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/* X Communication module for terminals which understand the X protocol.
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   Copyright (C) 1989, 1993 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.  */

/* Serious problems:

   Kludge: dup2 is used to put the X-connection socket into desc # 0
   so that wait_reading_process_input will wait for it in place of
   actual terminal input.
   
*/

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#define NEW_SELECTIONS

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/* On 4.3 these lose if they come after xterm.h.  */
/* On HP-UX 8.0 signal.h loses if it comes after config.h.  */
/* Putting these at the beginning seems to be standard for other .c files.  */
#include <stdio.h>
#include <signal.h>

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#include <config.h>
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#ifdef HAVE_X_WINDOWS

#include "lisp.h"
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#include "blockinput.h"
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/* This may include sys/types.h, and that somehow loses
   if this is not done before the other system files.  */
#include "xterm.h"
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#include <X11/cursorfont.h>
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#ifndef USG
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/* Load sys/types.h if not already loaded.
   In some systems loading it twice is suicidal.  */
#ifndef makedev
#include <sys/types.h>
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#endif /* makedev */
#endif /* USG */
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#ifdef BSD
#include <sys/ioctl.h>
#include <strings.h>
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#else /* ! defined (BSD) */
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#ifndef VMS
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#include <string.h>
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#endif
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#endif /* ! defined (BSD) */
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#include "systty.h"
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#include "systime.h"
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#include <fcntl.h>
#include <ctype.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <setjmp.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/param.h>

#include "dispextern.h"
#include "termhooks.h"
#include "termopts.h"
#include "termchar.h"
#if 0
#include "sink.h"
#include "sinkmask.h"
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#endif /* ! 0 */
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#include "gnu.h"
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#include "frame.h"
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#include "disptab.h"
#include "buffer.h"
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#include "window.h"
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#ifdef HAVE_X11
#define XMapWindow XMapRaised		/* Raise them when mapping. */
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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#include <X/Xkeyboard.h>
/*#include <X/Xproto.h>	*/
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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#ifdef FD_SET
/* We could get this from param.h, but better not to depend on finding that.
   And better not to risk that it might define other symbols used in this
   file.  */
#ifdef FD_SETSIZE
#define MAXDESC FD_SETSIZE
#else
#define MAXDESC 64
#endif
#define SELECT_TYPE fd_set
#else /* no FD_SET */
#define MAXDESC 32
#define SELECT_TYPE int

/* Define the macros to access a single-int bitmap of descriptors.  */
#define FD_SET(n, p) (*(p) |= (1 << (n)))
#define FD_CLR(n, p) (*(p) &= ~(1 << (n)))
#define FD_ISSET(n, p) (*(p) & (1 << (n)))
#define FD_ZERO(p) (*(p) = 0)
#endif /* no FD_SET */

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/* For sending Meta-characters.  Do we need this? */
#define METABIT 0200

#define min(a,b) ((a)<(b) ? (a) : (b))
#define max(a,b) ((a)>(b) ? (a) : (b))
122

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/* Nonzero means we must reprint all windows
   because 1) we received an ExposeWindow event
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   or 2) we received too many ExposeRegion events to record.
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   This is never needed under X11.  */
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static int expose_all_windows;

/* Nonzero means we must reprint all icon windows.  */

static int expose_all_icons;

#ifndef HAVE_X11
/* ExposeRegion events, when received, are copied into this queue
   for later processing.  */

static struct event_queue x_expose_queue;

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/* ButtonPress and ButtonReleased events, when received,
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   are copied into this queue for later processing.  */

struct event_queue x_mouse_queue;
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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#if defined (SIGIO) && defined (FIONREAD)
int BLOCK_INPUT_mask;
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#endif /* ! defined (SIGIO) && defined (FIONREAD) */
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/* The id of a bitmap used for icon windows.
   One such map is shared by all Emacs icon windows.
   This is zero if we have not yet had a need to create the bitmap.  */

static Bitmap icon_bitmap;

/* Font used for text icons.  */

static FONT_TYPE *icon_font_info;

/* Stuff for dealing with the main icon title. */

extern Lisp_Object Vcommand_line_args;
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char *hostname, *x_id_name;
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/* This is the X connection that we are using.  */

Display *x_current_display;

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/* The cursor to use for vertical scroll bars on x_current_display.  */
static Cursor x_vertical_scroll_bar_cursor;
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/* Frame being updated by update_frame.  This is declared in term.c.
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   This is set by update_begin and looked at by all the
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   XT functions.  It is zero while not inside an update.
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   In that case, the XT functions assume that `selected_frame'
   is the frame to apply to.  */
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extern struct frame *updating_frame;
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/* The frame (if any) which has the X window that has keyboard focus.
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   Zero if none.  This is examined by Ffocus_frame in frame.c.  Note
   that a mere EnterNotify event can set this; if you need to know the
   last frame specified in a FocusIn or FocusOut event, use
   x_focus_event_frame.  */
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struct frame *x_focus_frame;
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/* The last frame mentioned in a FocusIn or FocusOut event.  This is
   separate from x_focus_frame, because whether or not LeaveNotify
   events cause us to lose focus depends on whether or not we have
   received a FocusIn event for it.  */
struct frame *x_focus_event_frame;

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/* The frame which currently has the visual highlight, and should get
   keyboard input (other sorts of input have the frame encoded in the
   event).  It points to the X focus frame's selected window's
   frame.  It differs from x_focus_frame when we're using a global
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   minibuffer.  */
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static struct frame *x_highlight_frame;
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/* From .Xdefaults, the value of "emacs.WarpMouse".  If non-zero,
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   mouse is moved to inside of frame when frame is de-iconified.  */
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static int warp_mouse_on_deiconify;

/* During an update, maximum vpos for ins/del line operations to affect.  */

static int flexlines;

/* During an update, nonzero if chars output now should be highlighted.  */

static int highlight;

/* Nominal cursor position -- where to draw output.
   During an update, these are different from the cursor-box position.  */

static int curs_x;
static int curs_y;

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/* Mouse movement.

   In order to avoid asking for motion events and then throwing most
   of them away or busy-polling the server for mouse positions, we ask
   the server for pointer motion hints.  This means that we get only
   one event per group of mouse movements.  "Groups" are delimited by
   other kinds of events (focus changes and button clicks, for
   example), or by XQueryPointer calls; when one of these happens, we
   get another MotionNotify event the next time the mouse moves.  This
   is at least as efficient as getting motion events when mouse
   tracking is on, and I suspect only negligibly worse when tracking
   is off.

   The silly O'Reilly & Associates Nutshell guides barely document
   pointer motion hints at all (I think you have to infer how they
   work from an example), and the description of XQueryPointer doesn't
   mention that calling it causes you to get another motion hint from
   the server, which is very important.  */

/* Where the mouse was last time we reported a mouse event.  */
static FRAME_PTR last_mouse_frame;
static XRectangle last_mouse_glyph;

/* The scroll bar in which the last X motion event occurred.

   If the last X motion event occurred in a scroll bar, we set this
   so XTmouse_position can know whether to report a scroll bar motion or
   an ordinary motion.

   If the last X motion event didn't occur in a scroll bar, we set this
   to Qnil, to tell XTmouse_position to return an ordinary motion event.  */
static Lisp_Object last_mouse_scroll_bar;

/* Record which buttons are currently pressed. */
unsigned int x_mouse_grabbed;

/* This is a hack.  We would really prefer that XTmouse_position would
   return the time associated with the position it returns, but there
   doesn't seem to be any way to wrest the timestamp from the server
   along with the position query.  So, we just keep track of the time
   of the last movement we received, and return that in hopes that
   it's somewhat accurate.  */
static Time last_mouse_movement_time;

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#ifdef HAVE_X11
/* `t' if a mouse button is depressed. */

extern Lisp_Object Vmouse_depressed;

/* Tells if a window manager is present or not. */

extern Lisp_Object Vx_no_window_manager;

/* Timestamp that we requested selection data was made. */
extern Time requestor_time;

/* ID of the window requesting selection data. */
extern Window requestor_window;

/* Nonzero enables some debugging for the X interface code. */
extern int _Xdebug;

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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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/* Bit patterns for the mouse cursor.  */

short MouseCursor[] = {
  0x0000, 0x0008, 0x0018, 0x0038,
  0x0078, 0x00f8, 0x01f8, 0x03f8,
  0x07f8, 0x00f8, 0x00d8, 0x0188,
  0x0180, 0x0300, 0x0300, 0x0000};

short MouseMask[] = {
  0x000c, 0x001c, 0x003c, 0x007c,
  0x00fc, 0x01fc, 0x03fc, 0x07fc,
  0x0ffc, 0x0ffc, 0x01fc, 0x03dc,
  0x03cc, 0x0780, 0x0780, 0x0300};

static short grey_bits[] = {
  0x0005, 0x000a, 0x0005, 0x000a};

static Pixmap GreyPixmap = 0;
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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/* From time to time we get info on an Emacs window, here.  */

static WINDOWINFO_TYPE windowinfo;

extern int errno;

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/* A mask of extra modifier bits to put into every keyboard char.  */
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extern int extra_keyboard_modifiers;

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extern Display *XOpenDisplay ();
extern Window XCreateWindow ();

extern Cursor XCreateCursor ();
extern FONT_TYPE *XOpenFont ();

static void flashback ();
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static void redraw_previous_char ();
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#ifndef HAVE_X11
static void dumpqueue ();
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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void dumpborder ();
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static int XTcursor_to ();
static int XTclear_end_of_line ();
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/* Starting and ending updates. 

   These hooks are called by update_frame at the beginning and end
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   of a frame update.  We record in `updating_frame' the identity
   of the frame being updated, so that the XT... functions do not
   need to take a frame as argument.  Most of the XT... functions
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   should never be called except during an update, the only exceptions
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   being XTcursor_to, XTwrite_glyphs and XTreassert_line_highlight.  */
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extern int mouse_track_top, mouse_track_left, mouse_track_width;

static
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XTupdate_begin (f)
     struct frame *f;
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{	
  int mask;

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  if (f == 0)
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    abort ();

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  flexlines = f->height;
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  highlight = 0;

  BLOCK_INPUT;
#ifndef HAVE_X11
  dumpqueue ();
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
}

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#ifndef HAVE_X11
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static void x_do_pending_expose ();
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#endif
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static
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XTupdate_end (f)
     struct frame *f;
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{	
  int mask;

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  if (updating_frame == 0
      || updating_frame != f)
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    abort ();

  BLOCK_INPUT;
#ifndef HAVE_X11
  dumpqueue ();
  x_do_pending_expose ();
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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  x_display_cursor (f, 1);
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  XFlushQueue ();
  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
}

/* External interface to control of standout mode.
   Call this when about to modify line at position VPOS
   and not change whether it is highlighted.  */

XTreassert_line_highlight (new, vpos)
     int new, vpos;
{
  highlight = new;
}

/* Call this when about to modify line at position VPOS
   and change whether it is highlighted.  */

static
XTchange_line_highlight (new_highlight, vpos, first_unused_hpos)
     int new_highlight, vpos, first_unused_hpos;
{
  highlight = new_highlight;
  XTcursor_to (vpos, 0);
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  XTclear_end_of_line (updating_frame->width);
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}

/* This is used when starting Emacs and when restarting after suspend.
   When starting Emacs, no X window is mapped.  And nothing must be done
   to Emacs's own window if it is suspended (though that rarely happens).  */

static
XTset_terminal_modes ()
{
}

/* This is called when exiting or suspending Emacs.
   Exiting will make the X-windows go away, and suspending
   requires no action.  */

static
XTreset_terminal_modes ()
{
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/*  XTclear_frame ();  */
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}

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/* Set the nominal cursor position of the frame.
   This is where display update commands will take effect.
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   This does not affect the place where the cursor-box is displayed.  */

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static int
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XTcursor_to (row, col)
     register int row, col;
{
  int mask;
  int orow = row;

  curs_x = col;
  curs_y = row;

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  if (updating_frame == 0)
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    {
      BLOCK_INPUT;
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      x_display_cursor (selected_frame, 1);
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      XFlushQueue ();
      UNBLOCK_INPUT;
    }
}

/* Display a sequence of N glyphs found at GP.
   WINDOW is the x-window to output to.  LEFT and TOP are starting coords.
   HL is 1 if this text is highlighted, 2 if the cursor is on it.

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   FONT is the default font to use (for glyphs whose font-code is 0).
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   Since the display generation code is responsible for calling
   compute_char_face and compute_glyph_face on everything it puts in
   the display structure, we can assume that the face code on each
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   glyph is a valid index into FRAME_COMPUTED_FACES (f), and the one
   to which we can actually apply intern_face.  */
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#if 1
/* This is the multi-face code.  */
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static void
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dumpglyphs (f, left, top, gp, n, hl)
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     struct frame *f;
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     int left, top;
     register GLYPH *gp; /* Points to first GLYPH. */
     register int n;  /* Number of glyphs to display. */
     int hl;
{
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  /* Holds characters to be displayed. */
  char *buf = (char *) alloca (f->width * sizeof (*buf));
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  register char *cp;		/* Steps through buf[]. */
  register int tlen = GLYPH_TABLE_LENGTH;
  register Lisp_Object *tbase = GLYPH_TABLE_BASE;
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  Window window = FRAME_X_WINDOW (f);
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  while (n > 0)
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    {
      /* Get the face-code of the next GLYPH.  */
      int cf, len;
      int g = *gp;

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      GLYPH_FOLLOW_ALIASES (tbase, tlen, g);
      cf = GLYPH_FACE (g);
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      /* Find the run of consecutive glyphs with the same face-code.
	 Extract their character codes into BUF.  */
      cp = buf;
      while (n > 0)
	{
	  g = *gp;
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	  GLYPH_FOLLOW_ALIASES (tbase, tlen, g);
	  if (GLYPH_FACE (g) != cf)
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	    break;

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	  *cp++ = GLYPH_CHAR (g);
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	  --n;
	  ++gp;
	}

      /* LEN gets the length of the run.  */
      len = cp - buf;

      /* Now output this run of chars, with the font and pixel values
	 determined by the face code CF.  */
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      {
	struct face *face = FRAME_DEFAULT_FACE (f);
	FONT_TYPE *font = FACE_FONT (face);
	GC gc = FACE_GC (face);
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	int defaulted = 1;
	int gc_temporary = 0;
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	/* First look at the face of the text itself.  */
	if (cf != 0)
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	  {
	    /* The face codes on the glyphs must be valid indices into the
	       frame's face table.  */
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	    if (cf < 0 || cf >= FRAME_N_COMPUTED_FACES (f)
		|| FRAME_COMPUTED_FACES (f) [cf] == 0)
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	      abort ();

	    if (cf == 1)
	      face = FRAME_MODE_LINE_FACE (f);
	    else
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	      face = intern_face (f, FRAME_COMPUTED_FACES (f) [cf]);
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	    font = FACE_FONT (face);
	    gc = FACE_GC (face);
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	    defaulted = 0;
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	  }
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	/* Then comes the distinction between modeline and normal text.  */
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	else if (hl == 0)
	  ;
	else if (hl == 1)
	  {
	    face = FRAME_MODE_LINE_FACE (f);
	    font = FACE_FONT (face);
	    gc   = FACE_GC   (face);
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	    defaulted = 0;
	  }

#define FACE_DEFAULT (~0)

	/* Now override that if the cursor's on this character.  */
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	if (hl == 2)
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	  {
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	    if (defaulted
		|| !face->font
		|| (int) face->font == FACE_DEFAULT)
	      {
		gc = f->display.x->cursor_gc;
	      }
	    /* Cursor on non-default face: must merge.  */
	    else
	      {
		XGCValues xgcv;
		unsigned long mask;

		xgcv.background = f->display.x->cursor_pixel;
		xgcv.foreground = f->display.x->cursor_foreground_pixel;
		xgcv.font = face->font->fid;
		xgcv.graphics_exposures = 0;
		mask = GCForeground | GCBackground | GCFont | GCGraphicsExposures;
		gc = XCreateGC (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
				mask, &xgcv);
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#if 0
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		if (face->stipple && face->stipple != FACE_DEFAULT)
		  XSetStipple (x_current_display, gc, face->stipple);
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#endif
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		gc_temporary = 1;
	      }
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	  }

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	if ((int) font == FACE_DEFAULT)
	  font = f->display.x->font;

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	XDrawImageString (x_current_display, window, gc,
			  left, top + FONT_BASE (font), buf, len);

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	if (gc_temporary)
	  XFreeGC (x_current_display, gc);

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	/* We should probably check for XA_UNDERLINE_POSITION and
	   XA_UNDERLINE_THICKNESS properties on the font, but let's
	   just get the thing working, and come back to that.  */
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	{
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	  int underline_position = 1;
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	  if (font->descent <= underline_position)
	    underline_position = font->descent - 1;
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	  if (face->underline)
	    XFillRectangle (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
			    FACE_GC (face),
			    left, (top
				   + FONT_BASE (font)
				   + underline_position),
			    len * FONT_WIDTH (font), 1);
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	}
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	left += len * FONT_WIDTH (font);
      }
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    }
}
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#endif /* 1 */

#if 0
/* This is the old single-face code.  */

static void
dumpglyphs (f, left, top, gp, n, hl, font)
     struct frame *f;
     int left, top;
     register GLYPH *gp; /* Points to first GLYPH. */
     register int n;  /* Number of glyphs to display. */
     int hl;
     FONT_TYPE *font;
{
  register int len;
  Window window = FRAME_X_WINDOW (f);
  GC drawing_gc =   (hl == 2 ? f->display.x->cursor_gc
		             : (hl ? f->display.x->reverse_gc
				   : f->display.x->normal_gc));

  if (sizeof (GLYPH) == sizeof (XChar2b))
    XDrawImageString16 (x_current_display, window, drawing_gc,
			left, top + FONT_BASE (font), (XChar2b *) gp, n);
  else if (sizeof (GLYPH) == sizeof (unsigned char))
    XDrawImageString (x_current_display, window, drawing_gc,
		      left, top + FONT_BASE (font), (char *) gp, n);
  else
    /* What size of glyph ARE you using?  And does X have a function to
       draw them?  */
    abort ();
}
#endif
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/* Output some text at the nominal frame cursor position.
   Advance the cursor over the text.
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   Output LEN glyphs at START.

   `highlight', set up by XTreassert_line_highlight or XTchange_line_highlight,
   controls the pixel values used for foreground and background.  */

static
XTwrite_glyphs (start, len)
     register GLYPH *start;
     int len;
{
  register int temp_length;
  int mask;
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  struct frame *f;
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  BLOCK_INPUT;

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  f = updating_frame;
  if (f == 0)
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    {
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      f = selected_frame;
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      /* If not within an update,
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	 output at the frame's visible cursor.  */
      curs_x = f->cursor_x;
      curs_y = f->cursor_y;
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    }

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  dumpglyphs (f,
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	      CHAR_TO_PIXEL_COL (f, curs_x),
	      CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y),
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	      start, len, highlight);
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  /* If we drew on top of the cursor, note that it is turned off.  */
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  if (curs_y == f->phys_cursor_y
      && curs_x <= f->phys_cursor_x
      && curs_x + len > f->phys_cursor_x)
    f->phys_cursor_x = -1;
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  if (updating_frame == 0)
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    {
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      f->cursor_x += len;
      x_display_cursor (f, 1);
      f->cursor_x -= len;
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    }
  else
    curs_x += len;

  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
}

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/* Clear to the end of the line.
   Erase the current text line from the nominal cursor position (inclusive)
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   to column FIRST_UNUSED (exclusive).  The idea is that everything
   from FIRST_UNUSED onward is already erased.  */
  
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static int
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XTclear_end_of_line (first_unused)
     register int first_unused;
{
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  struct frame *f = updating_frame;
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  int mask;

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  if (f == 0)
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    abort ();

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  if (curs_y < 0 || curs_y >= f->height)
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    return;
  if (first_unused <= 0)
    return;

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  if (first_unused >= f->width)
    first_unused = f->width;
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  BLOCK_INPUT;

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  /* Notice if the cursor will be cleared by this operation.  */
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  if (curs_y == f->phys_cursor_y
      && curs_x <= f->phys_cursor_x
      && f->phys_cursor_x < first_unused)
    f->phys_cursor_x = -1;
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#ifdef HAVE_X11
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  XClearArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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	      CHAR_TO_PIXEL_COL (f, curs_x),
	      CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y),
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	      FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font) * (first_unused - curs_x),
	      FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), False);
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#if 0
  redraw_previous_char (f, curs_x, curs_y);
#endif
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
  XPixSet (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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	   CHAR_TO_PIXEL_COL (f, curs_x),
	   CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y),
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	   FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font) * (first_unused - curs_x),
	   FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font),
	   f->display.x->background_pixel);	
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
}

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/* Erase the character (if any) at the position just before X, Y in frame F,
   then redraw it and the character before it.
   This is necessary when we erase starting at X,
   in case the character after X overlaps into the one before X.  */

static void
redraw_previous_char (f, x, y)
     FRAME_PTR f;
     int x, y;
{
  /* Erase the character before the new ones, in case
     what was here before overlaps it.
     Reoutput that character, and the previous character
     (in case the previous character overlaps it).  */
  if (x > 0)
    {
      int start_x = x - 2;
      if (start_x < 0)
	start_x = 0;
      XClearArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
		  CHAR_TO_PIXEL_COL (f, x - 1),
		  CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, y),
		  FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		  FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), False);

      dumpglyphs (f, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_COL (f, start_x),
		  CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, y),
		  &FRAME_CURRENT_GLYPHS (f)->glyphs[y][start_x],
		  x - start_x, highlight);
    }
}

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static
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XTclear_frame ()
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{
  int mask;
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  struct frame *f = updating_frame;
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  if (f == 0)
    f = selected_frame;
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  f->phys_cursor_x = -1;	/* Cursor not visible.  */
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  curs_x = 0;			/* Nominal cursor position is top left.  */
  curs_y = 0;
  
  BLOCK_INPUT;
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  XClear (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f));
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  /* We have to clear the scroll bars, too.  If we have changed
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     colors or something like that, then they should be notified.  */
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  x_scroll_bar_clear (f);
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#ifndef HAVE_X11
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  dumpborder (f, 0);
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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  XFlushQueue ();
  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
}

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/* Invert the middle quarter of the frame for .15 sec.  */

/* We use the select system call to do the waiting, so we have to make sure
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   it's available.  If it isn't, we just won't do visual bells.  */
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#if defined (HAVE_TIMEVAL) && defined (HAVE_SELECT)

/* Subtract the `struct timeval' values X and Y,
   storing the result in RESULT.
   Return 1 if the difference is negative, otherwise 0.  */

static int
timeval_subtract (result, x, y)
     struct timeval *result, x, y;
{
  /* Perform the carry for the later subtraction by updating y.
     This is safer because on some systems
     the tv_sec member is unsigned.  */
  if (x.tv_usec < y.tv_usec)
    {
      int nsec = (y.tv_usec - x.tv_usec) / 1000000 + 1;
      y.tv_usec -= 1000000 * nsec;
      y.tv_sec += nsec;
    }
  if (x.tv_usec - y.tv_usec > 1000000)
    {
      int nsec = (y.tv_usec - x.tv_usec) / 1000000;
      y.tv_usec += 1000000 * nsec;
      y.tv_sec -= nsec;
    }

  /* Compute the time remaining to wait.  tv_usec is certainly positive.  */
  result->tv_sec = x.tv_sec - y.tv_sec;
  result->tv_usec = x.tv_usec - y.tv_usec;

  /* Return indication of whether the result should be considered negative.  */
  return x.tv_sec < y.tv_sec;
}
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XTflash (f)
     struct frame *f;
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{
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  BLOCK_INPUT;
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  {
    GC gc;
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    /* Create a GC that will use the GXxor function to flip foreground pixels
       into background pixels.  */
    {
      XGCValues values;
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      values.function = GXxor;
      values.foreground = (f->display.x->foreground_pixel
			   ^ f->display.x->background_pixel);
      
      gc = XCreateGC (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
		      GCFunction | GCForeground, &values);
    }
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    {
      int width  = PIXEL_WIDTH  (f);
      int height = PIXEL_HEIGHT (f);
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      XFillRectangle (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), gc,
		      width/4, height/4, width/2, height/2);
      XFlush (x_current_display);
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      {
	struct timeval wakeup, now;
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	EMACS_GET_TIME (&wakeup);
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	/* Compute time to wait until, propagating carry from usecs.  */
	wakeup.tv_usec += 150000;
	wakeup.tv_sec += (wakeup.tv_usec / 1000000);
	wakeup.tv_usec %= 1000000;

	/* Keep waiting until past the time wakeup.  */
	while (1)
	  {
	    struct timeval timeout;

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	    EMACS_GET_TIME (&timeout);
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	    /* In effect, timeout = wakeup - timeout.
	       Break if result would be negative.  */
	    if (timeval_subtract (&timeout, wakeup, timeout))
	      break;

	    /* Try to wait that long--but we might wake up sooner.  */
	    select (0, 0, 0, 0, &timeout);
	  }
      }
	
      XFillRectangle (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), gc,
		      width/4, height/4, width/2, height/2);
      XFreeGC (x_current_display, gc);
      XFlush (x_current_display);
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    }
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  }

  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
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}

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#endif


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/* Make audible bell.  */

#ifdef HAVE_X11
#define XRINGBELL XBell(x_current_display, 0)
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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#define XRINGBELL XFeep(0);
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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XTring_bell ()
{
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  if (x_current_display == 0)
    return;

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#if defined (HAVE_TIMEVAL) && defined (HAVE_SELECT)
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  if (visible_bell)
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    XTflash (selected_frame);
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  else
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#endif
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    {
      BLOCK_INPUT;
      XRINGBELL;
      XFlushQueue ();
      UNBLOCK_INPUT;
    }
}

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/* Insert and delete character.
   These are not supposed to be used because we are supposed to turn
   off the feature of using them.  */
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static 
XTinsert_glyphs (start, len)
     register char *start;
     register int len;
{
  abort ();
}

static 
XTdelete_glyphs (n)
     register int n;
{
  abort ();
}

/* Specify how many text lines, from the top of the window,
   should be affected by insert-lines and delete-lines operations.
   This, and those operations, are used only within an update
   that is bounded by calls to XTupdate_begin and XTupdate_end.  */

static
XTset_terminal_window (n)
     register int n;
{
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  if (updating_frame == 0)
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    abort ();

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  if ((n <= 0) || (n > updating_frame->height))
    flexlines = updating_frame->height;
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  else
    flexlines = n;
}

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/* Perform an insert-lines operation.
   Insert N lines at a vertical position curs_y.  */
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static void
stufflines (n)
     register int n;
{
  register int topregion, bottomregion;
  register int length, newtop, mask;
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  register struct frame *f = updating_frame;
  int intborder = f->display.x->internal_border_width;
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  if (curs_y >= flexlines)
    return;

  topregion = curs_y;
  bottomregion = flexlines - (n + 1);
  newtop = topregion + n;
  length = (bottomregion - topregion) + 1;

#ifndef HAVE_X11
  dumpqueue ();
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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  if ((length > 0) && (newtop <= flexlines))
    {
#ifdef HAVE_X11
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      XCopyArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
		 FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), f->display.x->normal_gc,
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		 intborder, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, topregion),
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		 f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		 length * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), intborder,
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		 CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, newtop));
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
      XMoveArea (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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		 intborder, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, topregion),
		 intborder, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, newtop),
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		 f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		 length * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font));
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      /* Now we must process any ExposeRegion events that occur
	 if the area being copied from is obscured.
	 We can't let it wait because further i/d operations
	 may want to copy this area to another area.  */
      x_read_exposes ();
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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    }

  newtop = min (newtop, (flexlines - 1));
  length = newtop - topregion;
  if (length > 0)
    {
#ifdef HAVE_X11
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      XClearArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), intborder, 
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		  CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, topregion),
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		  f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		  n * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), False);
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
      XPixSet (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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	       intborder,
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	       CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, topregion),
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	       f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
	       n * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font),
	       f->display.x->background_pixel);
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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    }
}

/* Perform a delete-lines operation, deleting N lines
   at a vertical position curs_y.  */

static void
scraplines (n)
     register int n;
{
  int mask;
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  register struct frame *f = updating_frame;
  int intborder = f->display.x->internal_border_width;
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  if (curs_y >= flexlines)
    return;

#ifndef HAVE_X11
  dumpqueue ();
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#endif /* HAVE_X11 */
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  if ((curs_y + n) >= flexlines)
    {
      if (flexlines >= (curs_y + 1))
	{
#ifdef HAVE_X11
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	  XClearArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), intborder,
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		      CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y),
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		      f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		      (flexlines - curs_y) * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), False);
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
	  XPixSet (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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		   intborder, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y),
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		   f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		   (flexlines - curs_y) * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font),
		   f->display.x->background_pixel);
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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	}
    }
  else
    {
#ifdef HAVE_X11
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      XCopyArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
		 FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), f->display.x->normal_gc,
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		 intborder,
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		 CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y + n),
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		 f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		 (flexlines - (curs_y + n)) * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font),
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		 intborder, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y));
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      XClearArea (x_current_display, FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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		  intborder,
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		  CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, flexlines - n),
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		  f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		  n * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), False);
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#else /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
      XMoveArea (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f),
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		 intborder,
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		 CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y + n),
		 intborder, CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, curs_y),
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		 f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
		 (flexlines - (curs_y + n)) * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font));
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      /* Now we must process any ExposeRegion events that occur
	 if the area being copied from is obscured.
	 We can't let it wait because further i/d operations
	 may want to copy this area to another area.  */
      x_read_exposes ();
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      XPixSet (FRAME_X_WINDOW (f), intborder,
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	       CHAR_TO_PIXEL_ROW (f, flexlines - n),
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	       f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font),
	       n * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font), f->display.x->background_pixel);
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#endif /* ! defined (HAVE_X11) */
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    }
}

/* Perform an insert-lines or delete-lines operation,
   inserting N lines or deleting -N lines at vertical position VPOS.  */

XTins_del_lines (vpos, n)
     int vpos, n;
{
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  if (updating_frame == 0)
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    abort ();

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  /* Hide the cursor.  */
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  x_display_cursor (updating_frame, 0);
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  XTcursor_to (vpos, 0);

  BLOCK_INPUT;
  if (n >= 0)
    stufflines (n);
  else
    scraplines (-n);
  XFlushQueue ();
  UNBLOCK_INPUT;
}

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/* Support routines for exposure events.  */
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static void clear_cursor ();

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/* Output into a rectangle of an X-window (for frame F)
   the characters in f->phys_lines that overlap that rectangle.
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   TOP and LEFT are the position of the upper left corner of the rectangle.
   ROWS and COLS are the size of the rectangle.  */

static void
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dumprectangle (f, left, top, cols, rows)
     struct frame *f;
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     register int left, top, cols, rows;
{
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  register struct frame_glyphs *active_frame = FRAME_CURRENT_GLYPHS (f);
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  int cursor_cleared = 0;
  int bottom, right;
  register int y;

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  if (FRAME_GARBAGED_P (f))
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    return;

  /* Express rectangle as four edges, instead of position-and-size.  */
  bottom = top + rows;
  right = left + cols;

#ifndef HAVE_X11		/* Window manger does this for X11. */
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  {
    int intborder = f->display.x->internal_border_width;

    /* If the rectangle includes any of the internal border area,
       redisplay the border emphasis.  */
    if (top < intborder || left < intborder
	|| bottom > intborder + f->height * FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font)
	|| right > intborder + f->width * FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font))
      dumpborder (f, 0);
  }
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#endif /* HAVE_X11		Window manger does this for X11. */
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  /* Convert rectangle edges in pixels to edges in chars.
     Round down for left and top, up for right and bottom.  */
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  top  = PIXEL_TO_CHAR_ROW (f, top);
  left = PIXEL_TO_CHAR_COL (f, left);
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  bottom += (FONT_HEIGHT (f->display.x->font) - 1);
  right += (FONT_WIDTH (f->display.x->font) - 1);
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  bottom = PIXEL_TO_CHAR_ROW (f, bottom);
  right = PIXEL_TO_CHAR_COL (f, right);
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  /* Clip the rectangle to what can be visible.  */
  if (left < 0)
    left = 0;
  if (top < 0)
    top = 0;
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  if (right > f->width)
    right = f->width;
  if (bottom > f->height)
    bottom = f->height;
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  /* Get size in chars of the rectangle.  */
  cols = right - left;
  rows = bottom - top;

  /* If rectangle has zero area, return.  */
  if (rows <= 0) return;
  if (cols <= 0) return;

  /* Turn off the cursor if it is in the rectangle.
     We will turn it back on afterward.  */
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  if ((f->phys_cursor_x >= left) && (f->phys_cursor_x < right)
      && (f->phys_cursor_y >= top) && (f->phys_cursor_y < bottom))
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    {
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      clear_cursor (f);
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      cursor_cleared = 1;
    }