NEWS 91.1 KB
Newer Older
1
GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.
2

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
3
Copyright (C) 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
4
See the end of the file for license conditions.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
5

6
Please send Emacs bug reports to emacs-pretest-bug@gnu.org.
7 8
If possible, use M-x report-emacs-bug.

9
This file is about changes in Emacs version 23.
10

11 12
See files NEWS.22, NEWS.21, NEWS.20, NEWS.19, NEWS.18, and NEWS.1-17
for changes in older Emacs versions.
13 14 15

You can narrow news to a specific version by calling `view-emacs-news'
with a prefix argument or by typing C-u C-h C-n.
16

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24

Temporary note:
 +++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
 --- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so we will look at it and add it to the manual.


25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34
* Installation Changes in Emacs 23.2

** New configure options for Emacs developers
These are not new features; only the configure flags are new.

*** --enable-profiling builds Emacs with profiling enabled.
This might not work on all platforms.

*** --enable-checking[=OPTIONS] builds emacs with extra runtime checks.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
35 36 37 38
---
** `make install' now consistently ignores umask, creating a
world-readable install.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
39
* Startup Changes in Emacs 23.2
40

41
** Command-line option -Q (--quick) now also disables loading X resources.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
42 43 44 45
Note however that this does not affect Lucid or Motif widgets, if you
are using those toolkits.  On Windows, this option causes Emacs to
ignore Registry settings, though environment variables set on the
Registry are still honored.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
46 47 48

*** The new variable `inhibit-x-resources' shows whether X resources
were loaded.
49

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
50
* Changes in Emacs 23.2
51

52 53 54
** The maximum size of buffers (as well as the largest fixnum) is doubled.
On typical 32bit systems, buffers can now be up to 512MB.

55 56 57
** Function arguments in *Help* buffers are now in uppercase by default.
You can customize the new variable `help-downcase-arguments' to change it.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
58
** Unibyte sessions are now considered obsolete.
59 60 61 62 63
I.e. the use of the environment variable EMACS_UNIBYTE, or command line
arguments --unibyte, --multibyte, --no-multibyte, and --no-unibyte
is deprecated.  Similarly for custom-izing enable-multibyte-characters, or
setting default-enable-multibyte-characters.

64 65 66 67 68 69
** The default value of `trash-directory' has changed to nil, which
means that `move-file-to-trash' trashes files according to
freedesktop.org specifications, the same method used by the Gnome,
KDE, and XFCE desktops.  (This change has no effect on Windows, which
uses `system-move-file-to-trash' for trashing.)

70 71 72 73 74
+++
** Emacs frames can be maximized.
The command line arguments -mm/--maximized and the value maximized to the
frame parameter fullscreen makes the Emacs frame maximized.

Jan Djärv's avatar
Jan Djärv committed
75 76 77
+++
** New frame parameter sticky makes Emacs frames sticky in virtual desktops.

78 79 80
** The pointer now becomes invisible when typing.
Customize make-pointer-invisible to turn it off.

81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92
** Emacs can use the system default monospaced font in Gnome.
The use of the system default font can be turned on or off by customizing
the variable 'font-use-system-font'.  It is off by default.
If the system default is changed, Emacs changes also.
This requires that gconf-support is built in.  If configure finds the
gconf-libraries, that support is included. Gconf-support can be
turned off with the configure option --without-gconf.

** Emacs now reacts to Xft-changes made by configuration tools on X11.
Changes to antialias, hinting, hintstyle, RGBA, DPI and lcdfilter are
handeled.  The XSETTINGS mechanism is used to implement this.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
93 94 95 96
** Killing a buffer with a running process now asks for confirmation.
You can remove this query in two ways: either remove
`process-kill-buffer-query-function' from `kill-buffer-query-functions',
or set the appropriate process flag with `set-process-query-on-exit-flag'.
97

98 99 100 101 102 103 104
** The variable `load-in-progress' won't get corrupted by binding it
with `let'.  In certain situations, loading an Emacs Lisp file from
source while in the midst of loading another file (e.g., with
`require' or `autoload') could cause the value of `load-in-progress'
to be corrupted once the outer load completed.  Most code doesn't care
about this, but some (like c-mode) may check it.

105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119
** File-local variable changes

*** Specifying a minor mode as a local variables enables that mode,
unconditionally.  The previous behavior, toggling the mode, was
neither reliable nor generally desirable.

*** New commands for adding and removing file-local variables:
`add-file-local-variable', `delete-file-local-variable',
`add-file-local-variable-prop-line', and
`delete-file-local-variable-prop-line'.

*** New commands for adding and removing directory-local variables,
and copying them to and from file-local variable lists:
`add-dir-local-variable', `delete-dir-local-variable',
`copy-dir-locals-to-file-locals',
120 121 122
`copy-dir-locals-to-file-locals-prop-line' and
`copy-file-locals-to-dir-locals'.

123 124 125 126
** New coding system `utf-8-hfs' is available in
international/ucs-normalize.el.  It is suitable for
default-file-name-coding-system on Mac OS X.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
127 128 129

* Editing Changes in Emacs 23.2

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143
** Selection changes
+++
*** If `select-active-regions' is t, any active region automatically
becomes the primary selection (for interaction with other window
applications).  If you enable this, you might want to bind
`mouse-yank-primary' to Mouse-2.

*** When `save-interprogram-paste-before-kill' is non-nil, emacs will
not clobber the the interprogram paste when something is killed in it
by saving the former in the `kill-ring' before the latter.

** When `kill-do-not-save-duplicates' is non-nil, identical subsequent
kills are not duplicated in the `kill-ring'.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
144 145 146
+++
** The default value for `blink-matching-paren-distance' has been increased.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
147 148 149
** The new completion-style `initials' is available.
For instance, this can complete M-x lch to list-command-history.

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
150 151 152
** Completions in the *Completions* buffer are sorted vertically
when the value of the new variable `completions-format' is `vertical'.

153 154
** M-n provides more default values in the minibuffer of commands that
read a file and directory name: a file name at point (when ffap is loaded
155 156 157
without ffap-bindings), a file name on the current line in the Dired buffer,
a directory name of adjacent Dired windows for Dired commands that can
operate on several directories (copy, rename, diff).
158

159 160 161
** M-r is bound to the new `move-to-window-line-top-bottom'
to mirror the new behavior of C-l in Emacs-23.1.

162 163 164
** `recenter-positions' can redefine the default cycling order
of `recenter-top-bottom'.

165 166 167

* Changes in Specialized Modes and Packages in Emacs 23.2

168 169 170 171 172
** The bookmark menu has a narrowing search via bookmark-bmenu-search.

** LaTeX mode now provides completion via latex-complete and
latex-indent-or-complete.

173 174
** lucid.el and levents.el are now declared obsolete.

175 176 177
** pcomplete provides a new command `pcomplete-std-completion' which
is similar to `pcomplete' but using the standard completion UI code.

178 179
** .calc.el and .abbrev_defs obey user-emacs-directory.

180 181 182 183
** Calc graphing commands (`g f' etc.) now work on MS-Windows,
if you have the native Windows port of Gnuplot version 3.8 or later
installed.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203
** Calendar and diary

*** Fancy diary display is now the default.
If you prefer the simple display, customize `diary-display-function'.

*** The diary's fancy display now enables view-mode.

---
*** The command `calendar-current-date' accepts an optional argument
giving an offset from today.

** Desktop
---
*** The default value for `desktop-buffers-not-to-save' is nil.
This means Desktop will try restoring all buffers, when you restart
your Emacs session.  Also, `desktop-buffers-not-to-save' is only
effective for buffers that have no associated file.  If you want to
exempt buffers that do correspond to files, customize the value of
`desktop-files-not-to-save' instead.

204 205
** DocView

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
206
*** When `doc-view-continuous' is non-nil, scrolling a line
207 208
on the page edge advances to the next/previous page.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
209 210 211
** FIXME mail-user-agent change
This probably affects a lot of documentation.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
212 213
** FIXME gdb-mi

214 215 216 217
** Grep

A new command `zrgrep' searches recursively in gzipped files.

218 219 220 221 222
** Info

*** The new command `Info-virtual-index' bound to "I" displays a menu of
matched topics found in the index.

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
223 224 225 226
*** The new command `info-finder' replaces finder.el with a virtual Info
manual that generates an Info file which gives the same information
through a menu structure.

227 228
+++
** New connection methods in Tramp.
229 230 231
The new connection methods "rsyncc", "imap" and "imaps" have been
introduced.  On systems which support GVFS-Fuse, Tramp offers also the
new connection methods "dav", "davs", "obex" and "synce".
232

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
233
** nXML mode is now the default for editing XML files.
234

235 236
** VC and related modes

237 238 239 240 241
*** When using C-x v v or C-x v i on a unregistered file that is in a
directory not controlled by any VCS, ask the user what VC backend to
use to create a repository, create a new repository and register the
file.

242 243 244
*** FIXME: add info about the new VC functions: vc-root-diff and
vc-root-print-log once they stabilize.

245 246 247 248 249 250 251
*** The log functions (C-x v l and C-x v L) do not show the full log
by default anymore.  The number of entries shown can be chosen
interactively with a prefix argument, by customizing
vc-log-show-limit.  The log buffer display buttons that can be used
to change the number of entries shown.
RCS, SCCS, CVS and Git do not support this feature.

252 253 254 255 256
*** vc-annotate supports annotations through file copies and renames,
it displays the old names for the files and it can show logs/diffs for
the corresponding lines.  Currently only Git and Mercurial take
advantage of this feature.

257 258
*** When a file is not found, VC will not try to check it out of RCS anymore.

259 260
*** Diff and log operations can be used from dired buffers.

Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
261 262 263
*** vc-git changes

**** The new variable vc-git-add-signoff can be used to add a
Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
264 265
Signed-off-by line when committing.

266
**** Support for operating with stashes has been added to vc-dir: the stash list is
267
displayed in the *vc-dir* header, stashes can be created, removed, applied and
268 269
their content displayed.

Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
270 271
**** vc-dir displays the stash status

272 273 274
*** vc-bzr supports operating with shelves: the shelve list is
displayed in the *vc-dir* header, shelves can be created, removed and applied.

275 276 277
*** log-edit-strip-single-file-name controls whether or not single filenames
are stripped when copying text from the ChangeLog to the *VC-Log* buffer.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297
** Elint

---
*** Elint now uses compilation-mode.

---
*** Elint can now scan individual files and whole directories,
and can be run in batch mode.

---
*** Elint does a more thorough initialization, and recognizes more built-in
functions and variables.  Customize `elint-scan-preloaded' if you want
to sacrifice some accuracy for a faster startup.

---
*** Elint attempts some basic understanding of featurep and (f)boundp tests.

---
*** Customize `elint-ignored-warnings' to suppress some warnings.

298 299 300 301 302 303
** Miscellaneous

*** The new command `async-shell-command' bound globally to `M-&' executes
the command asynchronously without the need to manually add ampersand to
the end of the command.  Its output appears in the buffer `*Async Shell
Command*'.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
304

305 306
*** Isearch searches in the comint/shell input history when the new variable
`comint-history-isearch' is non-nil.  New commands `comint-history-isearch-backward'
307 308
and `comint-history-isearch-backward-regexp' (bound to M-r) start Isearch
in the input history regardless of the value of `comint-history-isearch'.
309

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317
*** Interactively `multi-isearch-buffers' and `multi-isearch-buffers-regexp'
read buffer names to search, one by one, ended with RET.  With a prefix
argument, they ask for a regexp, and search in buffers whose names match
the specified regexp.  Interactively `multi-isearch-files' and
`multi-isearch-files-regexp' read file names to search, one by one,
ended with RET.  With a prefix argument, they ask for a wildcard, and
search in file buffers whose file names match the specified wildcard.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
318
+++
319 320 321 322 323 324
*** Autorevert Tail mode now works also for remote files.

*** The new commands `eshell/su' and `eshell/sudo' support Tramp.
That means, they change `default-directory' to the new users value,
and let commands run under that user permissions.  It works even when
`default-directory' is already remote.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
325

Steve Yegge's avatar
Steve Yegge committed
326 327 328

* New Modes and Packages in Emacs 23.2

Stefan Monnier's avatar
Stefan Monnier committed
329
** mpc.el is a front end for the Music Player Daemon.  Run it with M-x mpc.
Stefan Monnier's avatar
Stefan Monnier committed
330 331
** htmlfontify.el turns a fontified Emacs buffer into an HTML page.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
332 333
** FIXME CEDET

334
** js.el is a new major mode for JavaScript files.
335

336 337
** imap-hash.el is a new library to address IMAP mailboxes as hashtables.

338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353

* Incompatible Lisp Changes in Emacs 23.2

** Several obsolete functions removed.
The functions have been obsolete since Emacs 19, and are unlikely to
be in use:

  time-stamp-month-dd-yyyy, time-stamp-dd/mm/yyyy, time-stamp-mon-dd-yyyy
  time-stamp-dd-mon-yy, time-stamp-yy/mm/dd, time-stamp-yyyy/mm/dd,
  time-stamp-yyyy-mm-dd, time-stamp-yymmdd, time-stamp-hh:mm:ss,
  time-stamp-hhmm, baud-rate

---
** Support for generating Emacs 18 compatible bytecode (by setting
the variable `byte-compile-compatibility') has been removed.

354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364
** In image-mode.el `image-mode-maybe' is obsolete.  Instead, you can
either use `image-mode' that displays an image file as the actual image
inititally, or `image-mode-as-text' when you want to display an image file
as text inititally.  `image-mode-as-text' is a combination of a non-image
mode from `auto-mode-alist' (or Fundamental mode) and `image-minor-mode'.
`image-minor-mode' provides `C-c C-c' key binding to toggle image display.
`image-toggle-display-text' removes image properties.
`image-toggle-display-image' adds image properties.
`image-toggle-display' toggles between `image-mode-as-text' and
`image-mode'.

365 366 367

* Lisp changes in Emacs 23.2

368 369
** make-network-socket can now also create `seqpacket' Unix sockets.

370 371 372
** New function `completion-in-region' to use the standard completion
facilities on a particular region of text.

373 374
** The 4th arg to all-completions (aka hide-spaces) is declared obsolete.

375 376 377 378 379
** read-file-name-predicate is obsolete.  It was used to pass the predicate
to read-file-name-internal because read-file-name-internal abused its `pred'
argument to pass the current directory, but this hack is not needed
any more.

380 381 382 383 384 385
** completion-base-size is obsoleted by completion-base-position.
This change causes a few backward incompatibilities, mostly with
choose-completion-string-functions where the `mini-p' argument has
been replaced by a `base-position' argument, and where the `base-size'
argument is now always nil.

386 387
** called-interactively-p now takes one argument and replaces interactive-p
which is now marked obsolete.
388 389
** New function set-advertised-calling-convention makes it possible
to obsolete arguments as well as make some arguments mandatory.
390
** eval-next-after-load is obsolete.
391 392
** New hook `after-load-functions' run after loading an Elisp file.

393 394 395 396 397
** You can control which binding is preferentially shown in menus and
docstrings by adding a `:advertised-binding' property to the corresponding
command's symbol.  That property can hold a single binding or a list
of bindings.

398 399
** New macro with-silent-modifications to tweak text properties without
affecting the buffer's modification state.
400 401 402
** All the default-FOO variables that hold the default value of the FOO
variable, are now declared obsolete.

403 404
** read-key is a function halfway between read-event and read-key-sequence.
It reads a single key, but obeys input and escape sequence decoding.
405

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
406 407
** start-process-shell-command and start-file-process-shell-command
now only take a single `command' argument.
408 409 410 411 412

** The variable `process-file-side-effects' shall be bound to nil, if
a `process-file' call does not change a remote file.  By this, file
name handlers like Tramp can apply optimizations.

413 414 415
** Hash tables have a new printed representation that is readable.
The feature `hashtable-print-readable' identifies this new
functionality.
416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423

** Functions performing Unicode normalization are added.  They are:
ucs-normalize-NFD-region, ucs-normalize-NFD-string,
ucs-normalize-NFC-region, ucs-normalize-NFC-string,
ucs-normalize-NFKD-region, ucs-normalize-NFKD-string,
ucs-normalize-NFKC-region, ucs-normalize-NFKC-string,
ucs-normalize-HFS-NFD-region, ucs-normalize-HFS-NFD-string,
ucs-normalize-HFS-NFC-region, ucs-normalize-HFS-NFC-string.
Stefan Monnier's avatar
.  
Stefan Monnier committed
424 425 426

** completion-annotate-function specifies how to compute annotations
for completions displayed in *Completions*.
427

428
+++
429 430
** Face aliases can now be marked as obsolete, using the macro
`define-obsolete-face-alias'.
431 432 433 434 435

---
** Changing the file-names generated by byte-compilation by redefining
the function `byte-compile-dest-file' before loading bytecomp.el is obsolete.
Instead, customize byte-compile-dest-file-function.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
436

437 438 439
---
** `byte-compile-warnings' can have a new member, `constants'.

440 441
** `delete-directory' has an optional parameter RECURSIVE.

442 443
** New function `copy-directory', which copies a directory recursively.

444
+++
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
445 446
** New function `window-full-height-p', analogous to the full-width version.

447

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
448 449 450 451 452
* Changes in Emacs 23.2 on non-free operating systems

---
** On MS-Windows, `display-time' now displays the system load average
as well as the time, as it does on GNU and Unix.
453

454

455
* Installation Changes in Emacs 23.1
456

457
** The default X toolkit is now Gtk+, rather than Lucid.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
458 459
The configure option `--with-gtk' has been removed.  Gtk is now the
default toolkit, but you can use --with-x-toolkit=gtk if necessary.
460

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
461 462
** New font code.
Fonts are handled by new code capable of dealing with multiple font
463
backends.  This uses the freetype and fontconfig libraries.
464

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
465 466
*** Emacs now accepts font names supplied in the fontconfig format
(e.g. "monospace-12:bold") and GTK format (e.g. "Monospace Bold 12").
Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
467

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476
*** Added support for local fonts (fonts installed on the machine
where Emacs is running).

*** Added support for the Xft library for antialiasing.

*** Added support for the otf library for complex text layout by
OpenType fonts.

*** Added support for the m17n library for text shaping.
477

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
478
** Changes to image support
479

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
480
*** configure now checks for libgif before libungif when searching for
481
a GIF library.
482

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
483 484
*** Emacs now supports the SVG image format through librsvg2.

Jason Rumney's avatar
Jason Rumney committed
485 486
*** Emacs now supports multi-page TIFF images.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
487
** New NeXTSTEP-based port
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
488
This provides support for GNUstep (via the GNUstep libraries) and Mac
Michael Albinus's avatar
Michael Albinus committed
489
OS X (via the Cocoa libraries).
490

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
491
Specify --with-ns to configure for this.  By default, a self-contained
492 493 494
app will be built (containing all lisp).  To install/share lisp with
other emacsen (e.g. X11 build) use --disable-ns-self-contained.  See
nextstep/README and nextstep/INSTALL in the Emacs source directory.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
495 496 497

** Mac OS X is no longer supported via Carbon.
Use the NeXTSTEP port, described above.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
498

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
499 500
** The new configuration option "--with-dbus" enables D-Bus language
bindings for Emacs.
501

502 503
** Support for many obsolete platforms has been removed.
See the list at the end of etc/MACHINES for details.
504

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
505
*** Support for systems without alloca has been removed.
506

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
507
*** Support for Sun windows has been removed.
508

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
509
*** The `emacstool' utility has been removed.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
510

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
511
** The following platforms will be removed in a future Emacs version:
512 513
If you are still using Emacs on one of these platforms, please email
emacs-devel@gnu.org to inform the Emacs developers.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
514

515
*** Old GNU/Linux systems based on libc version 5.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
516

517 518
*** Old FreeBSD, NetBSD, and OpenBSD systems based on the COFF
    executable format.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
519 520 521

*** Solaris versions 2.6 and below.

522 523 524 525
*** Solaris on IBM RS6000 machines.

*** UNIX System V (the original SysV, not later platforms based on it).

526 527
*** Unixware on non-x86 machines.

528 529
*** Platforms not supporting shared libraries (i.e., requiring the
NO_SHARED_LIBS compilation flag).
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
530

531 532 533 534
** The configure options `--with-gcc', `--without-gcc' have been removed.
Configure will use gcc by default.  Set the CC environment variable if
you need control over which C compiler is used.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
535 536
** The refcards are now shipped as PDF files.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
537 538 539
** The manuals are now licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License v1.3,
or any later version.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
540 541 542
** Emacs 23 comes with a new set of default icons.
Various resolutions are available as etc/images/icons/hicolor/*/apps/emacs.png.
The Emacs 22 icon is available as `emacs22.png' in the same location.
Nick Roberts's avatar
Nick Roberts committed
543 544 545

* Changes in Emacs 23.1

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
546
** Improved X Window System support
547

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
548 549 550 551 552
*** Emacs now supports using both X displays and ttys in one session.
With an Emacs server active (M-x server-start), `emacsclient -t'
creates a tty frame connected to the running emacs server.  You can
use any number of different ttys.  `emacsclient -c' creates a new X11
frame on the current $DISPLAY (or a tty frame if $DISPLAY is not set).
553 554
There may be problems if a display exits unexpectedly and Emacs is compiled
with Gtk+, see etc/PROBLEMS.
555 556 557

You can test for the presence of this feature in your Lisp code by
testing for the `multi-tty' feature.
558 559

*** Emacs starts in the background, as a daemon, when given the
560 561 562
--daemon command line argument.  It disconnects from the terminal and
starts the server.  Clients can connect and create graphical or
terminal frames using emacsclient.
563

564
**** emacsclient starts emacs in daemon mode and connects to it when
565 566
--alternate-editor="" is used (or when the evironment variable
ALTERNATE_EDITOR is set to "") and emacsclient cannot connect to an
567 568
emacs server.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
569
*** The new command close-display-connection closes a connection to a
570
remote display.  There are some bugs for Gtk+.  See etc/PROBLEMS.
571

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
572 573 574
*** Emacs now supports the XEmbed specification.
You can embed Emacs in another application on X11.  The new command line
option --parent-id is used to pass the parent window id to Emacs.  See
Jan Djärv's avatar
Jan Djärv committed
575 576
http://standards.freedesktop.org/xembed-spec/xembed-spec-latest.html
for details about XEmbed.
577

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
578 579 580
*** Emacs can now set the frame opacity.
The opacity of a frame can be controlled by setting the `alpha' frame
parameter.  This only takes effect on a compositing window manager for
581 582
the X Window System, such as Compiz, Beryl and Compiz Fusion, on Mac
OS X, or on Windows 2000 and later versions of Windows.
583 584

The alpha parameter should be an integer between 0 (transparent) and
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
585 586
100 (opaque), or a float number between 0.0 and 1.0.  It can also be a
cons cell (ACTIVE . INACTIVE), where ACTIVE is the opacity of an
587
active frame and INACTIVE is the opacity of non-active frames.
588

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
589 590
The variable `frame-alpha-lower-limit' defines a lower bound for the
opacity; the default is 20.
591

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
592
** Internationalization changes
593

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
594 595
*** The Emacs character set is now a superset of Unicode.
(It has about four times the code space, which should be plenty).
Stefan Monnier's avatar
Stefan Monnier committed
596

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
597
The internal encoding used for buffers and strings is now
598 599 600 601
Unicode-based and called `utf-8-emacs' (`emacs-internal' is an alias
for this).  This encoding is backward-compatible with Unicode's UTF-8
encoding.  The internal encoding previously used by Emacs,
`emacs-mule', is still available for reading and writing files.
Nick Roberts's avatar
Nick Roberts committed
602

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
603 604 605
During byte-compilation, Emacs 23 uses `utf-8-emacs' to write files.
As a result, byte-compiled files containing non-ASCII characters can't
be read by earlier versions of Emacs.  Files compiled by Emacs 20, 21,
606 607 608 609
or 22 are loaded correctly as `emacs-mule' (whether or not they
contain multibyte characters).  This takes somewhat more time, so it
may be worth recompiling existing .elc files which don't need to be
shared with older Emacsen.
610

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
611
*** There are new coding systems/aliases; see M-x list-coding-systems.
612

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
613 614 615
*** There is a new charset implementation with many new charsets.
See M-x list-character-sets.  New charsets can be defined conveniently
as tables of unicodes.
Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
616

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
617 618 619
*** There are new language environments for Chinese-GBK,
Chinese-GB18030, Khmer, Bengali, Punjabi, Gujarati, Oriya, Telugu,
Sinhala, and TaiViet.
620

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
621 622
*** The minor modes unify-8859-on-encoding-mode and
unify-8859-on-decoding-mode are obsolete.
623

624 625 626
*** `ucs-insert' is bound to `C-x 8 RET' and in addition to hex numbers
accepts numbers in hash notation (e.g. #o21430 for octal, or #10r8984 for
decimal).  It also accepts Unicode character names with completion.
627

628 629 630 631 632
*** The `cyrillic-translit' input method supports many new characters.
Common typographical characters available from Unicode were added to
`cyrillic-translit': punctuation marks, accented characters, fractions,
and others.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
633
** Emacs now supports serial port access on GNU/Linux, Unix, and
634 635 636
Windows.  The new command `serial-term' starts an interactive terminal
on a serial port.  The serial port can be configured at runtime with
the mode-line mouse menu.
637

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
638
** Menu Bar changes
639

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
640 641 642 643 644
*** In the Options menu, the "Set Default Font" item applies the
selected font to the `default' face on all frames, not just the
current frame.  Furthermore, if Emacs is compiled with both GTK and
Fontconfig support, the "Set Default Font" item uses the GTK font
selection dialog instead of an Emacs pop-up menu.
645

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
646 647
*** The font setting chosen by "Set Default Font" is saved if the
"Save Options" item is used.
648

649 650 651
*** The Tools menu contains a new Encryption/Decryption submenu.
This contains commands provided by EasyPG, the newly-included
interface to GnuPG (see New Modes and Packages).
652

653 654 655
*** In the Options menu, the "Truncate Long Lines in the Buffer" entry
has been replaced with a submenu offering three different ways to
handle long lines: truncation, continuation at the window edge, and
656
the new word wrapping behavior (see Editing Changes, below).
657

Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
658 659 660 661
*** Improvements to menus for major and minor modes
More major and minor modes now have a mode specific menu, and existing
mode menus have been improved to include more functionality.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
662
** Mode-line changes
663

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
664 665
*** The mode-line displays a `@', instead of `-', if the
default-directory for the current buffer is on a remote machine.
666

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
667 668
*** The mode-line displays a mode menu when mouse-1 is clicked on a
minor mode, in the same way as it already did for major modes.
669

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
670 671
*** The `mode-line-emphasis' face is used to highlight certain
mode-line information (e.g. waiting for a VC command to finish).
672

Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
673
*** The mode-line tooltips have been improved to provide more details.
674

Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
675 676 677
*** The VC, line/colum number and minor mode indicators on the mode
line are now interactive: mouse-1 can be used on them to pop up a menu.

678 679
** File deletion can make use of the Recycle Bin or system Trash folder.
Set `delete-by-moving-to-trash' non-nil to use this.  Deleted files
680
and directories will then be sent to the Recycle Bin on Windows, and
681 682
to `trash-directory' on other systems.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
683
** Directory-local variables can now be defined.
684 685 686
By default, Emacs looks in .dir-locals.el for directory-local
variables.  For more information, see `dir-locals-set-directory-class'
and `dir-locals-set-class-variables'.
687

688 689 690 691 692 693 694
** Emacs can now use `auth-source' for authentication.
`smtpmail' and `url' (Tramp and Gnus also) use `auth-source' to obtain
login names and passwords.  The match, if found, is reported
in *Messages* with the password blanked out.

** `where-is-preferred-modifier' can specify your favorite modifier.

695

696
* Startup Changes in Emacs 23.1
697

698 699 700 701 702 703
** The option `inhibit-startup-screen' (with aliases to old names
`inhibit-splash-screen' and `inhibit-startup-message') doesn't inhibit
display of the initial message in the *scratch* buffer.  If you don't
want to display the initial message in the *scratch* buffer at startup,
you can set the option `initial-scratch-message' to nil.

704 705 706 707
** New user option `initial-buffer-choice' specifies what to display
after starting Emacs: startup screen, *scratch* buffer, visiting a
file or directory.

708 709 710 711
** New alias `argv' for `command-line-args-left'
This is a convenience alias, so that one can write `(pop argv)'
inside of --eval command line arguments in order to access
following arguments.
712 713

** The abbrev file is no longer read at startup in batch mode.
714 715 716 717 718 719

** Emacs now supports invocation by an X session manager.
It can save a session and restore it later.  See the documentation of
the functions `emacs-session-save' and `emacs-session-restore'.
(Actually, this feature was introduced with Emacs 22, but it was not
documented.)
720

721
* Incompatible Editing Changes in Emacs 23.1
Kim F. Storm's avatar
Kim F. Storm committed
722

723 724 725
** In Dired, `dired-flag-garbage-files' is rebound from `&' to `%&'
on the regexp command prefix map.

726 727 728 729
** In Dired-x, all command guesses for ! are now added to the default
list accessible by M-n instead of pushing all guesses temporarily into
the history list.

730 731 732 733
** In Isearch mode, a special case of typing `C-w' at the beginning of
the minibuffer that toggles word search (i.e. using key sequences
`C-s RET C-w' or `C-s M-e C-w') is obsolete.  You can use the global key
`M-s w' to start word search, or type `M-s w' in Isearch mode to
734 735
toggle word search.  To start nonincremental word search you can now use
`M-s w RET' and `M-s w C-r RET' instead of `C-s RET C-w' and `C-r RET C-w'.
736

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
737 738 739 740 741 742 743
** In Info, `Info-search' is unbound from `M-s' to allow using `M-s w'
for word search as well as other search commands from the global prefix
key `M-s'.  `Info-search' is still bound to `s', and also incremental
search commands `C-s', `C-M-s', `C-r', `C-M-r' are available for searching
through multiple Info nodes, together with their nonincremental versions
`C-s RET', `C-r RET', `C-M-s RET', `C-M-r RET', `M-s w RET'.

744 745 746
** In Text mode, `center-line' and `center-paragraph' are rebound from
`M-s' and `M-S' to global keys `M-o M-s' and `M-o M-S' on the global
prefix map `M-o', which is intended for such formatting commands.
747

Reiner Steib's avatar
Reiner Steib committed
748
** The following input methods were removed in Emacs 22.2, but this was
Juanma Barranquero's avatar
Juanma Barranquero committed
749
not advertised: danish-alt-postfix, esperanto-alt-postfix,
Reiner Steib's avatar
Reiner Steib committed
750 751 752 753
finnish-alt-postfix, german-alt-postfix, icelandic-alt-postfix,
norwegian-alt-postfix, scandinavian-alt-postfix, spanish-alt-postfix,
and swedish-alt-postfix.  Use the versions without "alt-", which are
identical.
754

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
755

756
* Editing Changes in Emacs 23.1
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
757

758 759 760
** The C-n and C-p line-motion commands now move by screen lines,
taking continued lines and variable-width characters into account.
Setting `line-move-visual' to nil reverts this to the previous
761 762
behavior (i.e., motion by logical lines based on buffer contents
alone).
763

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
764
** C-x C-c now invokes `save-buffers-kill-terminal', and C-z now
765
invokes `suspend-frame'.  These changes are for compatibility with the
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
766
new multi-tty support (see `Improved X Window System support' above).
767

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
768
** Mark changes
769

770
*** Transient Mark mode is now on by default.
771

772
*** mark-even-if-inactive now defaults to t
773

774 775
*** When Transient Mark mode is on, C-SPC C-SPC pushes a mark without
activating it.
776

777 778
*** When Transient Mark mode is on, M-q now fills the region if the
region is active.  Otherwise, it fills the current paragraph.
779

780 781
*** When Transient Mark mode is on, M-$ now checks spelling of the
region if the region is active.  Otherwise, it checks spelling of the
Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
782
word at point.
783

784 785
*** When Transient Mark mode is on, TAB now indents the region if the
region is active.
786 787 788 789

*** The variable `use-empty-active-region' controls whether an empty
active region in Transient Mark mode should make commands operate on
that empty region.
790 791

** Temporarily active regions
792

793 794 795 796
*** The new variable shift-select-mode, non-nil by default, controls
shift-selection.  When Shift Select mode is on, shift-translated
motion keys (e.g. S-left and S-down) activate and extend a temporary
region, similar to mouse-selection.
797

798 799 800 801 802 803 804
*** Temporarily active regions, created using shift-selection or
mouse-selection, are not necessarily deactivated in the next command.
They are only deactivated after point motion commands that are not
shift-translated, or after commands that would ordinarily deactivate
the mark in Transient Mark mode (e.g., any command that modifies the
buffer).

805
** Minibuffer and completion changes
806

807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818
*** Emacs may ask for confirmation before opening a non-existent file
or buffer.  By default, Emacs requests confirmation if you type RET
immediately after TAB, and the resulting input is not an existing file
or buffer; this usually happens when the minibuffer input did not
complete far enough and you entered RET by mistake.  In that case,
Emacs puts the message "[Confirm]" in the minibuffer; type RET again
to create the file or buffer.

The new variable confirm-nonexistent-file-or-buffer determines whether
Emacs asks for confirmation.  The default value is `after-completion'.
If you change it to t, Emacs always asks for confirmation; if you
change it to nil, Emacs never asks for confirmation.
819

820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831
*** The rules for performing completion have been changed.
When generating completion alternatives, Emacs now takes the
minibuffer text after point, if any, into account: this text is
treated as a substring of the remaining part of the completion
alternative (i.e., the part not matched by the minibuffer text before
point).  If no completion alternatives are found this way, Emacs
attempts to perform partial-completion.  If still no completion
alternatives are found, we fall back on the Emacs 22 rules for
performing completion.

The new variable `completion-styles' can be customized to choose your
favorite completion style.
832

833 834 835 836 837 838
*** When M-n in the minibuffer reaches the end of the list of defaults,
it adds the completion list to the end, so next M-n continues putting
completion items to the minibuffer.  The same principle applies to
incremental search commands as well: C-s or C-M-s starts searching
the default values and after the end of defaults they continue
searching minibuffer completion items.
839

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
840
*** Minibuffer input of shell commands now comes with completion.
841

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
842 843
*** In the `C-x d' (Dired) prompt, typing M-n gives the visited file
name of the current buffer.
844

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
845 846 847 848 849
*** In the M-! (shell-command) prompt, M-n provides some default commands.
These are guessed using the file extension of the current file, based
on the file-handlers specified in the operating system's `mailcap'
file.  The ! command in Dired (dired-do-shell-command) works
similarly, using the file displayed on the current line.
850 851 852

*** A list of regexp default values is available via M-n for `occur',
`keep-lines', `flush-lines' and `how-many'.  This list includes the active
Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
853 854
region in transient-mark-mode, the word under the cursor, the last Isearch
regexp, the last Isearch string and the last replacement regexp.
855

856 857 858 859 860
*** When enable-recursive-minibuffers is non-nil, operations which use
switch-to-buffer (such as C-x b and C-x C-f) do not fail any more when
used in a minibuffer or a dedicated window.  Instead, they fallback on
using pop-to-buffer, which will use some other window.  This change
has no effect when enable-recursive-minibuffers is nil (the default).
861

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
862 863 864
*** Isearch started in the minibuffer searches in the minibuffer history.
Reverse Isearch commands (C-r, C-M-r) search in previous minibuffer
history elements, and forward Isearch commands (C-s, C-M-s) search in
865 866 867 868
next history elements.  When the reverse search reaches the first history
element, it wraps to the last history element, and the forward search
wraps to the first history element.  When the search is terminated, the
history element containing the search string becomes the current.
869

870 871
*** The variable read-file-name-completion-ignore-case overrides
completion-ignore-case for file name completion.
872

873 874
*** The variable read-buffer-completion-ignore-case overrides
completion-ignore-case for buffer name completion.
875

876 877
*** The new command `minibuffer-force-complete' chooses one of the
possible completions, rather than stopping at the common prefix.
878

879 880 881
*** If `completion-auto-help' is `lazy', Emacs shows the completions
buffer only on the second attempt to complete.  This was already
supported in `partial-completion-mode'.
882

883
** Face changes
884

885 886
*** S-down-mouse-1 now pops up a menu for changing the font and text
size of the default face in the current buffer.  The face is changed
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
887
via face remapping (see Lisp changes, below).
888

889 890 891
*** New commands to change the default face size in the current buffer.
To increase it, type `C-x C-+' or `C-x C-='.  To decrease it, type
`C-x C--'.  To restore the default (global) face size, type `C-x C-0'.
892 893 894 895 896 897 898
These work via Text Scale mode, a new minor mode.

The final key in the above commands may be repeated without the
leading `C-x', e.g. `C-x C-= C-= C-=' increases the face height by
three steps.  Each step scales the height of the default face by the
value of the variable `text-scale-mode-step'.

899 900 901
*** The commands buffer-face-mode and buffer-face-set can be used to
remap the default face in the current buffer.  See "Buffer Face mode",
under New Modes and Packages.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
902

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
903
** Primary selection changes
904

905 906
*** You can disable kill ring commands from accessing the primary
selection by setting `x-select-enable-primary' to nil.
907

908 909 910 911 912 913 914 915
** Continuation lines can now be wrapped at word boundaries
(word-wrapping).  This is controlled by the new per-buffer variable
`word-wrap'.  Word wrapping does not take place if continuation lines
are not shown, e.g. if truncate-lines is non-nil.  The most convenient
way to enable word-wrapping is using the new minor mode Visual Line
mode; in addition to setting `word-wrap' to t, this rebinds some
editing commands to work on screen lines rather than text lines.  See
New Modes and Packages, below.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
916

917
** Window management changes
918

919 920
*** truncate-partial-width-windows now accepts integer values, which
specify a minimum window width for partial-width windows, below which
921
lines are truncated.  The default has been changed to 50.
922 923 924

*** The new command balance-windows-area balances windows both
vertically and horizontally.
925

Martin Rudalics's avatar
Martin Rudalics committed
926 927 928
*** pop-to-buffer now always sets input focus when the popped-to window
is on a different frame.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
929
** Miscellaneous changes:
930

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
931 932
*** C-l is bound to the new command recenter-top-bottom, rather than recenter.
This moves the current line to window center, top and bottom on
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
933
successive invocations.
934

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
935
*** scroll-preserve-screen-position also preserves the column position.
936

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
937 938 939
*** If `yank-pop-change-selection' is t, rotating the kill ring also
updates the selection or clipboard to the current yank, just as M-w
would do so with the text it copies to the kill ring.
940

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948
*** C-M-% now shows replacement as it would look in the buffer, with
`\N' and `\&' substituted according to the match.  Old behavior can be
restored by customizing `query-replace-show-replacement'.

*** The command shell prompts for the default directory, when it is
called with a prefix and the default directory is a remote file name.
This is because some file name handlers (like ange-ftp) are not able to
run processes remotely.
949

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
950 951
*** The new command kill-matching-buffers kills buffers whose name
matches a regexp.
952

953 954 955
*** The value of comment-style now defaults to `indent'.
Thefore, comment-start markers are inserted at the current indentation
of the region to comment, rather than the leftmost column.
956

957 958
*** The new commands `pp-macroexpand-expression' and
`pp-macroexpand-last-sexp' pretty-print macro expansions.
959

960 961
*** The new command `set-file-modes' allows to set file's mode bits.
The mode bits can be specified in symbolic notation, like with GNU
962 963
Coreutils, in addition to an octal number.  `chmod' is a new
convenience alias for this function.
Eli Zaretskii's avatar
Eli Zaretskii committed
964

Eli Zaretskii's avatar
Eli Zaretskii committed
965 966 967
*** `next-error-recenter' specifies how next-error should recenter the
visited source file.  Its value can be a number (for example, 0 for
top line, -1 for bottom line), or nil for no recentering.
968

969 970
*** When typing in a password in the echo area, C-y yanks the current
kill into the password.
971

972 973
*** Tooltip frame parameters `font' and `color' in `tooltip-frame-parameters'
are ignored.  Customize the `tooltip' face instead.
974

Dan Nicolaescu's avatar
Dan Nicolaescu committed
975
*** `mkdir' is a new convenience alias for `make-directory'.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
976 977

* New Modes and Packages in Emacs 23.1
978 979 980 981 982

** Auto Composition Mode is a minor mode that composes characters
automatically when they are displayed.  It is globally on by default.
It uses `auto-composition-function' (default `auto-compose-chars').

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
983
** Bubbles, a new game, is similar to SameGame.
984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991

** Buffer Face mode is a minor mode for remapping the default face in
the current buffer.  The variable `buffer-face-mode-face' specifies
the face to remap to.  The command `buffer-face-set' prompts for a
face name, sets `buffer-face-mode-face' to it, and enables
buffer-face-mode.  See "Face changes", under Editing Changes, for a
description of face remapping.

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
992 993
** butterfly flips the desired bit on the drive platter.
See http://xkcd.com/378/
994

995 996
** bug-reference.el provides clickable links to bug reports.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
997 998
** dbus.el provides D-Bus language bindings.
D-Bus is an inter-process communication mechanism for applications
999
residing on the same host.  See the manual for details.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
1000

1001
** DocView mode allows viewing of PDF, PostScript and DVI documents.
1002 1003
One can also search for a regular expression in the document.  For
details, see the commentary in doc-view.el.