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;;; tramp-sh.el --- Tramp access functions for (s)sh-like connections

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;; Copyright (C) 1998-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; (copyright statements below in code to be updated with the above notice)

;; Author: Kai Großjohann <kai.grossjohann@gmx.net>
;;         Michael Albinus <michael.albinus@gmx.de>
;; Keywords: comm, processes
;; Package: tramp

;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

;;; Code:

(require 'tramp)

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;; Pacify byte-compiler.
(eval-when-compile
  (require 'cl)
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  (require 'dired))
(defvar directory-sep-char)
(defvar tramp-gw-tunnel-method)
(defvar tramp-gw-socks-method)
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(defvar vc-handled-backends)
(defvar vc-bzr-program)
(defvar vc-git-program)
(defvar vc-hg-program)
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(defcustom tramp-inline-compress-start-size 4096
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  "The minimum size of compressing where inline transfer.
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When inline transfer, compress transferred data of file
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whose size is this value or above (up to `tramp-copy-size-limit').
If it is nil, no compression at all will be applied."
  :group 'tramp
  :type '(choice (const nil) integer))

(defcustom tramp-copy-size-limit 10240
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  "The maximum file size where inline copying is preferred over an \
out-of-the-band copy.
If it is nil, out-of-the-band copy will be used without a check."
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  :group 'tramp
  :type '(choice (const nil) integer))

;;;###tramp-autoload
(defcustom tramp-terminal-type "dumb"
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  "Value of TERM environment variable for logging in to remote host.
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Because Tramp wants to parse the output of the remote shell, it is easily
confused by ANSI color escape sequences and suchlike.  Often, shell init
files conditionalize this setup based on the TERM environment variable."
  :group 'tramp
  :type 'string)

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;;;###tramp-autoload
(defcustom tramp-histfile-override "/dev/null"
  "Whether the HISTFILE should be overridden to something.  Set
to nil to disable the override."
  :group 'tramp
  :type '(choice (const :tag "Do not override HISTFILE" nil)
                 (const :tag "Empty the history (/dev/null)" "/dev/null")
                 (string :tag "Redirect to a file")))

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defconst tramp-color-escape-sequence-regexp "\e[[;0-9]+m"
  "Escape sequences produced by the \"ls\" command.")

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;; ksh on OpenBSD 4.5 requires that $PS1 contains a `#' character for
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;; root users.  It uses the `$' character for other users.  In order
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;; to guarantee a proper prompt, we use "#$ " for the prompt.
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(defvar tramp-end-of-output
  (format
   "///%s#$"
   (md5 (concat (prin1-to-string process-environment) (current-time-string))))
  "String used to recognize end of output.
The '$' character at the end is quoted; the string cannot be
detected as prompt when being sent on echoing hosts, therefore.")

;;;###tramp-autoload
(defconst tramp-initial-end-of-output "#$ "
  "Prompt when establishing a connection.")

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(defconst tramp-end-of-heredoc (md5 tramp-end-of-output)
  "String used to recognize end of heredoc strings.")

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;; Initialize `tramp-methods' with the supported methods.
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("rcp"
    (tramp-login-program        "rsh")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("-l" "%u")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "rcp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-p" "%k") ("-r")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)
    (tramp-copy-recursive       t)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("remcp"
    (tramp-login-program        "remsh")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("-l" "%u")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "rcp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-p" "%k")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  '("scp"
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    (tramp-login-program        "ssh")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-p" "%p") ("%c")
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				 ("-e" "none") ("%h")))
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    (tramp-async-args           (("-q")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "scp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-P" "%p") ("-p" "%k") ("-q") ("-r") ("%c")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)
    (tramp-copy-recursive       t)
    (tramp-gw-args              (("-o" "GlobalKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "StrictHostKeyChecking=no")))
    (tramp-default-port         22)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  '("scpx"
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    (tramp-login-program        "ssh")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-p" "%p") ("%c")
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				 ("-e" "none") ("-t" "-t") ("%h") ("/bin/sh")))
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    (tramp-async-args           (("-q")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "scp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-P" "%p") ("-p" "%k")
				 ("-q") ("-r") ("%c")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)
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    (tramp-copy-recursive       t)
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    (tramp-gw-args              (("-o" "GlobalKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "StrictHostKeyChecking=no")))
    (tramp-default-port         22)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  '("rsync"
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    (tramp-login-program        "ssh")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-p" "%p") ("%c")
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				 ("-e" "none") ("%h")))
    (tramp-async-args           (("-q")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "rsync")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-t" "%k") ("-r")))
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    (tramp-copy-env             (("RSYNC_RSH") ("ssh" "%c")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)
    (tramp-copy-keep-tmpfile    t)
    (tramp-copy-recursive       t)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("rsh"
    (tramp-login-program        "rsh")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("-l" "%u")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("remsh"
    (tramp-login-program        "remsh")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("-l" "%u")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  '("ssh"
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    (tramp-login-program        "ssh")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-p" "%p") ("%c")
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				 ("-e" "none") ("%h")))
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    (tramp-async-args           (("-q")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-gw-args              (("-o" "GlobalKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "StrictHostKeyChecking=no")))
    (tramp-default-port         22)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  '("sshx"
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    (tramp-login-program        "ssh")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-p" "%p") ("%c")
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				 ("-e" "none") ("-t" "-t") ("%h") ("/bin/sh")))
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    (tramp-async-args           (("-q")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-gw-args              (("-o" "GlobalKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "UserKnownHostsFile=/dev/null")
				 ("-o" "StrictHostKeyChecking=no")))
    (tramp-default-port         22)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("telnet"
    (tramp-login-program        "telnet")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("%p") ("2>/dev/null")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-default-port         23)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("nc"
    (tramp-login-program        "telnet")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("%p") ("2>/dev/null")))
    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
    (tramp-copy-program         "nc")
    ;; We use "-v" for better error tracking.
    (tramp-copy-args            (("-w" "1") ("-v") ("%h") ("%r")))
    (tramp-remote-copy-program  "nc")
    ;; We use "-p" as required for newer busyboxes.  For older
    ;; busybox/nc versions, the value must be (("-l") ("%r")).  This
    ;; can be achieved by tweaking `tramp-connection-properties'.
    (tramp-remote-copy-args     (("-l") ("-p" "%r")))
    (tramp-default-port         23)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("su"
    (tramp-login-program        "su")
    (tramp-login-args           (("-") ("%u")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
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    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
    (tramp-connection-timeout   10)))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("sudo"
    (tramp-login-program        "sudo")
    (tramp-login-args           (("-u" "%u") ("-s") ("-H") ("-p" "Password:")))
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    ;; Local $SHELL could be a nasty one, like zsh or fish.  Let's override it.
    (tramp-login-env            (("SHELL") ("/bin/sh")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
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    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
    (tramp-connection-timeout   10)))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("ksu"
    (tramp-login-program        "ksu")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%u") ("-q")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
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    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
    (tramp-connection-timeout   10)))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("krlogin"
    (tramp-login-program        "krlogin")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("-l" "%u") ("-x")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  `("plink"
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    (tramp-login-program        "plink")
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    ;; ("%h") must be a single element, see `tramp-compute-multi-hops'.
    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-P" "%p") ("-ssh") ("-t")
				 ("%h") ("\"")
				 (,(format
				    "env 'TERM=%s' 'PROMPT_COMMAND=' 'PS1=%s'"
				    tramp-terminal-type
				    tramp-initial-end-of-output))
				 ("/bin/sh") ("\"")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-default-port         22)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  `("plinkx"
    (tramp-login-program        "plink")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-load") ("%h") ("-t") ("\"")
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				 (,(format
				    "env 'TERM=%s' 'PROMPT_COMMAND=' 'PS1=%s'"
				    tramp-terminal-type
				    tramp-initial-end-of-output))
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				 ("/bin/sh") ("\"")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  `("pscp"
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    (tramp-login-program        "plink")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-P" "%p") ("-ssh") ("-t")
				 ("%h") ("\"")
				 (,(format
				    "env 'TERM=%s' 'PROMPT_COMMAND=' 'PS1=%s'"
				    tramp-terminal-type
				    tramp-initial-end-of-output))
				 ("/bin/sh") ("\"")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "pscp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-l" "%u") ("-P" "%p") ("-scp") ("-p" "%k")
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				 ("-q") ("-r")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)
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    (tramp-copy-recursive       t)
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    (tramp-default-port         22)))
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
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  `("psftp"
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    (tramp-login-program        "plink")
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    (tramp-login-args           (("-l" "%u") ("-P" "%p") ("-ssh") ("-t")
				 ("%h") ("\"")
				 (,(format
				    "env 'TERM=%s' 'PROMPT_COMMAND=' 'PS1=%s'"
				    tramp-terminal-type
				    tramp-initial-end-of-output))
				 ("/bin/sh") ("\"")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "pscp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-l" "%u") ("-P" "%p") ("-sftp") ("-p" "%k")
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				 ("-q") ("-r")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)
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    (tramp-copy-recursive       t)))
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-methods
  '("fcp"
    (tramp-login-program        "fsh")
    (tramp-login-args           (("%h") ("-l" "%u") ("sh" "-i")))
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    (tramp-remote-shell         "/bin/sh")
    (tramp-remote-shell-args    ("-i") ("-c"))
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    (tramp-copy-program         "fcp")
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    (tramp-copy-args            (("-p" "%k")))
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    (tramp-copy-keep-date       t)))

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-default-method-alist
	     `(,tramp-local-host-regexp "\\`root\\'" "su"))

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-default-user-alist
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	     `(,(concat "\\`" (regexp-opt '("su" "sudo" "ksu")) "\\'")
	       nil "root"))
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;; Do not add "ssh" based methods, otherwise ~/.ssh/config would be ignored.
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;; Do not add "plink" based methods, they ask interactively for the user.
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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(add-to-list 'tramp-default-user-alist
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	     `(,(concat
		 "\\`"
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		 (regexp-opt
		  '("rcp" "remcp" "rsh" "telnet" "nc" "krlogin" "fcp"))
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		 "\\'")
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	       nil ,(user-login-name)))

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defconst tramp-completion-function-alist-rsh
  '((tramp-parse-rhosts "/etc/hosts.equiv")
    (tramp-parse-rhosts "~/.rhosts"))
  "Default list of (FUNCTION FILE) pairs to be examined for rsh methods.")

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defconst tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh
  '((tramp-parse-rhosts      "/etc/hosts.equiv")
    (tramp-parse-rhosts      "/etc/shosts.equiv")
    (tramp-parse-shosts      "/etc/ssh_known_hosts")
    (tramp-parse-sconfig     "/etc/ssh_config")
    (tramp-parse-shostkeys   "/etc/ssh2/hostkeys")
    (tramp-parse-sknownhosts "/etc/ssh2/knownhosts")
    (tramp-parse-rhosts      "~/.rhosts")
    (tramp-parse-rhosts      "~/.shosts")
    (tramp-parse-shosts      "~/.ssh/known_hosts")
    (tramp-parse-sconfig     "~/.ssh/config")
    (tramp-parse-shostkeys   "~/.ssh2/hostkeys")
    (tramp-parse-sknownhosts "~/.ssh2/knownhosts"))
  "Default list of (FUNCTION FILE) pairs to be examined for ssh methods.")

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defconst tramp-completion-function-alist-telnet
  '((tramp-parse-hosts "/etc/hosts"))
  "Default list of (FUNCTION FILE) pairs to be examined for telnet methods.")

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defconst tramp-completion-function-alist-su
  '((tramp-parse-passwd "/etc/passwd"))
  "Default list of (FUNCTION FILE) pairs to be examined for su methods.")

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defconst tramp-completion-function-alist-putty
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  `((tramp-parse-putty
     ,(if (memq system-type '(windows-nt))
	  "HKEY_CURRENT_USER\\Software\\SimonTatham\\PuTTY\\Sessions"
	"~/.putty/sessions")))
  "Default list of (FUNCTION REGISTRY) pairs to be examined for putty sessions.")
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;;;###tramp-autoload
(eval-after-load 'tramp
  '(progn
     (tramp-set-completion-function "rcp" tramp-completion-function-alist-rsh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "remcp" tramp-completion-function-alist-rsh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "scp" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "scpx" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "rsync" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "rsh" tramp-completion-function-alist-rsh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "remsh" tramp-completion-function-alist-rsh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "ssh" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "sshx" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function
      "telnet" tramp-completion-function-alist-telnet)
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     (tramp-set-completion-function "nc" tramp-completion-function-alist-telnet)
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     (tramp-set-completion-function "su" tramp-completion-function-alist-su)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "sudo" tramp-completion-function-alist-su)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "ksu" tramp-completion-function-alist-su)
     (tramp-set-completion-function
      "krlogin" tramp-completion-function-alist-rsh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "plink" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
     (tramp-set-completion-function
      "plinkx" tramp-completion-function-alist-putty)
     (tramp-set-completion-function "pscp" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
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     (tramp-set-completion-function "psftp" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)
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     (tramp-set-completion-function "fcp" tramp-completion-function-alist-ssh)))
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;; "getconf PATH" yields:
;; HP-UX: /usr/bin:/usr/ccs/bin:/opt/ansic/bin:/opt/langtools/bin:/opt/fortran/bin
;; Solaris: /usr/xpg4/bin:/usr/ccs/bin:/usr/bin:/opt/SUNWspro/bin
;; GNU/Linux (Debian, Suse): /bin:/usr/bin
;; FreeBSD: /usr/bin:/bin:/usr/sbin:/sbin: - beware trailing ":"!
;; IRIX64: /usr/bin
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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defcustom tramp-remote-path
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  '(tramp-default-remote-path "/bin" "/usr/bin" "/sbin" "/usr/sbin"
    "/usr/local/bin" "/usr/local/sbin" "/local/bin" "/local/freeware/bin"
    "/local/gnu/bin" "/usr/freeware/bin" "/usr/pkg/bin" "/usr/contrib/bin"
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    "/opt/bin" "/opt/sbin" "/opt/local/bin")
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  "List of directories to search for executables on remote host.
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For every remote host, this variable will be set buffer local,
keeping the list of existing directories on that host.

You can use `~' in this list, but when searching for a shell which groks
tilde expansion, all directory names starting with `~' will be ignored.

`Default Directories' represent the list of directories given by
the command \"getconf PATH\".  It is recommended to use this
entry on top of this list, because these are the default
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directories for POSIX compatible commands.  On remote hosts which
do not offer the getconf command (like cygwin), the value
\"/bin:/usr/bin\" is used instead of.
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`Private Directories' are the settings of the $PATH environment,
as given in your `~/.profile'."
  :group 'tramp
  :type '(repeat (choice
		  (const :tag "Default Directories" tramp-default-remote-path)
		  (const :tag "Private Directories" tramp-own-remote-path)
		  (string :tag "Directory"))))

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;;;###tramp-autoload
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(defcustom tramp-remote-process-environment
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  `("TMOUT=0" "LC_CTYPE=''"
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    ,(format "TERM=%s" tramp-terminal-type)
    "EMACS=t" ;; Deprecated.
    ,(format "INSIDE_EMACS='%s,tramp:%s'" emacs-version tramp-version)
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    "CDPATH=" "HISTORY=" "MAIL=" "MAILCHECK=" "MAILPATH=" "PAGER=\"\""
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    "autocorrect=" "correct=")
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  "List of environment variables to be set on the remote host.
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Each element should be a string of the form ENVVARNAME=VALUE.  An
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entry ENVVARNAME= disables the corresponding environment variable,
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which might have been set in the init files like ~/.profile.

Special handling is applied to the PATH environment, which should
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not be set here. Instead, it should be set via `tramp-remote-path'."
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  :group 'tramp
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  :version "24.4"
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  :type '(repeat string))

(defcustom tramp-sh-extra-args '(("/bash\\'" . "-norc -noprofile"))
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  "Alist specifying extra arguments to pass to the remote shell.
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Entries are (REGEXP . ARGS) where REGEXP is a regular expression
matching the shell file name and ARGS is a string specifying the
arguments.

This variable is only used when Tramp needs to start up another shell
for tilde expansion.  The extra arguments should typically prevent the
shell from reading its init file."
  :group 'tramp
  ;; This might be the wrong way to test whether the widget type
  ;; `alist' is available.  Who knows the right way to test it?
  :type (if (get 'alist 'widget-type)
	    '(alist :key-type string :value-type string)
	  '(repeat (cons string string))))

(defconst tramp-actions-before-shell
  '((tramp-login-prompt-regexp tramp-action-login)
    (tramp-password-prompt-regexp tramp-action-password)
    (tramp-wrong-passwd-regexp tramp-action-permission-denied)
    (shell-prompt-pattern tramp-action-succeed)
    (tramp-shell-prompt-pattern tramp-action-succeed)
    (tramp-yesno-prompt-regexp tramp-action-yesno)
    (tramp-yn-prompt-regexp tramp-action-yn)
    (tramp-terminal-prompt-regexp tramp-action-terminal)
    (tramp-process-alive-regexp tramp-action-process-alive))
  "List of pattern/action pairs.
Whenever a pattern matches, the corresponding action is performed.
Each item looks like (PATTERN ACTION).

The PATTERN should be a symbol, a variable.  The value of this
variable gives the regular expression to search for.  Note that the
regexp must match at the end of the buffer, \"\\'\" is implicitly
appended to it.

The ACTION should also be a symbol, but a function.  When the
corresponding PATTERN matches, the ACTION function is called.")

(defconst tramp-actions-copy-out-of-band
  '((tramp-password-prompt-regexp tramp-action-password)
    (tramp-wrong-passwd-regexp tramp-action-permission-denied)
    (tramp-copy-failed-regexp tramp-action-permission-denied)
    (tramp-process-alive-regexp tramp-action-out-of-band))
  "List of pattern/action pairs.
This list is used for copying/renaming with out-of-band methods.

See `tramp-actions-before-shell' for more info.")

(defconst tramp-uudecode
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  "(echo begin 600 %t; tail -n +2) | uudecode
cat %t
rm -f %t"
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  "Shell function to implement `uudecode' to standard output.
Many systems support `uudecode -o /dev/stdout' or `uudecode -o -'
for this or `uudecode -p', but some systems don't, and for them
we have this shell function.")

(defconst tramp-perl-file-truename
  "%s -e '
use File::Spec;
use Cwd \"realpath\";

sub recursive {
    my ($volume, @dirs) = @_;
    my $real = realpath(File::Spec->catpath(
                   $volume, File::Spec->catdir(@dirs), \"\"));
    if ($real) {
        my ($vol, $dir) = File::Spec->splitpath($real, 1);
        return ($vol, File::Spec->splitdir($dir));
    }
    else {
        my $last = pop(@dirs);
        ($volume, @dirs) = recursive($volume, @dirs);
        push(@dirs, $last);
        return ($volume, @dirs);
    }
}

$result = realpath($ARGV[0]);
if (!$result) {
    my ($vol, $dir) = File::Spec->splitpath($ARGV[0], 1);
    ($vol, @dirs) = recursive($vol, File::Spec->splitdir($dir));

    $result = File::Spec->catpath($vol, File::Spec->catdir(@dirs), \"\");
}

if ($ARGV[0] =~ /\\/$/) {
    $result = $result . \"/\";
}

print \"\\\"$result\\\"\\n\";
' \"$1\" 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl script to produce output suitable for use with `file-truename'
on the remote file system.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.")

(defconst tramp-perl-file-name-all-completions
  "%s -e 'sub case {
 my $str = shift;
 if ($ARGV[2]) {
  return lc($str);
 }
 else {
  return $str;
 }
}
opendir(d, $ARGV[0]) || die(\"$ARGV[0]: $!\\nfail\\n\");
@files = readdir(d); closedir(d);
foreach $f (@files) {
 if (case(substr($f, 0, length($ARGV[1]))) eq case($ARGV[1])) {
  if (-d \"$ARGV[0]/$f\") {
   print \"$f/\\n\";
  }
  else {
   print \"$f\\n\";
  }
 }
}
print \"ok\\n\"
' \"$1\" \"$2\" \"$3\" 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl script to produce output suitable for use with
`file-name-all-completions' on the remote file system.  Escape
sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.  This string is
passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.")

;; Perl script to implement `file-attributes' in a Lisp `read'able
;; output.  If you are hacking on this, note that you get *no* output
;; unless this spits out a complete line, including the '\n' at the
;; end.
;; The device number is returned as "-1", because there will be a virtual
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;; device number set in `tramp-sh-handle-file-attributes'.
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(defconst tramp-perl-file-attributes
  "%s -e '
@stat = lstat($ARGV[0]);
if (!@stat) {
    print \"nil\\n\";
    exit 0;
}
if (($stat[2] & 0170000) == 0120000)
{
    $type = readlink($ARGV[0]);
    $type = \"\\\"$type\\\"\";
}
elsif (($stat[2] & 0170000) == 040000)
{
    $type = \"t\";
}
else
{
    $type = \"nil\"
};
$uid = ($ARGV[1] eq \"integer\") ? $stat[4] : \"\\\"\" . getpwuid($stat[4]) . \"\\\"\";
$gid = ($ARGV[1] eq \"integer\") ? $stat[5] : \"\\\"\" . getgrgid($stat[5]) . \"\\\"\";
printf(
    \"(%%s %%u %%s %%s (%%u %%u) (%%u %%u) (%%u %%u) %%u.0 %%u t (%%u . %%u) -1)\\n\",
    $type,
    $stat[3],
    $uid,
    $gid,
    $stat[8] >> 16 & 0xffff,
    $stat[8] & 0xffff,
    $stat[9] >> 16 & 0xffff,
    $stat[9] & 0xffff,
    $stat[10] >> 16 & 0xffff,
    $stat[10] & 0xffff,
    $stat[7],
    $stat[2],
    $stat[1] >> 16 & 0xffff,
    $stat[1] & 0xffff
);' \"$1\" \"$2\" 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl script to produce output suitable for use with `file-attributes'
on the remote file system.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.")

(defconst tramp-perl-directory-files-and-attributes
  "%s -e '
chdir($ARGV[0]) or printf(\"\\\"Cannot change to $ARGV[0]: $''!''\\\"\\n\"), exit();
opendir(DIR,\".\") or printf(\"\\\"Cannot open directory $ARGV[0]: $''!''\\\"\\n\"), exit();
@list = readdir(DIR);
closedir(DIR);
$n = scalar(@list);
printf(\"(\\n\");
for($i = 0; $i < $n; $i++)
{
    $filename = $list[$i];
    @stat = lstat($filename);
    if (($stat[2] & 0170000) == 0120000)
    {
        $type = readlink($filename);
        $type = \"\\\"$type\\\"\";
    }
    elsif (($stat[2] & 0170000) == 040000)
    {
        $type = \"t\";
    }
    else
    {
        $type = \"nil\"
    };
    $uid = ($ARGV[1] eq \"integer\") ? $stat[4] : \"\\\"\" . getpwuid($stat[4]) . \"\\\"\";
    $gid = ($ARGV[1] eq \"integer\") ? $stat[5] : \"\\\"\" . getgrgid($stat[5]) . \"\\\"\";
    printf(
        \"(\\\"%%s\\\" %%s %%u %%s %%s (%%u %%u) (%%u %%u) (%%u %%u) %%u.0 %%u t (%%u . %%u) (%%u . %%u))\\n\",
        $filename,
        $type,
        $stat[3],
        $uid,
        $gid,
        $stat[8] >> 16 & 0xffff,
        $stat[8] & 0xffff,
        $stat[9] >> 16 & 0xffff,
        $stat[9] & 0xffff,
        $stat[10] >> 16 & 0xffff,
        $stat[10] & 0xffff,
        $stat[7],
        $stat[2],
        $stat[1] >> 16 & 0xffff,
        $stat[1] & 0xffff,
        $stat[0] >> 16 & 0xffff,
        $stat[0] & 0xffff);
}
printf(\")\\n\");' \"$1\" \"$2\" 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl script implementing `directory-files-attributes' as Lisp `read'able
output.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.")

;; These two use base64 encoding.
(defconst tramp-perl-encode-with-module
  "%s -MMIME::Base64 -0777 -ne 'print encode_base64($_)' 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl program to use for encoding a file.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.
This implementation requires the MIME::Base64 Perl module to be installed
on the remote host.")

(defconst tramp-perl-decode-with-module
  "%s -MMIME::Base64 -0777 -ne 'print decode_base64($_)' 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl program to use for decoding a file.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.
This implementation requires the MIME::Base64 Perl module to be installed
on the remote host.")

(defconst tramp-perl-encode
  "%s -e '
# This script contributed by Juanma Barranquero <lektu@terra.es>.
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# Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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use strict;

my %%trans = do {
    my $i = 0;
    map {(substr(unpack(q(B8), chr $i++), 2, 6), $_)}
      split //, q(ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/);
};
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my $data;
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# We read in chunks of 54 bytes, to generate output lines
# of 72 chars (plus end of line)
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while (read STDIN, $data, 54) {
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    my $pad = q();

    # Only for the last chunk, and only if did not fill the last three-byte packet
    if (eof) {
        my $mod = length($data) %% 3;
        $pad = q(=) x (3 - $mod) if $mod;
    }

    # Not the fastest method, but it is simple: unpack to binary string, split
    # by groups of 6 bits and convert back from binary to byte; then map into
    # the translation table
    print
      join q(),
        map($trans{$_},
            (substr(unpack(q(B*), $data) . q(00000), 0, 432) =~ /....../g)),
              $pad,
                qq(\\n);
}' 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl program to use for encoding a file.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.")

(defconst tramp-perl-decode
  "%s -e '
# This script contributed by Juanma Barranquero <lektu@terra.es>.
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# Copyright (C) 2002-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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use strict;

my %%trans = do {
    my $i = 0;
    map {($_, substr(unpack(q(B8), chr $i++), 2, 6))}
      split //, q(ABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZabcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyz0123456789+/)
};

my %%bytes = map {(unpack(q(B8), chr $_), chr $_)} 0 .. 255;

binmode(\\*STDOUT);

# We are going to accumulate into $pending to accept any line length
# (we do not check they are <= 76 chars as the RFC says)
my $pending = q();

while (my $data = <STDIN>) {
    chomp $data;

    # If we find one or two =, we have reached the end and
    # any following data is to be discarded
    my $finished = $data =~ s/(==?).*/$1/;
    $pending .= $data;

    my $len = length($pending);
    my $chunk = substr($pending, 0, $len & ~3);
    $pending = substr($pending, $len & ~3 + 1);

    # Easy method: translate from chars to (pregenerated) six-bit packets, join,
    # split in 8-bit chunks and convert back to char.
    print join q(),
      map $bytes{$_},
        ((join q(), map {$trans{$_} || q()} split //, $chunk) =~ /......../g);

    last if $finished;
}' 2>/dev/null"
  "Perl program to use for decoding a file.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.
This string is passed to `format', so percent characters need to be doubled.")

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(defconst tramp-perl-pack
  "%s -e 'binmode STDIN; binmode STDOUT; print pack(q{u*}, join q{}, <>)'"
  "Perl program to use for encoding a file.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.")

(defconst tramp-perl-unpack
  "%s -e 'binmode STDIN; binmode STDOUT; print unpack(q{u*}, join q{}, <>)'"
  "Perl program to use for decoding a file.
Escape sequence %s is replaced with name of Perl binary.")

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(defconst tramp-vc-registered-read-file-names
  "echo \"(\"
while read file; do
    if %s \"$file\"; then
	echo \"(\\\"$file\\\" \\\"file-exists-p\\\" t)\"
    else
	echo \"(\\\"$file\\\" \\\"file-exists-p\\\" nil)\"
    fi
    if %s \"$file\"; then
	echo \"(\\\"$file\\\" \\\"file-readable-p\\\" t)\"
    else
	echo \"(\\\"$file\\\" \\\"file-readable-p\\\" nil)\"
    fi
done
echo \")\""
  "Script to check existence of VC related files.
It must be send formatted with two strings; the tests for file
existence, and file readability.  Input shall be read via
here-document, otherwise the command could exceed maximum length
of command line.")

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;; New handlers should be added here.
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(defconst tramp-sh-file-name-handler-alist
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  '(;; `access-file' performed by default handler.
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    (add-name-to-file . tramp-sh-handle-add-name-to-file)
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    ;; `byte-compiler-base-file-name' performed by default handler.
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    (copy-directory . tramp-sh-handle-copy-directory)
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    (copy-file . tramp-sh-handle-copy-file)
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    (delete-directory . tramp-sh-handle-delete-directory)
    (delete-file . tramp-sh-handle-delete-file)
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    ;; `diff-latest-backup-file' performed by default handler.
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    (directory-file-name . tramp-handle-directory-file-name)
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    (directory-files . tramp-handle-directory-files)
    (directory-files-and-attributes
     . tramp-sh-handle-directory-files-and-attributes)
    ;; `dired-call-process' performed by default handler.
    (dired-compress-file . tramp-sh-handle-dired-compress-file)
    (dired-recursive-delete-directory
     . tramp-sh-handle-dired-recursive-delete-directory)
    (dired-uncache . tramp-handle-dired-uncache)
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    (expand-file-name . tramp-sh-handle-expand-file-name)
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    (file-accessible-directory-p . tramp-handle-file-accessible-directory-p)
    (file-acl . tramp-sh-handle-file-acl)
    (file-attributes . tramp-sh-handle-file-attributes)
    (file-directory-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-directory-p)
    ;; `file-equal-p' performed by default handler.
    (file-executable-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-executable-p)
    (file-exists-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-exists-p)
    ;; `file-in-directory-p' performed by default handler.
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    (file-local-copy . tramp-sh-handle-file-local-copy)
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    (file-modes . tramp-handle-file-modes)
    (file-name-all-completions . tramp-sh-handle-file-name-all-completions)
    (file-name-as-directory . tramp-handle-file-name-as-directory)
    (file-name-completion . tramp-handle-file-name-completion)
    (file-name-directory . tramp-handle-file-name-directory)
    (file-name-nondirectory . tramp-handle-file-name-nondirectory)
    ;; `file-name-sans-versions' performed by default handler.
    (file-newer-than-file-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-newer-than-file-p)
    (file-notify-add-watch . tramp-sh-handle-file-notify-add-watch)
    (file-notify-rm-watch . tramp-handle-file-notify-rm-watch)
    (file-ownership-preserved-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-ownership-preserved-p)
    (file-readable-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-readable-p)
    (file-regular-p . tramp-handle-file-regular-p)
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    (file-remote-p . tramp-handle-file-remote-p)
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    (file-selinux-context . tramp-sh-handle-file-selinux-context)
    (file-symlink-p . tramp-handle-file-symlink-p)
    (file-truename . tramp-sh-handle-file-truename)
    (file-writable-p . tramp-sh-handle-file-writable-p)
    (find-backup-file-name . tramp-handle-find-backup-file-name)
    ;; `find-file-noselect' performed by default handler.
    ;; `get-file-buffer' performed by default handler.
    (insert-directory . tramp-sh-handle-insert-directory)
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    (insert-file-contents . tramp-handle-insert-file-contents)
    (insert-file-contents-literally
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     . tramp-sh-handle-insert-file-contents-literally)
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    (load . tramp-handle-load)
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    (make-auto-save-file-name . tramp-handle-make-auto-save-file-name)
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    (make-directory . tramp-sh-handle-make-directory)
    (make-symbolic-link . tramp-sh-handle-make-symbolic-link)
    (process-file . tramp-sh-handle-process-file)
    (rename-file . tramp-sh-handle-rename-file)
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    (set-file-acl . tramp-sh-handle-set-file-acl)
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    (set-file-modes . tramp-sh-handle-set-file-modes)
    (set-file-selinux-context . tramp-sh-handle-set-file-selinux-context)
    (set-file-times . tramp-sh-handle-set-file-times)
    (set-visited-file-modtime . tramp-sh-handle-set-visited-file-modtime)
    (shell-command . tramp-handle-shell-command)
    (start-file-process . tramp-sh-handle-start-file-process)
    (substitute-in-file-name . tramp-handle-substitute-in-file-name)
    (unhandled-file-name-directory . tramp-handle-unhandled-file-name-directory)
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    (vc-registered . tramp-sh-handle-vc-registered)
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    (verify-visited-file-modtime . tramp-sh-handle-verify-visited-file-modtime)
    (write-region . tramp-sh-handle-write-region))
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  "Alist of handler functions.
Operations not mentioned here will be handled by the normal Emacs functions.")

;; This must be the last entry, because `identity' always matches.
;;;###tramp-autoload
(add-to-list 'tramp-foreign-file-name-handler-alist
	     '(identity . tramp-sh-file-name-handler) 'append)

;;; File Name Handler Functions:

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-make-symbolic-link
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  (filename linkname &optional ok-if-already-exists)
  "Like `make-symbolic-link' for Tramp files.
If LINKNAME is a non-Tramp file, it is used verbatim as the target of
the symlink.  If LINKNAME is a Tramp file, only the localname component is
used as the target of the symlink.

If LINKNAME is a Tramp file and the localname component is relative, then
it is expanded first, before the localname component is taken.  Note that
this can give surprising results if the user/host for the source and
target of the symlink differ."
  (with-parsed-tramp-file-name linkname l
    (let ((ln (tramp-get-remote-ln l))
	  (cwd (tramp-run-real-handler
		'file-name-directory (list l-localname))))
      (unless ln
	(tramp-error
	 l 'file-error
	 "Making a symbolic link.  ln(1) does not exist on the remote host."))

      ;; Do the 'confirm if exists' thing.
      (when (file-exists-p linkname)
	;; What to do?
	(if (or (null ok-if-already-exists) ; not allowed to exist
		(and (numberp ok-if-already-exists)
		     (not (yes-or-no-p
			   (format
			    "File %s already exists; make it a link anyway? "
			    l-localname)))))
	    (tramp-error
	     l 'file-already-exists "File %s already exists" l-localname)
	  (delete-file linkname)))

      ;; If FILENAME is a Tramp name, use just the localname component.
      (when (tramp-tramp-file-p filename)
	(setq filename
	      (tramp-file-name-localname
	       (tramp-dissect-file-name (expand-file-name filename)))))

      (tramp-flush-file-property l (file-name-directory l-localname))
      (tramp-flush-file-property l l-localname)

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      ;; Right, they are on the same host, regardless of user, method,
      ;; etc.  We now make the link on the remote machine. This will
      ;; occur as the user that FILENAME belongs to.
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      (tramp-send-command-and-check
       l
       (format
	"cd %s && %s -sf %s %s"
	(tramp-shell-quote-argument cwd)
	ln
	(tramp-shell-quote-argument filename)
	(tramp-shell-quote-argument l-localname))
       t))))

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-file-truename (filename)
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  "Like `file-truename' for Tramp files."
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  (format
   "%s%s"
   (with-parsed-tramp-file-name (expand-file-name filename) nil
     (tramp-make-tramp-file-name
      method user host
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      (with-tramp-file-property v localname "file-truename"
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	(let ((result nil))			; result steps in reverse order
	  (tramp-message v 4 "Finding true name for `%s'" filename)
	  (cond
	   ;; Use GNU readlink --canonicalize-missing where available.
	   ((tramp-get-remote-readlink v)
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	    (tramp-send-command-and-check
	     v
	     (format "%s --canonicalize-missing %s"
		     (tramp-get-remote-readlink v)
		     (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)))
	    (with-current-buffer (tramp-get-connection-buffer v)
	      (goto-char (point-min))
	      (setq result (buffer-substring (point-min) (point-at-eol)))))
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	   ;; Use Perl implementation.
	   ((and (tramp-get-remote-perl v)
		 (tramp-get-connection-property v "perl-file-spec" nil)
		 (tramp-get-connection-property v "perl-cwd-realpath" nil))
	    (tramp-maybe-send-script
	     v tramp-perl-file-truename "tramp_perl_file_truename")
	    (setq result
		  (tramp-send-command-and-read
		   v
		   (format "tramp_perl_file_truename %s"
			   (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)))))

	   ;; Do it yourself.  We bind `directory-sep-char' here for
	   ;; XEmacs on Windows, which would otherwise use backslash.
	   (t (let* ((directory-sep-char ?/)
		     (steps (tramp-compat-split-string localname "/"))
		     (localnamedir (tramp-run-real-handler
				    'file-name-as-directory (list localname)))
		     (is-dir (string= localname localnamedir))
		     (thisstep nil)
		     (numchase 0)
		     ;; Don't make the following value larger than
		     ;; necessary.  People expect an error message in
		     ;; a timely fashion when something is wrong;
		     ;; otherwise they might think that Emacs is hung.
		     ;; Of course, correctness has to come first.
		     (numchase-limit 20)
		     symlink-target)
		(while (and steps (< numchase numchase-limit))
		  (setq thisstep (pop steps))
		  (tramp-message
		   v 5 "Check %s"
		   (mapconcat 'identity
			      (append '("") (reverse result) (list thisstep))
			      "/"))
		  (setq symlink-target
			(nth 0 (file-attributes
				(tramp-make-tramp-file-name
				 method user host
				 (mapconcat 'identity
					    (append '("")
						    (reverse result)
						    (list thisstep))
					    "/")))))
		  (cond ((string= "." thisstep)
			 (tramp-message v 5 "Ignoring step `.'"))
			((string= ".." thisstep)
			 (tramp-message v 5 "Processing step `..'")
			 (pop result))
			((stringp symlink-target)
			 ;; It's a symlink, follow it.
			 (tramp-message
			  v 5 "Follow symlink to %s" symlink-target)
			 (setq numchase (1+ numchase))
			 (when (file-name-absolute-p symlink-target)
			   (setq result nil))
			 ;; If the symlink was absolute, we'll get a
			 ;; string like "/user@host:/some/target";
			 ;; extract the "/some/target" part from it.
			 (when (tramp-tramp-file-p symlink-target)
			   (unless (tramp-equal-remote filename symlink-target)
			     (tramp-error
			      v 'file-error
			      "Symlink target `%s' on wrong host"
			      symlink-target))
			   (setq symlink-target localname))
			 (setq steps
			       (append (tramp-compat-split-string
					symlink-target "/")
				       steps)))
			(t
			 ;; It's a file.
			 (setq result (cons thisstep result)))))
		(when (>= numchase numchase-limit)
		  (tramp-error
		   v 'file-error
		   "Maximum number (%d) of symlinks exceeded" numchase-limit))
		(setq result (reverse result))
		;; Combine list to form string.
		(setq result
		      (if result
			  (mapconcat 'identity (cons "" result) "/")
			"/"))
		(when (and is-dir
			   (or (string= "" result)
			       (not (string= (substring result -1) "/"))))
		  (setq result (concat result "/"))))))

	  (tramp-message v 4 "True name of `%s' is `%s'" localname result)
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	  result))))

   ;; Preserve trailing "/".
   (if (string-equal (file-name-nondirectory filename) "") "/" "")))
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;; Basic functions.

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-file-exists-p (filename)
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  "Like `file-exists-p' for Tramp files."
  (with-parsed-tramp-file-name filename nil
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    (with-tramp-file-property v localname "file-exists-p"
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      (or (not (null (tramp-get-file-property
                      v localname "file-attributes-integer" nil)))
          (not (null (tramp-get-file-property
                      v localname "file-attributes-string" nil)))
	  (tramp-send-command-and-check
	   v
	   (format
	    "%s %s"
	    (tramp-get-file-exists-command v)
	    (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)))))))

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-file-attributes (filename &optional id-format)
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  "Like `file-attributes' for Tramp files."
  (unless id-format (setq id-format 'integer))
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  (ignore-errors
    ;; Don't modify `last-coding-system-used' by accident.
    (let ((last-coding-system-used last-coding-system-used))
      (with-parsed-tramp-file-name (expand-file-name filename) nil
	(with-tramp-file-property
	    v localname (format "file-attributes-%s" id-format)
	  (save-excursion
	    (tramp-convert-file-attributes
	     v
	     (or
	      (cond
	       ((tramp-get-remote-stat v)
		(tramp-do-file-attributes-with-stat v localname id-format))
	       ((tramp-get-remote-perl v)
		(tramp-do-file-attributes-with-perl v localname id-format))
	       (t nil))
	      ;; The scripts could fail, for example with huge file size.
	      (tramp-do-file-attributes-with-ls v localname id-format)))))))))
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(defun tramp-do-file-attributes-with-ls (vec localname &optional id-format)
  "Implement `file-attributes' for Tramp files using the ls(1) command."
  (let (symlinkp dirp
		 res-inode res-filemodes res-numlinks
		 res-uid res-gid res-size res-symlink-target)
    (tramp-message vec 5 "file attributes with ls: %s" localname)
    (tramp-send-command
     vec
     (format "(%s %s || %s -h %s) && %s %s %s"
	     (tramp-get-file-exists-command vec)
	     (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)
	     (tramp-get-test-command vec)
	     (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)
	     (tramp-get-ls-command vec)
	     (if (eq id-format 'integer) "-ildn" "-ild")
	     (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)))
    ;; parse `ls -l' output ...
    (with-current-buffer (tramp-get-buffer vec)
      (when (> (buffer-size) 0)
        (goto-char (point-min))
        ;; ... inode
        (setq res-inode
              (condition-case err
                  (read (current-buffer))
                (invalid-read-syntax
                 (when (and (equal (cadr err)
                                   "Integer constant overflow in reader")
                            (string-match
                             "^[0-9]+\\([0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9][0-9]\\)\\'"
                             (car (cddr err))))
                   (let* ((big (read (substring (car (cddr err)) 0
                                                (match-beginning 1))))
                          (small (read (match-string 1 (car (cddr err)))))
                          (twiddle (/ small 65536)))
                     (cons (+ big twiddle)
                           (- small (* twiddle 65536))))))))
        ;; ... file mode flags
        (setq res-filemodes (symbol-name (read (current-buffer))))
        ;; ... number links
        (setq res-numlinks (read (current-buffer)))
        ;; ... uid and gid
        (setq res-uid (read (current-buffer)))
        (setq res-gid (read (current-buffer)))
        (if (eq id-format 'integer)
            (progn
              (unless (numberp res-uid) (setq res-uid -1))
              (unless (numberp res-gid) (setq res-gid -1)))
          (progn
            (unless (stringp res-uid) (setq res-uid (symbol-name res-uid)))
            (unless (stringp res-gid) (setq res-gid (symbol-name res-gid)))))
        ;; ... size
        (setq res-size (read (current-buffer)))
        ;; From the file modes, figure out other stuff.
        (setq symlinkp (eq ?l (aref res-filemodes 0)))
        (setq dirp (eq ?d (aref res-filemodes 0)))
        ;; if symlink, find out file name pointed to
        (when symlinkp
          (search-forward "-> ")
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          (setq res-symlink-target (buffer-substring (point) (point-at-eol))))
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        ;; return data gathered
        (list
         ;; 0. t for directory, string (name linked to) for symbolic
         ;; link, or nil.
         (or dirp res-symlink-target)
         ;; 1. Number of links to file.
         res-numlinks
         ;; 2. File uid.
         res-uid
         ;; 3. File gid.
         res-gid
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         ;; 4. Last access time, as a list of integers.  Normally this
         ;; would be in the same format as `current-time', but the
         ;; subseconds part is not currently implemented, and (0 0)
         ;; denotes an unknown time.
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         ;; 5. Last modification time, likewise.
         ;; 6. Last status change time, likewise.
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         '(0 0) '(0 0) '(0 0)		;CCC how to find out?
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         ;; 7. Size in bytes (-1, if number is out of range).
         res-size
         ;; 8. File modes, as a string of ten letters or dashes as in ls -l.
         res-filemodes
         ;; 9. t if file's gid would change if file were deleted and
         ;; recreated.  Will be set in `tramp-convert-file-attributes'
         t
         ;; 10. inode number.
         res-inode
         ;; 11. Device number.  Will be replaced by a virtual device number.
         -1
         )))))

(defun tramp-do-file-attributes-with-perl
  (vec localname &optional id-format)
  "Implement `file-attributes' for Tramp files using a Perl script."
  (tramp-message vec 5 "file attributes with perl: %s" localname)
  (tramp-maybe-send-script
   vec tramp-perl-file-attributes "tramp_perl_file_attributes")
  (tramp-send-command-and-read
   vec
   (format "tramp_perl_file_attributes %s %s"
	   (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname) id-format)))

(defun tramp-do-file-attributes-with-stat
  (vec localname &optional id-format)
  "Implement `file-attributes' for Tramp files using stat(1) command."
  (tramp-message vec 5 "file attributes with stat: %s" localname)
  (tramp-send-command-and-read
   vec
   (format
    ;; On Opsware, pdksh (which is the true name of ksh there) doesn't
    ;; parse correctly the sequence "((".  Therefore, we add a space.
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    "( (%s %s || %s -h %s) && %s -c '((\"%%N\") %%h %s %s %%Xe0 %%Ye0 %%Ze0 %%se0 \"%%A\" t %%ie0 -1)' %s || echo nil)"
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    (tramp-get-file-exists-command vec)
    (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)
    (tramp-get-test-command vec)
    (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)
    (tramp-get-remote-stat vec)
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    (if (eq id-format 'integer) "%ue0" "\"%U\"")
    (if (eq id-format 'integer) "%ge0" "\"%G\"")
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    (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname))))

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-set-visited-file-modtime (&optional time-list)
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  "Like `set-visited-file-modtime' for Tramp files."
  (unless (buffer-file-name)
    (error "Can't set-visited-file-modtime: buffer `%s' not visiting a file"
	   (buffer-name)))
  (if time-list
      (tramp-run-real-handler 'set-visited-file-modtime (list time-list))
    (let ((f (buffer-file-name))
	  coding-system-used)
      (with-parsed-tramp-file-name f nil
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	(let* ((remote-file-name-inhibit-cache t)
	       (attr (file-attributes f))
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	       ;; '(-1 65535) means file doesn't exists yet.
	       (modtime (or (nth 5 attr) '(-1 65535))))
	  (when (boundp 'last-coding-system-used)
	    (setq coding-system-used (symbol-value 'last-coding-system-used)))
	  ;; We use '(0 0) as a don't-know value.  See also
	  ;; `tramp-do-file-attributes-with-ls'.
	  (if (not (equal modtime '(0 0)))
	      (tramp-run-real-handler 'set-visited-file-modtime (list modtime))
	    (progn
	      (tramp-send-command
	       v
	       (format "%s -ild %s"
		       (tramp-get-ls-command v)
		       (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)))
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	      (setq attr (buffer-substring (point) (point-at-eol))))
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	    (tramp-set-file-property
	     v localname "visited-file-modtime-ild" attr))
	  (when (boundp 'last-coding-system-used)
	    (set 'last-coding-system-used coding-system-used))
	  nil)))))

;; This function makes the same assumption as
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;; `tramp-sh-handle-set-visited-file-modtime'.
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(defun tramp-sh-handle-verify-visited-file-modtime (&optional buf)
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  "Like `verify-visited-file-modtime' for Tramp files.
At the time `verify-visited-file-modtime' calls this function, we
already know that the buffer is visiting a file and that
`visited-file-modtime' does not return 0.  Do not call this
function directly, unless those two cases are already taken care
of."
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  (with-current-buffer (or buf (current-buffer))
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    (let ((f (buffer-file-name)))
      ;; There is no file visiting the buffer, or the buffer has no
      ;; recorded last modification time, or there is no established
      ;; connection.
      (if (or (not f)
	      (eq (visited-file-modtime) 0)
	      (not (tramp-file-name-handler 'file-remote-p f nil 'connected)))
	  t
	(with-parsed-tramp-file-name f nil
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	  (let* ((remote-file-name-inhibit-cache t)
		 (attr (file-attributes f))
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		 (modtime (nth 5 attr))
		 (mt (visited-file-modtime)))

	    (cond
	     ;; File exists, and has a known modtime.
	     ((and attr (not (equal modtime '(0 0))))
	      (< (abs (tramp-time-diff
		       modtime
		       ;; For compatibility, deal with both the old
		       ;; (HIGH . LOW) and the new (HIGH LOW) return
		       ;; values of `visited-file-modtime'.
		       (if (atom (cdr mt))
			   (list (car mt) (cdr mt))
			 mt)))
		 2))
	     ;; Modtime has the don't know value.
	     (attr
	      (tramp-send-command
	       v
	       (format "%s -ild %s"
		       (tramp-get-ls-command v)
		       (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname)))
	      (with-current-buffer (tramp-get-buffer v)
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		(setq attr (buffer-substring (point) (point-at-eol))))
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	      (equal
	       attr
	       (tramp-get-file-property
		v localname "visited-file-modtime-ild" "")))
	     ;; If file does not exist, say it is not modified if and
	     ;; only if that agrees with the buffer's record.
	     (t (equal mt '(-1 65535))))))))))

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-set-file-modes (filename mode)
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  "Like `set-file-modes' for Tramp files."
  (with-parsed-tramp-file-name filename nil
    (tramp-flush-file-property v localname)
    ;; FIXME: extract the proper text from chmod's stderr.
    (tramp-barf-unless-okay
     v
     (format "chmod %s %s"
	     (tramp-compat-decimal-to-octal mode)
	     (tramp-shell-quote-argument localname))
     "Error while changing file's mode %s" filename)))

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(defun tramp-sh-handle-set-file-times (filename &optional time)
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  "Like `set-file-times' for Tramp files."
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  (if (tramp-tramp-file-p filename)
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      (with-parsed-tramp-file-name filename nil
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	(when (tramp-get-remote-touch v)
	  (tramp-flush-file-property v localname)
	  (let ((time (if (or (null time) (equal time '(0 0)))
			  (current-time)
			time))
		;; With GNU Emacs, `format-time-string' has an
		;; optional parameter UNIVERSAL.  This is preferred,
		;; because we could handle the case when the remote
		;; host is located in a different time zone as the
		;; local host.
		(utc (not (featurep 'xemacs))))
	    (tramp-send-command-and-check
	     v (format
		"%s %s %s %s"
		(if utc "env TZ=UTC" "")
		(tramp-get-remote-touch v)
		(if (tramp-get-connection-property v "touch-t" nil)
		    (format "-t %s"
			    (if utc
				(format-time-string "%Y%m%d%H%M.%S" time t)
			      (format-time-string "%Y%m%d%H%M.%S" time)))
		  "")
		(tramp-shell-quote-argument localname))))))
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    ;; We handle also the local part, because in older Emacsen,
    ;; without `set-file-times', this function is an alias for this.
    ;; We are local, so we don't need the UTC settings.
    (zerop
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     (tramp-call-process
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      nil "touch" nil nil nil "-t"
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      (format-time-string "%Y%m%d%H%M.%S" time)
      (tramp-shell-quote-argument filename)))))

(defun tramp-set-file-uid-gid (filename &optional uid gid)
  "Set the ownership for FILENAME.
If UID and GID are provided, these values are used; otherwise uid
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and gid of the corresponding user is taken.  Both parameters must
be non-negative integers."
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  ;; Modern Unices allow chown only for root.  So we might need
  ;; another implementation, see `dired-do-chown'.  OTOH, it is mostly
  ;; working with su(do)? when it is needed, so it shall succeed in
  ;; the majority of cases.
  ;; Don't modify `last-coding-system-used' by accident.
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  (let ((last-coding-system-used last-coding-system-used))
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    (if (tramp-tramp-file-p filename)
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	(with-parsed-tramp-file-name filename nil
	  (if (and (zerop (user-uid)) (tramp-local-host-p v))
	      ;; If we are root on the local host, we can do it directly.
	      (tramp-set-file-uid-gid localname uid gid)