginning-of-defun', `end-of-defun' do not set the mark if the mark
is already active in Transient Mark mode.

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** Help command changes:

+++
*** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

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C-h d runs apropos-documentation.

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C-h r visits the Emacs Manual in Info.

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C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.
- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.
- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
to new-kill-line, these commands now report:
- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line
- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>
- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

---
*** Help commands `describe-function' and `describe-key' now show function
arguments in lowercase italics on displays that support it.  To change the
default, customize face `help-argument-name' or redefine the function
`help-default-arg-highlight'.

+++
*** C-h v and C-h f commands now include a hyperlink to the C source for
variables and functions defined in C (if the C source is available).

+++
*** Help mode now only makes hyperlinks for faces when the face name is
preceded or followed by the word `face'.  It no longer makes
hyperlinks for variables without variable documentation, unless
preceded by one of the words `variable' or `option'.  It now makes
hyperlinks to Info anchors (or nodes) if the anchor (or node) name is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `info anchor' or `Info
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anchor' (in addition to earlier `info node' and `Info node'). In
addition, it now makes hyperlinks to URLs as well if the URL is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `URL'.
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*** The new command `describe-char' (C-u C-x =) pops up a buffer with
description various information about a character, including its
encodings and syntax, its text properties, how to input, overlays, and
widgets at point.  You can get more information about some of them, by
clicking on mouse-sensitive areas or moving there and pressing RET.

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*** The command `list-text-properties-at' has been deleted because
C-u C-x = gives the same information and more.

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+++
*** New command `display-local-help' displays any local help at point
in the echo area.  It is bound to `C-h .'.  It normally displays the
same string that would be displayed on mouse-over using the
`help-echo' property, but, in certain cases, it can display a more
keyboard oriented alternative.

+++
*** New user option `help-at-pt-display-when-idle' allows to
automatically show the help provided by `display-local-help' on
point-over, after suitable idle time.  The amount of idle time is
determined by the user option `help-at-pt-timer-delay' and defaults
to one second.  This feature is turned off by default.

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+++
*** The apropos commands now accept a list of words to match.
When more than one word is specified, at least two of those words must
be present for an item to match.  Regular expression matching is still
available.
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*** The new option `apropos-sort-by-scores' causes the matching items
to be sorted according to their score.  The score for an item is a
number calculated to indicate how well the item matches the words or
regular expression that you entered to the apropos command.  The best
match is listed first, and the calculated score is shown for each
matching item.

** Incremental Search changes:

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*** Vertical scrolling is now possible within incremental search.
To enable this feature, customize the new user option
`isearch-allow-scroll'.  User written commands which satisfy stringent
constraints can be marked as "scrolling commands".  See the Emacs manual
for details.

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*** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

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*** C-y in incremental search now grabs the next line if point is already
at the end of a line.

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*** C-M-w deletes and C-M-y grabs a character in isearch mode.
Another method to grab a character is to enter the minibuffer by `M-e'
and to type `C-f' at the end of the search string in the minibuffer.

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*** M-% typed in isearch mode invokes `query-replace' or
`query-replace-regexp' (depending on search mode) with the current
search string used as the string to replace.

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*** Isearch no longer adds `isearch-resume' commands to the command
history by default.  To enable this feature, customize the new
user option `isearch-resume-in-command-history'.

** Replace command changes:
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---
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*** New user option `query-replace-skip-read-only': when non-nil,
`query-replace' and related functions simply ignore
a match if part of it has a read-only property.
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*** When used interactively, the commands `query-replace-regexp' and
`replace-regexp' allow \,expr to be used in a replacement string,
where expr is an arbitrary Lisp expression evaluated at replacement
time.  In many cases, this will be more convenient than using
`query-replace-regexp-eval'.  `\#' in a replacement string now refers
to the count of replacements already made by the replacement command.
All regular expression replacement commands now allow `\?' in the
replacement string to specify a position where the replacement string
can be edited for each replacement.
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*** query-replace uses isearch lazy highlighting when the new user option
`query-replace-lazy-highlight' is non-nil.
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---
*** The current match in query-replace is highlighted in new face
`query-replace' which by default inherits from isearch face.
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** Local variables lists:
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*** In processing a local variables list, Emacs strips the prefix and
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suffix from every line before processing all the lines.
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*** Text properties in local variables.

A file local variables list cannot specify a string with text
properties--any specified text properties are discarded.

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*** If the local variables list contains any variable-value pairs that
are not known to be safe, Emacs shows a prompt asking whether to apply
the local variables list as a whole.  In earlier versions, a prompt
was only issued for variables explicitly marked as risky (for the
definition of risky variables, see `risky-local-variable-p').

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At the prompt, you can choose to save the contents of this local
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variables list to `safe-local-variable-values'.  This new customizable
option is a list of variable-value pairs that are known to be safe.
Variables can also be marked as safe with the existing
`safe-local-variable' property (see `safe-local-variable-p').
However, risky variables will not be added to
`safe-local-variable-values' in this way.

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*** The variable `enable-local-variables' controls how local variable
lists are handled.  t, the default, specifies the standard querying
behavior.  :safe means use only safe values, and ignore the rest.
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:all means set all variables, whether or not they are safe.
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nil means ignore them all.  Anything else means always query.

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*** The variable `safe-local-eval-forms' specifies a list of forms that
are ok to evaluate when they appear in an `eval' local variables
specification.  Normally Emacs asks for confirmation before evaluating
such a form, but if the form appears in this list, no confirmation is
needed.

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*** If a function has a non-nil `safe-local-eval-function' property,
that means it is ok to evaluate some calls to that function when it
appears in an `eval' local variables specification.  If the property
is t, then any form calling that function with constant arguments is
ok.  If the property is a function or list of functions, they are called
with the form as argument, and if any returns t, the form is ok to call.

If the form is not "ok to call", that means Emacs asks for
confirmation as before.

** File operation changes:

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*** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

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*** find-file-read-only visits multiple files in read-only mode,
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when the file name contains wildcard characters.
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*** find-alternate-file replaces the current file with multiple files,
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when the file name contains wildcard characters.
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*** Auto Compression mode is now enabled by default.
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*** C-x C-f RET, typing nothing in the minibuffer, is no longer a special case.
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Since the default input is the current directory, this has the effect
of specifying the current directory.  Normally that means to visit the
directory with Dired.
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*** When you are root, and you visit a file whose modes specify
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read-only, the Emacs buffer is now read-only too.  Type C-x C-q if you
want to make the buffer writable.  (As root, you can in fact alter the
file.)
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*** C-x s (save-some-buffers) now offers an option `d' to diff a buffer
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against its file, so you can see what changes you would be saving.
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*** The commands copy-file, rename-file, make-symbolic-link and
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add-name-to-file, when given a directory as the "new name" argument,
convert it to a file name by merging in the within-directory part of
the existing file's name.  (This is the same convention that shell
commands cp, mv, and ln follow.)  Thus, M-x copy-file RET ~/foo RET
/tmp RET copies ~/foo to /tmp/foo.
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---
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*** When used interactively, `format-write-file' now asks for confirmation
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before overwriting an existing file, unless a prefix argument is
supplied.  This behavior is analogous to `write-file'.

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---
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*** The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' now has a third element that
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controls whether or not the function `make-auto-save-file-name' will
attempt to construct a unique auto-save name (e.g. for remote files).
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*** The new option `write-region-inhibit-fsync' disables calls to fsync
in `write-region'.  This can be useful on laptops to avoid spinning up
the hard drive upon each file save.  Enabling this variable may result
in data loss, use with care.

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*** If the user visits a file larger than `large-file-warning-threshold',
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Emacs asks for confirmation.
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+++
*** require-final-newline now has two new possible values:

`visit' means add a newline (as an undoable change) if it's needed
when visiting the file.

`visit-save' means add a newline (as an undoable change) if it's
needed when visiting the file, and also add a newline if it's needed
when saving the file.

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*** The new option mode-require-final-newline controls how certain
major modes enable require-final-newline.  Any major mode that's
designed for a kind of file that should normally end in a newline
sets require-final-newline based on mode-require-final-newline.
So you can customize mode-require-final-newline to control what these
modes do.

** Minibuffer changes:
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*** The new file-name-shadow-mode is turned ON by default, so that when
entering a file name, any prefix which Emacs will ignore is dimmed.

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*** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
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Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.
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---
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*** Enhanced visual feedback in `*Completions*' buffer.
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Completions lists use faces to highlight what all completions
have in common and where they begin to differ.
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The common prefix shared by all possible completions uses the face
`completions-common-part', while the first character that isn't the
same uses the face `completions-first-difference'.  By default,
`completions-common-part' inherits from `default', and
`completions-first-difference' inherits from `bold'.  The idea of
`completions-common-part' is that you can use it to make the common
parts less visible than normal, so that the rest of the differing
parts is, by contrast, slightly highlighted.
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Above fontification is always done when listing completions is
triggered at minibuffer. If you want to fontify completions whose
listing is triggered at the other normal buffer, you have to pass
the common prefix of completions to `display-completion-list' as
its second argument.

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*** File-name completion can now ignore specified directories.
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If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.
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*** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
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to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
it remains unchanged.
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*** New user option `history-delete-duplicates'.
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If set to t when adding a new history element, all previous identical
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elements are deleted from the history list.
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** Redisplay changes:
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*** Preemptive redisplay now adapts to current load and bandwidth.
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To avoid preempting redisplay on fast computers, networks, and displays,
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the arrival of new input is now performed at regular intervals during
redisplay.  The new variable `redisplay-preemption-period' specifies
the period; the default is to check for input every 0.1 seconds.

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*** The mode line position information now comes before the major mode.
When the file is maintained under version control, that information
appears between the position information and the major mode.

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*** New face `escape-glyph' highlights control characters and escape glyphs.
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*** Non-breaking space and hyphens are now displayed with a special
face, either nobreak-space or escape-glyph.  You can turn this off or
specify a different mode by setting the variable `nobreak-char-display'.
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*** The parameters of automatic hscrolling can now be customized.
The variable `hscroll-margin' determines how many columns away from
the window edge point is allowed to get before automatic hscrolling
will horizontally scroll the window.  The default value is 5.

The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns automatic
hscrolling scrolls the window when point gets too close to the
window edge.  If its value is zero, the default, Emacs scrolls the
window so as to center point.  If its value is an integer, it says how
many columns to scroll.  If the value is a floating-point number, it
gives the fraction of the window's width to scroll the window.

The variable `automatic-hscrolling' was renamed to
`auto-hscroll-mode'.  The old name is still available as an alias.
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*** Moving or scrolling through images (and other lines) taller than
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the window now works sensibly, by automatically adjusting the window's
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vscroll property.
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*** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.
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The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

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*** You can now customize the use of window fringes.  To control this
for all frames, use M-x fringe-mode or the Show/Hide submenu of the
top-level Options menu, or customize the `fringe-mode' variable.  To
control this for a specific frame, use the command M-x
set-fringe-style.
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*** Angle icons in the fringes can indicate the buffer boundaries.  In
addition, up and down arrow bitmaps in the fringe indicate which ways
the window can be scrolled.
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This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-buffer-boundaries' to a non-nil value.  The default value of
this variable is found in `default-indicate-buffer-boundaries'.
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If value is `left' or `right', both angle and arrow bitmaps are
displayed in the left or right fringe, resp.
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The value can also be an alist which specifies the presence and
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position of each bitmap individually.
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For example, ((top . left) (t .  right)) places the top angle bitmap
in left fringe, the bottom angle bitmap in right fringe, and both
arrow bitmaps in right fringe.  To show just the angle bitmaps in the
left fringe, but no arrow bitmaps, use ((top . left) (bottom . left)).
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*** On window systems, lines which are exactly as wide as the window
(not counting the final newline character) are no longer broken into
two lines on the display (with just the newline on the second line).
Instead, the newline now "overflows" into the right fringe, and the
cursor will be displayed in the fringe when positioned on that newline.
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The new user option 'overflow-newline-into-fringe' can be set to nil to
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revert to the old behavior of continuing such lines.
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*** When a window has display margin areas, the fringes are now
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displayed between the margins and the buffer's text area, rather than
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outside those margins.
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*** A window can now have individual fringe and scroll-bar settings,
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in addition to the individual display margin settings.

Such individual settings are now preserved when windows are split
horizontally or vertically, a saved window configuration is restored,
or when the frame is resized.

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** Cursor display changes:
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*** On X, MS Windows, and Mac OS, the blinking cursor's "off" state is
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now controlled by the variable `blink-cursor-alist'.
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*** The X resource cursorBlink can be used to turn off cursor blinking.
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*** Emacs can produce an underscore-like (horizontal bar) cursor.
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The underscore cursor is set by putting `(cursor-type . hbar)' in
default-frame-alist.  It supports variable heights, like the `bar'
cursor does.
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*** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
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of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.
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*** The variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' can now be set to any
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of the recognized cursor types.
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*** On text terminals, the variable `visible-cursor' controls whether Emacs
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uses the "very visible" cursor (the default) or the normal cursor.

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** New faces:

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*** `mode-line-highlight' is the standard face indicating mouse sensitive
elements on mode-line (and header-line) like `highlight' face on text
areas.

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*** `mode-line-buffer-id' is the standard face for buffer identification
parts of the mode line.

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*** `shadow' face defines the appearance of the "shadowed" text, i.e.
the text which should be less noticeable than the surrounding text.
This can be achieved by using shades of grey in contrast with either
black or white default foreground color.  This generic shadow face
allows customization of the appearance of shadowed text in one place,
so package-specific faces can inherit from it.

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*** `vertical-border' face is used for the vertical divider between windows.

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** Font-Lock changes:

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*** M-o now is the prefix key for setting text properties;
M-o M-o requests refontification.

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*** All modes now support using M-x font-lock-mode to toggle
fontification, even those such as Occur, Info, and comint-derived
modes that do their own fontification in a special way.

The variable `Info-fontify' is no longer applicable; to disable
fontification in Info, remove `turn-on-font-lock' from
`Info-mode-hook'.

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*** font-lock: in modes like C and Lisp where the fontification assumes that
an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of any string or comment,
font-lock now highlights any such open-paren-in-column-zero in bold-red
if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it can cause
trouble with fontification and/or indentation.
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*** New standard font-lock face `font-lock-preprocessor-face'.

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*** New standard font-lock face `font-lock-comment-delimiter-face'.

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*** Easy to overlook single character negation can now be font-locked.
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You can use the new variable `font-lock-negation-char-face' and the face of
the same name to customize this.  Currently the cc-modes, sh-script-mode,
cperl-mode and make-mode support this.

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*** The default settings for JIT stealth lock parameters are changed.
The default value for the user option jit-lock-stealth-time is now 16
instead of 3, and the default value of jit-lock-stealth-nice is now
0.5 instead of 0.125.  The new defaults should lower the CPU usage
when Emacs is fontifying in the background.

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*** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.

If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.

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*** contextual refontification is now separate from stealth fontification.

jit-lock-defer-contextually is renamed jit-lock-contextually and
jit-lock-context-time determines the delay after which contextual
refontification takes place.

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** Menu support:
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*** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (such
as the fringes, the tool bar, the speedbar, and the menu bar itself).
You can also move the vertical scroll bar to either side here or turn
it off completely.  There is also a menu-item to toggle displaying of
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current date and time, current line and column number in the mode-line.
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*** Speedbar has moved from the "Tools" top level menu to "Show/Hide".

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*** You can exit dialog windows and menus by typing C-g.

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*** The menu item "Open File..." has been split into two items, "New File..."
and "Open File...".  "Open File..." now opens only existing files.  This is
to support existing GUI file selection dialogs better.

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*** The file selection dialog for Gtk+, Mac, W32 and Motif/Lesstif can be
disabled by customizing the variable `use-file-dialog'.

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*** The pop up menus for Lucid now stay up if you do a fast click and can
be navigated with the arrow keys (like Gtk+, Mac and W32).

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*** The menu bar for Motif/Lesstif/Lucid/Gtk+ can be navigated with keys.
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Pressing F10 shows the first menu in the menu bar.  Navigation is done with
the arrow keys, select with the return key and cancel with the escape keys.

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*** The Lucid menus can display multilingual text in your locale.  You have
to explicitly specify a fontSet resource for this to work, for example
`-xrm "Emacs*fontSet:  -*-helvetica-medium-r-*--*-120-*-*-*-*-*-*,*"'.

---
*** Dialogs for Lucid/Athena and Lesstif/Motif now pops down when pressing
ESC, like they do for Gtk+, Mac and W32.

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*** For the Gtk+ version, you can make Emacs use the old file dialog
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by setting the variable `x-use-old-gtk-file-dialog' to t.  Default is to use
the new dialog.

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** Mouse changes:
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*** If you set the new variable `mouse-autoselect-window' to a non-nil
value, windows are automatically selected as you move the mouse from
one Emacs window to another, even within a frame.  A minibuffer window
can be selected only when it is active.
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*** On X, when the window manager requires that you click on a frame to
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select it (give it focus), the selected window and cursor position
normally changes according to the mouse click position.  If you set
the variable x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position to t, the selected
window and cursor position do not change when you click on a frame
to give it focus.
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*** You can now follow links by clicking Mouse-1 on the link.
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Traditionally, Emacs uses a Mouse-1 click to set point and a Mouse-2
click to follow a link, whereas most other applications use a Mouse-1
click for both purposes, depending on whether you click outside or
inside a link.  Now the behavior of a Mouse-1 click has been changed
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to match this context-sentitive dual behavior.  (If you prefer the old
behavior, set the user option `mouse-1-click-follows-link' to nil.)
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Depending on the current mode, a Mouse-2 click in Emacs can do much
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more than just follow a link, so the new Mouse-1 behavior is only
activated for modes which explicitly mark a clickable text as a "link"
(see the new function `mouse-on-link-p' for details).  The Lisp
packages that are included in release 22.1 have been adapted to do
this, but external packages may not yet support this.  However, there
is no risk in using such packages, as the worst thing that could
happen is that you get the original Mouse-1 behavior when you click
on a link, which typically means that you set point where you click.

If you want to get the original Mouse-1 action also inside a link, you
just need to press the Mouse-1 button a little longer than a normal
click (i.e. press and hold the Mouse-1 button for half a second before
you release it).

Dragging the Mouse-1 inside a link still performs the original
drag-mouse-1 action, typically copy the text.

You can customize the new Mouse-1 behavior via the new user options
`mouse-1-click-follows-link' and `mouse-1-click-in-non-selected-windows'.
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*** Emacs normally highlights mouse sensitive text whenever the mouse
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is over the text.  By setting the new variable `mouse-highlight', you
can optionally enable mouse highlighting only after you move the
mouse, so that highlighting disappears when you press a key.  You can
also disable mouse highlighting.
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*** You can now customize if selecting a region by dragging the mouse
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shall not copy the selected text to the kill-ring by setting the new
variable mouse-drag-copy-region to nil.

---
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*** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
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(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

---
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*** Emacs ignores mouse-2 clicks while the mouse wheel is being moved.

People tend to push the mouse wheel (which counts as a mouse-2 click)
unintentionally while turning the wheel, so these clicks are now
ignored.  You can customize this with the mouse-wheel-click-event and
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mouse-wheel-inhibit-click-time variables.
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Richard M. Stallman's avatar
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*** Under X, mouse-wheel-mode is turned on by default.
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** Multilingual Environment (Mule) changes:
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*** You can disable character translation for a file using the -*-
construct.  Include `enable-character-translation: nil' inside the
-*-...-*- to disable any character translation that may happen by
various global and per-coding-system translation tables.  You can also
specify it in a local variable list at the end of the file.  For
shortcut, instead of using this long variable name, you can append the
character "!" at the end of coding-system name specified in -*-
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construct or in a local variable list.  For example, if a file has the
following header, it is decoded by the coding system `iso-latin-1'
without any character translation:
;; -*- coding: iso-latin-1!; -*-
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---
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*** Language environment and various default coding systems are setup
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more correctly according to the current locale name.  If the locale
name doesn't specify a charset, the default is what glibc defines.
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This change can result in using the different coding systems as
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default in some locale (e.g. vi_VN).
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*** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on your
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current locale settings if you are not using a window system.  This
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can mean that the META key doesn't work but generates non-ASCII
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characters instead, depending on how the terminal (or terminal
emulator) works.  Use `set-keyboard-coding-system' (or customize
keyboard-coding-system) if you prefer META to work (the old default)
or if the locale doesn't describe the character set actually generated
by the keyboard.  See Info node `Single-Byte Character Support'.
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*** The new command `revert-buffer-with-coding-system' (C-x RET r)
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revisits the current file using a coding system that you specify.
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*** New command `recode-region' decodes the region again by a specified
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coding system.
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*** The new command `recode-file-name' changes the encoding of the name
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of a file.
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---
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*** New command `ucs-insert' inserts a character specified by its
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unicode.
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*** The new command `set-file-name-coding-system' (C-x RET F) sets
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coding system for encoding and decoding file names.  A new menu item
(Options->Mule->Set Coding Systems->For File Name) invokes this
command.
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*** New command quail-show-key shows what key (or key sequence) to type
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in the current input method to input a character at point.
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*** Limited support for character `unification' has been added.
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Emacs now knows how to translate between different representations of
the same characters in various Emacs charsets according to standard
Unicode mappings.  This applies mainly to characters in the ISO 8859
sets plus some other 8-bit sets, but can be extended.  For instance,
translation works amongst the Emacs ...-iso8859-... charsets and the
mule-unicode-... ones.
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