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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2001-03-15
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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Temporary note:
 +++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
 --- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
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so we will look at it and add it to the manual.
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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.4
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** You can build Emacs with Gtk+ widgets by specifying `--with-x-toolkit=gtk'
when you run configure.  This requires Gtk+ 2.0 or newer.

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** Emacs can now be built without sound support.

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** The `emacsserver' program has been removed, replaced with elisp code.

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---
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** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.

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---
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** By default, Emacs now uses a setgid helper program to update game
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scores.  The directory ${localstatedir}/games/emacs is the normal
place for game scores to be stored.  This may be controlled by the
configure option `--with-game-dir'.  The specific user that Emacs uses
to own the game scores is controlled by `--with-game-user'.  If access
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to a game user is not available, then scores will be stored separately
in each user's home directory.
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---
** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

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** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

The ELisp reference manual in Info format is built as part of the
Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).

---
** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).

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** Support for AIX 5.1 was added.

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** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

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** Support for BSD/OS 5.0 was added.

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** Support for GNU/Linux systems on S390 machines was added.

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---
** Support for MacOS X was added.
See the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

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---
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** Support for GNU/Linux systems on X86-64 machines was added.
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** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

---
** A French translation of the Emacs Tutorial is available.


* Changes in Emacs 21.4
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** Init file changes

You can now put the init files .emacs and .emacs_SHELL under
~/.emacs.d or directly under ~.  Emacs will find them in either place.

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** MH-E changes.

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Upgraded to MH-E version 7.1. There have been major changes since
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version 5.0.2; see MH-E-NEWS for details.

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** The `emacsclient' understand the options `--eval' and `--display'
which tell Emacs resp. to evaluate the given elisp expressions and
to use the given display when visiting files.

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** The mode line position information now comes before the major mode.
When the file is maintained under version control, that information
appears between the position information and the major mode.
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** C-x s (save-some-buffers) now offers an option `d' to diff a buffer
against its file, so you can see what changes you would be saving.

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** You can now customize the use of window fringes.  To control this
for all frames, use M-x fringe-mode or the Show/Hide submenu of the
top-level Options menu, or customize the `fringe-mode' variable.  To
control this for a specific frame, use the command M-x
set-fringe-style.
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** There is a new user option `mail-default-directory' that allows you
to specify the value of `default-directory' for mail buffers.  This
directory is used for auto-save files of mail buffers.  It defaults to
"~/".

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** When you are root, and you visit a file whose modes specify
read-only, the Emacs buffer is now read-only too.  Type C-x C-q if you
want to make the buffer writable.  (As root, you will in fact be able
to alter the file.)

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** The new command `revert-buffer-with-coding-system' (C-x RET r)
revisits the current file using a coding system that you specify.

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** `ps-print' can now print Unicode characters.
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Printing text with characters from the mule-unicode-* sets works with
ps-print, provided that you have installed the appropriate BDF fonts.
See the file INSTALL for URLs where you can find these fonts.

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---
** The new options `buffers-menu-show-directories' and
`buffers-menu-show-status' let you control how buffers are displayed
in the menu dropped down when you click "Buffers" from the menu bar.

`buffers-menu-show-directories' controls whether the menu displays
leading directories as part of the file name visited by the buffer.
If its value is `unless-uniquify', the default, directories will be
shown unless uniquify-buffer-name-style' is non-nil.  The value of nil
and t turn the display of directories off and on, respectively.

`buffers-menu-show-status' controls whether the Buffers menu includes
the modified and read-only status of the buffers.  By default it is
t, and the status is shown.

Setting these variables directly does not take effect until next time
the Buffers menu is regenerated.

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** The commands M-x customize-face and M-x customize-face-other-window
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now look at the character after point.  If a face or faces are
specified for that character, the commands by default customize those
faces.
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** New language environments: French, Cyrillic-KOI8-U, Windows-1251,
Cyrillic-KOI8-T, Bulgarian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, UTF-8,
Windows-1255, Welsh, Latin-7, Lithuanian, Latvian.

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---
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** New input methods: latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix,
ukrainian-computer, belarusian, bulgarian-bds, russian-computer,
vietnamese-telex, lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard,
latvian-keyboard, welsh, georgian, rfc1345, ucs, sgml,
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bulgarian-phonetic, dutch, slovenian.
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---
** A new coding system `euc-tw' has been added for traditional Chinese
in CNS encoding; it accepts both Big 5 and CNS as input; on saving,
Big 5 is then converted to CNS.

---
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** Many new coding systems are available by loading the `code-pages'
library.  These include complete versions of most of those in
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codepage.el, based on Unicode mappings.
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** The utf-8 coding system has been enhanced.  Untranslatable utf-8
sequences (mostly representing CJK characters) are composed into
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single quasi-characters.  User option `utf-translate-cjk' arranges to
translate many utf-8 CJK character sequences into real Emacs
characters in a similar way to the Mule-UCS system.  The utf-8 coding
system will now encode characters from most of Emacs's one-dimensional
internal charsets, specifically the ISO-8859 ones.

** iso-10646-1 (`Unicode') fonts can be used to display any range of
characters encodable by the utf-8 coding system.  Just specify the
fontset appropriately.
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** New command `ucs-insert' inserts a character specified by its
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unicode.
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** Limited support for character `unification' has been added.
Emacs now knows how to translate between different representations of
the same characters in various Emacs charsets according to standard
Unicode mappings.  This applies mainly to characters in the ISO 8859
sets plus some other 8-bit sets, but can be extended.  For instance,
translation works amongst the Emacs ...-iso8859-... charsets and the
mule-unicode-... ones.

By default this translation will happen automatically on encoding.
Self-inserting characters are translated to make the input conformant
with the encoding of the buffer in which it's being used, where
possible.
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You can force a more complete unification with the user option
unify-8859-on-decoding-mode.  That maps all the Latin-N character sets
into Unicode characters (from the latin-iso8859-1 and
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mule-unicode-0100-24ff charsets) on decoding.  Note that this mode
will often effectively clobber data with an iso-2022 encoding.
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** There is support for decoding Greek and Cyrillic characters into
either Unicode (the mule-unicode charsets) or the iso-8859 charsets,
when possible.  The latter are more space-efficient.  This is
controlled by user option utf-8-fragment-on-decoding.
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** The new command `set-file-name-coding-system' (C-x RET F) sets
coding system for encoding and decoding file names.  A new menu item
(Options->Mule->Set Coding Systems->For File Name) invokes this
command.

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** The scrollbar under LessTif or Motif has a smoother drag-scrolling.
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On the other hand, the size of the thumb does not represent the actual
amount of text shown any more (only a crude approximation of it).

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** Emacs can produce an underscore-like (horizontal bar) cursor.
The underscore cursor is set by putting `(cursor-type . hbar)' in
default-frame-alist.  It supports variable heights, like the `bar'
cursor does.

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** Filesets are collections of files.  You can define a fileset in
various ways, such as based on a directory tree or based on
program files that include other program files.

Once you have defined a fileset, you can perform various operations on
all the files in it, such as visiting them or searching and replacing
in them.

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---
** PO translation files are decoded according to their MIME headers
when Emacs visits them.

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** The game `mpuz' is enhanced.

`mpuz' now allows the 2nd factor not to have two identical digits.  By
default, all trivial operations involving whole lines are performed
automatically.  The game uses faces for better visual feedback.

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** On X, MS Windows, and Mac OS, the blinking cursor's "off" state is
now shown as a hollow box or a thin bar.  However, you can control how
it blinks off by setting the variable `blink-cursor-alist'.

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** Emacs now supports compound-text Extended Segments in X selections.
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Some versions of X, notably XFree86, use Extended Segments to encode
in X selections characters that belong to character sets which are not
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part of the list of approved standard encodings defined by the
compound text spec.  An example of such non-standard encodings is
BIG5.  The new coding system `compound-text-with-extensions' supports
these extensions, and is now used by default for encoding and decoding
X selections.  If you don't want this support, set
`selection-coding-system' to `compound-text'.
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** The parameters of automatic hscrolling can now be customized.
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The variable `hscroll-margin' determines how many columns away from
the window edge point is allowed to get before automatic hscrolling
will horizontally scroll the window.  The default value is 5.
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The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns automatic
hscrolling will scroll the window when point gets too close to the
window edge.  If its value is zero, the default, Emacs scrolls the
window so as to center point.  If its value is an integer, it says how
many columns to scroll.  If the value is a floating-point number, it
gives the fraction of the window's width to scroll the window.

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The variable `automatic-hscrolling' was renamed to
`auto-hscroll-mode'.  The old name is still available as an alias.

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** The user option `tex-start-options-string' has been replaced
by two new user options: `tex-start-options', which should hold
command-line options to feed to TeX, and `tex-start-commands' which should hold
TeX commands to use at startup.

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** New display feature: focus follows mouse.  If you set the variable
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mouse-autoselect-window to non-nil value, moving the mouse to a different
Emacs window will select that window (minibuffer window can be selected
only when it is active).  The default is nil, so that this feature is not
enabled.
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** The new command `describe-char' (C-u C-x =) pops up a buffer with
description various information about a character, including its
encodings and syntax, its text properties, overlays, and widgets at
point.  You can get more information about some of them, by clicking
on mouse-sensitive areas or moving there and pressing RET.
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** The new command `multi-occur' is just like `occur', except it can
search multiple buffers.  There is also a new command
`multi-occur-by-filename-regexp' which allows you to specify the
buffers to search by their filename.  Internally, Occur mode has been
rewritten, and now uses font-lock, among other changes.

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** Emacs normally highlights mouse sensitive text whenever the mouse
is over the text.  By setting the new variable `mouse-highlight', you
can optionally enable mouse highlighting only after you move the
mouse, so that highlighting disappears when you press a key.  You can
also disable mouse highlighting.
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** font-lock: in modes like C and Lisp where the fontification assumes that
an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of any string or comment,
font-lock now highlights any such open-paren-in-column-zero in bold-red
if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it can cause
trouble with fontification and/or indentation.

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** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.

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** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.

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The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

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---
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** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
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This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (such
as the fringes, the tool bar, the speedbar, and the menu bar itself).
You can also move the vertical scroll bar to either side here or turn
it off completely.  There is also a menu-item to toggle displaying of
current date and time, current line and column number in the
mode-line.
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** Speedbar has moved from the "Tools" top level menu to "Show/Hide".

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** Emacs can now indicate in the mode-line the presence of new e-mails
in a directory or in a file.  See the documentation of the user option
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`display-time-mail-directory'.
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** The new option `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' causes Info to behave
like the stand-alone Info reader (from the GNU Texinfo package) as far
as motion between nodes and their subnodes is concerned.  If it is t
(the default), Emacs behaves as before when you type SPC in a menu: it
visits the subnode pointed to by the first menu entry.  If this option
is nil, SPC scrolls to the end of the current node, and only then goes
to the first menu item, like the stand-alone reader does.

This change was already in Emacs 21.1, but wasn't advertised in the
NEWS.

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** LDAP support now defaults to ldapsearch from OpenLDAP version 2.

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** You can now disable pc-selection-mode after enabling it.
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M-x pc-selection-mode behaves like a proper minor mode, and with no
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argument it toggles the mode.

Turning off PC-Selection mode restores the global key bindings
that were replaced by turning on the mode.

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** Emacs now displays a splash screen by default even if command-line
arguments were given.  The new command-line option --no-splash
disables the splash screen; see also the variable
`inhibit-startup-message' (which is also aliased as
`inhibit-splash-screen').

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** Changes in support of colors on character terminals

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*** The new command-line option --color=MODE lets you specify a standard
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mode for a tty color support.  It is meant to be used on character
terminals whose capabilities are not set correctly in the terminal
database, or with terminal emulators which support colors, but don't
set the TERM environment variable to a name of a color-capable
terminal.  "emacs --color" uses the same color commands as GNU `ls'
when invoked with "ls --color", so if your terminal can support colors
in "ls --color", it will support "emacs --color" as well.  See the
user manual for the possible values of the MODE parameter.

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---
*** Emacs now supports several character terminals which provide more
than 8 colors.  For example, for `xterm', 16-color, 88-color, and
256-color modes are supported.  Emacs automatically notes at startup
the extended number of colors, and defines the appropriate entries for
all of these colors.

---
*** There's a new support for colors on `rxvt' terminal emulator.

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** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.

When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
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screen size.  (For now, this does not work with some window managers.)
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** Info-index offers completion.
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** Emacs now tries to set up buffer coding systems for HTML/XML files
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automatically.
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** The new command `comint-input-previous-argument' in comint-derived
modes (shell-mode etc) inserts arguments from previous command lines,
like bash's `ESC .' binding.  It is bound by default to `C-c .', but
otherwise behaves quite similarly to the bash version.

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** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

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C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.

- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.

- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
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to new-kill-line, these commands now report:
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- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line

- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>

- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

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** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

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** Yanking text now discards certain text properties that can
be inconvenient when you did not expect them.  The variable
`yank-excluded-properties' specifies which ones.  Insertion
of register contents and rectangles also discards these properties.

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** Occur, Info, and comint-derived modes now support using
M-x font-lock-mode to toggle fontification.  The variable
`Info-fontify' is no longer applicable; to disable fontification,
remove `turn-on-font-lock' from `Info-mode-hook'.

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** M-x grep now tries to avoid appending `/dev/null' to the command line
by using GNU grep `-H' option instead.  M-x grep will automatically
detect whether this is possible or not the first time it is invoked.
When `-H' is used, the grep command line supplied by the user is passed
unchanged to the system to execute, which allows more complicated
command lines to be used than was possible before.

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** The face-customization widget has been reworked to be less confusing.
In particular, when you enable a face attribute using the corresponding
check-box, there's no longer a redundant `*' option in value selection
for that attribute; the values you can choose are only those which make
sense for the attribute.  When an attribute is de-selected by unchecking
its check-box, then the (now ignored, but still present temporarily in
case you re-select the attribute) value is hidden.

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** When you set or reset a variable's value in a Customize buffer,
the previous value becomes the "backup value" of the variable.
You can go back to that backup value by selecting "Use Backup Value"
under the "[State]" button.

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** The new customization type `float' specifies numbers with floating
point (no integers are allowed).

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** In GUD mode, when talking to GDB, C-x C-a C-j "jumps" the program
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counter to the specified source line (the one where point is).

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** GUD mode improvements for jdb:
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*** Search for source files using jdb classpath and class
    information. Fast startup since there is no need to scan all
    source files up front. There is also no need to create and maintain
    lists of source directories to scan. Look at `gud-jdb-use-classpath'
    and `gud-jdb-classpath' customization variables documentation.

*** Supports the standard breakpoint (gud-break, gud-clear)
    set/clear operations from java source files under the classpath, stack
    traversal (gud-up, gud-down), and run until current stack finish
    (gud-finish).

*** Supports new jdb (Java 1.2 and later) in addition to oldjdb
    (Java 1.1 jdb).

*** The previous method of searching for source files has been
    preserved in case someone still wants/needs to use it.
    Set gud-jdb-use-classpath to nil.

  Added Customization Variables

*** gud-jdb-command-name.  What command line to use to invoke jdb.

*** gud-jdb-use-classpath. Allows selection of java source file searching
    method: set to t for new method, nil to scan gud-jdb-directories for
    java sources (previous method).

*** gud-jdb-directories. List of directories to scan and search for java
    classes using the original gud-jdb method (if gud-jdb-use-classpath
    is nil).

  Minor Improvements

*** Do not allow debugger output history variable to grow without bounds.

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** hide-ifdef-mode now uses overlays rather than selective-display
to hide its text.  This should be mostly transparent but slightly
changes the behavior of motion commands line C-e and C-p.

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** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
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doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
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special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

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** Dired's v command now runs external viewers to view certain
types of files.  The variable `dired-view-command-alist' controls
what external viewers to use and when.

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** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

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---
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** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.
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If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
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idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
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example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.
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** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.  If
you hit M-C-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h (mark-paragraph), or
C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region will now be extended
each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC M-C-SPC,
for example.  This feature also works for mark-end-of-sentence, if you
bind that to a key.
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** Some commands do something special in Transient Mark mode when the
mark is active--for instance, they limit their operation to the
region.  Even if you don't normally use Transient Mark mode, you might
want to get this behavior from a particular command.  There are two
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ways you can enable Transient Mark mode and activate the mark, for one
command only.
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One method is to type C-SPC C-SPC; this enables Transient Mark mode
and sets the mark at point.  The other method is to type C-u C-x C-x.
This enables Transient Mark mode temporarily but does not alter the
mark or the region.
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After these commands, Transient Mark mode remains enabled until you
deactivate the mark.  That typically happens when you type a command
that alters the buffer, but you can also deactivate the mark by typing
C-g.
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** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
previous mark, i.e. C-u C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... will cycle through the
mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC to set the mark immediately after a jump.

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** In the *Occur* buffer, `o' switches to it in another window, and
C-o displays the current line's occurrence in another window without
switching to it.
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** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

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** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.
With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
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if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding
paragraphs.
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** In Dired, the w command now copies the current line's file name
into the kill ring.

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** The variables dired-free-space-program and dired-free-space-args
have been renamed to directory-free-space-program and
directory-free-space-args, and they now apply whenever Emacs puts a
directory listing into a buffer.

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---
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** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

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** Unexpected yanking of text due to accidental clicking on the mouse
wheel button (typically mouse-2) during wheel scrolling is now avoided.
This behaviour can be customized via the mouse-wheel-click-event and
mouse-wheel-inhibit-click-time variables.

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** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on your
current locale settings if you are not using a window system.  This
may mean that the META key doesn't work but generates non-ASCII
characters instead, depending on how the terminal (or terminal
emulator) works.  Use `set-keyboard-coding-system' (or customize
keyboard-coding-system) if you prefer META to work (the old default)
or if the locale doesn't describe the character set actually generated
by the keyboard.  See Info node `Single-Byte Character Support'.
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** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
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automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
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according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.
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** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.
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** The variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' can now be set to any
of the recognized cursor types.
  
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** The default values of `tooltip-delay' and `tooltip-hide-delay'
were changed.

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** On terminals whose erase-char is ^H (Backspace), Emacs
now uses normal-erase-is-backspace-mode.

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** The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' now has a third element that
controls whether or not the function `make-auto-save-file-name' will
attempt to construct a unique auto-save name (e.g. for remote files).

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** Diary sexp entries can have custom marking in the calendar.
Diary sexp functions which only apply to certain days (such as
`diary-block' or `diary-cyclic' now take an optional parameter MARK,
which is the name of a face or a single-character string indicating
how to highlight the day in the calendar display.  Specifying a
single-character string as @var{mark} places the character next to the
day in the calendar.  Specifying a face highlights the day with that
face.  This lets you have different colors or markings for vacations,
appointments, paydays or anything else using a sexp.

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** VC Changes

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*** The key C-x C-q no longer checks files in or out, it only changes
the read-only state of the buffer (toggle-read-only).  We made this
change because we held a poll and found that many users were unhappy
with the previous behavior.  If you do prefer this behavior, you
can bind `vc-toggle-read-only' to C-x C-q in your .emacs:

    (global-set-key "\C-x\C-q" 'vc-toggle-read-only)

The function `vc-toggle-read-only' will continue to exist.

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*** There is a new user option `vc-cvs-global-switches' that allows
you to specify switches that are passed to any CVS command invoked
by VC.  These switches are used as "global options" for CVS, which
means they are inserted before the command name.  For example, this
allows you to specify a compression level using the "-z#" option for
CVS.

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** EDiff changes.

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***  When comparing directories.
Typing D brings up a buffer that lists the differences between the contents of
directories. Now it is possible to use this buffer to copy the missing files
from one directory to another.

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*** When comparing files or buffers.
Typing the = key now offers to perform the word-by-word comparison of the
currently highlighted regions in an inferior Ediff session. If you answer 'n'
then it reverts to the old behavior and asks the user to select regions for
comparison.

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*** The new command `ediff-backup' compares a file with its most recent
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backup using `ediff'.  If you specify the name of a backup file,
`ediff-backup' compares it with the file of which it is a backup.

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** Etags changes.

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*** New regular expressions features

**** New syntax for regular expressions, multi-line regular expressions.
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The syntax --ignore-case-regexp=/regex/ is now undocumented and retained
only for backward compatibility.  The new equivalent syntax is
--regex=/regex/i.  More generally, it is --regex=/TAGREGEX/TAGNAME/MODS,
where `/TAGNAME' is optional, as usual, and MODS is a string of 0 or
more characters among `i' (ignore case), `m' (multi-line) and `s'
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(single-line).  The `m' and `s' modifiers behave as in Perl regular
expressions: `m' allows regexps to match more than one line, while `s'
(which implies `m') means that `.' matches newlines.  The ability to
span newlines allows writing of much more powerful regular expressions
and rapid prototyping for tagging new languages.

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**** Regular expressions can use char escape sequences as in Gcc.
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The escaped character sequence \a, \b, \d, \e, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v,
respectively, stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL,
CR, TAB, VT,

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**** Regular expressions can be bound to a given language.
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The syntax --regex={LANGUAGE}REGEX means that REGEX is used to make tags
only for files of language LANGUAGE, and ignored otherwise.  This is
particularly useful when storing regexps in a file.

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**** Regular expressions can be read from a file.
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The --regex=@regexfile option means read the regexps from a file, one
per line.  Lines beginning with space or tab are ignored.

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*** New language parsing features

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**** The `::' qualifier triggers C++ parsing in C file.
Previously, only the `template' and `class' keywords had this effect.

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**** In Perl, packages are tags.
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Subroutine tags are named from their package.  You can jump to sub tags
as you did before, by the sub name, or additionally by looking for
package::sub.

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**** New language PHP.
Tags are functions, classes and defines.
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etags  
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If the --members option is specified to etags, tags are vars also.

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**** New language HTML.
Title and h1, h2, h3 are tagged.  Also, tags are generated when name= is
used inside an anchor and whenever id= is used.

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**** New default keywords for TeX.
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The new keywords are def, newcommand, renewcommand, newenvironment and
renewenvironment.

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**** In Makefiles, constants are tagged.
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If you want the old behavior instead, thus avoiding to increase the
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etags  
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size of the tags file, use the --no-globals option.

**** In Prolog, etags creates tags for rules in addition to predicates.
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*** Honour #line directives.
When Etags parses an input file that contains C preprocessor's #line
directives, it creates tags using the file name and line number
specified in those directives.  This is useful when dealing with code
created from Cweb source files.  When Etags tags the generated file, it
writes tags pointing to the source file.
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*** New option --parse-stdin=FILE.
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This option is mostly useful when calling etags from programs.  It can
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be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command line.  Etags
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will read from standard input and mark the produced tags as belonging to
the file FILE.
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** The command line option --no-windows has been changed to
--no-window-system.  The old one still works, but is deprecated.

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** The command `list-text-properties-at' has been deleted because
C-u C-x = gives the same information and more.

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** `buffer-menu' and `list-buffers' now list buffers whose names begin
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with a space, when those buffers are visiting files.  Normally buffers
whose names begin with space are omitted.
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** You can now customize fill-nobreak-predicate to control where
filling can break lines.  We provide two sample predicates,
fill-single-word-nobreak-p and fill-french-nobreak-p.
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** New user option `add-log-always-start-new-record'.
When this option is enabled, M-x add-change-log-entry will always
start a new record regardless of when the last record is.

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** SGML mode has indentation and supports XML syntax.
The new variable `sgml-xml-mode' tells SGML mode to use XML syntax.
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When this option is enabled, SGML tags are inserted in XML style,
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i.e., there is always a closing tag.
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By default, its setting is inferred on a buffer-by-buffer basis
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from the file name or buffer contents.
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** `xml-mode' is now an alias for `sgml-mode', which has XML support.
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** New user option `isearch-resume-enabled'.
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This option can be disabled, to avoid the normal behavior of isearch
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which puts calls to `isearch-resume' in the command history.

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** When the *scratch* buffer is recreated, its mode is set from
initial-major-mode, which normally is lisp-interaction-mode,
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instead of using default-major-mode.
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---
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** Lisp mode now uses font-lock-doc-face for the docstrings.
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---
** Perl mode has a new variable `perl-indent-continued-arguments'.
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** Fortran mode has a new variable `fortran-directive-re'.
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Adapt this to match the format of any compiler directives you use.
Lines that match are never indented, and are given distinctive font-locking.
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---
** F90 mode has new navigation commands `f90-end-of-block',
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`f90-beginning-of-block', `f90-next-block', `f90-previous-block'.
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---
** Prolog mode has a new variable `prolog-font-lock-keywords'
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to support use of font-lock.

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** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and
`same-window'.

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** M-x setenv now expands environment variables of the form `$foo' and
`${foo}' in the specified new value of the environment variable.  To
include a `$' in the value, use `$$'.

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** File-name completion can now ignore directories.
If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.

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** The completion commands TAB, SPC and ? in the minibuffer apply only
to the text before point.  If there is text in the buffer after point,
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it remains unchanged.

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** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.

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** Rmail now displays 5-digit message ids in its summary buffer.

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** On MS Windows, the "system caret" now follows the cursor.
This enables Emacs to work better with programs that need to track
the cursor, for example screen magnifiers and text to speech programs.

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** Tooltips now work on MS Windows.
See the Emacs 21.1 NEWS entry for tooltips for details.

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** Some images are now supported on MS Windows.
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PBM and XBM images are supported, other formats which require external
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libraries may be supported in future.

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---
** Sound is now supported on MS Windows.
WAV format is supported on all versions of Windows, other formats such
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as AU, AIFF and MP3 may be supported in the more recent versions of
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Windows, or when other software provides hooks into the system level
sound support for those formats.

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** Different shaped mouse pointers are supported on MS Windows.
The mouse pointer changes shape depending on what is under the pointer.

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** Pointing devices with more than 3 buttons are now supported on MS Windows.
The new variable `w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system' controls
whether Emacs should handle the extra buttons itself (the default), or
pass them to Windows to be handled with system-wide functions.

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** Under X11, it is possible to swap Alt and Meta (and Super and Hyper).
The new variables `x-alt-keysym', `x-hyper-keysym', `x-meta-keysym',
and `x-super-keysym' can be used to choose which keysyms Emacs should
use for the modifiers.  For example, the following two lines swap
Meta and Alt:
    (setq x-alt-keysym 'meta)
    (setq x-meta-keysym 'alt)

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* New modes and packages in 21.4
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---
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** The new ido package is an extension of the iswitchb package
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to do interactive opening of files and directories in addition to
interactive buffer switching.  Ido is a superset of iswitchb (with a
few exceptions), so don't enable both packages.

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** The new cua package provides CUA-like keybindings using C-x for
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cut (kill), C-c for copy, C-v for paste (yank), and C-z for undo.
With cua, the region can be set and extended using shifted movement
keys (like pc-selection-mode) and typed text replaces the active
region (like delete-selection-mode).  Do not enable these modes with
cua-mode.  Customize the variable `cua-mode' to enable cua.

In addition, cua provides unified rectangle support with visible
rectangle highlighting: Use S-return to start a rectangle, extend it
using the movement commands (or mouse-3), and cut or copy it using C-x
or C-c (using C-w and M-w also works).

Use M-o and M-c to `open' or `close' the rectangle, use M-b or M-f, to
fill it with blanks or another character, use M-u or M-l to upcase or
downcase the rectangle, use M-i to increment the numbers in the
rectangle, use M-n to fill the rectangle with a numeric sequence (such
as 10 20 30...), use M-r to replace a regexp in the rectangle, and use
M-' or M-/ to restrict command on the rectangle to a subset of the
rows.  See the commentary in cua-base.el for more rectangle commands.

Cua also provides unified support for registers:  Use a numeric
prefix argument between 0 and 9, i.e. M-0 .. M-9, for C-x, C-c, and
C-v to cut or copy into register 0-9, or paste from register 0-9.

The last text deleted (not killed) is automatically stored in
register 0.  This includes text deleted by typing text.

Finally, cua provides a global mark which is set using S-C-space.
When the global mark is active, any text which is cut or copied is
automatically inserted at the global mark position.  See the
commentary in cua-base.el for more global mark related commands.

The features of cua also works with the standard emacs bindings for
kill, copy, yank, and undo.  If you want to use cua mode, but don't
want the C-x, C-c, C-v, and C-z bindings, you may customize the
`cua-enable-cua-keys' variable.

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the numeric keypad which is available on most keyboards.  The numeric
keypad typically has the digits 0 to 9, a decimal point, keys marked
+, -, /, and *, an Enter key, and a NumLock toggle key.  The keypad
package only controls the use of the digit and decimal keys.

By customizing the variables `keypad-setup', `keypad-shifted-setup',
`keypad-numlock-setup', and `keypad-numlock-shifted-setup', or by
using the function `keypad-setup', you can rebind all digit keys and
the decimal key of the keypad in one step for each of the four
possible combinations of the Shift key state (not pressed/pressed) and
the NumLock toggle state (off/on).

The choices for the keypad keys in each of the above states are:
`Plain numeric keypad' where the keys generates plain digits,
`Numeric keypad with decimal key' where the character produced by the
decimal key can be customized individually (for internationalization),
`Numeric Prefix Arg' where the keypad keys produce numeric prefix args
for emacs editing commands, `Cursor keys' and `Shifted Cursor keys'
where the keys work like (shifted) arrow keys, home/end, etc., and
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`Unspecified/User-defined' where the keypad keys (kp-0, kp-1, etc.)
are left unspecified and can be bound individually through the global
or local keymaps.
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** The new kmacro package provides a simpler user interface to
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emacs' keyboard macro facilities.

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Basically, it uses two function keys (default F3 and F4) like this:
F3 starts a macro, F4 ends the macro, and pressing F4 again executes
the last macro.  While defining the macro, F3 inserts a counter value
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which automatically increments every time the macro is executed.

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There is now a keyboard macro ring which stores the most recently
defined macros.

The C-x C-k sequence is now a prefix for the kmacro keymap which
defines bindings for moving through the keyboard macro ring,
C-x C-k C-p and C-x C-k C-n, editing the last macro C-x C-k C-e,
manipulating the macro counter and format via C-x C-k C-c,
C-x C-k C-a, and C-x C-k C-f.  See the commentary in kmacro.el
for more commands.

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The normal macro bindings C-x (, C-x ), and C-x e now interfaces to
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the keyboard macro ring.
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The C-x e command now automatically terminates the current macro
before calling it, if used while defining a macro.
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In addition, when ending or calling a macro with C-x e, the macro can
be repeated immediately by typing just the `e'.  You can customize
this behaviour via the variable kmacro-call-repeat-key and
kmacro-call-repeat-with-arg.

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Keyboard macros can now be debugged and edited interactively.
C-x C-k SPC will step through the last keyboard macro one key sequence
at a time, prompting for the actions to take.

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---
** The old Octave mode bindings C-c f and C-c i have been changed
to C-c C-f and C-c C-i.  The C-c C-i subcommands now have duplicate
bindings on control characters--thus, C-c C-i C-b is the same as
C-c C-i b, and so on.

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** Calc is now part of the Emacs distribution.
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Calc is an advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool written in
Emacs Lisp.  Its documentation is in a separate manual; within Emacs,
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type "C-h i m calc RET" to read that manual.  A reference card is
available in `etc/calccard.tex' and `etc/calccard.ps'.
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** Tramp is now part of the distribution.
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This package is similar to Ange-FTP: it allows you to edit remote
files.  But whereas Ange-FTP uses FTP to access the remote host,
Tramp uses a shell connection.  The shell connection is always used
for filename completion and directory listings and suchlike, but for
the actual file transfer, you can choose between the so-called
`inline' methods (which transfer the files through the shell
connection using base64 or uu encoding) and the `out-of-band' methods
(which invoke an external copying program such as `rcp' or `scp' or
`rsync' to do the copying).

Shell connections can be acquired via `rsh', `ssh', `telnet' and also
`su' and `sudo'.

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** The new global minor mode `file-name-shadow-mode' modifies the way
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filenames being entered by the user in the minibuffer are displayed, so
that it's clear when part of the entered filename will be ignored due to
emacs' filename parsing rules.  The ignored portion can be made dim,
invisible, or otherwise less visually noticable.  The display method may
be displayed by customizing the variable `file-name-shadow-properties'.
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** The ruler-mode.el library provides a minor mode for displaying an
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"active" ruler in the header line.  You can use the mouse to visually
change the `fill-column', `window-margins' and `tab-stop-list'
settings.

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** The minor mode Reveal mode makes text visible on the fly as you
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move your cursor into hidden region of the buffer.
It should work with any package that uses overlays to hide parts
of a buffer, such as outline-minor-mode, hs-minor-mode, hide-ifdef-mode, ...

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There is also Global Reveal mode which affects all buffers.
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** The new package ibuffer provides a powerful, completely
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customizable replacement for buff-menu.el.

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** The new package table.el implements editable, WYSIWYG, embedded
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`text tables' in Emacs buffers.  It simulates the effect of putting
these tables in a special major mode.  The package emulates WYSIWYG
table editing available in modern word processors.  The package also
can generate a table source in typesetting and markup languages such
as latex and html from the visually laid out text table.

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** SES mode (ses-mode) is a new major mode for creating and editing
spreadsheet files.  Besides the usual Emacs features (intuitive command
letters, undo, cell formulas in Lisp, plaintext files, etc.) it also offers
viral immunity and import/export of tab-separated values.

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** Support for `magic cookie' standout modes has been removed.
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Emacs will still work on terminals that require magic cookies in order
to use standout mode, however they will not be able to display
mode-lines in inverse-video.

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** The obsolete C mode (c-mode.el) has been removed to avoid problems
with Custom.

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* Lisp Changes in Emacs 21.4
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** New function `decode-coding-region-as-inserted-from-file' decodes a
region as if it is read from a file without decoding.

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** New function `optimize-char-coding-system-table' can be called
after making changes to `char-coding-system-table'.

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** `save-selected-window' now saves and restores the selected window
of every frame.  This way, it restores everything that can be changed
by calling `select-window'.

** `easy-menu-define' now allows you to use nil for the symbol name
if you don't need to give the menu a name.  If you install the menu
into other keymaps right away (MAPS is non-nil), it usually doesn't
need to have a name.

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** Byte compiler changes:

*** `(featurep 'xemacs)' is treated by the compiler as nil.  This
helps to avoid noisy compiler warnings in code meant to run under both
Emacs and XEmacs and may sometimes make the result significantly more
efficient.  Since byte code from recent versions of XEmacs won't
generally run in Emacs and vice versa, this optimization doesn't lose
you anything.

*** You can avoid warnings for possibly-undefined symbols with a
simple convention that the compiler understands.  (This is mostly
useful in code meant to be portable to different Emacs versions.)
Write forms like the following, or code that macroexpands into such
forms:

  (if (fboundp 'foo) <then> <else>)
  (if (boundp 'foo) <then> <else)

In the first case, using `foo' as a function inside the <then> form
won't produce a warning if it's not defined as a function, and in the
second case, using `foo' as a variable won't produce a warning if it's
unbound.  The test must be in exactly one of the above forms (after
macro expansion), but such tests may be nested.  Note that `when' and
`unless' expand to `if', but `cond' doesn't.
  
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** New translation table `translation-table-for-input'.

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** `load-history' can now have elements of the form (t . FUNNAME),
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which means FUNNAME was previously defined as an autoload (before the
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current file redefined it).

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** New Lisp library testcover.el works with edebug to help you determine
whether you've tested all your Lisp code.  Function testcover-start
instruments all functions in a given file.  Then test your code.  Function
testcover-mark-all adds overlay "splotches" to the Lisp file's buffer to
show where coverage is lacking.  Command testcover-next-mark (bind it to
a key!) will move point forward to the next spot that has a splotch.

*** Normally, a red splotch indicates the form was never completely evaluated;
a brown splotch means it always evaluated to the same value.  The red
splotches are skipped for forms that can't possibly complete their evaluation,
such as `error'.  The brown splotches are skipped for forms that are expected
to always evaluate to the same value, such as (setq x 14).

*** For difficult cases, you can add do-nothing macros to your code to help
out the test coverage tool.  The macro 1value suppresses a brown splotch for
its argument.  The macro noreturn suppresses a red splotch.

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** New function unsafep returns nil if the given Lisp form can't possibly
do anything dangerous; otherwise it returns a reason why the form might be
unsafe (calls dangerous function, alters global variable, etc).

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** When you are printing using print-continuous-numbering,
if no objects have had to be recorded in print-number-table,
all elements of print-number-table are nil.

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** When using non-toolkit scroll bars with the default width,
the scroll-bar-width frame parameter value is nil.

** The new function copy-abbrev-table returns a new abbrev table that
is a copy of a given abbrev table.

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** The option --script FILE runs Emacs in batch mode and loads FILE.
It is useful for writing Emacs Lisp shell script files, because they
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can start with this line:
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   #!/usr/bin/emacs --script

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