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;;; dired.el --- directory-browsing commands
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;; Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 92, 93, 94, 95, 96, 97, 2000, 01, 03, 2004
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;;  Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Author: Sebastian Kremer <sk@thp.uni-koeln.de>
;; Maintainer: FSF
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;; Keywords: files
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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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;; any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to the
;; Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
;; Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.
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;;; Commentary:

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;; This is a major mode for directory browsing and editing.  It is
;; documented in the Emacs manual.

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;; Rewritten in 1990/1991 to add tree features, file marking and
;; sorting by Sebastian Kremer <sk@thp.uni-koeln.de>.
;; Finished up by rms in 1992.

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;;; Code:
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;;; Customizable variables

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(defgroup dired nil
  "Directory editing."
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  :link '(custom-manual "(emacs)Dired")
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  :group 'files)
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(defgroup dired-mark nil
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  "Handling marks in Dired."
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  :prefix "dired-"
  :group 'dired)


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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-listing-switches "-al"
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  "*Switches passed to `ls' for dired.  MUST contain the `l' option.
May contain all other options that don't contradict `-l';
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may contain even `F', `b', `i' and `s'.  See also the variable
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`dired-ls-F-marks-symlinks' concerning the `F' switch.
On systems such as MS-DOS and MS-Windows, which use `ls' emulation in Lisp,
some of the `ls' switches are not supported; see the doc string of
`insert-directory' on ls-lisp.el for more details."
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  :type 'string
  :group 'dired)
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; Don't use absolute file names as /bin should be in any PATH and people
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; may prefer /usr/local/gnu/bin or whatever.  However, chown is
; usually not in PATH.

;;;###autoload
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(defvar dired-chown-program
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  (if (memq system-type '(hpux dgux usg-unix-v irix linux gnu/linux cygwin))
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      "chown"
    (if (file-exists-p "/usr/sbin/chown")
	"/usr/sbin/chown"
      "/etc/chown"))
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  "Name of chown command (usually `chown' or `/etc/chown').")
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(defvar dired-use-ls-dired (not (not (string-match "gnu" system-configuration)))
  "Non-nil means Dired should use `ls --dired'.")

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(defvar dired-chmod-program "chmod"
  "Name of chmod command (usually `chmod').")
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(defvar dired-touch-program "touch"
  "Name of touch command (usually `touch').")

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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-ls-F-marks-symlinks nil
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  "*Informs dired about how `ls -lF' marks symbolic links.
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Set this to t if `ls' (or whatever program is specified by
`insert-directory-program') with `-lF' marks the symbolic link
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itself with a trailing @ (usually the case under Ultrix).
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Example: if `ln -s foo bar; ls -F bar' gives `bar -> foo', set it to
nil (the default), if it gives `bar@ -> foo', set it to t.

Dired checks if there is really a @ appended.  Thus, if you have a
marking `ls' program on one host and a non-marking on another host, and
don't care about symbolic links which really end in a @, you can
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always set this variable to t."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'dired-mark)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-trivial-filenames "^\\.\\.?$\\|^#"
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  "*Regexp of files to skip when finding first file of a directory.
A value of nil means move to the subdir line.
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A value of t means move to first file."
  :type '(choice (const :tag "Move to subdir" nil)
		 (const :tag "Move to first" t)
		 regexp)
  :group 'dired)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-keep-marker-rename t
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  ;; Use t as default so that moved files "take their markers with them".
  "*Controls marking of renamed files.
If t, files keep their previous marks when they are renamed.
If a character, renamed files (whether previously marked or not)
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are afterward marked with that character."
  :type '(choice (const :tag "Keep" t)
		 (character :tag "Mark"))
  :group 'dired-mark)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-keep-marker-copy ?C
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  "*Controls marking of copied files.
If t, copied files are marked if and as the corresponding original files were.
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If a character, copied files are unconditionally marked with that character."
  :type '(choice (const :tag "Keep" t)
		 (character :tag "Mark"))
  :group 'dired-mark)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-keep-marker-hardlink ?H
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  "*Controls marking of newly made hard links.
If t, they are marked if and as the files linked to were marked.
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If a character, new links are unconditionally marked with that character."
  :type '(choice (const :tag "Keep" t)
		 (character :tag "Mark"))
  :group 'dired-mark)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-keep-marker-symlink ?Y
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  "*Controls marking of newly made symbolic links.
If t, they are marked if and as the files linked to were marked.
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If a character, new links are unconditionally marked with that character."
  :type '(choice (const :tag "Keep" t)
		 (character :tag "Mark"))
  :group 'dired-mark)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-dwim-target nil
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  "*If non-nil, dired tries to guess a default target directory.
This means: if there is a dired buffer displayed in the next window,
use its current subdir, instead of the current subdir of this dired buffer.

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The target is used in the prompt for file copy, rename etc."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'dired)
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;;;###autoload
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(defcustom dired-copy-preserve-time t
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  "*If non-nil, Dired preserves the last-modified time in a file copy.
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\(This works on only some systems.)"
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'dired)
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; These variables were deleted and the replacements are on files.el.
; We leave aliases behind for back-compatibility.
(defvaralias 'dired-free-space-program 'directory-free-space-program)
(defvaralias 'dired-free-space-args 'directory-free-space-args)

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;;; Hook variables

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(defcustom dired-load-hook nil
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  "Run after loading dired.
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You can customize key bindings or load extensions with this."
  :group 'dired
  :type 'hook)
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(defcustom dired-mode-hook nil
  "Run at the very end of dired-mode."
  :group 'dired
  :type 'hook)
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(defcustom dired-before-readin-hook nil
  "This hook is run before a dired buffer is read in (created or reverted)."
  :group 'dired
  :type 'hook)
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(defcustom dired-after-readin-hook nil
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  "Hook run after each time a file or directory is read by Dired.
After each listing of a file or directory, this hook is run
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with the buffer narrowed to the listing."
  :group 'dired
  :type 'hook)
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;; Note this can't simply be run inside function `dired-ls' as the hook
;; functions probably depend on the dired-subdir-alist to be OK.

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;; Fixme: This should use mailcap.
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(defcustom dired-view-command-alist
  '(("[.]\\(ps\\|ps_pages\\|eps\\)\\'" . "gv -spartan -color -watch %s")
    ("[.]pdf\\'" . "xpdf %s")
    ("[.]\\(jpe?g\\|gif\\|png\\)\\'" . "eog %s")
    ("[.]dvi\\'" . "xdvi -sidemargin 0.5 -topmargin 1 %s"))
  "Alist specifying how to view special types of files.
Each element has the form (REGEXP . SHELL-COMMAND).
When the file name matches REGEXP, `dired-view-file'
invokes SHELL-COMMAND to view the file, processing it through `format'.
Use `%s' in SHELL-COMMAND to specify where to put the file name."
  :group 'dired
  :type '(alist :key-type regexp :value-type string)
  :version "21.4")

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;; Internal variables
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(defvar dired-marker-char ?*		; the answer is 42
  ;; so that you can write things like
  ;; (let ((dired-marker-char ?X))
  ;;    ;; great code using X markers ...
  ;;    )
  ;; For example, commands operating on two sets of files, A and B.
  ;; Or marking files with digits 0-9.  This could implicate
  ;; concentric sets or an order for the marked files.
  ;; The code depends on dynamic scoping on the marker char.
  "In Dired, the current mark character.
This is what the `do' commands look for and what the `mark' commands store.")

(defvar dired-del-marker ?D
  "Character used to flag files for deletion.")

(defvar dired-shrink-to-fit
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  t
;; I see no reason ever to make this nil -- rms.
;;  (> baud-rate search-slow-speed)
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  "Non-nil means Dired shrinks the display buffer to fit the marked files.")

(defvar dired-flagging-regexp nil);; Last regexp used to flag files.

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(defvar dired-file-version-alist)

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;;;###autoload
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(defvar dired-directory nil
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  "The directory name or wildcard spec that this Dired directory lists.
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Local to each dired buffer.  May be a list, in which case the car is the
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directory name and the cdr is the list of files to mention.
The directory name must be absolute, but need not be fully expanded.")
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(defvar dired-actual-switches nil
  "The value of `dired-listing-switches' used to make this buffer's text.")

(defvar dired-re-inode-size "[0-9 \t]*"
  "Regexp for optional initial inode and file size as made by `ls -i -s'.")

;; These regexps must be tested at beginning-of-line, but are also
;; used to search for next matches, so neither omitting "^" nor
;; replacing "^" by "\n" (to make it slightly faster) will work.

(defvar dired-re-mark "^[^ \n]")
;; "Regexp matching a marked line.
;; Important: the match ends just after the marker."
(defvar dired-re-maybe-mark "^. ")
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;; The [^:] part after "d" and "l" is to avoid confusion with the
;; DOS/Windows-style drive letters in directory names, like in "d:/foo".
(defvar dired-re-dir (concat dired-re-maybe-mark dired-re-inode-size "d[^:]"))
(defvar dired-re-sym (concat dired-re-maybe-mark dired-re-inode-size "l[^:]"))
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(defvar dired-re-exe;; match ls permission string of an executable file
  (mapconcat (function
	      (lambda (x)
		(concat dired-re-maybe-mark dired-re-inode-size x)))
	     '("-[-r][-w][xs][-r][-w].[-r][-w]."
	       "-[-r][-w].[-r][-w][xs][-r][-w]."
	       "-[-r][-w].[-r][-w].[-r][-w][xst]")
	     "\\|"))
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(defvar dired-re-perms "[-bcdlps][-r][-w].[-r][-w].[-r][-w].")
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(defvar dired-re-dot "^.* \\.\\.?/?$")
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;; The subdirectory names in this list are expanded.
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(defvar dired-subdir-alist nil
  "Association list of subdirectories and their buffer positions.
Each subdirectory has an element: (DIRNAME . STARTMARKER).
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The order of elements is the reverse of the order in the buffer.
In simple cases, this list contains one element.")
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(defvar dired-subdir-regexp "^. \\([^\n\r]+\\)\\(:\\)[\n\r]"
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  "Regexp matching a maybe hidden subdirectory line in `ls -lR' output.
Subexpression 1 is the subdirectory proper, no trailing colon.
The match starts at the beginning of the line and ends after the end
of the line (\\n or \\r).
Subexpression 2 must end right before the \\n or \\r.")

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(defgroup dired-faces nil
  "Faces used by dired."
  :group 'dired
  :group 'faces)

(defface dired-header
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-type-face)))
  "Face used for directory headers."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-header-face 'dired-header
  "Face name used for directory headers.")

(defface dired-mark
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-constant-face)))
  "Face used for dired marks."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-mark-face 'dired-mark
  "Face name used for dired marks.")

(defface dired-marked
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-warning-face)))
  "Face used for marked files."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-marked-face 'dired-marked
  "Face name used for marked files.")

(defface dired-flagged
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-warning-face)))
  "Face used for flagged files."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-flagged-face 'dired-flagged
  "Face name used for flagged files.")

(defface dired-warning
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-comment-face)))
  "Face used to highlight a part of a buffer that needs user attention."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-warning-face 'dired-warning
  "Face name used for a part of a buffer that needs user attention.")

(defface dired-directory
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-function-name-face)))
  "Face used for subdirectories."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-directory-face 'dired-directory
  "Face name used for subdirectories.")

(defface dired-symlink
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-keyword-face)))
  "Face used for symbolic links."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-symlink-face 'dired-symlink
  "Face name used for symbolic links.")

(defface dired-ignored
  '((t (:inherit font-lock-string-face)))
  "Face used for files suffixed with `completion-ignored-extensions'."
  :group 'dired-faces
  :version "21.4")
(defvar dired-ignored-face 'dired-ignored
  "Face name used for files suffixed with `completion-ignored-extensions'.")

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(defvar dired-font-lock-keywords
  (list
   ;;
   ;; Directory headers.
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   (list dired-subdir-regexp '(1 dired-header-face))
   ;;
   ;; Dired marks.
   (list dired-re-mark '(0 dired-mark-face))
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   ;;
   ;; We make heavy use of MATCH-ANCHORED, since the regexps don't identify the
   ;; file name itself.  We search for Dired defined regexps, and then use the
   ;; Dired defined function `dired-move-to-filename' before searching for the
   ;; simple regexp ".+".  It is that regexp which matches the file name.
   ;;
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   ;; Marked files.
   (list (concat "^[" (char-to-string dired-marker-char) "]")
         '(".+" (dired-move-to-filename) nil (0 dired-marked-face)))
   ;;
   ;; Flagged files.
   (list (concat "^[" (char-to-string dired-del-marker) "]")
         '(".+" (dired-move-to-filename) nil (0 dired-flagged-face)))
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   ;; People who are paranoid about security would consider this more
   ;; important than other things such as whether it is a directory.
   ;; But we don't want to encourage paranoia, so our default
   ;; should be what's most useful for non-paranoids. -- rms.
;;;   ;;
;;;   ;; Files that are group or world writable.
;;;   (list (concat dired-re-maybe-mark dired-re-inode-size
;;;		 "\\([-d]\\(....w....\\|.......w.\\)\\)")
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;;;	 '(1 dired-warning-face)
;;;	 '(".+" (dired-move-to-filename) nil (0 dired-warning-face)))
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   ;; However, we don't need to highlight the file name, only the
   ;; permissions, to win generally.  -- fx.
   ;; Fixme: we could also put text properties on the permission
   ;; fields with keymaps to frob the permissions, somewhat a la XEmacs.
   (list (concat dired-re-maybe-mark dired-re-inode-size
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		 "[-d]....\\(w\\)....")	; group writable
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	 '(1 dired-warning-face))
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   (list (concat dired-re-maybe-mark dired-re-inode-size
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		 "[-d].......\\(w\\).")	; world writable
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	 '(1 dired-warning-face))
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   ;;
   ;; Subdirectories.
   (list dired-re-dir
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	 '(".+" (dired-move-to-filename) nil (0 dired-directory-face)))
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   ;;
   ;; Symbolic links.
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   (list dired-re-sym
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	 '(".+" (dired-move-to-filename) nil (0 dired-symlink-face)))
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   ;;
   ;; Files suffixed with `completion-ignored-extensions'.
   '(eval .
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     ;; It is quicker to first find just an extension, then go back to the
     ;; start of that file name.  So we do this complex MATCH-ANCHORED form.
     (list (concat "\\(" (regexp-opt completion-ignored-extensions) "\\|#\\)$")
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	   '(".+" (dired-move-to-filename) nil (0 dired-ignored-face)))))
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  "Additional expressions to highlight in Dired mode.")
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;;; Macros must be defined before they are used, for the byte compiler.

(defmacro dired-mark-if (predicate msg)
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  "Mark all files for which PREDICATE evals to non-nil.
PREDICATE is evaluated on each line, with point at beginning of line.
MSG is a noun phrase for the type of files being marked.
It should end with a noun that can be pluralized by adding `s'.
Return value is the number of files marked, or nil if none were marked."
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  `(let (buffer-read-only count)
    (save-excursion
      (setq count 0)
      (if ,msg (message "Marking %ss..." ,msg))
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (while (not (eobp))
        (if ,predicate
            (progn
              (delete-char 1)
              (insert dired-marker-char)
              (setq count (1+ count))))
        (forward-line 1))
      (if ,msg (message "%s %s%s %s%s."
                        count
                        ,msg
                        (dired-plural-s count)
                        (if (eq dired-marker-char ?\040) "un" "")
                        (if (eq dired-marker-char dired-del-marker)
                            "flagged" "marked"))))
    (and (> count 0) count)))
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(defmacro dired-map-over-marks (body arg &optional show-progress)
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  "Eval BODY with point on each marked line.  Return a list of BODY's results.
If no marked file could be found, execute BODY on the current line.
  If ARG is an integer, use the next ARG (or previous -ARG, if ARG<0)
  files instead of the marked files.
  In that case point is dragged along.  This is so that commands on
  the next ARG (instead of the marked) files can be chained easily.
  If ARG is otherwise non-nil, use current file instead.
If optional third arg SHOW-PROGRESS evaluates to non-nil,
  redisplay the dired buffer after each file is processed.
No guarantee is made about the position on the marked line.
  BODY must ensure this itself if it depends on this.
Search starts at the beginning of the buffer, thus the car of the list
  corresponds to the line nearest to the buffer's bottom.  This
  is also true for (positive and negative) integer values of ARG.
BODY should not be too long as it is expanded four times."
  ;;
  ;;Warning: BODY must not add new lines before point - this may cause an
  ;;endless loop.
  ;;This warning should not apply any longer, sk  2-Sep-1991 14:10.
  `(prog1
       (let (buffer-read-only case-fold-search found results)
	 (if ,arg
	     (if (integerp ,arg)
		 (progn	;; no save-excursion, want to move point.
		   (dired-repeat-over-lines
		    ,arg
		    (function (lambda ()
				(if ,show-progress (sit-for 0))
				(setq results (cons ,body results)))))
		   (if (< ,arg 0)
		       (nreverse results)
		     results))
	       ;; non-nil, non-integer ARG means use current file:
	       (list ,body))
	   (let ((regexp (dired-marker-regexp)) next-position)
	     (save-excursion
	       (goto-char (point-min))
	       ;; remember position of next marked file before BODY
	       ;; can insert lines before the just found file,
	       ;; confusing us by finding the same marked file again
	       ;; and again and...
	       (setq next-position (and (re-search-forward regexp nil t)
					(point-marker))
		     found (not (null next-position)))
	       (while next-position
		 (goto-char next-position)
		 (if ,show-progress (sit-for 0))
		 (setq results (cons ,body results))
		 ;; move after last match
		 (goto-char next-position)
		 (forward-line 1)
		 (set-marker next-position nil)
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		 (setq next-position (and (re-search-forward regexp nil t)
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					  (point-marker)))))
	     (if found
		 results
	       (list ,body)))))
     ;; save-excursion loses, again
     (dired-move-to-filename)))
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(defun dired-get-marked-files (&optional localp arg filter)
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  "Return the marked files' names as list of strings.
The list is in the same order as the buffer, that is, the car is the
  first marked file.
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Values returned are normally absolute file names.
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Optional arg LOCALP as in `dired-get-filename'.
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Optional second argument ARG specifies files near point
 instead of marked files.  If ARG is an integer, use the next ARG files.
  If ARG is otherwise non-nil, use file.  Usually ARG comes from
  the command's prefix arg.
Optional third argument FILTER, if non-nil, is a function to select
  some of the files--those for which (funcall FILTER FILENAME) is non-nil."
  (let ((all-of-them
	 (save-excursion
	   (dired-map-over-marks (dired-get-filename localp) arg)))
	result)
    (if (not filter)
	(nreverse all-of-them)
      (dolist (file all-of-them)
	(if (funcall filter file)
	    (push file result)))
      result)))
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530

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;; The dired command

(defun dired-read-dir-and-switches (str)
  ;; For use in interactive.
  (reverse (list
	    (if current-prefix-arg
		(read-string "Dired listing switches: "
			     dired-listing-switches))
	    (read-file-name (format "Dired %s(directory): " str)
			    nil default-directory nil))))
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;;;###autoload (define-key ctl-x-map "d" 'dired)
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;;;###autoload
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(defun dired (dirname &optional switches)
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  "\"Edit\" directory DIRNAME--delete, rename, print, etc. some files in it.
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Optional second argument SWITCHES specifies the `ls' options used.
\(Interactively, use a prefix argument to be able to specify SWITCHES.)
Dired displays a list of files in DIRNAME (which may also have
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shell wildcards appended to select certain files).  If DIRNAME is a cons,
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its first element is taken as the directory name and the rest as an explicit
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list of files to make directory entries for.
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\\<dired-mode-map>\
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You can move around in it with the usual commands.
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You can flag files for deletion with \\[dired-flag-file-deletion] and then
delete them by typing \\[dired-do-flagged-delete].
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Type \\[describe-mode] after entering dired for more info.
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If DIRNAME is already in a dired buffer, that buffer is used without refresh."
  ;; Cannot use (interactive "D") because of wildcards.
  (interactive (dired-read-dir-and-switches ""))
  (switch-to-buffer (dired-noselect dirname switches)))

;;;###autoload (define-key ctl-x-4-map "d" 'dired-other-window)
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;;;###autoload
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(defun dired-other-window (dirname &optional switches)
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  "\"Edit\" directory DIRNAME.  Like `dired' but selects in another window."
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  (interactive (dired-read-dir-and-switches "in other window "))
  (switch-to-buffer-other-window (dired-noselect dirname switches)))
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;;;###autoload (define-key ctl-x-5-map "d" 'dired-other-frame)
;;;###autoload
(defun dired-other-frame (dirname &optional switches)
  "\"Edit\" directory DIRNAME.  Like `dired' but makes a new frame."
  (interactive (dired-read-dir-and-switches "in other frame "))
  (switch-to-buffer-other-frame (dired-noselect dirname switches)))

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;;;###autoload
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(defun dired-noselect (dir-or-list &optional switches)
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  "Like `dired' but returns the dired buffer as value, does not select it."
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  (or dir-or-list (setq dir-or-list default-directory))
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  ;; This loses the distinction between "/foo/*/" and "/foo/*" that
  ;; some shells make:
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  (let (dirname initially-was-dirname)
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    (if (consp dir-or-list)
	(setq dirname (car dir-or-list))
      (setq dirname dir-or-list))
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    (setq initially-was-dirname
	  (string= (file-name-as-directory dirname) dirname))
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    (setq dirname (abbreviate-file-name
		   (expand-file-name (directory-file-name dirname))))
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    (if find-file-visit-truename
	(setq dirname (file-truename dirname)))
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    ;; If the argument was syntactically  a directory name not a file name,
    ;; or if it happens to name a file that is a directory,
    ;; convert it syntactically to a directory name.
    ;; The reason for checking initially-was-dirname
    ;; and not just file-directory-p
    ;; is that file-directory-p is slow over ftp.
    (if (or initially-was-dirname (file-directory-p dirname))
	(setq dirname  (file-name-as-directory dirname)))
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    (if (consp dir-or-list)
	(setq dir-or-list (cons dirname (cdr dir-or-list)))
      (setq dir-or-list dirname))
    (dired-internal-noselect dir-or-list switches)))
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;; The following is an internal dired function.  It returns non-nil if
;; the directory visited by the current dired buffer has changed on
;; disk.  DIRNAME should be the directory name of that directory.
(defun dired-directory-changed-p (dirname)
  (not (let ((attributes (file-attributes dirname))
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	     (modtime (visited-file-modtime)))
	 (or (eq modtime 0)
	     (not (eq (car attributes) t))
	     (and (= (car (nth 5 attributes)) (car modtime))
		  (= (nth 1 (nth 5 attributes)) (cdr modtime)))))))
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(defun dired-buffer-stale-p (&optional noconfirm)
  "Return non-nil if current dired buffer needs updating.
If NOCONFIRM is non-nil, then this function always returns nil
for a remote directory.  This feature is used by Auto Revert Mode."
  (let ((dirname
	 (if (consp dired-directory) (car dired-directory) dired-directory)))
    (and (stringp dirname)
	 (not (when noconfirm (file-remote-p dirname)))
	 (file-readable-p dirname)
	 (dired-directory-changed-p dirname))))

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;; Separate function from dired-noselect for the sake of dired-vms.el.
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(defun dired-internal-noselect (dir-or-list &optional switches mode)
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  ;; If there is an existing dired buffer for DIRNAME, just leave
  ;; buffer as it is (don't even call dired-revert).
  ;; This saves time especially for deep trees or with ange-ftp.
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  ;; The user can type `g' easily, and it is more consistent with find-file.
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  ;; But if SWITCHES are given they are probably different from the
  ;; buffer's old value, so call dired-sort-other, which does
  ;; revert the buffer.
  ;; A pity we can't possibly do "Directory has changed - refresh? "
  ;; like find-file does.
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  ;; Optional argument MODE is passed to dired-find-buffer-nocreate,
  ;; see there.
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  (let* (dirname
	 buffer
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	 ;; note that buffer already is in dired-mode, if found
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	 new-buffer-p
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	 (old-buf (current-buffer)))
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    (if (consp dir-or-list)
	(setq dirname (car dir-or-list))
      (setq dirname dir-or-list))
    ;; Look for an existing buffer.
    (setq buffer (dired-find-buffer-nocreate dirname mode)
	  new-buffer-p (null buffer))
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    (or buffer
	(let ((default-major-mode 'fundamental-mode))
	  ;; We don't want default-major-mode to run hooks and set auto-fill
	  ;; or whatever, now that dired-mode does not
	  ;; kill-all-local-variables any longer.
	  (setq buffer (create-file-buffer (directory-file-name dirname)))))
    (set-buffer buffer)
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    (if (not new-buffer-p)		; existing buffer ...
	(cond (switches			; ... but new switches
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	       ;; file list may have changed
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	       (setq dired-directory dir-or-list)
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	       ;; this calls dired-revert
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	       (dired-sort-other switches))
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	      ;; If directory has changed on disk, offer to revert.
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	      ((when (dired-directory-changed-p dirname)
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		 (message "%s"
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			  (substitute-command-keys
			   "Directory has changed on disk; type \\[revert-buffer] to update Dired")))))
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      ;; Else a new buffer
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      (setq default-directory
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	    ;; We can do this unconditionally
	    ;; because dired-noselect ensures that the name
	    ;; is passed in directory name syntax
	    ;; if it was the name of a directory at all.
	    (file-name-directory dirname))
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      (or switches (setq switches dired-listing-switches))
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      (if mode (funcall mode)
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        (dired-mode dir-or-list switches))
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      ;; default-directory and dired-actual-switches are set now
      ;; (buffer-local), so we can call dired-readin:
      (let ((failed t))
	(unwind-protect
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	    (progn (dired-readin)
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		   (setq failed nil))
	  ;; dired-readin can fail if parent directories are inaccessible.
	  ;; Don't leave an empty buffer around in that case.
	  (if failed (kill-buffer buffer))))
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (dired-initial-position dirname))
    (set-buffer old-buf)
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    buffer))

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(defvar dired-buffers nil
  ;; Enlarged by dired-advertise
  ;; Queried by function dired-buffers-for-dir. When this detects a
  ;; killed buffer, it is removed from this list.
  "Alist of expanded directories and their associated dired buffers.")

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(defun dired-find-buffer-nocreate (dirname &optional mode)
  ;; This differs from dired-buffers-for-dir in that it does not consider
  ;; subdirs of default-directory and searches for the first match only.
  ;; Also, the major mode must be MODE.
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  (setq dirname (expand-file-name dirname))
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  (let (found (blist dired-buffers))    ; was (buffer-list)
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    (or mode (setq mode 'dired-mode))
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    (while blist
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      (if (null (buffer-name (cdr (car blist))))
	  (setq blist (cdr blist))
	(save-excursion
	  (set-buffer (cdr (car blist)))
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	  (if (and (eq major-mode mode)
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		   dired-directory  ;; nil during find-alternate-file
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		   (equal dirname
			  (expand-file-name
			   (if (consp dired-directory)
			       (car dired-directory)
			     dired-directory))))
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	      (setq found (cdr (car blist))
		    blist nil)
	    (setq blist (cdr blist))))))
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    found))

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;; Read in a new dired buffer

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(defun dired-readin ()
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  "Read in a new dired buffer.
Differs from dired-insert-subdir in that it accepts
wildcards, erases the buffer, and builds the subdir-alist anew
\(including making it buffer-local and clearing it first)."

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  ;; default-directory and dired-actual-switches must be buffer-local
  ;; and initialized by now.
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  (let (dirname)
    (if (consp dired-directory)
	(setq dirname (car dired-directory))
      (setq dirname dired-directory))
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    (setq dirname (expand-file-name dirname))
    (save-excursion
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      ;; This hook which may want to modify dired-actual-switches
      ;; based on dired-directory, e.g. with ange-ftp to a SysV host
      ;; where ls won't understand -Al switches.
      (run-hooks 'dired-before-readin-hook)
      (if (consp buffer-undo-list)
	  (setq buffer-undo-list nil))
      (let (buffer-read-only
	    ;; Don't make undo entries for readin.
	    (buffer-undo-list t))
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	(widen)
	(erase-buffer)
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	(dired-readin-insert))
      (goto-char (point-min))
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      ;; Must first make alist buffer local and set it to nil because
      ;; dired-build-subdir-alist will call dired-clear-alist first
      (set (make-local-variable 'dired-subdir-alist) nil)
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      (dired-build-subdir-alist)
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      (let ((attributes (file-attributes dirname)))
	(if (eq (car attributes) t)
	    (set-visited-file-modtime (nth 5 attributes))))
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      (set-buffer-modified-p nil)
      ;; No need to narrow since the whole buffer contains just
      ;; dired-readin's output, nothing else.  The hook can
      ;; successfully use dired functions (e.g. dired-get-filename)
      ;; as the subdir-alist has been built in dired-readin.
      (run-hooks 'dired-after-readin-hook))))
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;; Subroutines of dired-readin

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(defun dired-readin-insert ()
  ;; Insert listing for the specified dir (and maybe file list)
  ;; already in dired-directory, assuming a clean buffer.
  (let (dir file-list)
    (if (consp dired-directory)
	(setq dir (car dired-directory)
	      file-list (cdr dired-directory))
      (setq dir dired-directory
	    file-list nil))
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    (setq dir (expand-file-name dir))
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    (if (and (equal "" (file-name-nondirectory dir))
	     (not file-list))
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	;; If we are reading a whole single directory...
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	(dired-insert-directory dir dired-actual-switches nil nil t)
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      (if (not (file-readable-p
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		(directory-file-name (file-name-directory dir))))
	  (error "Directory %s inaccessible or nonexistent" dir)
	;; Else treat it as a wildcard spec
	;; unless we have an explicit list of files.
	(dired-insert-directory dir dired-actual-switches
				file-list (not file-list) t)))))

(defun dired-insert-directory (dir switches &optional file-list wildcard hdr)
  "Insert a directory listing of DIR, Dired style.
Use SWITCHES to make the listings.
If FILE-LIST is non-nil, list only those files.
Otherwise, if WILDCARD is non-nil, expand wildcards;
 in that case, DIR should be a file name that uses wildcards.
In other cases, DIR should be a directory name or a directory filename.
If HDR is non-nil, insert a header line with the directory name."
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  (let ((opoint (point))
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	(process-environment (copy-sequence process-environment))
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	end)
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    (if (or dired-use-ls-dired (file-remote-p dir))
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	(setq switches (concat "--dired " switches)))
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    ;; We used to specify the C locale here, to force English month names;
    ;; but this should not be necessary any more,
    ;; with the new value of dired-move-to-filename-regexp.
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    (if file-list
	(dolist (f file-list)
	  (insert-directory f switches nil nil))
      (insert-directory dir switches wildcard (not wildcard)))
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    ;; Quote certain characters, unless ls quoted them for us.
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    (if (not (string-match "b" dired-actual-switches))
	(save-excursion
	  (setq end (point-marker))
	  (goto-char opoint)
	  (while (search-forward "\\" end t)
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	    (replace-match (apply #'propertize
				  "\\\\"
				  (text-properties-at (match-beginning 0)))
			   nil t))
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	  (goto-char opoint)
	  (while (search-forward "\^m" end t)
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	    (replace-match (apply #'propertize
				  "\\015"
				  (text-properties-at (match-beginning 0)))
			   nil t))
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	  (set-marker end nil)))
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    (dired-insert-set-properties opoint (point))
    ;; If we used --dired and it worked, the lines are already indented.
    ;; Otherwise, indent them.
    (unless (save-excursion
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	      (goto-char opoint)
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	      (looking-at "  "))
      (let ((indent-tabs-mode nil))
	(indent-rigidly opoint (point) 2)))
    ;; Insert text at the beginning to standardize things.
    (save-excursion
      (goto-char opoint)
      (if (and (or hdr wildcard) (not (looking-at "^  /.*:$")))
	  ;; Note that dired-build-subdir-alist will replace the name
	  ;; by its expansion, so it does not matter whether what we insert
	  ;; here is fully expanded, but it should be absolute.
	  (insert "  " (directory-file-name (file-name-directory dir)) ":\n"))
      (when wildcard
	;; Insert "wildcard" line where "total" line would be for a full dir.
	(insert "  wildcard " (file-name-nondirectory dir) "\n")))))
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(defun dired-insert-set-properties (beg end)
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  "Make the file names highlight when the mouse is on them."
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  (save-excursion
    (goto-char beg)
    (while (< (point) end)
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      (condition-case nil
	  (if (dired-move-to-filename)
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	      (add-text-properties
	       (point)
	       (save-excursion
		 (dired-move-to-end-of-filename)
		 (point))
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	       '(mouse-face highlight
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		 help-echo "mouse-2: visit this file in other window")))
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	(error nil))
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      (forward-line 1))))
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865

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;; Reverting a dired buffer

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(defun dired-revert (&optional arg noconfirm)
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  "Reread the dired buffer.
Must also be called after dired-actual-switches have changed.
Should not fail even on completely garbaged buffers.
Preserves old cursor, marks/flags, hidden-p."
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  (widen)				; just in case user narrowed
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  (let ((opoint (point))
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	(ofile (dired-get-filename nil t))
	(mark-alist nil)		; save marked files
	(hidden-subdirs (dired-remember-hidden))
	(old-subdir-alist (cdr (reverse dired-subdir-alist))) ; except pwd
	(case-fold-search nil)		; we check for upper case ls flags
	buffer-read-only)
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (setq mark-alist;; only after dired-remember-hidden since this unhides:
	  (dired-remember-marks (point-min) (point-max)))
    ;; treat top level dir extra (it may contain wildcards)
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    (dired-uncache
     (if (consp dired-directory) (car dired-directory) dired-directory))
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    (dired-readin)
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    (let ((dired-after-readin-hook nil))
      ;; don't run that hook for each subdir...
      (dired-insert-old-subdirs old-subdir-alist))
    (dired-mark-remembered mark-alist)	; mark files that were marked
    ;; ... run the hook for the whole buffer, and only after markers
    ;; have been reinserted (else omitting in dired-x would omit marked files)
    (run-hooks 'dired-after-readin-hook)	; no need to narrow
    (or (and ofile (dired-goto-file ofile)) ; move cursor to where it
	(goto-char opoint))		; was before
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    (dired-move-to-filename)
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    (save-excursion			; hide subdirs that were hidden
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      (dolist (dir hidden-subdirs)
	(if (dired-goto-subdir dir)
	    (dired-hide-subdir 1)))))
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  ;; outside of the let scope
;;; Might as well not override the user if the user changed this.
;;;  (setq buffer-read-only t)
  )

;; Subroutines of dired-revert
;; Some of these are also used when inserting subdirs.

(defun dired-remember-marks (beg end)
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  "Return alist of files and their marks, from BEG to END."
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  (if selective-display			; must unhide to make this work.
      (let (buffer-read-only)
	(subst-char-in-region beg end ?\r ?\n)))
  (let (fil chr alist)
    (save-excursion
      (goto-char beg)
      (while (re-search-forward dired-re-mark end t)
	(if (setq fil (dired-get-filename nil t))
	    (setq chr (preceding-char)
		  alist (cons (cons fil chr) alist)))))
    alist))

(defun dired-mark-remembered (alist)
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  "Mark all files remembered in ALIST.
Each element of ALIST looks like (FILE . MARKERCHAR)."
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  (let (elt fil chr)
    (while alist
      (setq elt (car alist)
	    alist (cdr alist)
	    fil (car elt)
	    chr (cdr elt))
      (if (dired-goto-file fil)
	  (save-excursion
	    (beginning-of-line)
	    (delete-char 1)
	    (insert chr))))))

(defun dired-remember-hidden ()
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  "Return a list of names of subdirs currently hidden."
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  (let ((l dired-subdir-alist) dir pos result)
    (while l
      (setq dir (car (car l))
	    pos (cdr (car l))
	    l (cdr l))
      (goto-char pos)
      (skip-chars-forward "^\r\n")
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      (if (eq (following-char) ?\r)
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	  (setq result (cons dir result))))
    result))

(defun dired-insert-old-subdirs (old-subdir-alist)
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  "Try to insert all subdirs that were displayed before.
Do so according to the former subdir alist OLD-SUBDIR-ALIST."
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  (or (string-match "R" dired-actual-switches)
      (let (elt dir)
	(while old-subdir-alist
	  (setq elt (car old-subdir-alist)
		old-subdir-alist (cdr old-subdir-alist)
		dir (car elt))
	  (condition-case ()
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	      (progn
		(dired-uncache dir)
		(dired-insert-subdir dir))
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	    (error nil))))))
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(defun dired-uncache (dir)
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  "Remove directory DIR from any directory cache."
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  (let ((handler (find-file-name-handler dir 'dired-uncache)))
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    (if handler
	(funcall handler 'dired-uncache dir))))
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972

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;; dired mode key bindings and initialization
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(defvar dired-mode-map
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  ;; This looks ugly when substitute-command-keys uses C-d instead d:
  ;;  (define-key dired-mode-map "\C-d" 'dired-flag-file-deletion)
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  (let ((map (make-keymap)))
    (suppress-keymap map)
    (define-key map [mouse-2] 'dired-mouse-find-file-other-window)
    ;; Commands to mark or flag certain categories of files
    (define-key map "#" 'dired-flag-auto-save-files)
    (define-key map "." 'dired-clean-directory)
    (define-key map "~" 'dired-flag-backup-files)
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    (define-key map "&" 'dired-flag-garbage-files)
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    ;; Upper case keys (except !) for operating on the marked files
    (define-key map "A" 'dired-do-search)
    (define-key map "C" 'dired-do-copy)
    (define-key map "B" 'dired-do-byte-compile)
    (define-key map "D" 'dired-do-delete)
    (define-key map "G" 'dired-do-chgrp)
    (define-key map "H" 'dired-do-hardlink)
    (define-key map "L" 'dired-do-load)
    (define-key map "M" 'dired-do-chmod)
    (define-key map "O" 'dired-do-chown)
    (define-key map "P" 'dired-do-print)
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    (define-key map "Q" 'dired-do-query-replace-regexp)
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    (define-key map "R" 'dired-do-rename)
    (define-key map "S" 'dired-do-symlink)
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    (define-key map "T" 'dired-do-touch)
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    (define-key map "X" 'dired-do-shell-command)
    (define-key map "Z" 'dired-do-compress)
    (define-key map "!" 'dired-do-shell-command)
    ;; Comparison commands
    (define-key map "=" 'dired-diff)
    (define-key map "\M-=" 'dired-backup-diff)
    ;; Tree Dired commands
    (define-key map "\M-\C-?" 'dired-unmark-all-files)
    (define-key map "\M-\C-d" 'dired-tree-down)
    (define-key map "\M-\C-u" 'dired-tree-up)
    (define-key map "\M-\C-n" 'dired-next-subdir)
    (define-key map "\M-\C-p" 'dired-prev-subdir)
    ;; move to marked files
    (define-key map "\M-{" 'dired-prev-marked-file)
    (define-key map "\M-}" 'dired-next-marked-file)
    ;; Make all regexp commands share a `%' prefix:
    ;; We used to get to the submap via a symbol dired-regexp-prefix,
    ;; but that seems to serve little purpose, and copy-keymap
    ;; does a better job without it.
    (define-key map "%" nil)
    (define-key map "%u" 'dired-upcase)
    (define-key map "%l" 'dired-downcase)
    (define-key map "%d" 'dired-flag-files-regexp)
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    (define-key map "%g" 'dired-mark-files-containing-regexp)
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    (define-key map "%m" 'dired-mark-files-regexp)
    (define-key map "%r" 'dired-do-rename-regexp)
    (define-key map "%C" 'dired-do-copy-regexp)
    (define-key map "%H" 'dired-do-hardlink-regexp)
    (define-key map "%R" 'dired-do-rename-regexp)
    (define-key map "%S" 'dired-do-symlink-regexp)
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    ;; Commands for marking and unmarking.
    (define-key map "*" nil)
    (define-key map "**" 'dired-mark-executables)
    (define-key map "*/" 'dired-mark-directories)
    (define-key map "*@" 'dired-mark-symlinks)
    (define-key map "*%" 'dired-mark-files-regexp)
    (define-key map "*c" 'dired-change-marks)
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    (define-key map "*s" 'dired-mark-subdir-files)
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    (define-key map "*m" 'dired-mark)
    (define-key map "*u" 'dired-unmark)
    (define-key map "*?" 'dired-unmark-all-files)
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    (define-key map "*!" 'dired-unmark-all-marks)
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    (define-key map "U" 'dired-unmark-all-marks)
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    (define-key map "*\177" 'dired-unmark-backward)
    (define-key map "*\C-n" 'dired-next-marked-file)
    (define-key map "*\C-p" 'dired-prev-marked-file)
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    (define-key map "*t" 'dired-toggle-marks)
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    ;; Lower keys for commands not operating on all the marked files
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    (define-key map "a" 'dired-find-alternate-file)
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    (define-key map "d" 'dired-flag-file-deletion)
    (define-key map "e" 'dired-find-file)
    (define-key map "f" 'dired-find-file)
    (define-key map "\C-m" 'dired-advertised-find-file)
    (define-key map "g" 'revert-buffer)
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    (define-key map "\M-g" 'dired-goto-file)
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    (define-key map "h" 'describe-mode)
    (define-key map "i" 'dired-maybe-insert-subdir)
    (define-key map "k" 'dired-do-kill-lines)
    (define-key map "l" 'dired-do-redisplay)
    (define-key map "m" 'dired-mark)
    (define-key map "n" 'dired-next-line)
    (define-key map "o" 'dired-find-file-other-window)
    (define-key map "\C-o" 'dired-display-file)
    (define-key map "p" 'dired-previous-line)
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    (define-key map "q" 'quit-window)
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    (define-key map "s" 'dired-sort-toggle-or-edit)