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\input texinfo  @c -*- coding: iso-latin-1 -*-
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@setfilename ../../info/emacs
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@settitle GNU Emacs Manual

@c The edition number appears in several places in this file
@set EDITION   Sixteenth
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@include emacsver.texi
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@copying
This is the @value{EDITION} edition of the @cite{GNU Emacs Manual},@*
updated for Emacs version @value{EMACSVER}.

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Copyright @copyright{} 1985-1987, 1993-2011  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
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under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
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any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with the
Invariant Sections being ``The GNU Manifesto,'' ``Distribution'' and
``GNU GENERAL PUBLIC LICENSE,'' with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU
Manual,'' and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License.''

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(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
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developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
@end quotation
@end copying

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@documentencoding ISO-8859-1
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@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
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* Emacs: (emacs).       The extensible self-documenting text editor.
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@end direntry

@c in general, keep the following line commented out, unless doing a
@c copy of this manual that will be published.  The manual should go
@c onto the distribution in the full, 8.5 x 11" size.
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@c @smallbook
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@ifset smallbook
@smallbook
@end ifset

@c per rms and peterb, use 10pt fonts for the main text, mostly to
@c save on paper cost.
@c Do this inside @tex for now, so current makeinfo does not complain.
@tex
@ifset smallbook
@fonttextsize 10
\global\let\urlcolor=\Black % don't print links in grayscale
\global\let\linkcolor=\Black
@end ifset
\global\hbadness=6666 % don't worry about not-too-underfull boxes
@end tex

@defcodeindex op
@synindex pg cp

@iftex
@kbdinputstyle code

@shorttitlepage GNU Emacs Manual
@end iftex

@titlepage
@sp 6
@center @titlefont{GNU Emacs Manual}
@sp 4
@center @value{EDITION} Edition, Updated for Emacs Version @value{EMACSVER}.
@sp 5
@center Richard Stallman
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying

@sp 2
Published by the Free Software Foundation @*
51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor @*
Boston, MA 02110-1301 USA @*
ISBN 1-882114-86-8

@sp 2
Cover art by Etienne Suvasa.

@end titlepage


@summarycontents
@contents


@ifnottex
@node Top, Distrib, (dir), (dir)
@top The Emacs Editor

Emacs is the extensible, customizable, self-documenting real-time
display editor.  This Info file describes how to edit with Emacs and
some of how to customize it; it corresponds to GNU Emacs version
@value{EMACSVER}.

@ifinfo
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To learn more about the Info documentation system, type @kbd{h},
to visit a programmed instruction sequence for the Info commands.
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@end ifinfo

For information on extending Emacs, see @ref{Top, Emacs Lisp,, elisp, The
Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}.
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@insertcopying
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@end ifnottex

@ignore
These subcategories have been deleted for simplicity
and to avoid conflicts.
Completion
Backup Files
Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters
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Tags
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Text Mode
Outline Mode
@TeX{} Mode
Formatted Text
Shell Command History

The ones for Dired and Rmail have had the items turned into :: items
to avoid conflicts.
Also Running Shell Commands from Emacs
and Sending Mail and Registers and Minibuffer.
@end ignore

@menu
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* Distrib::             How to get the latest Emacs distribution.
* Intro::               An introduction to Emacs concepts.
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@c Note that in the printed manual, the glossary and indices come last.
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* Glossary::            Terms used in this manual.
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Indexes (each index contains a large menu)
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* Key Index::           An item for each standard Emacs key sequence.
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* Option Index::        An item for every command-line option.
* Command Index::       An item for each command name.
* Variable Index::      An item for each documented variable.
* Concept Index::       An item for each concept.

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* Acknowledgments::     Major contributors to GNU Emacs.

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Important General Concepts
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* Screen::              How to interpret what you see on the screen.
* User Input::          Kinds of input events (characters, buttons,
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                          function keys).
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* Keys::                Key sequences: what you type to request one
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                          editing action.
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* Commands::            Named functions run by key sequences to do editing.
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* Entering Emacs::      Starting Emacs from the shell.
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* Exiting::             Stopping or killing Emacs.
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Fundamental Editing Commands
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* Basic::               The most basic editing commands.
* Minibuffer::          Entering arguments that are prompted for.
* M-x::                 Invoking commands by their names.
* Help::                Commands for asking Emacs about its commands.
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Important Text-Changing Commands
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* Mark::                The mark: how to delimit a ``region'' of text.
* Killing::             Killing (cutting) text.
* Yanking::             Recovering killed text.  Moving text. (Pasting.)
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* Accumulating Text::   Other ways of copying text.
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* Rectangles::          Operating on text in rectangular areas.
* CUA Bindings::        Using @kbd{C-x}, @kbd{C-c}, @kbd{C-v} to kill and yank.
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* Registers::           Saving a text string or a location in the buffer.
* Display::             Controlling what text is displayed.
* Search::              Finding or replacing occurrences of a string.
* Fixit::               Commands especially useful for fixing typos.
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* Keyboard Macros::     Recording a sequence of keystrokes to be replayed.
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Major Structures of Emacs
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* Files::               All about handling files.
* Buffers::             Multiple buffers; editing several files at once.
* Windows::             Viewing two pieces of text at once.
* Frames::              Running the same Emacs session in multiple X windows.
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* International::       Using non-@acronym{ASCII} character sets.
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Advanced Features
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* Major Modes::         Text mode vs. Lisp mode vs. C mode...
* Indentation::         Editing the white space at the beginnings of lines.
* Text::                Commands and modes for editing English.
* Programs::            Commands and modes for editing programs.
* Building::            Compiling, running and debugging programs.
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* Maintaining::         Features for maintaining large programs.
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* Abbrevs::             Defining text abbreviations to reduce
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                          the number of characters you must type.
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@c AFAICS, the tex stuff generates its own index and does not use this one.
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@ifnottex
* Picture Mode::        Editing pictures made up of characters using
                          the quarter-plane screen model.
@end ifnottex
* Sending Mail::        Sending mail in Emacs.
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* Rmail::               Reading mail in Emacs.
* Dired::               You can ``edit'' a directory to manage files in it.
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* Calendar/Diary::      The calendar and diary facilities.
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* Document View::       Viewing PDF, PS and DVI files.
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* Gnus::                A flexible mail and news reader.
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* Shell::               Executing shell commands from Emacs.
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* Emacs Server::        Using Emacs as an editing server.
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* Printing::            Printing hardcopies of buffers or regions.
* Sorting::             Sorting lines, paragraphs or pages within Emacs.
* Narrowing::           Restricting display and editing to a portion
                          of the buffer.
* Two-Column::          Splitting apart columns to edit them
                          in side-by-side windows.
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* Editing Binary Files::Using Hexl mode to edit binary files.
* Saving Emacs Sessions:: Saving Emacs state from one session to the next.
* Recursive Edit::      A command can allow you to do editing
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                          "within the command".  This is called a
                          "recursive editing level".
* Emulation::           Emulating some other editors with Emacs.
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* Hyperlinking::        Following links in buffers.
* Dissociated Press::   Dissociating text for fun.
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* Amusements::          Various games and hacks.
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* Customization::       Modifying the behavior of Emacs.

Recovery from Problems
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* Quitting::            Quitting and aborting.
* Lossage::             What to do if Emacs is hung or malfunctioning.
* Bugs::                How and when to report a bug.
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* Contributing::        How to contribute improvements to Emacs.
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* Service::             How to get help for your own Emacs needs.
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Appendices
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* Copying::             The GNU General Public License gives you permission
                          to redistribute GNU Emacs on certain terms;
                          it also explains that there is no warranty.
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* GNU Free Documentation License:: The license for this documentation.
* Emacs Invocation::    Hairy startup options.
* X Resources::         X resources for customizing Emacs.
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* Antinews::            Information about Emacs version 22.
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* Mac OS / GNUstep::    Using Emacs under Mac OS and GNUstep.
* Microsoft Windows::   Using Emacs on Microsoft Windows and MS-DOS.
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* Manifesto::           What's GNU?  Gnu's Not Unix!
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@c Do NOT modify the following 3 lines!  They must have this form to
@c be correctly identified by `texinfo-multiple-files-update'.  In
@c particular, the detailed menu header line MUST be identical to the
@c value of `texinfo-master-menu-header'.  See texnfo-upd.el.

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---
 ---------------------------------

Here are some other nodes which are really inferiors of the ones
already listed, mentioned here so you can get to them in one step:

The Organization of the Screen

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* Point::               The place in the text where editing commands operate.
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* Echo Area::           Short messages appear at the bottom of the screen.
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* Mode Line::           Interpreting the mode line.
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* Menu Bar::            How to use the menu bar.

Basic Editing Commands

* Inserting Text::      Inserting text by simply typing it.
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* Moving Point::        Moving the cursor to the place where you want to
                        change something.
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* Erasing::             Deleting and killing text.
* Basic Undo::          Undoing recent changes in the text.
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* Basic Files::         Visiting, creating, and saving files.
* Basic Help::          Asking what a character does.
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* Blank Lines::         Making and deleting blank lines.
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* Continuation Lines::  How Emacs displays lines too wide for the screen.
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* Position Info::       What page, line, row, or column is point on?
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* Arguments::           Numeric arguments for repeating a command N times.
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* Repeating::           Repeating the previous command quickly.
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The Minibuffer

* Minibuffer File::     Entering file names with the minibuffer.
* Minibuffer Edit::     How to edit in the minibuffer.
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* Completion::          An abbreviation facility for minibuffer input.
* Minibuffer History::  Reusing recent minibuffer arguments.
* Repetition::          Re-executing commands that used the minibuffer.
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* Passwords::           Entering passwords in the echo area.
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Completion

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* Completion Example::  Examples of using completion.
* Completion Commands:: A list of completion commands.
* Strict Completion::   Different types of completion.
* Completion Options::  Options for completion.
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Help

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* Help Summary::        Brief list of all Help commands.
* Key Help::            Asking what a key does in Emacs.
* Name Help::           Asking about a command, variable or function name.
* Apropos::             Asking what pertains to a given topic.
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* Help Mode::           Special features of Help mode and Help buffers.
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* Library Keywords::    Finding Lisp libraries by keywords (topics).
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* Language Help::       Help relating to international language support.
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* Misc Help::           Other help commands.
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* Help Files::          Commands to display pre-written help files.
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* Help Echo::           Help on active text and tooltips (`balloon help').
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The Mark and the Region

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* Setting Mark::        Commands to set the mark.
* Marking Objects::     Commands to put region around textual units.
* Using Region::        Summary of ways to operate on contents of the region.
* Mark Ring::           Previous mark positions saved so you can go back there.
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* Global Mark Ring::    Previous mark positions in various buffers.
* Shift Selection::     Using shifted cursor motion keys.
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* Persistent Mark::     Keeping the mark active all the time.
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Killing and Moving Text

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* Deletion::            Commands for deleting small amounts of text and
                          blank areas.
* Killing by Lines::    How to kill entire lines of text at one time.
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* Other Kill Commands:: Commands to kill large regions of text and
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                          syntactic units such as words and sentences.
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* Kill Options::        Options that affect killing.
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Yanking

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* Kill Ring::           Where killed text is stored.  Basic yanking.
* Appending Kills::     Several kills in a row all yank together.
* Earlier Kills::       Yanking something killed some time ago.
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Registers

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* RegPos::              Saving positions in registers.
* RegText::             Saving text in registers.
* RegRect::             Saving rectangles in registers.
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* RegConfig::           Saving window configurations in registers.
* RegNumbers::          Numbers in registers.
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* RegFiles::            File names in registers.
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* Bookmarks::           Bookmarks are like registers, but persistent.

Controlling the Display

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* Scrolling::              Commands to move text up and down in a window.
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* Auto Scrolling::         Redisplay scrolls text automatically when needed.
* Horizontal Scrolling::   Moving text left and right in a window.
* Follow Mode::            Follow mode lets two windows scroll as one.
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* Faces::                  How to change the display style using faces.
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* Standard Faces::         Emacs' predefined faces.
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* Temporary Face Changes:: Commands to temporarily modify the default text face
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* Font Lock::              Minor mode for syntactic highlighting using faces.
* Highlight Interactively:: Tell Emacs what text to highlight.
* Fringes::                Enabling or disabling window fringes.
* Displaying Boundaries::  Displaying top and bottom of the buffer.
* Useless Whitespace::     Showing possibly-spurious trailing whitespace.
* Selective Display::      Hiding lines with lots of indentation.
* Optional Mode Line::     Optional mode line display features.
* Text Display::           How text characters are normally displayed.
* Cursor Display::         Features for displaying the cursor.
* Line Truncation::        Truncating lines to fit the screen width instead
                             of continuing them to multiple screen lines.
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* Visual Line Mode::       Word wrap and screen line-based editing.
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* Display Custom::         Information on variables for customizing display.

Searching and Replacement

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* Incremental Search::     Search happens as you type the string.
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* Nonincremental Search::  Specify entire string and then search.
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* Word Search::            Search for sequence of words.
* Regexp Search::          Search for match for a regexp.
* Regexps::                Syntax of regular expressions.
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* Regexp Backslash::       Regular expression constructs starting with `\'.
* Regexp Example::         A complex regular expression explained.
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* Search Case::            To ignore case while searching, or not.
* Replace::                Search, and replace some or all matches.
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* Other Repeating Search:: Operating on all matches for some regexp.

Incremental Search

* Basic Isearch::       Basic incremental search commands.
* Repeat Isearch::      Searching for the same string again.
* Error in Isearch::    When your string is not found.
* Special Isearch::     Special input in incremental search.
* Isearch Yank::        Commands that grab text into the search string
                          or else edit the search string.
* Isearch Scroll::      Scrolling during an incremental search.
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* Isearch Minibuffer::  Incremental search of the minibuffer history.
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* Slow Isearch::        Incremental search features for slow terminals.

Replacement Commands

* Unconditional Replace::  Replacing all matches for a string.
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* Regexp Replace::         Replacing all matches for a regexp.
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* Replacement and Case::   How replacements preserve case of letters.
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* Query Replace::          How to use querying.
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Commands for Fixing Typos

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* Undo::                The Undo commands.
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* Transpose::           Exchanging two characters, words, lines, lists...
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* Fixing Case::         Correcting case of last word entered.
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* Spelling::            Apply spelling checker to a word, or a whole file.
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Keyboard Macros

* Basic Keyboard Macro::     Defining and running keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Ring::      Where previous keyboard macros are saved.
* Keyboard Macro Counter::   Inserting incrementing numbers in macros.
* Keyboard Macro Query::     Making keyboard macros do different things each time.
* Save Keyboard Macro::      Giving keyboard macros names; saving them in files.
* Edit Keyboard Macro::      Editing keyboard macros.
* Keyboard Macro Step-Edit:: Interactively executing and editing a keyboard
                                macro.

File Handling

* File Names::          How to type and edit file-name arguments.
* Visiting::            Visiting a file prepares Emacs to edit the file.
* Saving::              Saving makes your changes permanent.
* Reverting::           Reverting cancels all the changes not saved.
* Autorevert::          Auto Reverting non-file buffers.
* Auto Save::           Auto Save periodically protects against loss of data.
* File Aliases::        Handling multiple names for one file.
* Directories::         Creating, deleting, and listing file directories.
* Comparing Files::     Finding where two files differ.
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* Diff Mode::           Mode for editing file differences.
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* Misc File Ops::       Other things you can do on files.
* Compressed Files::    Accessing compressed files.
* File Archives::       Operating on tar, zip, jar etc. archive files.
* Remote Files::        Accessing files on other sites.
* Quoted File Names::   Quoting special characters in file names.
* File Name Cache::     Completion against a list of files you often use.
* File Conveniences::   Convenience Features for Finding Files.
* Filesets::            Handling sets of files.

Saving Files

* Save Commands::       Commands for saving files.
* Backup::              How Emacs saves the old version of your file.
* Customize Save::      Customizing the saving of files.
* Interlocking::        How Emacs protects against simultaneous editing
                          of one file by two users.
* File Shadowing::      Copying files to "shadows" automatically.
* Time Stamps::         Emacs can update time stamps on saved files.

Backup Files

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* Backup Names::        How backup files are named.
* Backup Deletion::     Emacs deletes excess numbered backups.
* Backup Copying::      Backups can be made by copying or renaming.
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Auto Reverting Non-File Buffers

* Auto Reverting the Buffer Menu:: Auto Revert of the Buffer Menu.
* Auto Reverting Dired::           Auto Revert of Dired buffers.
* Supporting additional buffers::  How to add more Auto Revert support.
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Auto-Saving: Protection Against Disasters

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* Auto Save Files::     The file where auto-saved changes are
                          actually made until you save the file.
* Auto Save Control::   Controlling when and how often to auto-save.
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* Recover::             Recovering text from auto-save files.
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Using Multiple Buffers

* Select Buffer::       Creating a new buffer or reselecting an old one.
* List Buffers::        Getting a list of buffers that exist.
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* Misc Buffer::         Renaming; changing read-onlyness; copying text.
* Kill Buffer::         Killing buffers you no longer need.
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* Several Buffers::     How to go through the list of all buffers
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                          and operate variously on several of them.
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* Indirect Buffers::    An indirect buffer shares the text of another buffer.
* Buffer Convenience::  Convenience and customization features for
                          buffer handling.

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Convenience Features and Customization of Buffer Handling

* Uniquify::            Making buffer names unique with directory parts.
* Iswitchb::            Switching between buffers with substrings.
* Buffer Menus::        Configurable buffer menu.

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Multiple Windows

* Basic Window::        Introduction to Emacs windows.
* Split Window::        New windows are made by splitting existing windows.
* Other Window::        Moving to another window or doing something to it.
* Pop Up Window::       Finding a file or buffer in another window.
* Force Same Window::   Forcing certain buffers to appear in the selected
                          window rather than in another window.
* Change Window::       Deleting windows and changing their sizes.
* Window Convenience::  Convenience functions for window handling.

Frames and Graphical Displays

* Cut and Paste::       Mouse commands for cut and paste.
* Mouse References::    Using the mouse to select an item from a list.
* Menu Mouse Clicks::   Mouse clicks that bring up menus.
* Mode Line Mouse::     Mouse clicks on the mode line.
* Creating Frames::     Creating additional Emacs frames with various contents.
* Frame Commands::      Iconifying, deleting, and switching frames.
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* Fonts::               Changing the frame font.
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* Speedbar::            How to make and use a speedbar frame.
* Multiple Displays::   How one Emacs job can talk to several displays.
* Special Buffer Frames::  You can make certain buffers have their own frames.
* Frame Parameters::    Changing the colors and other modes of frames.
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* Scroll Bars::         How to enable and disable scroll bars; how to use them.
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* Wheeled Mice::        Using mouse wheels for scrolling.
* Drag and Drop::       Using drag and drop to open files and insert text.
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* Menu Bars::           Enabling and disabling the menu bar.
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* Tool Bars::           Enabling and disabling the tool bar.
* Dialog Boxes::        Controlling use of dialog boxes.
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* Tooltips::            Displaying information at the current mouse position.
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* Mouse Avoidance::     Moving the mouse pointer out of the way.
* Non-Window Terminals::  Multiple frames on terminals that show only one.
* Text-Only Mouse::     Using the mouse in text-only terminals.

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Killing and Yanking on Graphical Displays

* Mouse Commands::      Moving, cutting, and pasting, with the mouse.
* Word and Line Mouse:: Mouse commands for selecting whole words or lines.
* Cut/Paste Other App:: Transfering text between Emacs and other apps.
* Secondary Selection:: Cutting without altering point and mark.
* Clipboard::           Using the clipboard for selections.

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International Character Set Support

* International Chars::     Basic concepts of multibyte characters.
* Enabling Multibyte::      Controlling whether to use multibyte characters.
* Language Environments::   Setting things up for the language you use.
* Input Methods::           Entering text characters not on your keyboard.
* Select Input Method::     Specifying your choice of input methods.
* Coding Systems::          Character set conversion when you read and
                              write files, and so on.
* Recognize Coding::        How Emacs figures out which conversion to use.
* Specify Coding::          Specifying a file's coding system explicitly.
* Output Coding::           Choosing coding systems for output.
* Text Coding::             Choosing conversion to use for file text.
* Communication Coding::    Coding systems for interprocess communication.
* File Name Coding::        Coding systems for file @emph{names}.
* Terminal Coding::         Specifying coding systems for converting
                              terminal input and output.
* Fontsets::                Fontsets are collections of fonts
                              that cover the whole spectrum of characters.
* Defining Fontsets::       Defining a new fontset.
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* Modifying Fontsets::      Modifying an existing fontset.
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* Undisplayable Characters::When characters don't display.
* Unibyte Mode::            You can pick one European character set
                              to use without multibyte characters.
* Charsets::                How Emacs groups its internal character codes.

Major Modes

* Choosing Modes::      How major modes are specified or chosen.

Indentation

* Indentation Commands::  Various commands and techniques for indentation.
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* Tab Stops::             You can set arbitrary "tab stops" and then
                            indent to the next tab stop when you want to.
* Just Spaces::           You can request indentation using just spaces.
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Commands for Human Languages

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* Words::               Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::           Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::          Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::               Moving over pages.
* Filling::             Filling or justifying text.
* Case::                Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::           The major modes for editing text files.
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* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
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* TeX Mode::            Editing input to the formatter TeX.
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* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML and SGML files.
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* Nroff Mode::          Editing input to the formatter nroff.
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* Formatted Text::      Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
* Text Based Tables::   Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion.

Filling Text

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* Auto Fill::           Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
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* Fill Commands::       Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
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* Fill Prefix::         Filling paragraphs that are indented
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                          or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::       How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.

Outline Mode

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* Outline Format::      What the text of an outline looks like.
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* Outline Motion::      Special commands for moving through
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                          outlines.
* Outline Visibility::  Commands to control what is visible.
* Outline Views::       Outlines and multiple views.
* Foldout::             Folding means zooming in on outlines.
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@TeX{} Mode

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* TeX Editing::         Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX Editing::       Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* TeX Print::           Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* TeX Misc::            Customization of TeX mode, and related features.
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Editing Formatted Text

* Requesting Formatted Text::   Entering and exiting Enriched mode.
* Hard and Soft Newlines::      There are two different kinds of newlines.
* Editing Format Info::         How to edit text properties.
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* Format Faces::                Bold, italic, underline, etc.
* Format Colors::               Changing the color of text.
* Format Indentation::          Changing the left and right margins.
* Format Justification::        Centering, setting text flush with the
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                                  left or right margin, etc.
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* Format Properties::           The "special" text properties submenu.
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* Forcing Enriched Mode::       How to force use of Enriched mode.

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@c The automatic texinfo menu update inserts some duplicate items here
@c (faces, colors, indentation, justification, properties), because
@c they are listed in two menus.  But we already have them above, no
@c need to list them twice.

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Editing Text-based Tables

* Table Definition::    What is a text based table.
* Table Creation::      How to create a table.
* Table Recognition::   How to activate and deactivate tables.
* Cell Commands::       Cell-oriented commands in a table.
* Cell Justification::  Justifying cell contents.
* Row Commands::        Manipulating rows of table cell.
* Column Commands::     Manipulating columns of table cell.
* Fixed Width Mode::    Fixing cell width.
* Table Conversion::    Converting between plain text and tables.
* Measuring Tables::    Analyzing table dimension.
* Table Misc::          Table miscellany.

Editing Programs

* Program Modes::       Major modes for editing programs.
* Defuns::              Commands to operate on major top-level parts
                          of a program.
* Program Indent::      Adjusting indentation to show the nesting.
* Parentheses::         Commands that operate on parentheses.
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* Comments::            Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
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* Documentation::       Getting documentation of functions you plan to call.
* Hideshow::            Displaying blocks selectively.
* Symbol Completion::   Completion on symbol names of your program or language.
* Glasses::             Making identifiersLikeThis more readable.
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* Semantic::            Suite of editing tools based on source code parsing.
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* Misc for Programs::   Other Emacs features useful for editing programs.
* C Modes::             Special commands of C, C++, Objective-C,
                          Java, and Pike modes.
* Asm Mode::            Asm mode and its special features.
* Fortran::             Fortran mode and its special features.

Top-Level Definitions, or Defuns

* Left Margin Paren::   An open-paren or similar opening delimiter
                          starts a defun if it is at the left margin.
* Moving by Defuns::    Commands to move over or mark a major definition.
* Imenu::               Making buffer indexes as menus.
* Which Function::      Which Function mode shows which function you are in.

Indentation for Programs

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* Basic Indent::        Indenting a single line.
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* Multi-line Indent::   Commands to reindent many lines at once.
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* Lisp Indent::         Specifying how each Lisp function should be indented.
* C Indent::            Extra features for indenting C and related modes.
* Custom C Indent::     Controlling indentation style for C and related modes.
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Commands for Editing with Parentheses

* Expressions::         Expressions with balanced parentheses.
* Moving by Parens::    Commands for moving up, down and across
                          in the structure of parentheses.
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* Matching::            Insertion of a close-delimiter flashes matching open.
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Manipulating Comments

* Comment Commands::    Inserting, killing, and aligning comments.
* Multi-Line Comments:: Commands for adding and editing multi-line comments.
* Options for Comments::Customizing the comment features.

Documentation Lookup

* Info Lookup::         Looking up library functions and commands
                          in Info files.
* Man Page::            Looking up man pages of library functions and commands.
* Lisp Doc::            Looking up Emacs Lisp functions, etc.

C and Related Modes

* Motion in C::         Commands to move by C statements, etc.
* Electric C::          Colon and other chars can automatically reindent.
* Hungry Delete::       A more powerful DEL command.
* Other C Commands::    Filling comments, viewing expansion of macros,
                          and other neat features.

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Fortran Mode

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* Fortran Motion::      Moving point by statements or subprograms.
* Fortran Indent::      Indentation commands for Fortran.
* Fortran Comments::    Inserting and aligning comments.
* Fortran Autofill::    Auto fill support for Fortran.
* Fortran Columns::     Measuring columns for valid Fortran.
* Fortran Abbrev::      Built-in abbrevs for Fortran keywords.
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Fortran Indentation

* ForIndent Commands::  Commands for indenting and filling Fortran.
* ForIndent Cont::      How continuation lines indent.
* ForIndent Num::       How line numbers auto-indent.
* ForIndent Conv::      Conventions you must obey to avoid trouble.
* ForIndent Vars::      Variables controlling Fortran indent style.

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Compiling and Testing Programs

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* Compilation::         Compiling programs in languages other
                          than Lisp (C, Pascal, etc.).
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* Compilation Mode::    The mode for visiting compiler errors.
* Compilation Shell::   Customizing your shell properly
                          for use in the compilation buffer.
* Grep Searching::      Searching with grep.
* Flymake::             Finding syntax errors on the fly.
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* Debuggers::           Running symbolic debuggers for non-Lisp programs.
* Executing Lisp::      Various modes for editing Lisp programs,
                          with different facilities for running
                          the Lisp programs.
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* Lisp Libraries::      Creating Lisp programs to run in Emacs.
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* Lisp Eval::           Executing a single Lisp expression in Emacs.
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* Lisp Interaction::    Executing Lisp in an Emacs buffer.
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* External Lisp::       Communicating through Emacs with a separate Lisp.
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Running Debuggers Under Emacs

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* Starting GUD::        How to start a debugger subprocess.
* Debugger Operation::  Connection between the debugger and source buffers.
* Commands of GUD::     Key bindings for common commands.
* GUD Customization::   Defining your own commands for GUD.
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* GDB Graphical Interface::  An enhanced mode that uses GDB features to
                          implement a graphical debugging environment through
                          Emacs.

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GDB Graphical Interface

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* GDB User Interface Layout::   Control the number of displayed buffers.
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* Source Buffers::              Use the mouse in the fringe/margin to
                                control your program.
* Breakpoints Buffer::          A breakpoint control panel.
* Threads Buffer::              Displays your threads.
* Stack Buffer::                Select a frame from the call stack.
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* Other GDB Buffers::           Input/output, locals, registers,
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                                assembler, threads and memory buffers.
* Watch Expressions::           Monitor variable values in the speedbar.
* Multithreaded Debugging::     Debugging programs with several threads.
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Maintaining Large Programs

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* Version Control::     Using version control systems.
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* Change Log::          Maintaining a change history for your program.
* Tags::                Go directly to any function in your program in one
                          command.  Tags remembers which file it is in.
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* EDE::                 An integrated development environment for Emacs.
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* Emerge::              A convenient way of merging two versions of a program.

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Version Control

* Introduction to VC::  How version control works in general.
* VC Mode Line::        How the mode line shows version control status.
* Basic VC Editing::    How to edit a file under version control.
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* Log Buffer::          Features available in log entry buffers.
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* Old Revisions::       Examining and comparing old versions.
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* Secondary VC Commands:: The commands used a little less frequently.
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* VC Directory Mode::   Listing files managed by version control.
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* Branches::            Multiple lines of development.
* Remote Repositories:: Efficient access to remote CVS servers.
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* Revision Tags::       Symbolic names for revisions.
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* Miscellaneous VC::    Various other commands and features of VC.
* Customizing VC::      Variables that change VC's behavior.
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Introduction to Version Control

* Why Version Control?::    Understanding the problems it addresses.
* Version Control Systems:: Supported version control back-end systems.
* VCS Concepts::            Words and concepts related to version control.
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* VCS Merging::             How file conflicts are handled.
* VCS Changesets::          Changesets in version control.
* VCS Repositories::        Where version control repositories are stored.
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* Types of Log File::       The VCS log in contrast to the ChangeLog.

Basic Editing under Version Control

* VC With A Merging VCS::  Without locking: default mode for CVS.
* VC With A Locking VCS::  RCS in its default mode, SCCS, and optionally CVS.
* Advanced C-x v v::       Advanced features available with a prefix argument.

The Secondary Commands of VC

* Registering::         Putting a file under version control.
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* VC Change Log::       Viewing the VC Change Log.
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* VC Undo::             Canceling changes before or after check-in.

VC Directory Mode

* VC Directory Buffer::   What the buffer looks like and means.
* VC Directory Commands:: Commands to use in a VC directory buffer.

Multiple Branches of a File

* Switching Branches::    How to get to another existing branch.
* Creating Branches::     How to start a new branch.
* Merging::               Transferring changes between branches.
* Multi-User Branching::  Multiple users working at multiple branches
                            in parallel.

Remote Repositories

* Version Backups::       Keeping local copies of repository versions.
* Local Version Control:: Using another version system for local editing.

Revision Tags

* Making Revision Tags::  The tag facilities.
* Revision Tag Caveats::  Things to be careful of when using tags.

Miscellaneous Commands and Features of VC

* Change Logs and VC::    Generating a change log file from log entries.
* Renaming and VC::       A command to rename both the source and master
                            file correctly.
* Version Headers::       Inserting version control headers into working files.

Customizing VC

* General VC Options::    Options that apply to multiple back ends.
* RCS and SCCS::          Options for RCS and SCCS.
* CVS Options::           Options for CVS.

Change Logs

* Change Log Commands:: Commands for editing change log files.
* Format of ChangeLog:: What the change log file looks like.
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Tags Tables

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* Tag Syntax::          Tag syntax for various types of code and text files.
* Create Tags Table::   Creating a tags table with @code{etags}.
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* Etags Regexps::       Create arbitrary tags using regular expressions.
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* Select Tags Table::   How to visit a tags table.
* Find Tag::            Commands to find the definition of a specific tag.
* Tags Search::         Using a tags table for searching and replacing.
* List Tags::           Listing and finding tags defined in a file.
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Merging Files with Emerge

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* Overview of Emerge::  How to start Emerge.  Basic concepts.
* Submodes of Emerge::  Fast mode vs. Edit mode.
                          Skip Prefers mode and Auto Advance mode.
* State of Difference:: You do the merge by specifying state A or B
                          for each difference.
* Merge Commands::      Commands for selecting a difference,
                          changing states of differences, etc.
* Exiting Emerge::      What to do when you've finished the merge.
* Combining in Emerge::     How to keep both alternatives for a difference.
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* Fine Points of Emerge::   Miscellaneous issues.

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Abbrevs

* Abbrev Concepts::     Fundamentals of defined abbrevs.
* Defining Abbrevs::    Defining an abbrev, so it will expand when typed.
* Expanding Abbrevs::   Controlling expansion: prefixes, canceling expansion.
* Editing Abbrevs::     Viewing or editing the entire list of defined abbrevs.
* Saving Abbrevs::      Saving the entire list of abbrevs for another session.
* Dynamic Abbrevs::     Abbreviations for words already in the buffer.
* Dabbrev Customization:: What is a word, for dynamic abbrevs.  Case handling.

@ifnottex
Editing Pictures

* Basic Picture::         Basic concepts and simple commands of Picture Mode.
* Insert in Picture::     Controlling direction of cursor motion
                            after "self-inserting" characters.
* Tabs in Picture::       Various features for tab stops and indentation.
* Rectangles in Picture:: Clearing and superimposing rectangles.
@end ifnottex

Sending Mail

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* Mail Format::         Format of the mail being composed.
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* Mail Headers::        Details of some standard mail header fields.
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* Mail Aliases::        Abbreviating and grouping mail addresses.
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* Mail Commands::       Special commands for editing mail being composed.
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* Mail Signature::      Adding a signature to every message.
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* Mail Amusements::     Distracting the NSA; adding fortune messages.
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* Mail Methods::        Using alternative mail-composition methods.

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Mail Commands
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* Mail Sending::        Commands to send the message.
* Header Editing::      Commands to move to header fields and edit them.
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* Citing Mail::         Quoting a message you are replying to.
* Mail Misc::           Attachments, spell checking, etc.
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Reading Mail with Rmail

* Rmail Basics::        Basic concepts of Rmail, and simple use.
* Rmail Scrolling::     Scrolling through a message.
* Rmail Motion::        Moving to another message.
* Rmail Deletion::      Deleting and expunging messages.
* Rmail Inbox::         How mail gets into the Rmail file.
* Rmail Files::         Using multiple Rmail files.
* Rmail Output::        Copying message out to files.
* Rmail Labels::        Classifying messages by labeling them.
* Rmail Attributes::    Certain standard labels, called attributes.
* Rmail Reply::         Sending replies to messages you are viewing.
* Rmail Summary::       Summaries show brief info on many messages.
* Rmail Sorting::       Sorting messages in Rmail.
* Rmail Display::       How Rmail displays a message; customization.
* Rmail Coding::        How Rmail handles decoding character sets.
* Rmail Editing::       Editing message text and headers in Rmail.
* Rmail Digest::        Extracting the messages from a digest message.
* Rmail Rot13::         Reading messages encoded in the rot13 code.
* Movemail::            More details of fetching new mail.
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* Remote Mailboxes::    Retrieving mail from remote mailboxes.
* Other Mailbox Formats:: Retrieving mail from local mailboxes in
                          various formats.

Summaries

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* Rmail Make Summary::       Making various sorts of summaries.
* Rmail Summary Edit::       Manipulating messages from the summary.
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Dired, the Directory Editor

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* Dired Enter::              How to invoke Dired.
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* Dired Navigation::         Special motion commands in the Dired buffer.
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* Dired Deletion::           Deleting files with Dired.
* Flagging Many Files::      Flagging files based on their names.
* Dired Visiting::           Other file operations through Dired.
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* Marks vs Flags::           Flagging for deletion vs marking.
* Operating on Files::       How to copy, rename, print, compress, etc.
                               either one file or several files.
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* Shell Commands in Dired::  Running a shell command on the marked files.
* Transforming File Names::  Using patterns to rename multiple files.
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* Comparison in Dired::      Running `diff' by way of Dired.
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* Subdirectories in Dired::  Adding subdirectories to the Dired buffer.
* Subdir Switches::          Subdirectory switches in Dired.
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* Subdirectory Motion::      Moving across subdirectories, and up and down.
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* Hiding Subdirectories::    Making subdirectories visible or invisible.
* Dired Updating::           Discarding lines for files of no interest.
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* Dired and Find::           Using `find' to choose the files for Dired.
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* Wdired::                   Operating on files by editing the Dired buffer.
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* Image-Dired::              Viewing image thumbnails in Dired.
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* Misc Dired Features::      Various other features.

The Calendar and the Diary

* Calendar Motion::     Moving through the calendar; selecting a date.
* Scroll Calendar::     Bringing earlier or later months onto the screen.
* Counting Days::       How many days are there between two dates?
* General Calendar::    Exiting or recomputing the calendar.
* Writing Calendar Files:: Writing calendars to files of various formats.
* Holidays::            Displaying dates of holidays.
* Sunrise/Sunset::      Displaying local times of sunrise and sunset.
* Lunar Phases::        Displaying phases of the moon.
* Other Calendars::     Converting dates to other calendar systems.
* Diary::               Displaying events from your diary.
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* Appointments::        Reminders when it's time to do something.
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* Importing Diary::     Converting diary events to/from other formats.
* Daylight Saving::    How to specify when daylight saving time is active.
* Time Intervals::      Keeping track of time intervals.
* Advanced Calendar/Diary Usage:: Advanced Calendar/Diary customization.

Movement in the Calendar

* Calendar Unit Motion::      Moving by days, weeks, months, and years.
* Move to Beginning or End::  Moving to start/end of weeks, months, and years.
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* Specified Dates::           Moving to the current date or another
                                specific date.
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Conversion To and From Other Calendars

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* Calendar Systems::       The calendars Emacs understands
                             (aside from Gregorian).
* To Other Calendar::      Converting the selected date to various calendars.
* From Other Calendar::    Moving to a date specified in another calendar.
* Mayan Calendar::         Moving to a date specified in a Mayan calendar.
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The Diary

* Displaying the Diary::   Viewing diary entries and associated calendar dates.
* Format of Diary File::   Entering events in your diary.
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* Date Formats::           Various ways you can specify dates.
* Adding to Diary::        Commands to create diary entries.
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* Special Diary Entries::  Anniversaries, blocks of dates, cyclic entries, etc.

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Customizing the Calendar and Diary

* Calendar Customizing::   Calendar layout and hooks.
* Holiday Customizing::    Defining your own holidays.
* Date Display Format::    Changing the format.
* Time Display Format::    Changing the format.
* Diary Customizing::      Defaults you can set.
* Non-Gregorian Diary::    Diary entries based on other calendars.
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* Diary Display::          A choice of ways to display the diary.
* Fancy Diary Display::    Sorting diary entries, using included diary files.
* Sexp Diary Entries::     More flexible diary entries.
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Document Viewing
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* Navigation::  Navigation inside DocView buffers.
* Searching::   Searching inside documents.
* Slicing::     Specifying which part of pages should be displayed.
* Conversion::  Influencing and triggering conversion.
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Gnus

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* Buffers of Gnus::     The group, summary, and article buffers.
* Gnus Startup::        What you should know about starting Gnus.
* Summary of Gnus::     A short description of the basic Gnus commands.
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Running Shell Commands from Emacs

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* Single Shell::        How to run one shell command and return.
* Interactive Shell::   Permanent shell taking input via Emacs.
* Shell Mode::          Special Emacs commands used with permanent shell.
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* Shell Prompts::       Two ways to recognize shell prompts.
* Shell History::       Repeating previous commands in a shell buffer.
* Directory Tracking::  Keeping track when the subshell changes directory.
* Shell Options::       Options for customizing Shell mode.
* Terminal emulator::   An Emacs window as a terminal emulator.
* Term Mode::           Special Emacs commands used in Term mode.
* Paging in Term::      Paging in the terminal emulator.
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* Remote Host::         Connecting to another computer.
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* Serial Terminal::     Connecting to a serial port.
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Shell Command History

* Shell Ring::           Fetching commands from the history list.
* Shell History Copying::Moving to a command and then copying it.
* History References::   Expanding @samp{!}-style history references.

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Using Emacs as a Server

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* Invoking emacsclient:: Connecting to the Emacs server.
* emacsclient Options::  Emacs client startup options.
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Printing Hard Copies

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* PostScript::           Printing buffers or regions as PostScript.
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* PostScript Variables:: Customizing the PostScript printing commands.
* Printing Package::     An optional advanced printing interface.

Hyperlinking and Navigation Features

* Browse-URL::          Following URLs.
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* Goto Address mode::   Activating URLs.
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* FFAP::                Finding files etc. at point.

Customization

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* Minor Modes::         Each minor mode is a feature you can turn on
                          independently of any others.
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* Easy Customization::  Convenient way to browse and change settings.
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* Variables::           Many Emacs commands examine Emacs variables
                          to decide what to do; by setting variables,
                          you can control their functioning.
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* Key Bindings::        Keymaps say what command each key runs.
                          By changing them, you can ``redefine'' keys.
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* Init File::           How to write common customizations in the
                          @file{.emacs} file.
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Easy Customization Interface

* Customization Groups::     How settings are classified in a structure.
* Browsing Custom::          Browsing and searching for settings.
* Changing a Variable::      How to edit an option's value and set the option.
* Saving Customizations::    Specifying the file for saving customizations.
* Face Customization::       How to edit the attributes of a face.
* Specific Customization::   Making a customization buffer for specific
                                variables, faces, or groups.
* Custom Themes::            How to define collections of customized options
                                that can be loaded and unloaded together.

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Variables

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* Examining::           Examining or setting one variable's value.
* Hooks::               Hook variables let you specify programs for parts
                          of Emacs to run on particular occasions.
* Locals::              Per-buffer values of variables.
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* File Variables::      How files can specify variable values.
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* Directory Variables:: How variable values can be specified by directory.

Local Variables in Files

* Specifying File Variables:: Specifying file local variables.
* Safe File Variables::       Making sure file local variables are safe.
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Customizing Key Bindings

* Keymaps::             Generalities.  The global keymap.
* Prefix Keymaps::      Keymaps for prefix keys.
* Local Keymaps::       Major and minor modes have their own keymaps.
* Minibuffer Maps::     The minibuffer uses its own local keymaps.
* Rebinding::           How to redefine one key's meaning conveniently.
* Init Rebinding::      Rebinding keys with your init file, @file{.emacs}.
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* Modifier Keys::       Using modifier keys in key bindings.
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* Function Keys::       Rebinding terminal function keys.
* Named ASCII Chars::   Distinguishing @key{TAB} from @kbd{C-i}, and so on.
* Mouse Buttons::       Rebinding mouse buttons in Emacs.
* Disabling::           Disabling a command means confirmation is required
                          before it can be executed.  This is done to protect
                          beginners from surprises.

The Init File, @file{~/.emacs}

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* Init Syntax::         Syntax of constants in Emacs Lisp.
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* Init Examples::       How to do some things with an init file.
* Terminal Init::       Each terminal type can have an init file.
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* Find Init::           How Emacs finds the init file.
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* Init Non-ASCII::      Using non-@acronym{ASCII} characters in an init file.

Dealing with Emacs Trouble

* DEL Does Not Delete:: What to do if @key{DEL} doesn't delete.
* Stuck Recursive::     `[...]' in mode line around the parentheses.
* Screen Garbled::      Garbage on the screen.
* Text Garbled::        Garbage in the text.
* Memory Full::         How to cope when you run out of memory.
* After a Crash::       Recovering editing in an Emacs session that crashed.
* Emergency Escape::    Emergency escape---
                          What to do if Emacs stops responding.
* Total Frustration::   When you are at your wits' end.

Reporting Bugs

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* Known Problems::      How to read about known problems and bugs.
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* Bug Criteria::        Have you really found a bug?
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* Understanding Bug Reporting:: How to report a bug effectively.
* Checklist::           Steps to follow for a good bug report.
* Sending Patches::     How to send a patch for GNU Emacs.
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Command Line Arguments for Emacs Invocation

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* Action Arguments::    Arguments to visit files, load libraries,
                          and call functions.
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* Initial Options::     Arguments that take effect while starting Emacs.
* Command Example::     Examples of using command line arguments.
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* Resume Arguments::    Specifying arguments when you resume a running Emacs.
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* Environment::         Environment variables that Emacs uses.
* Display X::           Changing the default display and using remote login.
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* Font X::              Choosing a font for text, under X.
* Colors::              Choosing display colors.
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* Window Size X::       Start-up window size, under X.
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* Borders X::           Internal and external borders, under X.
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* Title X::             Specifying the initial frame's title.
* Icons X::             Choosing what sort of icon to use, under X.
* Misc X::              Other display options.

Environment Variables

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* General Variables::   Environment variables that all versions of Emacs use.
* Misc Variables::      Certain system-specific variables.
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* MS-Windows Registry:: An alternative to the environment on MS-Windows.

X Options and Resources

* Resources::           Using X resources with Emacs (in general).
* Table of Resources::  Table of specific X resources that affect Emacs.
* Face Resources::      X resources for customizing faces.
* Lucid Resources::     X resources for Lucid menus.
* LessTif Resources::   X resources for LessTif and Motif menus.
* GTK resources::       Resources for GTK widgets.

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GTK resources

* GTK widget names::      How widgets in GTK are named in general.
* GTK Names in Emacs::    GTK widget names in Emacs.
* GTK styles::            What can be customized in a GTK widget.

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Emacs and Mac OS / GNUstep
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* Mac / GNUstep Basics::        Basic Emacs usage under GNUstep or Mac OS.
* Mac / GNUstep Customization:: Customizations under GNUstep or Mac OS.
* Mac / GNUstep Events::        How window system events are handled.
* GNUstep Support::             Details on status of GNUstep support.
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Emacs and Microsoft Windows/MS-DOS

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* Windows Startup::     How to start Emacs on Windows.
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* Text and Binary::     Text files use CRLF to terminate lines.
* Windows Files::       File-name conventions on Windows.
* ls in Lisp::          Emulation of @code{ls} for Dired.
* Windows HOME::        Where Emacs looks for your @file{.emacs}.
* Windows Keyboard::    Windows-specific keyboard features.
* Windows Mouse::       Windows-specific mouse features.
* Windows Processes::   Running subprocesses on Windows.
* Windows Printing::    How to specify the printer on MS-Windows.
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* Windows Fonts::       Specifying fonts on MS-Windows.
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* Windows Misc::        Miscellaneous Windows features.
* MS-DOS::              Using Emacs on MS-DOS (otherwise known as @dfn{MS-DOG}).
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Emacs and MS-DOS

* MS-DOS Keyboard::     Keyboard conventions on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Mouse::        Mouse conventions on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Display::      Fonts, frames and display size on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS File Names::   File name conventions on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Printing::     Printing specifics on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS and MULE::     Support for internationalization on MS-DOS.
* MS-DOS Processes::    Running subprocesses on MS-DOS.

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@end detailmenu
@end menu

@iftex
@unnumbered Preface

  This manual documents the use and simple customization of the Emacs
editor.  Simple Emacs customizations do not require you to be a
programmer, but if you are not interested in customizing, you can