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\input texinfo   @c -*- mode: texinfo; -*-
@c %**start of header
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@setfilename ../../info/efaq
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@settitle GNU Emacs FAQ
@c %**end of header

@c This is used in many places
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@set VER 23.0.94
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@c This file is maintained by Romain Francoise <rfrancoise@gnu.org>.
@c Feel free to install changes without prior permission (but I'd
@c appreciate a notice if you do).

@copying
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Copyright @copyright{} 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009
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Free Software Foundation, Inc.@*
Copyright 1994,1995,1996,1997,1998,1999,2000 Reuven M. Lerner@*
Copyright 1992,1993 Steven Byrnes@*
Copyright 1990,1991,1992 Joseph Brian Wells@*

@quotation
This list of frequently asked questions about GNU Emacs with answers
(``FAQ'') may be translated into other languages, transformed into other
formats (e.g. Texinfo, Info, WWW, WAIS), and updated with new information.

The same conditions apply to any derivative of the FAQ as apply to the FAQ
itself.  Every copy of the FAQ must include this notice or an approved
translation, information on who is currently maintaining the FAQ and how to
contact them (including their e-mail address), and information on where the
latest version of the FAQ is archived (including FTP information).

The FAQ may be copied and redistributed under these conditions, except that
the FAQ may not be embedded in a larger literary work unless that work
itself allows free copying and redistribution.

[This version has been heavily edited since it was included in the Emacs
distribution.]
@end quotation
@end copying

@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Emacs FAQ: (efaq).	Frequently Asked Questions about Emacs.
@end direntry

@c The @titlepage stuff only appears in the printed version
@titlepage
@sp 10
@center @titlefont{GNU Emacs FAQ}

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

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@contents

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@node    Top, FAQ notation, (dir), (dir)

This is the GNU Emacs FAQ, last updated on @today{}.

This FAQ is maintained as a part of GNU Emacs.  If you find any errors,
or have any suggestions, please use @kbd{M-x report-emacs-bug} to report
them.

67 68 69 70
@ifnottex
@insertcopying
@end ifnottex 

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@menu
* FAQ notation::
* General questions::
* Getting help::
* Status of Emacs::
* Common requests::
* Bugs and problems::
* Compiling and installing Emacs::
* Finding Emacs and related packages::
* Major packages and programs::
* Key bindings::
* Alternate character sets::
* Mail and news::
* Concept index::
@end menu

@c ------------------------------------------------------------
@node FAQ notation, General questions, Top, Top
@chapter FAQ notation
@cindex FAQ notation

This chapter describes notation used in the GNU Emacs FAQ, as well as in
the Emacs documentation.  Consult this section if this is the first time
you are reading the FAQ, or if you are confused by notation or terms
used in the FAQ.

@menu
* Basic keys::
* Extended commands::
* On-line manual::
* File-name conventions::
* Common acronyms::
@end menu

@node Basic keys, Extended commands, FAQ notation, FAQ notation
@section What do these mean: @kbd{C-h}, @kbd{C-M-a}, @key{RET}, @kbd{@key{ESC} a}, etc.?
@cindex Basic keys
@cindex Control key, notation for
@cindex @key{Meta} key, notation for
@cindex Control-Meta characters, notation for
@cindex @kbd{C-h}, definition of
@cindex @kbd{C-M-h}, definition of
@cindex @key{DEL}, definition of
@cindex @key{ESC}, definition of
@cindex @key{LFD}, definition of
@cindex @key{RET}, definition of
@cindex @key{SPC}, definition of
@cindex @key{TAB}, definition of
@cindex Notation for keys

@itemize @bullet

@item
@kbd{C-x}: press the @key{x} key while holding down the @key{Control} key

@item
@kbd{M-x}: press the @key{x} key while holding down the @key{Meta} key
(if your computer doesn't have a @key{Meta} key, @pxref{No Meta key})

@item
@kbd{M-C-x}: press the @key{x} key while holding down both @key{Control}
and @key{Meta}

@item
@kbd{C-M-x}: a synonym for the above

@item
@key{LFD}: Linefeed or Newline; same as @kbd{C-j}

@item
@key{RET}: @key{Return}, sometimes marked @key{Enter}; same as @kbd{C-m}

@item
@key{DEL}: @key{Delete}, usually @strong{not} the same as
@key{Backspace}; same as @kbd{C-?} (see @ref{Backspace invokes help}, if
deleting invokes Emacs help)

@item
@key{ESC}: Escape; same as @kbd{C-[}

@item
@key{TAB}: Tab; same as @kbd{C-i}

@item
@key{SPC}: Space bar

@end itemize

Key sequences longer than one key (and some single-key sequences) are
written inside quotes or on lines by themselves, like this:

@display
  @kbd{M-x frobnicate-while-foo RET}
@end display

@noindent
Any real spaces in such a key sequence should be ignored; only @key{SPC}
really means press the space key.

The @acronym{ASCII} code sent by @kbd{C-x} (except for @kbd{C-?}) is the value
that would be sent by pressing just @key{x} minus 96 (or 64 for
upper-case @key{X}) and will be from 0 to 31.  On Unix and GNU/Linux
terminals, the @acronym{ASCII} code sent by @kbd{M-x} is the sum of 128 and the
@acronym{ASCII} code that would be sent by pressing just @key{x}.  Essentially,
@key{Control} turns off bits 5 and 6 and @key{Meta} turns on bit
7@footnote{
DOS and Windows terminals don't set bit 7 when the @key{Meta} key is
pressed.}.

@kbd{C-?} (aka @key{DEL}) is @acronym{ASCII} code 127.  It is a misnomer to call
@kbd{C-?}  a ``control'' key, since 127 has both bits 5 and 6 turned ON.
Also, on very few keyboards does @kbd{C-?} generate @acronym{ASCII} code 127.

@inforef{Text Characters, Text Characters, emacs}, and @inforef{Keys,
Keys, emacs}, for more information.  (@xref{On-line manual}, for more
information about Info.)

@node Extended commands, On-line manual, Basic keys, FAQ notation
@section What does @file{M-x @var{command}} mean?
@cindex Extended commands
@cindex Commands, extended
@cindex M-x, meaning of

@kbd{M-x @var{command}} means type @kbd{M-x}, then type the name of the
command, then type @key{RET}.  (@xref{Basic keys}, if you're not sure
what @kbd{M-x} and @key{RET} mean.)

@kbd{M-x} (by default) invokes the command
@code{execute-extended-command}.  This command allows you to run any
Emacs command if you can remember the command's name.  If you can't
remember the command's name, you can type @key{TAB} and @key{SPC} for
completion, @key{?} for a list of possibilities, and @kbd{M-p} and
@kbd{M-n} (or up-arrow and down-arrow on terminals that have these
editing keys) to see previous commands entered.  An Emacs @dfn{command}
is an @dfn{interactive} Emacs function.

@cindex @key{Do} key
Your system administrator may have bound other key sequences to invoke
@code{execute-extended-command}.  A function key labeled @kbd{Do} is a
good candidate for this, on keyboards that have such a key.

If you need to run non-interactive Emacs functions, see @ref{Evaluating
Emacs Lisp code}.

@node On-line manual, File-name conventions, Extended commands, FAQ notation
@section How do I read topic XXX in the on-line manual?
@cindex On-line manual, reading topics in
@cindex Reading topics in the on-line manual
@cindex Finding topics in the on-line manual
@cindex Info, finding topics in

When we refer you to some @var{topic} in the on-line manual, you can
read this manual node inside Emacs (assuming nothing is broken) by
typing @kbd{C-h i m emacs @key{RET} m @var{topic} @key{RET}}.

This invokes Info, the GNU hypertext documentation browser.  If you don't
already know how to use Info, type @key{?} from within Info.

If we refer to @var{topic}:@var{subtopic}, type @kbd{C-h i m emacs
@key{RET} m @var{topic} @key{RET} m @var{subtopic} @key{RET}}.

If these commands don't work as expected, your system administrator may
not have installed the Info files, or may have installed them
improperly.  In this case you should complain.

@xref{Getting a printed manual}, if you would like a paper copy of the
Emacs manual.

@node File-name conventions, Common acronyms, On-line manual, FAQ notation
@section What are @file{etc/SERVICE}, @file{src/config.h}, and @file{lisp/default.el}?
@cindex File-name conventions
@cindex Conventions for file names
@cindex Directories and files that come with Emacs

These are files that come with Emacs.  The Emacs distribution is divided
into subdirectories; the important ones are @file{etc}, @file{lisp}, and
@file{src}.

If you use Emacs, but don't know where it is kept on your system, start
Emacs, then type @kbd{C-h v data-directory @key{RET}}.  The directory
name displayed by this will be the full pathname of the installed
@file{etc} directory.  (This full path is recorded in the Emacs variable
@code{data-directory}, and @kbd{C-h v} displays the value and the
documentation of a variable.)

The location of your Info directory (i.e., where on-line documentation
is stored) is kept in the variable @code{Info-default-directory-list}.  Use
@kbd{C-h v Info-default-directory-list @key{RET}} to see the value of
this variable, which will be a list of directory names.  The last
directory in that list is probably where most Info files are stored.  By
default, Info documentation is placed in @file{/usr/local/info}.

Some of these files are available individually via FTP or e-mail; see
@ref{Informational files for Emacs}.  They all are available in the
source distribution.  Many of the files in the @file{etc} directory are
also available via the Emacs @samp{Help} menu, or by typing @kbd{C-h ?}
(@kbd{M-x help-for-help}).

Your system administrator may have removed the @file{src} directory and
many files from the @file{etc} directory.

@node Common acronyms,  , File-name conventions, FAQ notation
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@section What are FSF, LPF, GNU, RMS, FTP, and GPL?
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@cindex FSF, definition of
@cindex LPF, definition of
@cindex GNU, definition of
@cindex RMS, definition of
@cindex Stallman, Richard, acronym for
@cindex Richard Stallman, acronym for
@cindex FTP, definition of
@cindex GPL, definition of
@cindex Acronyms, definitions for
@cindex Common acronyms, definitions for

@table @asis

@item FSF
Free Software Foundation

@item LPF
League for Programming Freedom

@item GNU
GNU's Not Unix

@item RMS
Richard Matthew Stallman

@item FTP
File Transfer Protocol

@item GPL
GNU General Public License

@end table

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Avoid confusing the FSF and the LPF.  The LPF opposes
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look-and-feel copyrights and software patents.  The FSF aims to make
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high quality free software available for everyone.
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The word ``free'' in the title of the Free Software Foundation refers to
``freedom,'' not ``zero cost.''  Anyone can charge any price for
GPL-covered software that they want to.  However, in practice, the
freedom enforced by the GPL leads to low prices, because you can always
get the software for less money from someone else, since everyone has
the right to resell or give away GPL-covered software.

@c ------------------------------------------------------------
@node    General questions, Getting help, FAQ notation, Top
@chapter General questions
@cindex General questions

This chapter contains general questions having to do with Emacs, the
Free Software Foundation, and related organizations.

@menu
* The LPF::
* Real meaning of copyleft::
* Guidelines for newsgroup postings::
* Newsgroup archives::
* Reporting bugs::
* Unsubscribing from Emacs lists::
* Contacting the FSF::
@end menu

@node The LPF, Real meaning of copyleft, General questions, General questions
@section What is the LPF?
@cindex LPF, description of
@cindex League for Programming Freedom
@cindex Software patents, opposition to
@cindex Patents for software, opposition to

The LPF opposes the expanding danger of software patents and
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look-and-feel copyrights.  More information on the LPF's views is
available at @uref{http://progfree.org/, the LPF home page}.
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@node Real meaning of copyleft, Guidelines for newsgroup postings, The LPF, General questions
@section What is the real legal meaning of the GNU copyleft?
@cindex Copyleft, real meaning of
@cindex GPL, real meaning of
@cindex General Public License, real meaning of
@cindex Discussion of the GPL

The real legal meaning of the GNU General Public License (copyleft) will
only be known if and when a judge rules on its validity and scope.
There has never been a copyright infringement case involving the GPL to
set any precedents.  Please take any discussion regarding this issue to
the newsgroup @uref{news:gnu.misc.discuss}, which was created to hold the
extensive flame wars on the subject.

RMS writes:

@quotation
The legal meaning of the GNU copyleft is less important than the spirit,
which is that Emacs is a free software project and that work pertaining
to Emacs should also be free software.  ``Free'' means that all users
have the freedom to study, share, change and improve Emacs.  To make
sure everyone has this freedom, pass along source code when you
distribute any version of Emacs or a related program, and give the
recipients the same freedom that you enjoyed.
@end quotation

@node Guidelines for newsgroup postings, Newsgroup archives, Real meaning of copyleft, General questions
@section  What are appropriate messages for @uref{news:gnu.emacs.help}, @uref{news:gnu.emacs.bug}, @uref{news:comp.emacs}, etc.?
@cindex Newsgroups, appropriate messages for
@cindex GNU newsgroups, appropriate messages for
@cindex Usenet groups, appropriate messages for
@cindex Mailing lists, appropriate messages for
@cindex Posting messages to newsgroups

@cindex GNU mailing lists
The file @file{etc/MAILINGLISTS} describes the purpose of each GNU
mailing list.  (@xref{Informational files for Emacs}, if you want a copy
of the file.)  For those lists which are gatewayed with newsgroups, it
lists both the newsgroup name and the mailing list address.

The newsgroup @uref{news:comp.emacs} is for discussion of Emacs programs
in general.  This includes Emacs along with various other
implementations, such as XEmacs, JOVE, MicroEmacs, Freemacs, MG,
Unipress, CCA, and Epsilon.

Many people post Emacs questions to @uref{news:comp.emacs} because they
don't receive any of the @code{gnu.*} newsgroups.  Arguments have been
made both for and against posting GNU-Emacs-specific material to
@uref{news:comp.emacs}.  You have to decide for yourself.

Messages advocating ``non-free'' software are considered unacceptable on
any of the @code{gnu.*} newsgroups except for @uref{news:gnu.misc.discuss},
which was created to hold the extensive flame-wars on the subject.
``Non-free'' software includes any software for which the end user can't
freely modify the source code and exchange enhancements.  Be careful to
remove the @code{gnu.*} groups from the @samp{Newsgroups:} line when
posting a followup that recommends such software.

@uref{news:gnu.emacs.bug} is a place where bug reports appear, but avoid
posting bug reports to this newsgroup directly (@pxref{Reporting bugs}).

@node Newsgroup archives, Reporting bugs, Guidelines for newsgroup postings, General questions
@section Where can I get old postings to @uref{news:gnu.emacs.help} and other GNU groups?
@cindex Archived postings from @code{gnu.emacs.help}
@cindex Usenet archives for GNU groups
@cindex Old Usenet postings for GNU groups

The FSF has maintained archives of all of the GNU mailing lists for many
years, although there may be some unintentional gaps in coverage.  The
archive is not particularly well organized or easy to retrieve
individual postings from, but pretty much everything is there.

The archive is at @uref{ftp://lists.gnu.org/}.

The archive can be browsed over the web at
@uref{http://lists.gnu.org/archive/html/, the GNU mail archive}.

Web-based Usenet search services, such as
@uref{http://groups.google.com/groups/dir?sel=33592484, Google}, also
archive the @code{gnu.*} groups.

You can read the archives of the @code{gnu.*} groups and post new
messages at @uref{http://gmane.org/, Gmane}.

@node Reporting bugs, Unsubscribing from Emacs lists, Newsgroup archives, General questions
@section Where should I report bugs and other problems with Emacs?
@cindex Bug reporting
@cindex Good bug reports
@cindex How to submit a bug report
@cindex Reporting bugs

The correct way to report Emacs bugs is to use the command
@kbd{M-x report-emacs-bug}.  It sets up a mail buffer with the
essential information and the correct e-mail address which is
@email{bug-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org} for the released versions of Emacs.
Anything sent to @email{bug-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org} also appears in the
newsgroup @uref{news:gnu.emacs.bug}, but please use e-mail instead of
news to submit the bug report.  This ensures a reliable return address
so you can be contacted for further details.

Be sure to read the ``Bugs'' section of the Emacs manual before reporting
a bug!  The manual describes in detail how to submit a useful bug
report (@pxref{Bugs, , Reporting Bugs, emacs, The GNU Emacs Manual}).
(@xref{On-line manual}, if you don't know how to read the manual.)

RMS says:

@quotation
Sending bug reports to @email{help-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org} (which has the
effect of posting on @uref{news:gnu.emacs.help}) is undesirable because
it takes the time of an unnecessarily large group of people, most of
whom are just users and have no idea how to fix these problem.
@email{bug-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org} reaches a much smaller group of people
who are more likely to know what to do and have expressed a wish to
receive more messages about Emacs than the others.
@end quotation

RMS says it is sometimes fine to post to @uref{news:gnu.emacs.help}:

@quotation
If you have reported a bug and you don't hear about a possible fix,
then after a suitable delay (such as a week) it is okay to post on
@code{gnu.emacs.help} asking if anyone can help you.
@end quotation

If you are unsure whether you have found a bug, consider the following
non-exhaustive list, courtesy of RMS:

@quotation
If Emacs crashes, that is a bug.  If Emacs gets compilation errors
while building, that is a bug.  If Emacs crashes while building, that
is a bug.  If Lisp code does not do what the documentation says it
does, that is a bug.
@end quotation

@node Unsubscribing from Emacs lists, Contacting the FSF, Reporting bugs, General questions
@section  How do I unsubscribe from this mailing list?
@cindex Unsubscribing from GNU mailing lists
@cindex Removing yourself from GNU mailing lists

If you are receiving a GNU mailing list named @var{list}, you might be
able to unsubscribe from it by sending a request to the address
@email{@var{list}-request@@gnu.org}.  However, this will not work if you are
not listed on the main mailing list, but instead receive the mail from a
distribution point.  In that case, you will have to track down at which
distribution point you are listed.  Inspecting the @samp{Received} headers
on the mail messages may help, along with liberal use of the @samp{EXPN} or
@samp{VRFY} sendmail commands through @samp{telnet @var{site-address}
smtp}.  Ask your postmaster for help, if you cannot figure out these
details.

@node Contacting the FSF,  , Unsubscribing from Emacs lists, General questions
@section  What is the current address of the FSF?
@cindex Snail mail address of the FSF
@cindex Postal address of the FSF
@cindex Contracting the FSF
@cindex Free Software Foundation, contacting

@table @asis

@item E-mail
gnu@@gnu.org

@item Telephone
+1-617-542-5942

@item Fax
+1-617-542-2652

@item World Wide Web
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/}

@item Postal address
Free Software Foundation@*
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor@*
Boston, MA 02110-1301@*
USA@*

@end table

@cindex Ordering GNU software
For details on how to order items directly from the FSF, see the
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html, GNU Web site}.

@c ------------------------------------------------------------
@node Getting help, Status of Emacs, General questions, Top
@chapter Getting help
@cindex Getting help

This chapter tells you how to get help with Emacs

@menu
* Basic editing::
* Learning how to do something::
* Getting a printed manual::
* Emacs Lisp documentation::
* Installing Texinfo documentation::
* Printing a Texinfo file::
* Viewing Info files outside of Emacs::
* Informational files for Emacs::
* Help installing Emacs::
* Obtaining the FAQ::
@end menu

@node Basic editing, Learning how to do something, Getting help, Getting help
@section I'm just starting Emacs; how do I do basic editing?
@cindex Basic editing with Emacs
@cindex Beginning editing
@cindex Tutorial, invoking the
@cindex Self-paced tutorial, invoking the
@cindex Help system, entering the

Type @kbd{C-h t} to invoke the self-paced tutorial.  Just typing
@kbd{C-h} enters the help system.  Starting with Emacs 22, the tutorial
is available in many foreign languages such as French, German, Japanese,
Russian, etc.  Use @kbd{M-x help-with-tutorial-spec-language @key{RET}}
to choose your language and start the tutorial.

Your system administrator may have changed @kbd{C-h} to act like
@key{DEL} to deal with local keyboards.  You can use @kbd{M-x
help-for-help} instead to invoke help.  To discover what key (if any)
invokes help on your system, type @kbd{M-x where-is @key{RET}
help-for-help @key{RET}}.  This will print a comma-separated list of key
sequences in the echo area.  Ignore the last character in each key
sequence listed.  Each of the resulting key sequences invokes help.

Emacs help works best if it is invoked by a single key whose value
should be stored in the variable @code{help-char}.

@node Learning how to do something, Getting a printed manual, Basic editing, Getting help
@section How do I find out how to do something in Emacs?
@cindex Help for Emacs
@cindex Learning to do something in Emacs
@cindex Reference card for Emacs
@cindex Overview of help systems

There are several methods for finding out how to do things in Emacs.

@itemize @bullet

@cindex Reading the Emacs manual
@item
The complete text of the Emacs manual is available on-line via the Info
hypertext reader.  Type @kbd{C-h r} to display the manual in Info mode.
Typing @key{h} immediately after entering Info will provide a short
tutorial on how to use it.

@cindex Lookup a subject in a manual
@cindex Index search in a manual
@item
To quickly locate the section of the manual which discusses a certain
issue, or describes a command or a variable, type @kbd{C-h i m emacs
@key{RET} i @var{topic} @key{RET}}, where @var{topic} is the name of the
topic, the command, or the variable which you are looking for.  If this
does not land you on the right place in the manual, press @kbd{,}
(comma) repeatedly until you find what you need.  (The @kbd{i} and
@kbd{,} keys invoke the index-searching functions, which look for the
@var{topic} you type in all the indices of the Emacs manual.)

@cindex Apropos
@item
You can list all of the commands whose names contain a certain word
(actually which match a regular expression) using @kbd{C-h a} (@kbd{M-x
command-apropos}).

@cindex Command description in the manual
@item
The command @kbd{C-h F} (@code{Info-goto-emacs-command-node}) prompts
for the name of a command, and then attempts to find the section in the
Emacs manual where that command is described.

@cindex Finding commands and variables
@item
You can list all of the functions and variables whose names contain a
certain word using @kbd{M-x apropos}.

@item
You can list all of the functions and variables whose documentation
matches a regular expression or a string, using @kbd{M-x
apropos-documentation}.

@item
You can order a hardcopy of the manual from the FSF.  @xref{Getting a
printed manual}.

@cindex Reference cards, in other languages
@item
You can get a printed reference card listing commands and keys to
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invoke them.  You can order one from the FSF for $2 (or 10 for $18),
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or you can print your own from the @file{etc/refcards/refcard.tex} or
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@file{etc/refcards/refcard.pdf} files in the Emacs distribution.
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Beginning with version 21.1, the Emacs distribution comes with
translations of the reference card into several languages; look for
files named @file{etc/refcards/@var{lang}-refcard.*}, where @var{lang}
is a two-letter code of the language.  For example, the German version
of the reference card is in the files @file{etc/refcards/de-refcard.tex}
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and @file{etc/recards/de-refcard.pdf}.
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@item
There are many other commands in Emacs for getting help and
information.  To get a list of these commands, type @samp{?} after
@kbd{C-h}.

@end itemize

@node Getting a printed manual, Emacs Lisp documentation, Learning how to do something, Getting help
@section How do I get a printed copy of the Emacs manual?
@cindex Printed Emacs manual, obtaining
@cindex Manual, obtaining a printed or HTML copy of
@cindex Emacs manual, obtaining a printed or HTML copy of

You can order a printed copy of the Emacs manual from the FSF.  For
details see the @uref{http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html, GNU Web site}.

@c The number 620 below is version-dependent!
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The full Texinfo source for the manual also comes in the @file{doc/emacs}
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directory of the Emacs distribution, if you're daring enough to try to
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print out this several-hundred-page manual yourself (@pxref{Printing a Texinfo
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file}).

If you absolutely have to print your own copy, and you don't have @TeX{},
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you can get a PostScript or PDF (or HTML) version from
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@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/manual/}

@xref{Learning how to do something}, for how to view the manual on-line.

@node Emacs Lisp documentation, Installing Texinfo documentation, Getting a printed manual, Getting help
@section Where can I get documentation on Emacs Lisp?
@cindex Documentation on Emacs Lisp
@cindex Function documentation
@cindex Variable documentation
@cindex Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
@cindex Reference manual for Emacs Lisp

Within Emacs, you can type @kbd{C-h f} to get the documentation for a
function, @kbd{C-h v} for a variable.

For more information, the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is available
on-line, in Info format.  @xref{Top, Emacs Lisp,, elisp, The
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.

You can also order a hardcopy of the manual, details on ordering it from
FSF are on the @uref{http://www.gnu.org/order/order.html, GNU Web site}.

An HTML version of the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is available at

@uref{http://www.gnu.org/software/emacs/elisp-manual/elisp.html}

@node Installing Texinfo documentation, Printing a Texinfo file, Emacs Lisp documentation, Getting help
@section How do I install a piece of Texinfo documentation?
@cindex Texinfo documentation, installing
@cindex Installing Texinfo documentation
@cindex New Texinfo files, installing
@cindex Documentation, installing new Texinfo files
@cindex Info files, how to install

First, you must turn the Texinfo files into Info files.  You may do this
using the stand-alone @file{makeinfo} program, available as part of the latest
Texinfo package at

@uref{ftp://ftp.gnu.org/pub/gnu/texinfo/texinfo-4.8.tar.gz}

and all mirrors of @samp{ftp.gnu.org} (for a list, @pxref{Current GNU
distributions}).

For information about the Texinfo format, read the Texinfo manual which
comes with the Texinfo package.  This manual also comes installed in
Info format, so you can read it on-line; type @kbd{C-h i m texinfo
@key{RET}}.

Alternatively, you could use the Emacs command @kbd{M-x
texinfo-format-buffer}, after visiting the Texinfo source file of the
manual you want to convert.

Neither @code{texinfo-format-buffer} nor @file{makeinfo} installs the
resulting Info files in Emacs's Info tree.  To install Info files,
perform these steps:

@enumerate
@item
Move the files to the @file{info} directory in the installed Emacs
distribution.  @xref{File-name conventions}, if you don't know where that
is.

@item
Run the @code{install-info} command, which is part of the Texinfo
distribution, to update the main Info directory menu, like this:

@example
 install-info --info-dir=@var{dir-path} @var{dir-path}/@var{file}
@end example

@noindent
where @var{dir-path} is the full path to the directory where you copied
the produced Info file(s), and @var{file} is the name of the Info file
you produced and want to install.

If you don't have the @code{install-info} command installed, you can
edit the file @file{info/dir} in the installed Emacs distribution, and
add a line for the top level node in the Info package that you are
installing.  Follow the examples already in this file.  The format is:

@example
* Topic: (relative-pathname).  Short description of topic.
@end example

@end enumerate

If you want to install Info files and you don't have the necessary
privileges, you have several options:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Info files don't actually need to be installed before being used.
You can use a prefix argument for the @code{info} command and specify
the name of the Info file in the minibuffer.  This goes to the node
named @samp{Top} in that file.  For example, to view a Info file named
@file{@var{info-file}} in your home directory, you can type this:

@example
@kbd{C-u C-h i ~/@var{info-file} @key{RET}}
@end example

Alternatively, you can feed a file name to the @code{Info-goto-node}
command (invoked by pressing @key{g} in Info mode) by typing the name
of the file in parentheses, like this:

@example
@kbd{C-h i g (~/@var{info-file}) @key{RET}}
@end example

@item
You can create your own Info directory.  You can tell Emacs where that
Info directory is by adding its pathname to the value of the variable
@code{Info-default-directory-list}.  For example, to use a private Info
directory which is a subdirectory of your home directory named @file{Info},
you could put this in your @file{.emacs} file:

@lisp
(setq Info-default-directory-list
      (cons "~/Info" Info-default-directory-list))
@end lisp

You will need a top-level Info file named @file{dir} in this directory
which has everything the system @file{dir} file has in it, except it should
list only entries for Info files in that directory.  You might not need
it if all files in this directory were referenced by other @file{dir}
files.  The node lists from all @file{dir} files in
@code{Info-default-directory-list} are merged by the Info system.

@end itemize

@node Printing a Texinfo file, Viewing Info files outside of Emacs, Installing Texinfo documentation, Getting help
@section How do I print a Texinfo file?
@cindex Printing a Texinfo file
@cindex Texinfo file, printing
@cindex Printing documentation

You can't get nicely printed output from Info files; you must still have
the original Texinfo source file for the manual you want to print.

Assuming you have @TeX{} installed on your system, follow these steps:

@enumerate

@item
Make sure the first line of the Texinfo file looks like this:

@example
\input texinfo
@end example

You may need to change @samp{texinfo} to the full pathname of the
@file{texinfo.tex} file, which comes with Emacs as
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@file{doc/misc/texinfo.tex} (or copy or link it into the current directory).
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@item
Type @kbd{texi2dvi @var{texinfo-source}}, where @var{texinfo-source} is
the name of the Texinfo source file for which you want to produce a
printed copy.

The @samp{texi2dvi} script is part of the GNU Texinfo distribution
(@pxref{Installing Texinfo documentation}).

@item
Print the DVI file @file{@var{texinfo-source}.dvi} in the normal way for
printing DVI files at your site.  For example, if you have a PostScript
printer, run the @code{dvips} program to print the DVI file on that
printer.

@end enumerate

To get more general instructions, retrieve the latest Texinfo package
(@pxref{Installing Texinfo documentation}).

@node Viewing Info files outside of Emacs, Informational files for Emacs, Printing a Texinfo file, Getting help
@section Can I view Info files without using Emacs?
@cindex Viewing Info files
@cindex Info file viewers
@cindex Alternative Info file viewers

Yes.  Here are some alternative programs:

@itemize @bullet

@item
@code{info}, a stand-alone version of the Info program, comes as part of
the Texinfo package.  @xref{Installing Texinfo documentation}, for
details.

@item
Tkinfo, an Info viewer that runs under X Window system and uses Tcl/Tk.
You can get Tkinfo at
@uref{http://math-www.uni-paderborn.de/~axel/tkinfo/}.

@end itemize

@node Informational files for Emacs, Help installing Emacs, Viewing Info files outside of Emacs, Getting help
@section What informational files are available for Emacs?
@cindex Informational files included with Emacs
@cindex Files included with Emacs
@cindex @file{COPYING}, description of file
@cindex @file{DISTRIB}, description of file
@cindex @file{FTP}, description of file
@cindex @file{GNU}, description of file
@cindex @file{INTERVIEW}, description of file
@cindex @file{MACHINES}, description of file
@cindex @file{MAILINGLISTS}, description of file
@cindex @file{NEWS}, description of file
@cindex @file{SERVICE}, description of file

This isn't a frequently asked question, but it should be!  A variety of
informational files about Emacs and relevant aspects of the GNU project
are available for you to read.

The following files are available in the @file{etc} directory of the
Emacs distribution (see @ref{File-name conventions}, if you're not sure
where that is).

@table @file

@item COPYING
GNU General Public License

@item DISTRIB
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Emacs Availability Information
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@item FTP
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How to get GNU Software by Internet FTP
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@item GNU
The GNU Manifesto

@item INTERVIEW
Richard Stallman discusses his public-domain UNIX-compatible software
system with BYTE editors

@item MACHINES
Status of Emacs on Various Machines and Systems

@item MAILINGLISTS
GNU Project Electronic Mailing Lists

@item NEWS
Emacs news, a history of recent user-visible changes

@item SERVICE
GNU Service Directory

@end table

More GNU information, including back issues of the @cite{GNU's
Bulletin}, are at

@uref{http://www.gnu.org/bulletins/bulletins.html} and

@uref{http://www.cs.pdx.edu/~trent/gnu/gnu.html}

@node Help installing Emacs, Obtaining the FAQ, Informational files for Emacs, Getting help
@section Where can I get help in installing Emacs?
@cindex Installation help
@cindex Help installing Emacs

@xref{Installing Emacs}, for some basic installation hints, and see
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@ref{Problems building Emacs}, if you have problems with the installation.
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The web-page @uref{http://www.fsf.org/resources/service/} lists
companies and individuals willing to sell you help in installing or
using Emacs.
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@node Obtaining the FAQ,  , Help installing Emacs, Getting help
@section Where can I get the latest version of this FAQ?
@cindex FAQ, obtaining the
@cindex Latest FAQ version, obtaining the

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The Emacs FAQ is distributed with Emacs in Info format.  You can read it
by selecting the @samp{Emacs FAQ} option from the @samp{Help} menu of
the Emacs menu bar at the top of any Emacs frame, or by typing @kbd{C-h
C-f} (@kbd{M-x view-emacs-FAQ}).
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@c ------------------------------------------------------------
@node    Status of Emacs, Common requests, Getting help, Top
@chapter Status of Emacs
@cindex Status of Emacs

This chapter gives you basic information about Emacs, including its
latest version status.

@menu
* Origin of the term Emacs::
* Latest version of Emacs::
* New in Emacs 20::
* New in Emacs 21::
* New in Emacs 22::
@end menu

@node Origin of the term Emacs, Latest version of Emacs, Status of Emacs, Status of Emacs
@section Where does the name ``Emacs'' come from?
@cindex Origin of the term ``Emacs''
@cindex Emacs name origin
@cindex TECO
@cindex Original version of Emacs

Emacs originally was an acronym for Editor MACroS.  RMS says he ``picked
the name Emacs because @key{E} was not in use as an abbreviation on ITS at
the time.''  The first Emacs was a set of macros written in 1976 at MIT
by RMS for the editor TECO (Text Editor and COrrector, originally Tape
Editor and COrrector) under ITS on a PDP-10.  RMS had already extended
TECO with a ``real-time'' full-screen mode with reprogrammable keys.
Emacs was started by @email{gls@@east.sun.com, Guy Steele} as a project
to unify the many divergent TECO command sets and key bindings at MIT,
and completed by RMS.

Many people have said that TECO code looks a lot like line noise; you
can read more at @uref{news:alt.lang.teco}.  Someone has written a TECO
implementation in Emacs Lisp (to find it, see @ref{Packages that do not
come with Emacs}); it would be an interesting project to run the
original TECO Emacs inside of Emacs.

@cindex Why Emacs?
For some not-so-serious alternative reasons for Emacs to have that
name, check out the file @file{etc/JOKES} (@pxref{File-name
conventions}).

@node Latest version of Emacs, New in Emacs 20, Origin of the term Emacs, Status of Emacs
@section What is the latest version of Emacs?
@cindex Version, latest
@cindex Latest version of Emacs

Emacs @value{VER} is the current version as of this writing.

@node New in Emacs 20, New in Emacs 21, Latest version of Emacs, Status of Emacs
@section What is different about Emacs 20?
@cindex Differences between Emacs 19 and Emacs 20
@cindex Emacs 20, new features in

To find out what has changed in recent versions, type @kbd{C-h C-n}
(@kbd{M-x view-emacs-news}).  The oldest changes are at the bottom of
the file, so you might want to read it starting there, rather than at
the top.

The differences between Emacs versions 18 and 19 was rather dramatic;
the introduction of frames, faces, and colors on windowing systems was
obvious to even the most casual user.

There are differences between Emacs versions 19 and 20 as well, but many
are more subtle or harder to find.  Among the changes are the inclusion
of MULE code for languages that use non-Latin characters and for mixing
several languages in the same document; the ``Customize'' facility for
modifying variables without having to use Lisp; and automatic conversion
of files from Macintosh, Microsoft, and Unix platforms.

A number of older Lisp packages, such as Gnus, Supercite and the
calendar/diary, have been updated and enhanced to work with Emacs 20,
and are now included with the standard distribution.


@node New in Emacs 21, New in Emacs 22, New in Emacs 20, Status of Emacs
@section What is different about Emacs 21?
@cindex Differences between Emacs 20 and Emacs 21
@cindex Emacs 21, new features in
@cindex Recently introduced features

@cindex Variable-size fonts
@cindex Toolbar support
Emacs 21 features a thorough rewrite of the display engine.  The new
display engine supports variable-size fonts, images, and can play sounds
on platforms which support that.  As a result, the visual appearance of
Emacs, when it runs on a windowed display, is much more reminiscent of
modern GUI programs, and includes 3D widgets (used for the mode line and
the scroll bars), a configurable and extensible toolbar, tooltips
(a.k.a.@: balloon help), and other niceties.

@cindex Colors on text-only terminals
@cindex TTY colors
In addition, Emacs 21 supports faces on text-only terminals.  This means
that you can now have colors when you run Emacs on a GNU/Linux console
and on @code{xterm} with @kbd{emacs -nw}.

@node New in Emacs 22,  , New in Emacs 21, Status of Emacs
@section What is different about Emacs 22?
@cindex Differences between Emacs 21 and Emacs 22
@cindex Emacs 22, new features in
@cindex Recently introduced features
@cindex Default features

@itemize
@cindex GTK+ Toolkit
@cindex Drag-and-drop
@item
Emacs can be built with GTK+ widgets, and supports drag-and-drop
operation on X.

@cindex Supported systems
@item
Emacs 22 features support for GNU/Linux systems on S390 and x86-64
machines, as well as support for the Mac OS X and Cygwin operating
systems.

@item
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The native MS-Windows, and Mac OS X builds include full support
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for images, toolbar, and tooltips.

@item
Font Lock mode, Auto Compression mode, and File Name Shadow Mode are
enabled by default.

@item
The maximum size of buffers has been doubled and is 256M on 32-bit
machines.

@item
Links can be followed with @kbd{mouse-1}, in addition to @kbd{mouse-2}.

@cindex Mouse wheel
@item
Mouse wheel support is enabled by default.

@item
Window fringes are customizable.

@item
The mode line of the selected window is now highlighted.

@item
The minibuffer prompt is displayed in a distinct face.

@item
Abbrev definitions are read automatically at startup.

@item
Grep mode is separate from Compilation mode and has many new options and
commands specific to grep.

@item
The original Emacs macro system has been replaced by the new Kmacro
package, which provides many new commands and features and a simple
interface that uses the function keys F3 and F4.  Macros are stored in a
macro ring, and can be debugged and edited interactively.

@item
The Grand Unified Debugger (GUD) can be used with a full graphical user
interface to GDB; this provides many features found in traditional
development environments, making it easy to manipulate breakpoints, add
watch points, display the call stack, etc.  Breakpoints are visually
indicated in the source buffer.

@item
@cindex New modes
Many new modes and packages have been included in Emacs, such as Calc,
TRAMP, URL, IDO, CUA, ERC, rcirc, Table, Image-Dired, SES, Ruler, Org,
PGG, Flymake, Password, Printing, Reveal, wdired, t-mouse, longlines,
savehist, Conf mode, Python mode, DNS mode, etc.

@cindex Multilingual Environment
@item
Leim is now part of Emacs.  Unicode support has been much improved, and
the following input methods have been added: belarusian, bulgarian-bds,
bulgarian-phonetic, chinese-sisheng, croatian, dutch, georgian,
latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix, latvian-keyboard,
lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard, malayalam-inscript, rfc1345,
russian-computer, sgml, slovenian, tamil-inscript, ucs,
ukrainian-computer, vietnamese-telex, and welsh.

The following language environments have also been added: Belarusian,
Bulgarian, Chinese-EUC-TW, Croatian, French, Georgian, Italian, Latin-6,
Latin-7, Latvian, Lithuanian, Malayalam, Russian, Slovenian, Swedish,
Tajik, Tamil, UTF-8, Ukrainian, Welsh, and Windows-1255.

@cindex Documentation
@cindex Emacs Lisp Manual
@item
In addition, Emacs 22 now includes the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual
(@pxref{Emacs Lisp documentation}) and the Emacs Lisp Intro.
@end itemize

Many other changes have been made in Emacs 22, use @kbd{C-h n} to get a
full list.

@c ------------------------------------------------------------
@node    Common requests, Bugs and problems, Status of Emacs, Top
@chapter Common requests
@cindex Common requests

@menu
* Setting up a customization file::
* Using Customize::
* Colors on a TTY::
* Debugging a customization file::
* Displaying the current line or column::
* Displaying the current file name in the titlebar::
* Turning on abbrevs by default::
* Associating modes with files::
* Highlighting a region::
* Replacing highlighted text::
* Controlling case sensitivity::
* Working with unprintable characters::
* Searching for/replacing newlines::
* Yanking text in isearch::
* Wrapping words automatically::
* Turning on auto-fill by default::
* Spell-checkers::
* Checking TeX and *roff documents::
* Changing load-path::
* Using an already running Emacs process::
* Compiler error messages::
* Indenting switch statements::
* Customizing C and C++ indentation::
* Horizontal scrolling::
* Overwrite mode::
* Turning off beeping::
* Turning the volume down::
* Automatic indentation::
* Matching parentheses::
* Hiding #ifdef lines::
* Repeating commands::
* Valid X resources::
* Evaluating Emacs Lisp code::
* Changing the length of a Tab::
* Inserting text at the beginning of each line::
* Underlining paragraphs::
* Forcing the cursor to remain in the same column::
* Forcing Emacs to iconify itself::
* Using regular expressions::
* Replacing text across multiple files::
* Documentation for etags::
* Disabling backups::
* Disabling auto-save-mode::
* Going to a line by number::
* Modifying pull-down menus::
* Deleting menus and menu options::
* Turning on syntax highlighting::
* Scrolling only one line::
* Editing MS-DOS files::
* Filling paragraphs with a single space::
* Escape sequences in shell output::
* Fullscreen mode on MS-Windows::
@end menu

@node Setting up a customization file, Using Customize, Common requests, Common requests
@section How do I set up a @file{.emacs} file properly?
@cindex @file{.emacs} file, setting up
@cindex @file{.emacs} file, locating
@cindex Init file, setting up
@cindex Customization file, setting up

@inforef{Init File, Init File, emacs}.

In general, new Emacs users should not have @file{.emacs} files, because
it causes confusing non-standard behavior.  Then they send questions to
@email{help-gnu-emacs@@gnu.org} asking why Emacs isn't behaving as
documented.

Beginning with version 20.1, Emacs includes the new Customize facility
(@pxref{Using Customize}).  This allows users who are unfamiliar with
Emacs Lisp to modify their @file{.emacs} files in a relatively
straightforward way, using menus rather than Lisp code.  Most packages
support Customize as of this writing.

While Customize might indeed make it easier to configure Emacs,
consider taking a bit of time to learn Emacs Lisp and modifying your
@file{.emacs} directly.  Simple configuration options are described
rather completely in @inforef{Init File, Init File, emacs}, for users
interested in performing frequently requested, basic tasks.

Sometimes users are unsure as to where their @file{.emacs} file should
be found.  Visiting the file as @file{~/.emacs} from Emacs will find
the correct file.

@node Using Customize, Colors on a TTY, Setting up a customization file, Common requests
@section How do I start using Customize?
@cindex Customize groups
@cindex Customizing variables
@cindex Customizing faces

The main Customize entry point is @kbd{M-x customize @key{RET}}.  This
command takes you to a buffer listing all the available Customize
groups.  From there, you can access all customizable options and faces,
change their values, and save your changes to your init file.
@inforef{Easy Customization, Easy Customization, emacs}.

If you know the name of the group in advance (e.g. ``shell''), use
@kbd{M-x customize-group @key{RET}}.

If you wish to customize a single option, use @kbd{M-x customize-option
@key{RET}}.  This command prompts you for the name of the option to
customize, with completion.

@node Colors on a TTY, Debugging a customization file, Using Customize, Common requests
@section How do I get colors and syntax highlighting on a TTY?
@cindex Colors on a TTY
@cindex Syntax highlighting on a TTY
@cindex Console, colors

In Emacs 21.1 and later, colors and faces are supported in non-windowed mode,
i.e.@: on Unix and GNU/Linux text-only terminals and consoles, and when
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invoked as @samp{emacs -nw} on X, and MS-Windows.  (Colors and faces were
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supported in the MS-DOS port since Emacs 19.29.)  Emacs automatically
detects color support at startup and uses it if available.  If you think
that your terminal supports colors, but Emacs won't use them, check the
@code{termcap} entry for your display type for color-related
capabilities.

The command @kbd{M-x list-colors-display} pops up a window which
exhibits all the colors Emacs knows about on the current display.

Syntax highlighting is on by default since version 22.1.

@node Debugging a customization file, Displaying the current line or column, Colors on a TTY, Common requests
@section How do I debug a @file{.emacs} file?
@cindex Debugging @file{.emacs} file
@cindex @file{.emacs} debugging
@cindex Init file debugging
@cindex @samp{-debug-init} option

Start Emacs with the @samp{-debug-init} command-line option.  This
enables the Emacs Lisp debugger before evaluating your @file{.emacs}
file, and places you in the debugger if something goes wrong.  The top
line in the @file{trace-back} buffer will be the error message, and the
second or third line of that buffer will display the Lisp code from your
@file{.emacs} file that caused the problem.

You can also evaluate an individual function or argument to a function
in your @file{.emacs} file by moving the cursor to the end of the
function or argument and typing @kbd{C-x C-e} (@kbd{M-x
eval-last-sexp}).

Use @kbd{C-h v} (@kbd{M-x describe-variable}) to check the value of
variables which you are trying to set or use.

@node Displaying the current line or column, Displaying the current file name in the titlebar, Debugging a customization file, Common requests
@section How do I make Emacs display the current line (or column) number?
@cindex @code{line-number-mode}
@cindex Displaying the current line or column
@cindex Line number, displaying the current
@cindex Column, displaying the current
@cindex @code{mode-line-format}

To have Emacs automatically display the current line number of the point
in the mode line, do @kbd{M-x line-number-mode}.  You can also put the
form

@lisp
(setq line-number-mode t)
@end lisp

@noindent
in your @file{.emacs} file to achieve this whenever you start Emacs.
(Line number display is on by default, unless your site-specific
initialization disables it.) Note that Emacs will not display the line
number if the buffer's size in bytes is larger than the value of the
variable @code{line-number-display-limit}.

You can similarly display the current column with
@kbd{M-x column-number-mode}, or by putting the form

@lisp
(setq column-number-mode t)
@end lisp

@noindent
in your @file{.emacs} file.

The @code{"%c"} format specifier in the variable @code{mode-line-format}
will insert the current column's value into the mode line.  See the
documentation for @code{mode-line-format} (using @kbd{C-h v
mode-line-format @key{RET}}) for more information on how to set and use
this variable.

Users of all Emacs versions can display the current column using the
@samp{column} package written by @email{abraham@@dina.kvl.dk, Per
Abrahamsen}.  @xref{Packages that do not come with Emacs}, for
instructions on how to get it.

@cindex Set number capability in @code{vi} emulators
None of the @code{vi} emulation modes provide the ``set number''
capability of @code{vi} (as far as we know).  The @samp{setnu} package
written by @email{kyle@@wonderworks.com, Kyle Jones} provides this
feature.  So too does @samp{wb-line-number}, written by
@email{naoki.y.nakamura@@nifty.com, Naoki Nakamura}.

@node Displaying the current file name in the titlebar, Turning on abbrevs by default, Displaying the current line or column, Common requests
@section How can I modify the titlebar to contain the current file name?
@cindex Titlebar, displaying the current file name in
@cindex File name, displaying in the titlebar
@cindex @code{frame-title-format}

The contents of an Emacs frame's titlebar is controlled by the variable
@code{frame-title-format}, which has the same structure as the variable
@code{mode-line-format}.  (Use @kbd{C-h v} or @kbd{M-x
describe-variable} to get information about one or both of these
variables.)

By default, the titlebar for a frame does contain the name of the buffer
currently being visited, except if there is a single frame.  In such a
case, the titlebar contains Emacs invocation name and the name of the
machine at which Emacs was invoked.  This is done by setting
@code{frame-title-format} to the default value of

@lisp
(multiple-frames "%b" ("" invocation-name "@@" system-name))
@end lisp

To modify the behavior such that frame titlebars contain the buffer's
name regardless of the number of existing frames, include the following
in your @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
(setq frame-title-format "%b")
@end lisp

@node Turning on abbrevs by default, Associating modes with files, Displaying the current file name in the titlebar, Common requests
@section How do I turn on abbrevs by default just in mode @var{mymode}?
@cindex Abbrevs, turning on by default

Put this in your @file{.emacs} file:

@lisp
(condition-case ()
   (quietly-read-abbrev-file)
  (file-error nil))

(add-hook '@var{mymode}-mode-hook
          (lambda ()
           (setq abbrev-mode t)))
@end lisp

Starting with Emacs 22, the standard abbrevs file is read automatically
at startup, so the first of these two forms becomes unnecessary.

@node Associating modes with files, Highlighting a region, Turning on abbrevs by default, Common requests
@section How do I make Emacs use a certain major mode for certain files?
@cindex Associating modes with files
@cindex File extensions and modes
@cindex @code{auto-mode-alist}, modifying
@cindex Modes, associating with file extensions

If you want to use a certain mode @var{foo} for all files whose names end
with the extension @file{.@var{bar}}, this will do it for you:

@lisp
(setq auto-mode-alist (cons '("\\.@var{bar}\\'" . @var{foo}-mode) auto-mode-alist))
@end lisp

Otherwise put this somewhere in the first line of any file you want to
edit in the mode @var{foo} (in the second line, if the first line begins
with @samp{#!}):

@example
-*- @var{foo} -*-
@end example

@cindex Major mode for shell scripts
Beginning with Emacs 19, the variable @code{interpreter-mode-alist}
specifies which mode to use when loading a shell script.  (Emacs
determines which interpreter you're using by examining the first line of
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the script.)  Use @kbd{C-h v} (or @kbd{M-x describe-variable})
on @code{interpreter-mode-alist} to learn more.
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