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\input texinfo
@c %**start of header
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@setfilename ../../info/org
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@settitle The Org Manual
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@set VERSION 6.02b
@set DATE April 2008
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@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
* Org Mode: (org).      Outline-based notes management and organizer
@end direntry

@c Version and Contact Info
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@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
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@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
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@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
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@c %**end of header
@finalout

@c Macro definitions

@c Subheadings inside a table.
@macro tsubheading{text}
@ifinfo
@subsubheading \text\
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@copying
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This manual is for Org (version @value{VERSION}).
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Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Free Software Foundation
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@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.1 or
any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the
license is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation
License.''

(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have freedom to copy and modify
this GNU Manual, like GNU software.  Copies published by the Free
Software Foundation raise funds for GNU development.''
@end quotation
@end copying

@titlepage
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@title The Org Manual
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@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik

@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Manual

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
* Introduction::                Getting started
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* Document Structure::          A tree works like your brain
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* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::                  Notes in context
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* TODO Items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
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* Tags::                        Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
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* Properties and Columns::      Storing information about an entry
* Dates and Times::             Making items useful for planning
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* Remember::                    Quickly adding nodes to the outline tree
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* Agenda Views::                Collecting information into views
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* Embedded LaTeX::              LaTeX fragments and formulas
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
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* Publishing::                  Create a web site of linked Org files
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* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Extensions and Hacking::      It is possible to write add-on code
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* History and Acknowledgments::  How Org came into being
* Main Index::                  An index of Org's concepts and features
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* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described

@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

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* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
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* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
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* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual
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Document Structure

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* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
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* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
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* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org
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Archiving

* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file

Tables

* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
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* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables
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* Column groups::               Grouping to trigger vertical lines
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* Orgtbl mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* The spreadsheet::             The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
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The spreadsheet

* References::                  How to refer to another field or range
* Formula syntax for Calc::     Using Calc to compute stuff
* Formula syntax for Lisp::     Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
* Field formulas::              Formulas valid for a single field
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for an entire column
* Editing and debugging formulas::  Fixing formulas
* Updating the table::          Recomputing all dependent fields
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc

Hyperlinks

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* Link format::                 How links in Org are formatted
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* Internal links::              Links to other places in the current file
* External links::              URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
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* Using links outside Org::     Linking from my C source code?
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* Link abbreviations::          Shortcuts for writing complex links
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough

Internal links

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* Radio targets::               Make targets trigger links in plain text
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TODO Items
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* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
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* Progress logging::            Dates and notes for progress
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* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::         Splitting a task into manageable pieces
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists

Extended use of TODO keywords

* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
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* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred does the rest
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* Multiple sets in one file::   Mixing it all, and still finding your way
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* Fast access to TODO states::  Single letter selection of a state
* Per-file keywords::           Different files, different requirements
* Faces for TODO keywords::     Highlighting states

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Progress logging
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* Closing items::               When was this entry marked DONE?
* Tracking TODO state changes::  When did the status change?
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Tags

* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags

Properties and Columns

* Property syntax::             How properties are spelled out
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* Special properties::          Access to other Org mode features
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* Property searches::           Matching property values
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* Property inheritance::        Passing values down the tree
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* Column view::                 Tabular viewing and editing
* Property API::                Properties for Lisp programmers

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Column view
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* Defining columns::            The COLUMNS format property
* Using column view::           How to create and use column view
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* Capturing column view::       A dynamic block for column view
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Defining columns
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* Scope of column definitions::  Where defined, where valid?
* Column attributes::           Appearance and content of a column

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Dates and Times
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* Timestamps::                  Assigning a time to a tree entry
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* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Deadlines and scheduling::    Planning your work
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* Clocking work time::          Tracking how long you spend on a task
* Effort estimates::            Planning work effort in advance
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Creating timestamps

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* The date/time prompt::        How Org mode helps you entering date and time
* Custom time format::          Making dates look different
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Deadlines and scheduling
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* Inserting deadline/schedule::  Planning items
* Repeated tasks::              Items that show up again and again

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Remember
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* Setting up Remember::         Some code for .emacs to get things going
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* Remember templates::          Define the outline of different note types
* Storing notes::               Directly get the note to where it belongs
* Refiling notes::              Moving a note or task to a project
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Agenda Views

* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::           Keyboard access to agenda views
* Built-in agenda views::       What is available out of the box?
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
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* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of Org trees
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* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views
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* Agenda column view::          Using column view for collected entries
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The built-in agenda views

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* Weekly/daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
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* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
* Matching tags and properties::  Structured information with fine-tuned search
* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
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* Keyword search::              Finding entries by keyword
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* Stuck projects::              Find projects you need to review

Presentation and sorting

* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things

Custom agenda views

* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
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* Exporting Agenda Views::      Writing agendas to files
* Using the agenda elsewhere::  Using agenda information in other programs
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Embedded LaTeX

* Math symbols::                TeX macros for symbols and Greek letters
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* Subscripts and superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
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* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Processing LaTeX fragments::  Previewing LaTeX processing
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas

Exporting

* ASCII export::                Exporting to plain ASCII
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* LaTeX export::                Exporting to LaTeX
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format
* Text interpretation::         How the exporter looks at the file

HTML export

* HTML Export commands::        How to invoke LaTeX export
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* Quoting HTML tags::           Using direct HTML in Org mode
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* Links::                       Transformation of links for HTML
* Images::                      How to include images
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* CSS support::                 Changing the appearance of the output
* Javascript support::          Info and Folding in a web browser
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LaTeX export

* LaTeX export commands::       How to invoke LaTeX export
* Quoting LaTeX code::          Incorporating literal LaTeX code
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* Sectioning structure::        Changing sectioning in LaTeX output
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Text interpretation by the exporter

* Comment lines::               Some lines will not be exported
* Initial text::                Text before the first headline
* Footnotes::                   Numbers like [1]
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* Quoted examples::             Inserting quoted chunks of text
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* Enhancing text::              Subscripts, symbols and more
* Export options::              How to influence the export settings

Publishing

* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands

Configuration

* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Project page index::          Publishing a list of project files

Sample configuration

* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example

Miscellaneous

* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
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* Customization::               Adapting Org to your taste
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* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
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* TTY keys::                    Using Org on a tty
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* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
* Bugs::                        Things which do not work perfectly

Interaction with other packages

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* Cooperation::                 Packages Org cooperates with
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* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts

Extensions, Hooks and Hacking

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* Extensions::                  Existing 3rd-party extensions
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* Adding hyperlink types::      New custom link types
* Tables in arbitrary syntax::  Orgtbl for LaTeX and other programs
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
* Special agenda views::        Customized views
* Using the property API::      Writing programs that use entry properties

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Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
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* Radio tables::                Sending and receiving
* A LaTeX example::             Step by step, almost a tutorial
* Translator functions::        Copy and modify
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* Radio lists::                 Doing the same for lists
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@end detailmenu
@end menu

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@node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
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@chapter Introduction
@cindex introduction

@menu
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* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
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* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
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* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual
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@end menu

@node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
@section Summary
@cindex summary

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Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
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project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

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Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
lists or information about projects as plain text.  Org is
implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
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content of large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and
structure editing help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created
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with a built-in table editor.  Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
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time stamps, and scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an
agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
and diary.  Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
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For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
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structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
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iCalendar file.  It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
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linked web pages.
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An important design aspect that distinguishes Org from for example
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Planner/Muse is that it encourages to store every piece of information
only once.  In Planner, you have project pages, day pages and possibly
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other files, duplicating some information such as tasks.  In Org,
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you only have notes files.  In your notes you mark entries as tasks,
label them with tags and timestamps.  All necessary lists like a
schedule for the day, the agenda for a meeting, tasks lists selected by
tags etc are created dynamically when you need them.

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Org keeps simple things simple.  When first fired up, it should
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feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner.  Complexity is not
imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
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it.  Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways, for
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example as:

@example
@r{@bullet{} outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
@r{@bullet{} ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
@r{@bullet{} ASCII table editor with spreadsheet-like capabilities}
@r{@bullet{} TODO list editor}
@r{@bullet{} full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
@r{@bullet{} environment to implement David Allen's GTD system}
@r{@bullet{} a basic database application}
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@r{@bullet{} simple hypertext system, with HTML and LaTeX export}
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@r{@bullet{} publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
@end example

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Org's automatic, context sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
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capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
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minor Orgtbl mode.  Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
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tables in arbitrary file types, for example in La@TeX{}.  The structure
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editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
the minor Orgstruct mode.
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@cindex FAQ
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There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
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questions (FAQ), links to tutorials etc.  This page is located at
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@uref{http://orgmode.org}.
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@page


@node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
@section Installation
@cindex installation
@cindex XEmacs

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@b{Important:} @i{If Org is part of the Emacs distribution or an
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XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly to
@ref{Activation}.}

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If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
or @file{.tar} file, or as a GIT archive, you must take the following steps
to install it: Go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
top section of the file @file{Makefile}.  You must set the name of the Emacs
binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept.  If you don't have
access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
Emacs load path.  To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
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@example
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(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
@end example

@noindent
If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
step for this directory:

@example
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
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@end example

@b{XEmacs users now need to install the file @file{noutline.el} from
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the @file{xemacs} sub-directory of the Org distribution.  Use the
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command:}

@example
@b{make install-noutline}
@end example

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@noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
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@example
make
@end example

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@noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
all.  If you want to install into the system directories, use
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@example
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make install
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make install-info
@end example

@noindent Then add to @file{.emacs}:

@lisp
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;; This line only if Org is not part of the X/Emacs distribution.
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(require 'org-install)
@end lisp

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@node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
@section Activation
@cindex activation
@cindex autoload
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@cindex global key bindings
@cindex key bindings, global
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@iftex
@b{Important:} @i{If you use copy-and-paste to copy lisp code from the
PDF documentation as viewed by Acrobat reader to your .emacs file, the
single quote character comes out incorrectly and the code will not work.
You need to fix the single quotes by hand, or copy from Info
documentation.}
@end iftex

Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.  The last two lines
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define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link},
@command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb} - please choose suitable
keys yourself.
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@lisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
(global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
(global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
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(global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
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@end lisp

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Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in Org
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buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
active.  You can do this with either one of the following two lines
(XEmacs user must use the second option):
@lisp
(global-font-lock-mode 1)                     ; for all buffers
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(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)  ; Org buffers only
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@end lisp

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@cindex Org mode, turning on
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With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
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into Org mode.  As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
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like this:

@example
MY PROJECTS    -*- mode: org; -*-
@end example

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@noindent which will select Org mode for this buffer no matter what
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the file's name is.  See also the variable
@code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.

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@node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
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@section Feedback
@cindex feedback
@cindex bug reports
@cindex maintainer
@cindex author

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If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks,
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or ideas about it, please contact the maintainer @value{MAINTAINER} at
@value{MAINTAINEREMAIL}.

For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible,
including the version information of Emacs (@kbd{C-h v emacs-version
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@key{RET}}) and Org (@kbd{C-h v org-version @key{RET}}), as well as
the Org related setup in @file{.emacs}.  If an error occurs, a
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backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to create one).  Often a
small example file helps, along with clear information about:

@enumerate
@item What exactly did you do?
@item What did you expect to happen?
@item What happened instead?
@end enumerate
@noindent Thank you for helping to improve this mode.

@subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace

@cindex backtrace of an error
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If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
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understand, you may have hit a bug.  The best way to report this is by
providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{Backtrace}.
This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
error occurred.  Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:

@enumerate
@item
Start a fresh Emacs or XEmacs, and make sure that it will load the
original Lisp code in @file{org.el} instead of the compiled version in
@file{org.elc}.  The backtrace contains much more information if it is
produced with uncompiled code.  To do this, either rename @file{org.elc}
to something else before starting Emacs, or ask Emacs explicitly to load
@file{org.el} by using the command line
@example
emacs -l /path/to/org.el
@end example
@item
Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
(XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
@item
Do whatever you have to do to hit the error.  Don't forget to
document the steps you take.
@item
When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
screen.  Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
attach it to your bug report.
@end enumerate

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@node Conventions,  , Feedback, Introduction
@section Typesetting conventions used in this manual

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Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
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names.  In this manual we use the following conventions:

@table @code
@item TODO
@itemx WAITING
TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
user-defined.
@item boss
@itemx ARCHIVE
User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
meaning are written with all capitals.
@item Release
@itemx PRIORITY
User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
special meaning are written with all capitals.
@end table

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@node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
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@chapter Document Structure
@cindex document structure
@cindex structure of document

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Org is based on outline mode and provides flexible commands to
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edit the structure of the document.

@menu
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* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
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* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Archiving::                   Move done task trees to a different place
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
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* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org
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@end menu

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@node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
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@section Outlines
@cindex outlines
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@cindex Outline mode
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Org is implemented on top of Outline mode.  Outlines allow a
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document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts.  An overview
of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
document to show only the general document structure and the parts
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currently being worked on.  Org greatly simplifies the use of
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outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
command @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.

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@node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
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@section Headlines
@cindex headlines
@cindex outline tree

Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in
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Org start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See
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the variable @code{org-special-ctrl-a/e} to configure special behavior
of @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} in headlines.}.  For example:

@example
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text

* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
starters.  @ref{Clean view} describes a setup to realize this.

An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
will be hidden when the subtree is folded.  However, if you leave at
least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view.  See the
variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.

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@node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
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@section Visibility cycling
@cindex cycling, visibility
@cindex visibility cycling
@cindex trees, visibility
@cindex show hidden text
@cindex hide text

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
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Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
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@kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.

@cindex subtree visibility states
@cindex subtree cycling
@cindex folded, subtree visibility state
@cindex children, subtree visibility state
@cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
@emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states

@example
,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'
@end example

The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.  When the cursor is at the
beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
@key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}.  Also when called with a prefix
argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.

@cindex global visibility states
@cindex global cycling
@cindex overview, global visibility state
@cindex contents, global visibility state
@cindex show all, global visibility state
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
@itemx C-u @key{TAB}
@emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states

@example
,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'
@end example

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When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown.  Note that inside
tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
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@cindex show all, command
@kindex C-c C-a
@item C-c C-a
Show all.
@kindex C-c C-r
@item C-c C-r
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Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
and the hierarchy above.  Useful for working near a location that has been
exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
(@pxref{Agenda commands}).  With a prefix argument show, on each
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level, all sibling headings.
@kindex C-c C-x b
@item C-c C-x b
Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
buffer
@ifinfo
(@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
(see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
@end ifnotinfo
will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
tree.  Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
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but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}.  With a numeric
prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree.  If N is
negative then go up that many levels.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
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the previously used indirect buffer.
@end table

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When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
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OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
buffer:

@example
#+STARTUP: overview
#+STARTUP: content
#+STARTUP: showall
@end example

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@node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
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@section Motion
@cindex motion, between headlines
@cindex jumping, to headlines
@cindex headline navigation
The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Next heading.
@kindex C-c C-p
@item C-c C-p
Previous heading.
@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Next heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-b
@item C-c C-b
Previous heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-u
@item C-c C-u
Backward to higher level heading.
@kindex C-c C-j
@item C-c C-j
Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
visibility.  Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
you can use the following keys to find your destination:
@example
@key{TAB}         @r{Cycle visibility.}
@key{down} / @key{up}   @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
n / p        @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
f / b        @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
u            @r{One level up.}
0-9          @r{Digit argument.}
@key{RET}         @r{Select this location.}
@end example
@end table

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@node Structure editing, Archiving, Motion, Document Structure
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@section Structure editing
@cindex structure editing
@cindex headline, promotion and demotion
@cindex promotion, of subtrees
@cindex demotion, of subtrees
@cindex subtree, cut and paste
@cindex pasting, of subtrees
@cindex cutting, of subtrees
@cindex copying, of subtrees
@cindex subtrees, cut and paste

@table @kbd
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
Insert new heading with same level as current.  If the cursor is in a
plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}).  To force
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creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or first press @key{RET}
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to get to the beginning of the next line.  When this command is used in
the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
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the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.  If the
command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
created before the current line.  If at the beginning of any other line,
the content of that line is made the new heading.  If the command is
used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end
of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted
after the end of the subtree.
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@kindex C-@key{RET}
@item C-@key{RET}
Insert a new heading after the current subtree, same level as the
current headline.  This command works from anywhere in the entry.
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@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.
@kindex M-@key{left}
@item M-@key{left}
Promote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{right}
Demote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Promote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Demote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
level).
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
@kindex C-c C-x C-w
@kindex C-c C-x C-k
@item C-c C-x C-w
@itemx C-c C-x C-k
Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
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With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
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@kindex C-c C-x M-w
@item C-c C-x M-w
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Copy subtree to kill ring.  With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
sequential subtrees.
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@kindex C-c C-x C-y
@item C-c C-x C-y
Yank subtree from kill ring.  This does modify the level of the subtree to
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make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position.  The yank level can
also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
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headline marker like @samp{****}.
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@kindex C-c C-w
@item C-c C-w
Refile entry to a different location.  @xref{Refiling notes}.
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@kindex C-c ^
@item C-c ^
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Sort same-level entries.  When there is an active region, all entries in the
region will be sorted.  Otherwise the children of the current headline are
sorted.  The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
alphabetically, numerically, by time (using the first time stamp in each
entry), by priority, or by TODO keyword (in the sequence the keywords have
been defined in the setup).  Reverse sorting is possible as well.  You can
also supply your own function to extract the sorting key.  With a @kbd{C-u}
prefix, sorting will be case-sensitive.  With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes,
duplicate entries will also be removed.
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@kindex C-c *
@item C-c *
Turn a normal line or plain list item into a headline (so that it
becomes a subheading at its location).  Also turn a headline into a
normal line by removing the stars.  If there is an active region, turn
all lines in the region into headlines.  Or, if the first line is a
headline, remove the stars from all headlines in the region.
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@end table

@cindex region, active
@cindex active region
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@cindex Transient mark mode
When there is an active region (Transient mark mode), promotion and
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demotion work on all headlines in the region.  To select a region of
headlines, it is best to place both point and mark at the beginning of a
line, mark at the beginning of the first headline, and point at the line
just after the last headline to change.  Note that when the cursor is
inside a table (@pxref{Tables}), the Meta-Cursor keys have different
functionality.

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@node Archiving, Sparse trees, Structure editing, Document Structure
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@section Archiving
@cindex archiving

When a project represented by a (sub)tree is finished, you may want
to move the tree out of the way and to stop it from contributing to the
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agenda.  Org mode knows two ways of archiving.  You can mark a tree with
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the ARCHIVE tag, or you can move an entire (sub)tree to a different
location.

@menu
* ARCHIVE tag::                 Marking a tree as inactive
* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file
@end menu

@node ARCHIVE tag, Moving subtrees, Archiving, Archiving
@subsection The ARCHIVE tag
@cindex internal archiving

A headline that is marked with the ARCHIVE tag (@pxref{Tags}) stays at
its location in the outline tree, but behaves in the following way:
@itemize @minus
@item
It does not open when you attempt to do so with a visibility cycling
command (@pxref{Visibility cycling}).  You can force cycling archived
subtrees with @kbd{C-@key{TAB}}, or by setting the option
@code{org-cycle-open-archived-trees}.  Also normal outline commands like
@code{show-all} will open archived subtrees.
@item
During sparse tree construction (@pxref{Sparse trees}), matches in
archived subtrees are not exposed, unless you configure the option
@code{org-sparse-tree-open-archived-trees}.
@item
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During agenda view construction (@pxref{Agenda Views}), the content of
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archived trees is ignored unless you configure the option
@code{org-agenda-skip-archived-trees}.
@item
Archived trees are not exported (@pxref{Exporting}), only the headline
is.  Configure the details using the variable
@code{org-export-with-archived-trees}.
@end itemize

The following commands help managing the ARCHIVE tag:

@table @kbd
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@kindex C-c C-x a
@item C-c C-x a
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Toggle the ARCHIVE tag for the current headline.  When the tag is set,
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the headline changes to a shadowed face, and the subtree below it is
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hidden.
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@kindex C-u C-c C-x a
@item C-u C-c C-x a
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Check if any direct children of the current headline should be archived.
To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.  If none are
found, the command offers to set the ARCHIVE tag for the child.  If the
cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command is invoked, the
level 1 trees will be checked.
@kindex C-@kbd{TAB}
@item C-@kbd{TAB}
Cycle a tree even if it is tagged with ARCHIVE.
@end table

@node Moving subtrees,  , ARCHIVE tag, Archiving
@subsection Moving subtrees
@cindex external archiving

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Once an entire project is finished, you may want to move it to a different
location.  Org can move it to an @emph{Attic Sibling} in the same tree, to a
different tree in the current file, or to a different file, the archive file.
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@table @kbd
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@kindex C-c C-x A
@item C-c C-x A
Move the curent entry to the @emph{Attic Sibling}.  This is a sibling of the
entry with the heading @samp{Attic} and the tag @samp{ARCHIVE}
(@pxref{ARCHIVE tag}).  The entry becomes a child of that sibling and in this
way retains a lot of its original context, including inherited tags and
approximate position in the outline.
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@kindex C-c C-x C-s
@item C-c C-x C-s
Archive the subtree starting at the cursor position to the location
given by @code{org-archive-location}.  Context information that could be
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lost like the file name, the category, inherited tags, and the TODO
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state will be store as properties in the entry.
@kindex C-u C-c C-x C-s
@item C-u C-c C-x C-s
Check if any direct children of the current headline could be moved to
the archive.  To do this, each subtree is checked for open TODO entries.
If none are found, the command offers to move it to the archive
location.  If the cursor is @emph{not} on a headline when this command
is invoked, the level 1 trees will be checked.
@end table

@cindex archive locations
The default archive location is a file in the same directory as the
current file, with the name derived by appending @file{_archive} to the
current file name.  For information and examples on how to change this,
see the documentation string of the variable
@code{org-archive-location}.  There is also an in-buffer option for
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setting this variable, for example@footnote{For backward compatibility,
the following also works: If there are several such lines in a file,
each specifies the archive location for the text below it.  The first
such line also applies to any text before its definition.  However,
using this method is @emph{strongly} deprecated as it is incompatible
with the outline structure of the document.  The correct method for
setting multiple archive locations in a buffer is using a property.}:
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@example
#+ARCHIVE: %s_done::
@end example

@noindent
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If you would like to have a special ARCHIVE location for a single entry
or a (sub)tree, give the entry an @code{:ARCHIVE:} property with the
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location as the value (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
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When a subtree is moved, it receives a number of special properties that
record context information like the file from where the entry came, it's
outline path the archiving time etc.  Configure the variable
@code{org-archive-save-context-info} to adjust the amount of information
added.

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@node Sparse trees, Plain lists, Archiving, Document Structure
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@section Sparse trees
@cindex sparse trees
@cindex trees, sparse
@cindex folding, sparse trees
@cindex occur, command

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@emph{sparse trees} for selected information in an outline tree, so that
the entire document is folded as much as possible, but the selected
information is made visible along with the headline structure above
it@footnote{See also the variables @code{org-show-hierarchy-above},
@code{org-show-following-heading}, and @code{org-show-siblings} for
detailed control on how much context is shown around each match.}.  Just
try it out and you will see immediately how it works.

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Org mode contains several commands creating such trees, all these
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commands can be accessed through a dispatcher:
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@table @kbd
@kindex C-c /
@item C-c /
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This prompts for an extra key to select a sparse-tree creating command.
@kindex C-c / r
@item C-c / r
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Occur.  Prompts for a regexp and shows a sparse tree with all matches.
If the match is in a headline, the headline is made visible.  If the
match is in the body of an entry, headline and body are made visible.
In order to provide minimal context, also the full hierarchy of
headlines above the match is shown, as well as the headline following
the match.  Each match is also highlighted; the highlights disappear
when the buffer is changed by an editing command, or by pressing
@kbd{C-c C-c}.  When called with a @kbd{C-u} prefix argument, previous
highlights are kept, so several calls to this command can be stacked.
@end table
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@noindent
For frequently used sparse trees of specific search strings, you can
use the variable @code{org-agenda-custom-commands} to define fast
keyboard access to specific sparse trees.  These commands will then be
accessible through the agenda dispatcher (@pxref{Agenda dispatcher}).
For example:

@lisp
(setq org-agenda-custom-commands
      '(("f" occur-tree "FIXME")))
@end lisp

@noindent will define the key @kbd{C-c a f} as a shortcut for creating
a sparse tree matching the string @samp{FIXME}.

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The other sparse tree commands select headings based on TODO keywords,
tags, or properties and will be discussed later in this manual.
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@kindex C-c C-e v
@cindex printing sparse trees
@cindex visible text, printing
To print a sparse tree, you can use the Emacs command
@code{ps-print-buffer-with-faces} which does not print invisible parts
of the document @footnote{This does not work under XEmacs, because
XEmacs uses selective display for outlining, not text properties.}.
Or you can use the command @kbd{C-c C-e v} to export only the visible
part of the document and print the resulting file.

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@node Plain lists, Drawers, Sparse trees, Document Structure
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@section Plain lists
@cindex plain lists
@cindex lists, plain
@cindex lists, ordered
@cindex ordered lists

Within an entry of the outline tree, hand-formatted lists can provide
additional structure.  They also provide a way to create lists of
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checkboxes (@pxref{Checkboxes}).  Org supports editing such lists,
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and the HTML exporter (@pxref{Exporting}) parses and formats them.
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Org knows ordered and unordered lists.  Unordered list items start
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with @samp{-}, @samp{+}, or @samp{*}@footnote{When using @samp{*} as a
bullet, lines must be indented or they will be seen as top-level
headlines.  Also, when you are hiding leading stars to get a clean
outline view, plain list items starting with a star are visually
indistinguishable from true headlines.  In short: even though @samp{*}
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is supported, it may be better to not use it for plain list items.} as
bullets.  Ordered list items start with a numeral followed by either a
period or a right parenthesis, such as @samp{1.} or @samp{1)}.  Items
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belonging to the same list must have the same indentation on the first
line.  In particular, if an ordered list reaches number @samp{10.}, then
the 2--digit numbers must be written left-aligned with the other numbers
in the list.  Indentation also determines the end of a list item.  It
ends before the next line that is indented like the bullet/number, or
less.  Empty lines are part of the previous item, so you can have
several paragraphs in one item.  If you would like an empty line to
terminate all currently open plain lists, configure the variable
@code{org-empty-line-terminates-plain-lists}.  Here is an example:

@example
@group
** Lord of the Rings
   My favorite scenes are (in this order)
   1. The attack of the Rohirrim
   2. Eowyns fight with the witch king
      + this was already my favorite scene in the book
      + I really like Miranda Otto.
   3. Peter Jackson being shot by Legolas
       - on DVD only
      He makes a really funny face when it happens.
   But in the end, not individual scenes matter but the film as a whole.
@end group
@end example

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Org supports these lists by tuning filling and wrapping commands to
deal with them correctly@footnote{Org only changes the filling
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settings for Emacs.  For XEmacs, you should use Kyle E. Jones'
@file{filladapt.el}.  To turn this on,  put into @file{.emacs}:
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@code{(require 'filladapt)}}.
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The following commands act on items when the cursor is in the first line
of an item (the line with the bullet or number).

@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
Items can be folded just like headline levels if you set the variable
@code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists}.  The level of an item is then
given by the indentation of the bullet/number.  Items are always
subordinate to real headlines, however; the hierarchies remain
completely separated.

If @code{org-cycle-include-plain-lists} has not been set, @key{TAB}
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fixes the indentation of the current line in a heuristic way.
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@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
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Insert new item at current level.  With a prefix argument, force a new
heading (@pxref{Structure editing}).  If this command is used in the middle
of a line, the line is @emph{split} and the rest of the line becomes the new
item@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split, customize the variable
@code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.  If this command is executed in the
@emph{whitespace before a bullet or number}, the new item is created
@emph{before} the current item.  If the command is executed in the white
space before the text that is part of an item but does not contain the
bullet, a bullet is added to the current line.
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@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
Insert a new item with a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}).
@kindex S-@key{up}
@kindex S-@key{down}
@item S-@key{up}
@itemx S-@key{down}
Jump to the previous/next item in the current list.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{up}
@itemx M-S-@key{down}
Move the item including subitems up/down (swap with previous/next item
of same indentation).  If the list is ordered, renumbering is
automatic.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{left}
@itemx M-S-@key{right}
Decrease/increase the indentation of the item, including subitems.
Initially, the item tree is selected based on current indentation.
When these commands are executed several times in direct succession,
the initially selected region is used, even if the new indentation
would imply a different hierarchy.  To use the new hierarchy, break
the command chain with a cursor motion or so.
@kindex C-c C-c
@item C-c C-c
If there is a checkbox (@pxref{Checkboxes}) in the item line, toggle the
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state of the checkbox.  If not, this command makes sure that all the
items on this list level use the same bullet.  Furthermore, if this is
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an ordered list, make sure the numbering is OK.
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@kindex C-c -
@item C-c -
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Cycle the entire list level through the different itemize/enumerate bullets
(@samp{-}, @samp{+}, @samp{*}, @samp{1.}, @samp{1)}).  With a numeric prefix
argument N, select the Nth bullet from this list.  If there is an active
region when calling this, all lines will be converted to list items.  If the
first line already was a list item, any item markers will be removed from the
list.  Finally, even without an active region, a normal line will be
converted into a list item.
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@end table

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@node Drawers, Orgstruct mode, Plain lists, Document Structure
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@section Drawers
@cindex drawers
@cindex visibility cycling, drawers

Sometimes you want to keep information associated with an entry, but you
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normally don't want to see it.  For this, Org mode has @emph{drawers}.
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Drawers need to be configured with the variable
@code{org-drawers}@footnote{You can define drawers on a per-file basis
with a line like @code{#+DRAWERS: HIDDEN PROPERTIES STATE}}.  Drawers
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look like this:

@example
** This is a headline
   Still outside the drawer
   :DRAWERNAME:
      This is inside the drawer.
   :END:
   After the drawer.
@end example

Visibility cycling (@pxref{Visibility cycling}) on the headline will
hide and show the entry, but keep the drawer collapsed to a single line.
In order to look inside the drawer, you need to move the cursor to the
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drawer line and press @key{TAB} there.  Org mode uses a drawer for
storing properties (@pxref{Properties and Columns}).
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@node Orgstruct mode,  , Drawers, Document Structure
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@section The Orgstruct minor mode
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@cindex Orgstruct mode
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@cindex minor mode for structure editing

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If you like the intuitive way the Org mode structure editing and list
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formatting works, you might want to use these commands in other modes
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like Text mode or Mail mode as well.  The minor mode Orgstruct mode
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makes this possible.  You can always toggle the mode with @kbd{M-x
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orgstruct-mode}.  To turn it on by default, for example in Mail mode,
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use

@lisp
(add-hook 'mail-mode-hook 'turn-on-orgstruct)
@end lisp

When this mode is active and the cursor is on a line that looks to
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Org like a headline of the first line of a list item, most
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structure editing commands will work, even if the same keys normally
have different functionality in the major mode you are using.  If the
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cursor is not in one of those special lines, Orgstruct mode lurks
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silently in the shadow.

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@node Tables, Hyperlinks, Document Structure, Top
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@chapter Tables
@cindex tables
@cindex editing tables

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Org comes with a fast and intuitive table editor.  Spreadsheet-like
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calculations are supported in connection with the Emacs @file{calc}
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package
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@ifinfo
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(@pxref{Top,Calc,,Calc,Gnu Emacs Calculator Manual}).
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@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
(see the Emacs Calculator manual for more information about the Emacs
calculator).
@end ifnotinfo
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@menu
* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
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* Narrow columns::              Stop wasting space in tables
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* Column groups::               Grouping to trigger vertical lines
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