fileio.c 87.7 KB
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/* File IO for GNU Emacs.
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   Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1988, 1992 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.  */

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#include "config.h"
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#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
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#ifdef VMS
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#include "vms-pwd.h"
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#else
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#include <pwd.h>
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#endif

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#include <ctype.h>
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#ifdef VMS
#include "dir.h"
#include <perror.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <string.h>
#endif

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#include <errno.h>

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#ifndef vax11c
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extern int errno;
extern char *sys_errlist[];
extern int sys_nerr;
#endif

#define err_str(a) ((a) < sys_nerr ? sys_errlist[a] : "unknown error")

#ifdef APOLLO
#include <sys/time.h>
#endif

#include "lisp.h"
#include "buffer.h"
#include "window.h"

#ifdef VMS
#include <file.h>
#include <rmsdef.h>
#include <fab.h>
#include <nam.h>
#endif

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#include "systime.h"
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#ifdef HPUX
#include <netio.h>
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#ifndef HPUX8
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#include <errnet.h>
#endif
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#endif
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#ifndef O_WRONLY
#define O_WRONLY 1
#endif

#define min(a, b) ((a) < (b) ? (a) : (b))
#define max(a, b) ((a) > (b) ? (a) : (b))

/* Nonzero during writing of auto-save files */
int auto_saving;

/* Set by auto_save_1 to mode of original file so Fwrite_region will create
   a new file with the same mode as the original */
int auto_save_mode_bits;

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/* Alist of elements (REGEXP . HANDLER) for file names 
   whose I/O is done with a special handler.  */
Lisp_Object Vfile_name_handler_alist;

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/* Nonzero means, when reading a filename in the minibuffer,
 start out by inserting the default directory into the minibuffer. */
int insert_default_directory;

/* On VMS, nonzero means write new files with record format stmlf.
   Zero means use var format.  */
int vms_stmlf_recfm;

Lisp_Object Qfile_error, Qfile_already_exists;

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Lisp_Object Qfile_name_history;

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report_file_error (string, data)
     char *string;
     Lisp_Object data;
{
  Lisp_Object errstring;

  if (errno >= 0 && errno < sys_nerr)
    errstring = build_string (sys_errlist[errno]);
  else
    errstring = build_string ("undocumented error code");

  /* System error messages are capitalized.  Downcase the initial
     unless it is followed by a slash.  */
  if (XSTRING (errstring)->data[1] != '/')
    XSTRING (errstring)->data[0] = DOWNCASE (XSTRING (errstring)->data[0]);

  while (1)
    Fsignal (Qfile_error,
	     Fcons (build_string (string), Fcons (errstring, data)));
}
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close_file_unwind (fd)
     Lisp_Object fd;
{
  close (XFASTINT (fd));
}
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Lisp_Object Qexpand_file_name;
Lisp_Object Qdirectory_file_name;
Lisp_Object Qfile_name_directory;
Lisp_Object Qfile_name_nondirectory;
Lisp_Object Qfile_name_as_directory;
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Lisp_Object Qcopy_file;
Lisp_Object Qmake_directory;
Lisp_Object Qdelete_directory;
Lisp_Object Qdelete_file;
Lisp_Object Qrename_file;
Lisp_Object Qadd_name_to_file;
Lisp_Object Qmake_symbolic_link;
Lisp_Object Qfile_exists_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_executable_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_readable_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_symlink_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_writable_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_directory_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_accessible_directory_p;
Lisp_Object Qfile_modes;
Lisp_Object Qset_file_modes;
Lisp_Object Qfile_newer_than_file_p;
Lisp_Object Qinsert_file_contents;
Lisp_Object Qwrite_region;
Lisp_Object Qverify_visited_file_modtime;

/* If FILENAME is handled specially on account of its syntax,
   return its handler function.  Otherwise, return nil.  */

Lisp_Object
find_file_handler (filename)
     Lisp_Object filename;
{
  Lisp_Object chain;
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  for (chain = Vfile_name_handler_alist; XTYPE (chain) == Lisp_Cons;
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       chain = XCONS (chain)->cdr)
    {
      Lisp_Object elt;
      elt = XCONS (chain)->car;
      if (XTYPE (elt) == Lisp_Cons)
	{
	  Lisp_Object string;
	  string = XCONS (elt)->car;
	  if (XTYPE (string) == Lisp_String
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	      && fast_string_match (string, filename) >= 0)
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	    return XCONS (elt)->cdr;
	}
    }
  return Qnil;
}

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DEFUN ("file-name-directory", Ffile_name_directory, Sfile_name_directory,
  1, 1, 0,
  "Return the directory component in file name NAME.\n\
Return nil if NAME does not include a directory.\n\
Otherwise return a directory spec.\n\
Given a Unix syntax file name, returns a string ending in slash;\n\
on VMS, perhaps instead a string ending in `:', `]' or `>'.")
  (file)
     Lisp_Object file;
{
  register unsigned char *beg;
  register unsigned char *p;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (file, 0);

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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (file);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qfile_name_directory, file);

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  beg = XSTRING (file)->data;
  p = beg + XSTRING (file)->size;

  while (p != beg && p[-1] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
	 && p[-1] != ':' && p[-1] != ']' && p[-1] != '>'
#endif /* VMS */
	 ) p--;

  if (p == beg)
    return Qnil;
  return make_string (beg, p - beg);
}

DEFUN ("file-name-nondirectory", Ffile_name_nondirectory, Sfile_name_nondirectory,
  1, 1, 0,
  "Return file name NAME sans its directory.\n\
For example, in a Unix-syntax file name,\n\
this is everything after the last slash,\n\
or the entire name if it contains no slash.")
  (file)
     Lisp_Object file;
{
  register unsigned char *beg, *p, *end;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (file, 0);

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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (file);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qfile_name_nondirectory, file);

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  beg = XSTRING (file)->data;
  end = p = beg + XSTRING (file)->size;

  while (p != beg && p[-1] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
	 && p[-1] != ':' && p[-1] != ']' && p[-1] != '>'
#endif /* VMS */
	 ) p--;

  return make_string (p, end - p);
}

char *
file_name_as_directory (out, in)
     char *out, *in;
{
  int size = strlen (in) - 1;

  strcpy (out, in);

#ifdef VMS
  /* Is it already a directory string? */
  if (in[size] == ':' || in[size] == ']' || in[size] == '>')
    return out;
  /* Is it a VMS directory file name?  If so, hack VMS syntax.  */
  else if (! index (in, '/')
	   && ((size > 3 && ! strcmp (&in[size - 3], ".DIR"))
	       || (size > 3 && ! strcmp (&in[size - 3], ".dir"))
	       || (size > 5 && (! strncmp (&in[size - 5], ".DIR", 4)
				|| ! strncmp (&in[size - 5], ".dir", 4))
		   && (in[size - 1] == '.' || in[size - 1] == ';')
		   && in[size] == '1')))
    {
      register char *p, *dot;
      char brack;

      /* x.dir -> [.x]
	 dir:x.dir --> dir:[x]
	 dir:[x]y.dir --> dir:[x.y] */
      p = in + size;
      while (p != in && *p != ':' && *p != '>' && *p != ']') p--;
      if (p != in)
	{
	  strncpy (out, in, p - in);
	  out[p - in] = '\0';
	  if (*p == ':')
	    {
	      brack = ']';
	      strcat (out, ":[");
	    }
	  else
	    {
	      brack = *p;
	      strcat (out, ".");
	    }
	  p++;
	}
      else
	{
	  brack = ']';
	  strcpy (out, "[.");
	}
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      dot = index (p, '.');
      if (dot)
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	{
	  /* blindly remove any extension */
	  size = strlen (out) + (dot - p);
	  strncat (out, p, dot - p);
	}
      else
	{
	  strcat (out, p);
	  size = strlen (out);
	}
      out[size++] = brack;
      out[size] = '\0';
    }
#else /* not VMS */
  /* For Unix syntax, Append a slash if necessary */
  if (out[size] != '/')
    strcat (out, "/");
#endif /* not VMS */
  return out;
}

DEFUN ("file-name-as-directory", Ffile_name_as_directory,
       Sfile_name_as_directory, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return a string representing file FILENAME interpreted as a directory.\n\
This operation exists because a directory is also a file, but its name as\n\
a directory is different from its name as a file.\n\
The result can be used as the value of `default-directory'\n\
or passed as second argument to `expand-file-name'.\n\
For a Unix-syntax file name, just appends a slash.\n\
On VMS, converts \"[X]FOO.DIR\" to \"[X.FOO]\", etc.")
  (file)
     Lisp_Object file;
{
  char *buf;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (file, 0);
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  if (NILP (file))
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    return Qnil;
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (file);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qfile_name_as_directory, file);

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  buf = (char *) alloca (XSTRING (file)->size + 10);
  return build_string (file_name_as_directory (buf, XSTRING (file)->data));
}

/*
 * Convert from directory name to filename.
 * On VMS:
 *       xyzzy:[mukesh.emacs] => xyzzy:[mukesh]emacs.dir.1
 *       xyzzy:[mukesh] => xyzzy:[000000]mukesh.dir.1
 * On UNIX, it's simple: just make sure there is a terminating /

 * Value is nonzero if the string output is different from the input.
 */

directory_file_name (src, dst)
     char *src, *dst;
{
  long slen;
#ifdef VMS
  long rlen;
  char * ptr, * rptr;
  char bracket;
  struct FAB fab = cc$rms_fab;
  struct NAM nam = cc$rms_nam;
  char esa[NAM$C_MAXRSS];
#endif /* VMS */

  slen = strlen (src);
#ifdef VMS
  if (! index (src, '/')
      && (src[slen - 1] == ']'
	  || src[slen - 1] == ':'
	  || src[slen - 1] == '>'))
    {
      /* VMS style - convert [x.y.z] to [x.y]z, [x] to [000000]x */
      fab.fab$l_fna = src;
      fab.fab$b_fns = slen;
      fab.fab$l_nam = &nam;
      fab.fab$l_fop = FAB$M_NAM;

      nam.nam$l_esa = esa;
      nam.nam$b_ess = sizeof esa;
      nam.nam$b_nop |= NAM$M_SYNCHK;

      /* We call SYS$PARSE to handle such things as [--] for us. */
      if (SYS$PARSE(&fab, 0, 0) == RMS$_NORMAL)
	{
	  slen = nam.nam$b_esl;
	  if (esa[slen - 1] == ';' && esa[slen - 2] == '.')
	    slen -= 2;
	  esa[slen] = '\0';
	  src = esa;
	}
      if (src[slen - 1] != ']' && src[slen - 1] != '>')
	{
	  /* what about when we have logical_name:???? */
	  if (src[slen - 1] == ':')
	    {			/* Xlate logical name and see what we get */
	      ptr = strcpy (dst, src); /* upper case for getenv */
	      while (*ptr)
		{
		  if ('a' <= *ptr && *ptr <= 'z')
		    *ptr -= 040;
		  ptr++;
		}
	      dst[slen - 1] = 0;	/* remove colon */
	      if (!(src = egetenv (dst)))
		return 0;
	      /* should we jump to the beginning of this procedure?
		 Good points: allows us to use logical names that xlate
		 to Unix names,
		 Bad points: can be a problem if we just translated to a device
		 name...
		 For now, I'll punt and always expect VMS names, and hope for
		 the best! */
	      slen = strlen (src);
	      if (src[slen - 1] != ']' && src[slen - 1] != '>')
		{ /* no recursion here! */
		  strcpy (dst, src);
		  return 0;
		}
	    }
	  else
	    {		/* not a directory spec */
	      strcpy (dst, src);
	      return 0;
	    }
	}
      bracket = src[slen - 1];

      /* If bracket is ']' or '>', bracket - 2 is the corresponding
	 opening bracket.  */
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      ptr = index (src, bracket - 2);
      if (ptr == 0)
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	{ /* no opening bracket */
	  strcpy (dst, src);
	  return 0;
	}
      if (!(rptr = rindex (src, '.')))
	rptr = ptr;
      slen = rptr - src;
      strncpy (dst, src, slen);
      dst[slen] = '\0';
      if (*rptr == '.')
	{
	  dst[slen++] = bracket;
	  dst[slen] = '\0';
	}
      else
	{
	  /* If we have the top-level of a rooted directory (i.e. xx:[000000]),
	     then translate the device and recurse. */
	  if (dst[slen - 1] == ':'
	      && dst[slen - 2] != ':'	/* skip decnet nodes */
	      && strcmp(src + slen, "[000000]") == 0)
	    {
	      dst[slen - 1] = '\0';
	      if ((ptr = egetenv (dst))
		  && (rlen = strlen (ptr) - 1) > 0
		  && (ptr[rlen] == ']' || ptr[rlen] == '>')
		  && ptr[rlen - 1] == '.')
		{
		  ptr[rlen - 1] = ']';
		  ptr[rlen] = '\0';
		  return directory_file_name (ptr, dst);
		}
	      else
		dst[slen - 1] = ':';
	    }
	  strcat (dst, "[000000]");
	  slen += 8;
	}
      rptr++;
      rlen = strlen (rptr) - 1;
      strncat (dst, rptr, rlen);
      dst[slen + rlen] = '\0';
      strcat (dst, ".DIR.1");
      return 1;
    }
#endif /* VMS */
  /* Process as Unix format: just remove any final slash.
     But leave "/" unchanged; do not change it to "".  */
  strcpy (dst, src);
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  if (slen > 1 && dst[slen - 1] == '/')
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    dst[slen - 1] = 0;
  return 1;
}

DEFUN ("directory-file-name", Fdirectory_file_name, Sdirectory_file_name,
  1, 1, 0,
  "Returns the file name of the directory named DIR.\n\
This is the name of the file that holds the data for the directory DIR.\n\
This operation exists because a directory is also a file, but its name as\n\
a directory is different from its name as a file.\n\
In Unix-syntax, this function just removes the final slash.\n\
On VMS, given a VMS-syntax directory name such as \"[X.Y]\",\n\
it returns a file name such as \"[X]Y.DIR.1\".")
  (directory)
     Lisp_Object directory;
{
  char *buf;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (directory, 0);

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  if (NILP (directory))
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    return Qnil;
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (directory);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qdirectory_file_name, directory);

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#ifdef VMS
  /* 20 extra chars is insufficient for VMS, since we might perform a
     logical name translation. an equivalence string can be up to 255
     chars long, so grab that much extra space...  - sss */
  buf = (char *) alloca (XSTRING (directory)->size + 20 + 255);
#else
  buf = (char *) alloca (XSTRING (directory)->size + 20);
#endif
  directory_file_name (XSTRING (directory)->data, buf);
  return build_string (buf);
}

DEFUN ("make-temp-name", Fmake_temp_name, Smake_temp_name, 1, 1, 0,
  "Generate temporary file name (string) starting with PREFIX (a string).\n\
The Emacs process number forms part of the result,\n\
so there is no danger of generating a name being used by another process.")
  (prefix)
     Lisp_Object prefix;
{
  Lisp_Object val;
  val = concat2 (prefix, build_string ("XXXXXX"));
  mktemp (XSTRING (val)->data);
  return val;
}

DEFUN ("expand-file-name", Fexpand_file_name, Sexpand_file_name, 1, 2, 0,
  "Convert FILENAME to absolute, and canonicalize it.\n\
Second arg DEFAULT is directory to start with if FILENAME is relative\n\
 (does not start with slash); if DEFAULT is nil or missing,\n\
the current buffer's value of default-directory is used.\n\
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Path components that are `.' are removed, and \n\
path components followed by `..' are removed, along with the `..' itself;\n\
note that these simplifications are done without checking the resulting\n\
paths in the file system.\n\
An initial `~/' expands to your home directory.\n\
An initial `~USER/' expands to USER's home directory.\n\
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See also the function `substitute-in-file-name'.")
     (name, defalt)
     Lisp_Object name, defalt;
{
  unsigned char *nm;
  
  register unsigned char *newdir, *p, *o;
  int tlen;
  unsigned char *target;
  struct passwd *pw;
  int lose;
#ifdef VMS
  unsigned char * colon = 0;
  unsigned char * close = 0;
  unsigned char * slash = 0;
  unsigned char * brack = 0;
  int lbrack = 0, rbrack = 0;
  int dots = 0;
#endif /* VMS */
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (name, 0);

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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (name);
  if (!NILP (handler))
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    return call3 (handler, Qexpand_file_name, name, defalt);
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#ifdef VMS
  /* Filenames on VMS are always upper case.  */
  name = Fupcase (name);
#endif

  nm = XSTRING (name)->data;
  
  /* If nm is absolute, flush ...// and detect /./ and /../.
     If no /./ or /../ we can return right away. */
  if (
      nm[0] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
      || index (nm, ':')
#endif /* VMS */
      )
    {
      p = nm;
      lose = 0;
      while (*p)
	{
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '/'
#ifdef APOLLO
	      /* // at start of filename is meaningful on Apollo system */
	      && nm != p
#endif /* APOLLO */
	      )
	    nm = p + 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '.'
	      && (p[2] == '/' || p[2] == 0
		  || (p[2] == '.' && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))))
	    lose = 1;
#ifdef VMS
	  if (p[0] == '\\')
	    lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/') {
	    /* if dev:[dir]/, move nm to / */
	    if (!slash && p > nm && (brack || colon)) {
	      nm = (brack ? brack + 1 : colon + 1);
	      lbrack = rbrack = 0;
	      brack = 0;
	      colon = 0;
	    }
	    slash = p;
	  }
	  if (p[0] == '-')
#ifndef VMS4_4
	    /* VMS pre V4.4,convert '-'s in filenames. */
	    if (lbrack == rbrack)
	      {
		if (dots < 2)	/* this is to allow negative version numbers */
		  p[0] = '_';
	      }
	    else
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	      if (lbrack > rbrack &&
		  ((p[-1] == '.' || p[-1] == '[' || p[-1] == '<') &&
		   (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>')))
		lose = 1;
#ifndef VMS4_4
	      else
		p[0] = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  /* count open brackets, reset close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == '[' || p[0] == '<')
	    lbrack++, brack = 0;
	  /* count close brackets, set close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>')
	    rbrack++, brack = p;
	  /* detect ][ or >< */
	  if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && (p[1] == '[' || p[1] == '<'))
	    lose = 1;
	  if ((p[0] == ':' || p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == ':' && (colon || slash))
	    /* if dev1:[dir]dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    if (brack)
	      {
		nm = brack + 1;
		brack = 0;
	      }
	    /* if /pathname/dev:, move nm to dev: */
	    else if (slash)
	      nm = slash + 1;
	    /* if node::dev:, move colon following dev */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] == ':')
	      colon = p;
	    /* if dev1:dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] != ':')
	      {
		nm = colon + 1;
		colon = 0;
	      }
	  if (p[0] == ':' && !colon)
	    {
	      if (p[1] == ':')
		p++;
	      colon = p;
	    }
	  if (lbrack == rbrack)
	    if (p[0] == ';')
	      dots = 2;
	    else if (p[0] == '.')
	      dots++;
#endif /* VMS */
	  p++;
	}
      if (!lose)
	{
#ifdef VMS
	  if (index (nm, '/'))
	    return build_string (sys_translate_unix (nm));
#endif /* VMS */
	  if (nm == XSTRING (name)->data)
	    return name;
	  return build_string (nm);
	}
    }

  /* Now determine directory to start with and put it in newdir */

  newdir = 0;

  if (nm[0] == '~')		/* prefix ~ */
    if (nm[1] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
	|| nm[1] == ':'
#endif /* VMS */
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	|| nm[1] == 0)/* ~ by itself */
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      {
	if (!(newdir = (unsigned char *) egetenv ("HOME")))
	  newdir = (unsigned char *) "";
	nm++;
#ifdef VMS
	nm++;			/* Don't leave the slash in nm.  */
#endif /* VMS */
      }
    else			/* ~user/filename */
      {
	for (p = nm; *p && (*p != '/'
#ifdef VMS
			    && *p != ':'
#endif /* VMS */
			    ); p++);
	o = (unsigned char *) alloca (p - nm + 1);
	bcopy ((char *) nm, o, p - nm);
	o [p - nm] = 0;

	pw = (struct passwd *) getpwnam (o + 1);
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	if (pw)
	  {
	    newdir = (unsigned char *) pw -> pw_dir;
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#ifdef VMS
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	    nm = p + 1;		/* skip the terminator */
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#else
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	    nm = p;
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#endif /* VMS */
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	  }

	/* If we don't find a user of that name, leave the name
	   unchanged; don't move nm forward to p.  */
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      }

  if (nm[0] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
      && !index (nm, ':')
#endif /* not VMS */
      && !newdir)
    {
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      if (NILP (defalt))
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	defalt = current_buffer->directory;
      CHECK_STRING (defalt, 1);
      newdir = XSTRING (defalt)->data;
    }

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  if (newdir != 0)
    {
      /* Get rid of any slash at the end of newdir.  */
      int length = strlen (newdir);
      if (newdir[length - 1] == '/')
	{
	  unsigned char *temp = (unsigned char *) alloca (length);
	  bcopy (newdir, temp, length - 1);
	  temp[length - 1] = 0;
	  newdir = temp;
	}
      tlen = length + 1;
    }
  else
    tlen = 0;
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  /* Now concatenate the directory and name to new space in the stack frame */
  tlen += strlen (nm) + 1;
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  target = (unsigned char *) alloca (tlen);
  *target = 0;

  if (newdir)
    {
#ifndef VMS
      if (nm[0] == 0 || nm[0] == '/')
	strcpy (target, newdir);
      else
#endif
      file_name_as_directory (target, newdir);
    }

  strcat (target, nm);
#ifdef VMS
  if (index (target, '/'))
    strcpy (target, sys_translate_unix (target));
#endif /* VMS */

  /* Now canonicalize by removing /. and /foo/.. if they appear */

  p = target;
  o = target;

  while (*p)
    {
#ifdef VMS
      if (*p != ']' && *p != '>' && *p != '-')
	{
	  if (*p == '\\')
	    p++;
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[0] == p[1] + 2)
	/* brackets are offset from each other by 2 */
	{
	  p += 2;
	  if (*p != '.' && *p != '-' && o[-1] != '.')
	    /* convert [foo][bar] to [bar] */
	    while (o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<')
	      o--;
	  else if (*p == '-' && *o != '.')
	    *--p = '.';
	}
      else if (p[0] == '-' && o[-1] == '.' &&
	       (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>'))
	/* flush .foo.- ; leave - if stopped by '[' or '<' */
	{
	  do
	    o--;
	  while (o[-1] != '.' && o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<');
	  if (p[1] == '.')	/* foo.-.bar ==> bar*/
	    p += 2;
	  else if (o[-1] == '.') /* '.foo.-]' ==> ']' */
	    p++, o--;
	  /* else [foo.-] ==> [-] */
	}
      else
	{
#ifndef VMS4_4
	  if (*p == '-' &&
	      o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<' && o[-1] != '.' &&
	      p[1] != ']' && p[1] != '>' && p[1] != '.')
	    *p = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#else /* not VMS */
      if (*p != '/')
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if (!strncmp (p, "//", 2)
#ifdef APOLLO
	       /* // at start of filename is meaningful in Apollo system */
	       && o != target
#endif /* APOLLO */
	       )
	{
	  o = target;
	  p++;
	}
      else if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '.' &&
	       (p[2] == '/' || p[2] == 0))
	p += 2;
      else if (!strncmp (p, "/..", 3)
	       /* `/../' is the "superroot" on certain file systems.  */
	       && o != target
	       && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))
	{
	  while (o != target && *--o != '/')
	    ;
#ifdef APOLLO
	  if (o == target + 1 && o[-1] == '/' && o[0] == '/')
	    ++o;
	  else
#endif /* APOLLO */
	  if (o == target && *o == '/')
	    ++o;
	  p += 3;
	}
      else
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#endif /* not VMS */
    }

  return make_string (target, o - target);
}
#if 0
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/* Changed this DEFUN to a DEAFUN, so as not to confuse `make-docfile'.
DEAFUN ("expand-file-name", Fexpand_file_name, Sexpand_file_name, 1, 2, 0,
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  "Convert FILENAME to absolute, and canonicalize it.\n\
Second arg DEFAULT is directory to start with if FILENAME is relative\n\
 (does not start with slash); if DEFAULT is nil or missing,\n\
the current buffer's value of default-directory is used.\n\
Filenames containing `.' or `..' as components are simplified;\n\
initial `~/' expands to your home directory.\n\
See also the function `substitute-in-file-name'.")
     (name, defalt)
     Lisp_Object name, defalt;
{
  unsigned char *nm;
  
  register unsigned char *newdir, *p, *o;
  int tlen;
  unsigned char *target;
  struct passwd *pw;
  int lose;
#ifdef VMS
  unsigned char * colon = 0;
  unsigned char * close = 0;
  unsigned char * slash = 0;
  unsigned char * brack = 0;
  int lbrack = 0, rbrack = 0;
  int dots = 0;
#endif /* VMS */
  
  CHECK_STRING (name, 0);

#ifdef VMS
  /* Filenames on VMS are always upper case.  */
  name = Fupcase (name);
#endif

  nm = XSTRING (name)->data;
  
  /* If nm is absolute, flush ...// and detect /./ and /../.
     If no /./ or /../ we can return right away. */
  if (
      nm[0] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
      || index (nm, ':')
#endif /* VMS */
      )
    {
      p = nm;
      lose = 0;
      while (*p)
	{
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '/'
#ifdef APOLLO
	      /* // at start of filename is meaningful on Apollo system */
	      && nm != p
#endif /* APOLLO */
	      )
	    nm = p + 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '.'
	      && (p[2] == '/' || p[2] == 0
		  || (p[2] == '.' && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))))
	    lose = 1;
#ifdef VMS
	  if (p[0] == '\\')
	    lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == '/') {
	    /* if dev:[dir]/, move nm to / */
	    if (!slash && p > nm && (brack || colon)) {
	      nm = (brack ? brack + 1 : colon + 1);
	      lbrack = rbrack = 0;
	      brack = 0;
	      colon = 0;
	    }
	    slash = p;
	  }
	  if (p[0] == '-')
#ifndef VMS4_4
	    /* VMS pre V4.4,convert '-'s in filenames. */
	    if (lbrack == rbrack)
	      {
		if (dots < 2)	/* this is to allow negative version numbers */
		  p[0] = '_';
	      }
	    else
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	      if (lbrack > rbrack &&
		  ((p[-1] == '.' || p[-1] == '[' || p[-1] == '<') &&
		   (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>')))
		lose = 1;
#ifndef VMS4_4
	      else
		p[0] = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  /* count open brackets, reset close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == '[' || p[0] == '<')
	    lbrack++, brack = 0;
	  /* count close brackets, set close bracket pointer */
	  if (p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>')
	    rbrack++, brack = p;
	  /* detect ][ or >< */
	  if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && (p[1] == '[' || p[1] == '<'))
	    lose = 1;
	  if ((p[0] == ':' || p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[1] == '~')
	    nm = p + 1, lose = 1;
	  if (p[0] == ':' && (colon || slash))
	    /* if dev1:[dir]dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    if (brack)
	      {
		nm = brack + 1;
		brack = 0;
	      }
	    /* if /pathname/dev:, move nm to dev: */
	    else if (slash)
	      nm = slash + 1;
	    /* if node::dev:, move colon following dev */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] == ':')
	      colon = p;
	    /* if dev1:dev2:, move nm to dev2: */
	    else if (colon && colon[-1] != ':')
	      {
		nm = colon + 1;
		colon = 0;
	      }
	  if (p[0] == ':' && !colon)
	    {
	      if (p[1] == ':')
		p++;
	      colon = p;
	    }
	  if (lbrack == rbrack)
	    if (p[0] == ';')
	      dots = 2;
	    else if (p[0] == '.')
	      dots++;
#endif /* VMS */
	  p++;
	}
      if (!lose)
	{
#ifdef VMS
	  if (index (nm, '/'))
	    return build_string (sys_translate_unix (nm));
#endif /* VMS */
	  if (nm == XSTRING (name)->data)
	    return name;
	  return build_string (nm);
	}
    }

  /* Now determine directory to start with and put it in NEWDIR */

  newdir = 0;

  if (nm[0] == '~')		/* prefix ~ */
    if (nm[1] == '/'
#ifdef VMS
	|| nm[1] == ':'
#endif /* VMS */
	|| nm[1] == 0)/* ~/filename */
      {
	if (!(newdir = (unsigned char *) egetenv ("HOME")))
	  newdir = (unsigned char *) "";
	nm++;
#ifdef VMS
	nm++;			/* Don't leave the slash in nm.  */
#endif /* VMS */
      }
    else  /* ~user/filename */
      {
	/* Get past ~ to user */
	unsigned char *user = nm + 1;
	/* Find end of name. */
	unsigned char *ptr = (unsigned char *) index (user, '/');
	int len = ptr ? ptr - user : strlen (user);
#ifdef VMS
	unsigned char *ptr1 = index (user, ':');
	if (ptr1 != 0 && ptr1 - user < len)
	  len = ptr1 - user;
#endif				/* VMS */
	/* Copy the user name into temp storage. */
	o = (unsigned char *) alloca (len + 1);
	bcopy ((char *) user, o, len);
	o[len] = 0;

	/* Look up the user name. */
	pw = (struct passwd *) getpwnam (o + 1);
	if (!pw)
	  error ("\"%s\" isn't a registered user", o + 1);

	newdir = (unsigned char *) pw->pw_dir;

	/* Discard the user name from NM.  */
	nm += len;
      }

  if (nm[0] != '/'
#ifdef VMS
      && !index (nm, ':')
#endif /* not VMS */
      && !newdir)
    {
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      if (NILP (defalt))
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	defalt = current_buffer->directory;
      CHECK_STRING (defalt, 1);
      newdir = XSTRING (defalt)->data;
    }

  /* Now concatenate the directory and name to new space in the stack frame */

  tlen = (newdir ? strlen (newdir) + 1 : 0) + strlen (nm) + 1;
  target = (unsigned char *) alloca (tlen);
  *target = 0;

  if (newdir)
    {
#ifndef VMS
      if (nm[0] == 0 || nm[0] == '/')
	strcpy (target, newdir);
      else
#endif
      file_name_as_directory (target, newdir);
    }

  strcat (target, nm);
#ifdef VMS
  if (index (target, '/'))
    strcpy (target, sys_translate_unix (target));
#endif /* VMS */

  /* Now canonicalize by removing /. and /foo/.. if they appear */

  p = target;
  o = target;

  while (*p)
    {
#ifdef VMS
      if (*p != ']' && *p != '>' && *p != '-')
	{
	  if (*p == '\\')
	    p++;
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if ((p[0] == ']' || p[0] == '>') && p[0] == p[1] + 2)
	/* brackets are offset from each other by 2 */
	{
	  p += 2;
	  if (*p != '.' && *p != '-' && o[-1] != '.')
	    /* convert [foo][bar] to [bar] */
	    while (o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<')
	      o--;
	  else if (*p == '-' && *o != '.')
	    *--p = '.';
	}
      else if (p[0] == '-' && o[-1] == '.' &&
	       (p[1] == '.' || p[1] == ']' || p[1] == '>'))
	/* flush .foo.- ; leave - if stopped by '[' or '<' */
	{
	  do
	    o--;
	  while (o[-1] != '.' && o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<');
	  if (p[1] == '.')	/* foo.-.bar ==> bar*/
	    p += 2;
	  else if (o[-1] == '.') /* '.foo.-]' ==> ']' */
	    p++, o--;
	  /* else [foo.-] ==> [-] */
	}
      else
	{
#ifndef VMS4_4
	  if (*p == '-' &&
	      o[-1] != '[' && o[-1] != '<' && o[-1] != '.' &&
	      p[1] != ']' && p[1] != '>' && p[1] != '.')
	    *p = '_';
#endif /* VMS4_4 */
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#else /* not VMS */
      if (*p != '/')
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
      else if (!strncmp (p, "//", 2)
#ifdef APOLLO
	       /* // at start of filename is meaningful in Apollo system */
	       && o != target
#endif /* APOLLO */
	       )
	{
	  o = target;
	  p++;
	}
      else if (p[0] == '/' && p[1] == '.' &&
	       (p[2] == '/' || p[2] == 0))
	p += 2;
      else if (!strncmp (p, "/..", 3)
	       /* `/../' is the "superroot" on certain file systems.  */
	       && o != target
	       && (p[3] == '/' || p[3] == 0))
	{
	  while (o != target && *--o != '/')
	    ;
#ifdef APOLLO
	  if (o == target + 1 && o[-1] == '/' && o[0] == '/')
	    ++o;
	  else
#endif /* APOLLO */
	  if (o == target && *o == '/')
	    ++o;
	  p += 3;
	}
      else
 	{
	  *o++ = *p++;
	}
#endif /* not VMS */
    }

  return make_string (target, o - target);
}
#endif

DEFUN ("substitute-in-file-name", Fsubstitute_in_file_name,
  Ssubstitute_in_file_name, 1, 1, 0,
  "Substitute environment variables referred to in FILENAME.\n\
`$FOO' where FOO is an environment variable name means to substitute\n\
the value of that variable.  The variable name should be terminated\n\
with a character not a letter, digit or underscore; otherwise, enclose\n\
the entire variable name in braces.\n\
If `/~' appears, all of FILENAME through that `/' is discarded.\n\n\
On VMS, `$' substitution is not done; this function does little and only\n\
duplicates what `expand-file-name' does.")
  (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
  unsigned char *nm;

  register unsigned char *s, *p, *o, *x, *endp;
  unsigned char *target;
  int total = 0;
  int substituted = 0;
  unsigned char *xnm;

  CHECK_STRING (string, 0);

  nm = XSTRING (string)->data;
  endp = nm + XSTRING (string)->size;

  /* If /~ or // appears, discard everything through first slash. */

  for (p = nm; p != endp; p++)
    {
      if ((p[0] == '~' ||
#ifdef APOLLO
	   /* // at start of file name is meaningful in Apollo system */
	   (p[0] == '/' && p - 1 != nm)
#else /* not APOLLO */
	   p[0] == '/'
#endif /* not APOLLO */
	   )
	  && p != nm &&
#ifdef VMS
	  (p[-1] == ':' || p[-1] == ']' || p[-1] == '>' ||
#endif /* VMS */
	  p[-1] == '/')
#ifdef VMS
	  )
#endif /* VMS */
	{
	  nm = p;
	  substituted = 1;
	}
    }

#ifdef VMS
  return build_string (nm);
#else

  /* See if any variables are substituted into the string
     and find the total length of their values in `total' */

  for (p = nm; p != endp;)
    if (*p != '$')
      p++;
    else
      {
	p++;
	if (p == endp)
	  goto badsubst;
	else if (*p == '$')
	  {
	    /* "$$" means a single "$" */
	    p++;
	    total -= 1;
	    substituted = 1;
	    continue;
	  }
	else if (*p == '{')
	  {
	    o = ++p;
	    while (p != endp && *p != '}') p++;
	    if (*p != '}') goto missingclose;
	    s = p;
	  }
	else
	  {
	    o = p;
	    while (p != endp && (isalnum (*p) || *p == '_')) p++;
	    s = p;
	  }

	/* Copy out the variable name */
	target = (unsigned char *) alloca (s - o + 1);
	strncpy (target, o, s - o);
	target[s - o] = 0;

	/* Get variable value */
	o = (unsigned char *) egetenv (target);
/* The presence of this code makes vax 5.0 crash, for reasons yet unknown */
#if 0
#ifdef USG
	if (!o && !strcmp (target, "USER"))
	  o = egetenv ("LOGNAME");
#endif /* USG */
#endif /* 0 */
	if (!o) goto badvar;
	total += strlen (o);
	substituted = 1;
      }

  if (!substituted)
    return string;

  /* If substitution required, recopy the string and do it */
  /* Make space in stack frame for the new copy */
  xnm = (unsigned char *) alloca (XSTRING (string)->size + total + 1);
  x = xnm;

  /* Copy the rest of the name through, replacing $ constructs with values */
  for (p = nm; *p;)
    if (*p != '$')
      *x++ = *p++;
    else
      {
	p++;
	if (p == endp)
	  goto badsubst;
	else if (*p == '$')
	  {
	    *x++ = *p++;
	    continue;
	  }
	else if (*p == '{')
	  {
	    o = ++p;
	    while (p != endp && *p != '}') p++;
	    if (*p != '}') goto missingclose;
	    s = p++;
	  }
	else
	  {
	    o = p;
	    while (p != endp && (isalnum (*p) || *p == '_')) p++;
	    s = p;
	  }

	/* Copy out the variable name */
	target = (unsigned char *) alloca (s - o + 1);
	strncpy (target, o, s - o);
	target[s - o] = 0;

	/* Get variable value */
	o = (unsigned char *) egetenv (target);
/* The presence of this code makes vax 5.0 crash, for reasons yet unknown */
#if 0
#ifdef USG
	if (!o && !strcmp (target, "USER"))
	  o = egetenv ("LOGNAME");
#endif /* USG */
#endif /* 0 */
	if (!o)
	  goto badvar;

	strcpy (x, o);
	x += strlen (o);
      }

  *x = 0;

  /* If /~ or // appears, discard everything through first slash. */

  for (p = xnm; p != x; p++)
    if ((p[0] == '~' ||
#ifdef APOLLO
	 /* // at start of file name is meaningful in Apollo system */
	 (p[0] == '/' && p - 1 != xnm)
#else /* not APOLLO */
	 p[0] == '/'
#endif /* not APOLLO */
	 )
	&& p != nm && p[-1] == '/')
      xnm = p;

  return make_string (xnm, x - xnm);

 badsubst:
  error ("Bad format environment-variable substitution");
 missingclose:
  error ("Missing \"}\" in environment-variable substitution");
 badvar:
  error ("Substituting nonexistent environment variable \"%s\"", target);

  /* NOTREACHED */
#endif /* not VMS */
}

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/* A slightly faster and more convenient way to get
   (directory-file-name (expand-file-name FOO)).  The return value may
   have had its last character zapped with a '\0' character, meaning
   that it is acceptable to system calls, but not to other lisp
   functions.  Callers should make sure that the return value doesn't
   escape.  */

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Lisp_Object
expand_and_dir_to_file (filename, defdir)
     Lisp_Object filename, defdir;
{
  register Lisp_Object abspath;

  abspath = Fexpand_file_name (filename, defdir);
#ifdef VMS
  {
    register int c = XSTRING (abspath)->data[XSTRING (abspath)->size - 1];
    if (c == ':' || c == ']' || c == '>')
      abspath = Fdirectory_file_name (abspath);
  }
#else
  /* Remove final slash, if any (unless path is root).
     stat behaves differently depending!  */
  if (XSTRING (abspath)->size > 1
      && XSTRING (abspath)->data[XSTRING (abspath)->size - 1] == '/')
    {
      if (EQ (abspath, filename))
	abspath = Fcopy_sequence (abspath);
      XSTRING (abspath)->data[XSTRING (abspath)->size - 1] = 0;
    }
#endif
  return abspath;
}

barf_or_query_if_file_exists (absname, querystring, interactive)
     Lisp_Object absname;
     unsigned char *querystring;
     int interactive;
{
  register Lisp_Object tem;
  struct gcpro gcpro1;

  if (access (XSTRING (absname)->data, 4) >= 0)
    {
      if (! interactive)
	Fsignal (Qfile_already_exists,
		 Fcons (build_string ("File already exists"),
			Fcons (absname, Qnil)));
      GCPRO1 (absname);
      tem = do_yes_or_no_p (format1 ("File %s already exists; %s anyway? ",
				     XSTRING (absname)->data, querystring));
      UNGCPRO;
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      if (NILP (tem))
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	Fsignal (Qfile_already_exists,
		 Fcons (build_string ("File already exists"),
			Fcons (absname, Qnil)));
    }
  return;
}

DEFUN ("copy-file", Fcopy_file, Scopy_file, 2, 4,
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  "fCopy file: \nFCopy %s to file: \np\nP",
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  "Copy FILE to NEWNAME.  Both args must be strings.\n\
Signals a `file-already-exists' error if file NEWNAME already exists,\n\
unless a third argument OK-IF-ALREADY-EXISTS is supplied and non-nil.\n\
A number as third arg means request confirmation if NEWNAME already exists.\n\
This is what happens in interactive use with M-x.\n\
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Fourth arg KEEP-TIME non-nil means give the new file the same\n\
last-modified time as the old one.  (This works on only some systems.)\n\
A prefix arg makes KEEP-TIME non-nil.")
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  (filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists, keep_date)
     Lisp_Object filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists, keep_date;
{
  int ifd, ofd, n;
  char buf[16 * 1024];
  struct stat st;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2;
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  int count = specpdl_ptr - specpdl;
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  GCPRO2 (filename, newname);
  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (newname, 1);
  filename = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
  newname = Fexpand_file_name (newname, Qnil);
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  /* If the input file name has special constructs in it,
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     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (filename);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call3 (handler, Qcopy_file, filename, newname);
  /* Likewise for output file name.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (newname);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call3 (handler, Qcopy_file, filename, newname);

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  if (NILP (ok_if_already_exists)
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      || XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int)
    barf_or_query_if_file_exists (newname, "copy to it",
				  XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int);

  ifd = open (XSTRING (filename)->data, 0);
  if (ifd < 0)
    report_file_error ("Opening input file", Fcons (filename, Qnil));

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  record_unwind_protect (close_file_unwind, make_number (ifd));

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#ifdef VMS
  /* Create the copy file with the same record format as the input file */
  ofd = sys_creat (XSTRING (newname)->data, 0666, ifd);
#else
  ofd = creat (XSTRING (newname)->data, 0666);
#endif /* VMS */
  if (ofd < 0)
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      report_file_error ("Opening output file", Fcons (newname, Qnil));
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  record_unwind_protect (close_file_unwind, make_number (ofd));
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  immediate_quit = 1;
  QUIT;
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  while ((n = read (ifd, buf, sizeof buf)) > 0)
    if (write (ofd, buf, n) != n)
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	report_file_error ("I/O error", Fcons (newname, Qnil));
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  immediate_quit = 0;
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  if (fstat (ifd, &st) >= 0)
    {
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      if (!NILP (keep_date))
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	{
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	  EMACS_TIME atime, mtime;
	  EMACS_SET_SECS_USECS (atime, st.st_atime, 0);
	  EMACS_SET_SECS_USECS (mtime, st.st_mtime, 0);
	  EMACS_SET_UTIMES (XSTRING (newname)->data, atime, mtime);
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	}
#ifdef APOLLO
      if (!egetenv ("USE_DOMAIN_ACLS"))
#endif
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	chmod (XSTRING (newname)->data, st.st_mode & 07777);
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    }

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  /* Discard the unwind protects.  */
  specpdl_ptr = specpdl + count;

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  close (ifd);
  if (close (ofd) < 0)
    report_file_error ("I/O error", Fcons (newname, Qnil));

  UNGCPRO;
  return Qnil;
}

DEFUN ("make-directory", Fmake_directory, Smake_directory, 1, 1, "FMake directory: ",
  "Create a directory.  One argument, a file name string.")
  (dirname)
     Lisp_Object dirname;
{
  unsigned char *dir;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (dirname, 0);
  dirname = Fexpand_file_name (dirname, Qnil);
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  handler = find_file_handler (dirname);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qmake_directory, dirname);
 
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  dir = XSTRING (dirname)->data;

  if (mkdir (dir, 0777) != 0)
    report_file_error ("Creating directory", Flist (1, &dirname));

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  return Qnil;
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}

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DEFUN ("delete-directory", Fdelete_directory, Sdelete_directory, 1, 1, "FDelete directory: ",
  "Delete a directory.  One argument, a file name string.")
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  (dirname)
     Lisp_Object dirname;
{
  unsigned char *dir;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (dirname, 0);
  dirname = Fexpand_file_name (dirname, Qnil);
  dir = XSTRING (dirname)->data;

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  handler = find_file_handler (dirname);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qdelete_directory, dirname);

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  if (rmdir (dir) != 0)
    report_file_error ("Removing directory", Flist (1, &dirname));

  return Qnil;
}

DEFUN ("delete-file", Fdelete_file, Sdelete_file, 1, 1, "fDelete file: ",
  "Delete specified file.  One argument, a file name string.\n\
If file has multiple names, it continues to exist with the other names.")
  (filename)
     Lisp_Object filename;
{
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  filename = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
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  handler = find_file_handler (filename);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call2 (handler, Qdelete_file, filename);

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  if (0 > unlink (XSTRING (filename)->data))
    report_file_error ("Removing old name", Flist (1, &filename));
  return Qnil;
}

DEFUN ("rename-file", Frename_file, Srename_file, 2, 3,
  "fRename file: \nFRename %s to file: \np",
  "Rename FILE as NEWNAME.  Both args strings.\n\
If file has names other than FILE, it continues to have those names.\n\
Signals a `file-already-exists' error if a file NEWNAME already exists\n\
unless optional third argument OK-IF-ALREADY-EXISTS is non-nil.\n\
A number as third arg means request confirmation if NEWNAME already exists.\n\
This is what happens in interactive use with M-x.")
  (filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists)
     Lisp_Object filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists;
{
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
  Lisp_Object args[2];
#endif
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2;

  GCPRO2 (filename, newname);
  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (newname, 1);
  filename = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
  newname = Fexpand_file_name (newname, Qnil);
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (filename);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call3 (handler, Qrename_file, filename, newname);

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  if (NILP (ok_if_already_exists)
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      || XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int)
    barf_or_query_if_file_exists (newname, "rename to it",
				  XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int);
#ifndef BSD4_1
  if (0 > rename (XSTRING (filename)->data, XSTRING (newname)->data))
#else
  if (0 > link (XSTRING (filename)->data, XSTRING (newname)->data)
      || 0 > unlink (XSTRING (filename)->data))
#endif
    {
      if (errno == EXDEV)
	{
	  Fcopy_file (filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists, Qt);
	  Fdelete_file (filename);
	}
      else
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
	{
	  args[0] = filename;
	  args[1] = newname;
	  report_file_error ("Renaming", Flist (2, args));
	}
#else
	report_file_error ("Renaming", Flist (2, &filename));
#endif
    }
  UNGCPRO;
  return Qnil;
}

DEFUN ("add-name-to-file", Fadd_name_to_file, Sadd_name_to_file, 2, 3,
  "fAdd name to file: \nFName to add to %s: \np",
  "Give FILE additional name NEWNAME.  Both args strings.\n\
Signals a `file-already-exists' error if a file NEWNAME already exists\n\
unless optional third argument OK-IF-ALREADY-EXISTS is non-nil.\n\
A number as third arg means request confirmation if NEWNAME already exists.\n\
This is what happens in interactive use with M-x.")
  (filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists)
     Lisp_Object filename, newname, ok_if_already_exists;
{
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
  Lisp_Object args[2];
#endif
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2;

  GCPRO2 (filename, newname);
  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (newname, 1);
  filename = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
  newname = Fexpand_file_name (newname, Qnil);
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (filename);
  if (!NILP (handler))
    return call3 (handler, Qadd_name_to_file, filename, newname);

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  if (NILP (ok_if_already_exists)
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      || XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int)
    barf_or_query_if_file_exists (newname, "make it a new name",
				  XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int);
  unlink (XSTRING (newname)->data);
  if (0 > link (XSTRING (filename)->data, XSTRING (newname)->data))
    {
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
      args[0] = filename;
      args[1] = newname;
      report_file_error ("Adding new name", Flist (2, args));
#else
      report_file_error ("Adding new name", Flist (2, &filename));
#endif
    }

  UNGCPRO;
  return Qnil;
}

#ifdef S_IFLNK
DEFUN ("make-symbolic-link", Fmake_symbolic_link, Smake_symbolic_link, 2, 3,
  "FMake symbolic link to file: \nFMake symbolic link to file %s: \np",
  "Make a symbolic link to FILENAME, named LINKNAME.  Both args strings.\n\
Signals a `file-already-exists' error if a file NEWNAME already exists\n\
unless optional third argument OK-IF-ALREADY-EXISTS is non-nil.\n\
A number as third arg means request confirmation if NEWNAME already exists.\n\
This happens for interactive use with M-x.")
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  (filename, linkname, ok_if_already_exists)
     Lisp_Object filename, linkname, ok_if_already_exists;
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{
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
  Lisp_Object args[2];
#endif
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2;

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  GCPRO2 (filename, linkname);
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  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
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  CHECK_STRING (linkname, 1);
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#if 0 /* This made it impossible to make a link to a relative name.  */
  filename = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
#endif
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  linkname = Fexpand_file_name (linkname, Qnil);
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
  handler = find_file_handler (filename);
  if (!NILP (handler))
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    return call3 (handler, Qmake_symbolic_link, filename, linkname);
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  if (NILP (ok_if_already_exists)
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      || XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int)
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    barf_or_query_if_file_exists (linkname, "make it a link",
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				  XTYPE (ok_if_already_exists) == Lisp_Int);
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  if (0 > symlink (XSTRING (filename)->data, XSTRING (linkname)->data))
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    {
      /* If we didn't complain already, silently delete existing file.  */
      if (errno == EEXIST)
	{
	  unlink (XSTRING (filename)->data);
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	  if (0 <= symlink (XSTRING (filename)->data, XSTRING (linkname)->data))
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	    return Qnil;
	}

#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
      args[0] = filename;
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      args[1] = linkname;
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      report_file_error ("Making symbolic link", Flist (2, args));
#else
      report_file_error ("Making symbolic link", Flist (2, &filename));
#endif
    }
  UNGCPRO;
  return Qnil;
}
#endif /* S_IFLNK */

#ifdef VMS

DEFUN ("define-logical-name", Fdefine_logical_name, Sdefine_logical_name,
       2, 2, "sDefine logical name: \nsDefine logical name %s as: ",
  "Define the job-wide logical name NAME to have the value STRING.\n\
If STRING is nil or a null string, the logical name NAME is deleted.")
  (varname, string)
     Lisp_Object varname;
     Lisp_Object string;
{
  CHECK_STRING (varname, 0);
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  if (NILP (string))
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    delete_logical_name (XSTRING (varname)->data);
  else
    {
      CHECK_STRING (string, 1);

      if (XSTRING (string)->size == 0)
        delete_logical_name (XSTRING (varname)->data);
      else
        define_logical_name (XSTRING (varname)->data, XSTRING (string)->data);
    }

  return string;
}
#endif /* VMS */

#ifdef HPUX_NET

DEFUN ("sysnetunam", Fsysnetunam, Ssysnetunam, 2, 2, 0,
       "Open a network connection to PATH using LOGIN as the login string.")
     (path, login)
     Lisp_Object path, login;
{
  int netresult;
  
  CHECK_STRING (path, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (login, 0);  
  
  netresult = netunam (XSTRING (path)->data, XSTRING (login)->data);

  if (netresult == -1)
    return Qnil;
  else
    return Qt;
}
#endif /* HPUX_NET */

DEFUN ("file-name-absolute-p", Ffile_name_absolute_p, Sfile_name_absolute_p,
       1, 1, 0,
       "Return t if file FILENAME specifies an absolute path name.\n\
On Unix, this is a name starting with a `/' or a `~'.")
     (filename)
     Lisp_Object filename;
{
  unsigned char *ptr;

  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  ptr = XSTRING (filename)->data;
  if (*ptr == '/' || *ptr == '~'
#ifdef VMS
/* ??? This criterion is probably wrong for '<'.  */
      || index (ptr, ':') || index (ptr, '<')
      || (*ptr == '[' && (ptr[1] != '-' || (ptr[2] != '.' && ptr[2] != ']'))
	  && ptr[1] != '.')
#endif /* VMS */
      )
    return Qt;
  else
    return Qnil;
}

DEFUN ("file-exists-p", Ffile_exists_p, Sfile_exists_p, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return t if file FILENAME exists.  (This does not mean you can read it.)\n\
See also `file-readable-p' and `file-attributes'.")
  (filename)
     Lisp_Object filename;
{
  Lisp_Object abspath;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  abspath = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = find_file_handler (abspath);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
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    return call2 (handler, Qfile_exists_p, abspath);
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  return (access (XSTRING (abspath)->data, 0) >= 0) ? Qt : Qnil;
}

DEFUN ("file-executable-p", Ffile_executable_p, Sfile_executable_p, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return t if FILENAME can be executed by you.\n\
For directories this means you can change to that directory.")
  (filename)
    Lisp_Object filename;

{
  Lisp_Object abspath;
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  Lisp_Object handler;
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  CHECK_STRING (filename, 0);
  abspath = Fexpand_file_name (filename, Qnil);
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  /* If the file name has special constructs in it,
     call the corresponding file handler.  */
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  handler = find_file_handler (abspath);
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  if (!NILP (handler))
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