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@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
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@c Copyright (C) 1985-1987, 1993-1995, 1997, 2000-2011
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@c   Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Text, Programs, Indentation, Top
@chapter Commands for Human Languages
@cindex text
@cindex manipulating text

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  This chapter describes Emacs commands that act on @dfn{text}, by
which we mean sequences of characters in a human language (as opposed
to, say, a computer programming language).  These commands act in ways
that take into account the syntactic and stylistic conventions of
human languages: conventions involving words, sentences, paragraphs,
and capital letters.  There are also commands for @dfn{filling}, which
means rearranging the lines of a paragraph to be approximately equal
in length.  These commands, while intended primarily for editing text,
are also often useful for editing programs.

  Emacs has several major modes for editing human-language text.  If
the file contains ordinary text, use Text mode, which customizes Emacs
in small ways for the syntactic conventions of text.  Outline mode
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provides special commands for operating on text with an outline
structure.
@iftex
@xref{Outline Mode}.
@end iftex

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@cindex nXML mode
@cindex mode, XML
@cindex mode, nXML
@findex nxml-mode
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  Emacs has other major modes for text which contains ``embedded''
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commands, such as @TeX{} and La@TeX{} (@pxref{TeX Mode}); HTML and
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SGML (@pxref{HTML Mode}); XML (@pxref{Top,The nXML Mode
Manual,,nxml-mode, nXML Mode}); and Groff and Nroff (@pxref{Nroff
Mode}).
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@cindex ASCII art
  If you need to edit pictures made out of text characters (commonly
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referred to as ``ASCII art''), use Picture mode, a special major mode
for editing such pictures.
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@iftex
@xref{Picture Mode,,, emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}.
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@xref{Picture Mode}.
@end ifnottex

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@ifinfo
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@cindex skeletons
@cindex templates
@cindex autotyping
@cindex automatic typing
  The ``automatic typing'' features may be useful when writing text.
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@inforef{Top,The Autotype Manual,autotype}.
@end ifinfo
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@menu
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* Words::               Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::           Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::          Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::               Moving over pages.
* Filling::             Filling or justifying text.
* Case::                Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::           The major modes for editing text files.
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* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
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* TeX Mode::            Editing input to the formatter TeX.
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* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML and SGML files.
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* Nroff Mode::          Editing input to the formatter nroff.
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* Enriched Text::       Editing text ``enriched'' with fonts, colors, etc.
* Text Based Tables::   Commands for editing text-based tables.
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* Two-Column::          Splitting text columns into separate windows.
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@end menu

@node Words
@section Words
@cindex words
@cindex Meta commands and words

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  Emacs defines several commands for moving over or operating on
words:
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@table @kbd
@item M-f
Move forward over a word (@code{forward-word}).
@item M-b
Move backward over a word (@code{backward-word}).
@item M-d
Kill up to the end of a word (@code{kill-word}).
@item M-@key{DEL}
Kill back to the beginning of a word (@code{backward-kill-word}).
@item M-@@
Mark the end of the next word (@code{mark-word}).
@item M-t
Transpose two words or drag a word across others
(@code{transpose-words}).
@end table

  Notice how these keys form a series that parallels the character-based
@kbd{C-f}, @kbd{C-b}, @kbd{C-d}, @key{DEL} and @kbd{C-t}.  @kbd{M-@@} is
cognate to @kbd{C-@@}, which is an alias for @kbd{C-@key{SPC}}.

@kindex M-f
@kindex M-b
@findex forward-word
@findex backward-word
  The commands @kbd{M-f} (@code{forward-word}) and @kbd{M-b}
(@code{backward-word}) move forward and backward over words.  These
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@key{Meta}-based key sequences are analogous to the key sequences
@kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-b}, which move over single characters.  The
analogy extends to numeric arguments, which serve as repeat counts.
@kbd{M-f} with a negative argument moves backward, and @kbd{M-b} with
a negative argument moves forward.  Forward motion stops right after
the last letter of the word, while backward motion stops right before
the first letter.
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@kindex M-d
@findex kill-word
  @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) kills the word after point.  To be
precise, it kills everything from point to the place @kbd{M-f} would
move to.  Thus, if point is in the middle of a word, @kbd{M-d} kills
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just the part after point.  If some punctuation comes between point
and the next word, it is killed along with the word.  (If you wish to
kill only the next word but not the punctuation before it, simply do
@kbd{M-f} to get the end, and kill the word backwards with
@kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.)  @kbd{M-d} takes arguments just like @kbd{M-f}.
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@findex backward-kill-word
@kindex M-DEL
  @kbd{M-@key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-word}) kills the word before
point.  It kills everything from point back to where @kbd{M-b} would
move to.  For instance, if point is after the space in @w{@samp{FOO,
BAR}}, it kills @w{@samp{FOO, }}.  If you wish to kill just
@samp{FOO}, and not the comma and the space, use @kbd{M-b M-d} instead
of @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.

@c Don't index M-t and transpose-words here, they are indexed in
@c fixit.texi, in the node "Transpose".
@c @kindex M-t
@c @findex transpose-words
  @kbd{M-t} (@code{transpose-words}) exchanges the word before or
containing point with the following word.  The delimiter characters between
the words do not move.  For example, @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}} transposes into
@w{@samp{BAR, FOO}} rather than @samp{@w{BAR FOO,}}.  @xref{Transpose}, for
more on transposition.

@kindex M-@@
@findex mark-word
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  To operate on words with an operation which acts on the region, use
the command @kbd{M-@@} (@code{mark-word}).  This command sets the mark
where @kbd{M-f} would move to.  @xref{Marking Objects}, for more
information about this command.
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  The word commands' understanding of word boundaries is controlled by
the syntax table.  Any character can, for example, be declared to be a
word delimiter.  @xref{Syntax Tables,, Syntax Tables, elisp, The Emacs
Lisp Reference Manual}.
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  In addition, see @ref{Position Info} for the @kbd{M-=}
(@code{count-words-region}) and @kbd{M-x count-words} commands, which
count and report the number of words in the region or buffer.

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@node Sentences
@section Sentences
@cindex sentences
@cindex manipulating sentences

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  The Emacs commands for manipulating sentences and paragraphs are
mostly on Meta keys, like the word-handling commands.
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@table @kbd
@item M-a
Move back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-sentence}).
@item M-e
Move forward to the end of the sentence (@code{forward-sentence}).
@item M-k
Kill forward to the end of the sentence (@code{kill-sentence}).
@item C-x @key{DEL}
Kill back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-kill-sentence}).
@end table

@kindex M-a
@kindex M-e
@findex backward-sentence
@findex forward-sentence
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  The commands @kbd{M-a} (@code{backward-sentence}) and @kbd{M-e}
(@code{forward-sentence}) move to the beginning and end of the current
sentence, respectively.  Their bindings were chosen to resemble
@kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e}, which move to the beginning and end of a
line.  Unlike them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} move over successive
sentences if repeated.
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  Moving backward over a sentence places point just before the first
character of the sentence; moving forward places point right after the
punctuation that ends the sentence.  Neither one moves over the
whitespace at the sentence boundary.

@kindex M-k
@findex kill-sentence
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  Just as @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} have a kill command, @kbd{C-k}, to
go with them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} have a corresponding kill
command: @kbd{M-k} (@code{kill-sentence}) kills from point to the end
of the sentence.  With a positive numeric argument @var{n}, it kills
the next @var{n} sentences; with a negative argument @minus{}@var{n},
it kills back to the beginning of the @var{n}th preceding sentence.

@kindex C-x DEL
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@findex backward-kill-sentence
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  The @kbd{C-x @key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-sentence}) kills back
to the beginning of a sentence.
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  The sentence commands assume that you follow the American typist's
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convention of putting two spaces at the end of a sentence.  That is, a
sentence ends wherever there is a @samp{.}, @samp{?} or @samp{!}
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followed by the end of a line or two spaces, with any number of
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@samp{)}, @samp{]}, @samp{'}, or @samp{"} characters allowed in
between.  A sentence also begins or ends wherever a paragraph begins
or ends.  It is useful to follow this convention, because it allows
the Emacs sentence commands to distinguish between periods that end a
sentence and periods that indicate abbreviations.
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@vindex sentence-end-double-space
  If you want to use just one space between sentences, you can set the
variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} to @code{nil} to make the
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sentence commands stop for single spaces.  However, this has a
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drawback: there is no way to distinguish between periods that end
sentences and those that indicate abbreviations.  For convenient and
reliable editing, we therefore recommend you follow the two-space
convention.  The variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} also
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affects filling (@pxref{Fill Commands}).
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@vindex sentence-end
  The variable @code{sentence-end} controls how to recognize the end
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of a sentence.  If non-@code{nil}, its value should be a regular
expression, which is used to match the last few characters of a
sentence, together with the whitespace following the sentence
(@pxref{Regexps}).  If the value is @code{nil}, the default, then
Emacs computes sentence ends according to various criteria such as the
value of @code{sentence-end-double-space}.
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@vindex sentence-end-without-period
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  Some languages, such as Thai, do not use periods to indicate the end
of a sentence.  Set the variable @code{sentence-end-without-period} to
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@code{t} in such cases.

@node Paragraphs
@section Paragraphs
@cindex paragraphs
@cindex manipulating paragraphs

  The Emacs commands for manipulating paragraphs are also on Meta keys.

@table @kbd
@item M-@{
Move back to previous paragraph beginning (@code{backward-paragraph}).
@item M-@}
Move forward to next paragraph end (@code{forward-paragraph}).
@item M-h
Put point and mark around this or next paragraph (@code{mark-paragraph}).
@end table

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@kindex M-@{
@kindex M-@}
@findex backward-paragraph
@findex forward-paragraph
  @kbd{M-@{} (@code{backward-paragraph}) moves to the beginning of the
current or previous paragraph (see below for the definition of a
paragraph).  @kbd{M-@}} (@code{forward-paragraph}) moves to the end of
the current or next paragraph.  If there is a blank line before the
paragraph, @kbd{M-@{} moves to the blank line.
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@kindex M-h
@findex mark-paragraph
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  When you wish to operate on a paragraph, type @kbd{M-h}
(@code{mark-paragraph}) to set the region around it.  For example,
@kbd{M-h C-w} kills the paragraph around or after point.  @kbd{M-h}
puts point at the beginning and mark at the end of the paragraph point
was in.  If point is between paragraphs (in a run of blank lines, or
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at a boundary), @kbd{M-h} sets the region around the paragraph
following point.  If there are blank lines preceding the first line of
the paragraph, one of these blank lines is included in the region.  If
the region is already active, the command sets the mark without
changing point, and each subsequent @kbd{M-h} further advances the
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mark by one paragraph.
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  The definition of a paragraph depends on the major mode.  In
Fundamental mode, as well as Text mode and related modes, a paragraph
is separated each neighboring paragraph another by one or more
@dfn{blank lines}---lines that are either empty, or consist solely of
space, tab and/or formfeed characters.  In programming language modes,
paragraphs are usually defined in a similar way, so that you can use
the paragraph commands even though there are no paragraphs as such in
a program.

  Note that an indented line is @emph{not} itself a paragraph break in
Text mode.  If you want indented lines to separate paragraphs, use
Paragraph-Indent Text mode instead.  @xref{Text Mode}.

  If you set a fill prefix, then paragraphs are delimited by all lines
which don't start with the fill prefix.  @xref{Filling}.

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@vindex paragraph-start
@vindex paragraph-separate
  The precise definition of a paragraph boundary is controlled by the
variables @code{paragraph-separate} and @code{paragraph-start}.  The
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value of @code{paragraph-start} is a regular expression that should
match lines that either start or separate paragraphs
(@pxref{Regexps}).  The value of @code{paragraph-separate} is another
regular expression that should match lines that separate paragraphs
without being part of any paragraph (for example, blank lines).  Lines
that start a new paragraph and are contained in it must match only
@code{paragraph-start}, not @code{paragraph-separate}.  For example,
in Fundamental mode, @code{paragraph-start} is @w{@code{"\f\\|[
\t]*$"}}, and @code{paragraph-separate} is @w{@code{"[ \t\f]*$"}}.
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@node Pages
@section Pages

@cindex pages
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@cindex formfeed character
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  Within some text files, text is divided into @dfn{pages} delimited
by the @dfn{formfeed character} (@acronym{ASCII} code 12, also denoted
as @key{control-L}), which is displayed in Emacs as the escape
sequence @samp{^L} (@pxref{Text Display}).  Traditionally, when such
text files are printed to hardcopy, each formfeed character forces a
page break.  Most Emacs commands treat it just like any other
character, so you can insert it with @kbd{C-q C-l}, delete it with
@key{DEL}, etc.  In addition, Emacs provides commands to move over
pages and operate on them.
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@table @kbd
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@item M-x what-page
Display the page number of point, and the line number within that page.
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@item C-x [
Move point to previous page boundary (@code{backward-page}).
@item C-x ]
Move point to next page boundary (@code{forward-page}).
@item C-x C-p
Put point and mark around this page (or another page) (@code{mark-page}).
@item C-x l
Count the lines in this page (@code{count-lines-page}).
@end table

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@findex what-page
  @kbd{M-x what-page} counts pages from the beginning of the file, and
counts lines within the page, showing both numbers in the echo area.

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@kindex C-x [
@kindex C-x ]
@findex forward-page
@findex backward-page
  The @kbd{C-x [} (@code{backward-page}) command moves point to immediately
after the previous page delimiter.  If point is already right after a page
delimiter, it skips that one and stops at the previous one.  A numeric
argument serves as a repeat count.  The @kbd{C-x ]} (@code{forward-page})
command moves forward past the next page delimiter.

@kindex C-x C-p
@findex mark-page
  The @kbd{C-x C-p} command (@code{mark-page}) puts point at the
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beginning of the current page (after that page delimiter at the
front), and the mark at the end of the page (after the page delimiter
at the end).
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  @kbd{C-x C-p C-w} is a handy way to kill a page to move it
elsewhere.  If you move to another page delimiter with @kbd{C-x [} and
@kbd{C-x ]}, then yank the killed page, all the pages will be properly
delimited once again.  The reason @kbd{C-x C-p} includes only the
following page delimiter in the region is to ensure that.

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  A numeric argument to @kbd{C-x C-p} specifies which page to go to,
relative to the current one.  Zero means the current page.  One means
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the next page, and @minus{}1 means the previous one.

@kindex C-x l
@findex count-lines-page
  The @kbd{C-x l} command (@code{count-lines-page}) is good for deciding
where to break a page in two.  It displays in the echo area the total number
of lines in the current page, and then divides it up into those preceding
the current line and those following, as in

@example
Page has 96 (72+25) lines
@end example

@noindent
  Notice that the sum is off by one; this is correct if point is not at the
beginning of a line.

@vindex page-delimiter
  The variable @code{page-delimiter} controls where pages begin.  Its
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value is a regular expression that matches the beginning of a line
that separates pages (@pxref{Regexps}).  The normal value of this
variable is @code{"^\f"}, which matches a formfeed character at the
beginning of a line.
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@node Filling
@section Filling Text
@cindex filling text

  @dfn{Filling} text means breaking it up into lines that fit a
specified width.  Emacs does filling in two ways.  In Auto Fill mode,
inserting text with self-inserting characters also automatically fills
it.  There are also explicit fill commands that you can use when editing
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text leaves it unfilled.
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@menu
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* Auto Fill::      Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Fill Commands::  Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::    Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::  How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
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@end menu

@node Auto Fill
@subsection Auto Fill Mode
@cindex Auto Fill mode
@cindex mode, Auto Fill

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  @dfn{Auto Fill} mode is a buffer-local minor mode (@pxref{Minor
Modes}) in which lines are broken automatically when they become too
wide.  Breaking happens only when you type a @key{SPC} or @key{RET}.
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@table @kbd
@item M-x auto-fill-mode
Enable or disable Auto Fill mode.
@item @key{SPC}
@itemx @key{RET}
In Auto Fill mode, break lines when appropriate.
@end table

@findex auto-fill-mode
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  The mode command @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} toggles Auto Fill mode in
the current buffer.  With a positive numeric argument, it enables Auto
Fill mode, and with a negative argument it disables it.  If
@code{auto-fill-mode} is called from Lisp with an omitted or
@code{nil} argument, it enables Auto Fill mode.  To enable Auto Fill
mode automatically in certain major modes, add @code{auto-fill-mode}
to the mode hooks (@pxref{Major Modes}).  When Auto Fill mode is
enabled, the mode indicator @samp{Fill} appears in the mode line
(@pxref{Mode Line}).

  Auto Fill mode breaks lines automatically at spaces whenever they
get longer than the desired width.  This line breaking occurs only
when you type @key{SPC} or @key{RET}.  If you wish to insert a space
or newline without permitting line-breaking, type @kbd{C-q @key{SPC}}
or @kbd{C-q C-j} respectively.  Also, @kbd{C-o} inserts a newline
without line breaking.

  When Auto Fill mode breaks a line, it tries to obey the
@dfn{adaptive fill prefix}: if a fill prefix can be deduced from the
first and/or second line of the current paragraph, it is inserted into
the new line (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}).  Otherwise the new line is
indented, as though you had typed @key{TAB} on it
(@pxref{Indentation}).  In a programming language mode, if a line is
broken in the middle of a comment, the comment is split by inserting
new comment delimiters as appropriate.

  Auto Fill mode does not refill entire paragraphs; it breaks lines
but does not merge lines.  Therefore, editing in the middle of a
paragraph can result in a paragraph that is not correctly filled.  To
fill it, call the explicit fill commands
@iftex
described in the next section.
@end iftex
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@ifnottex
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(@pxref{Fill Commands}).
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@end ifnottex

@node Fill Commands
@subsection Explicit Fill Commands

@table @kbd
@item M-q
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Fill current paragraph (@code{fill-paragraph}).
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@item C-x f
Set the fill column (@code{set-fill-column}).
@item M-x fill-region
Fill each paragraph in the region (@code{fill-region}).
@item M-x fill-region-as-paragraph
Fill the region, considering it as one paragraph.
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@item M-o M-s
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Center a line.
@end table

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@kindex M-q
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@findex fill-paragraph
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  The command @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph}) @dfn{fills} the
current paragraph.  It redistributes the line breaks within the
paragraph, and deletes any excess space and tab characters occurring
within the paragraph, in such a way that the lines end up fitting
within a certain maximum width.
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@findex fill-region
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  Normally, @kbd{M-q} acts on the paragraph where point is, but if
point is between paragraphs, it acts on the paragraph after point.  If
the region is active, it acts instead on the text in the region.  You
can also call @kbd{M-x fill-region} to specifically fill the text in
the region.
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@findex fill-region-as-paragraph
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  @kbd{M-q} and @code{fill-region} use the usual Emacs criteria for
finding paragraph boundaries (@pxref{Paragraphs}).  For more control,
you can use @kbd{M-x fill-region-as-paragraph}, which refills
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everything between point and mark as a single paragraph.  This command
deletes any blank lines within the region, so separate blocks of text
end up combined into one block.
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@cindex justification
  A numeric argument to @kbd{M-q} tells it to @dfn{justify} the text
as well as filling it.  This means that extra spaces are inserted to
make the right margin line up exactly at the fill column.  To remove
the extra spaces, use @kbd{M-q} with no argument.  (Likewise for
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@code{fill-region}.)

@vindex fill-column
@kindex C-x f
@findex set-fill-column
  The maximum line width for filling is specified by the buffer-local
variable @code{fill-column}.  The default value (@pxref{Locals}) is
70.  The easiest way to set @code{fill-column} in the current buffer
is to use the command @kbd{C-x f} (@code{set-fill-column}).  With a
numeric argument, it uses that as the new fill column.  With just
@kbd{C-u} as argument, it sets @code{fill-column} to the current
horizontal position of point.
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@kindex M-o M-s @r{(Text mode)}
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@cindex centering
@findex center-line
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  The command @kbd{M-o M-s} (@code{center-line}) centers the current line
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within the current fill column.  With an argument @var{n}, it centers
@var{n} lines individually and moves past them.  This binding is
made by Text mode and is available only in that and related modes
(@pxref{Text Mode}).

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  By default, Emacs considers a period followed by two spaces or by a
newline as the end of a sentence; a period followed by just one space
indicates an abbreviation, not the end of a sentence.  Accordingly,
the fill commands will not break a line after a period followed by
just one space.  If you change the variable
@code{sentence-end-double-space} to a non-@code{nil} value, the fill
commands will break a line after a period followed by one space, and
put just one space after each period.  @xref{Sentences}, for other
effects and possible drawbacks of this.
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@vindex colon-double-space
  If the variable @code{colon-double-space} is non-@code{nil}, the
fill commands put two spaces after a colon.

@vindex fill-nobreak-predicate
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  To specify additional conditions where line-breaking is not allowed,
customize the abnormal hook variable @code{fill-nobreak-predicate}
(@pxref{Hooks}).  Each function in this hook is called with no
arguments, with point positioned where Emacs is considering breaking a
line.  If a function returns a non-@code{nil} value, Emacs will not
break the line there.  Two functions you can use are
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@code{fill-single-word-nobreak-p} (don't break after the first word of
a sentence or before the last) and @code{fill-french-nobreak-p} (don't
break after @samp{(} or before @samp{)}, @samp{:} or @samp{?}).

@node Fill Prefix
@subsection The Fill Prefix

@cindex fill prefix
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  The @dfn{fill prefix} feature allows paragraphs to be filled so that
each line starts with a special string of characters (such as a
sequence of spaces, giving an indented paragraph).  You can specify a
fill prefix explicitly; otherwise, Emacs tries to deduce one
automatically (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}).
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@table @kbd
@item C-x .
Set the fill prefix (@code{set-fill-prefix}).
@item M-q
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Fill a paragraph using current fill prefix (@code{fill-paragraph}).
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@item M-x fill-individual-paragraphs
Fill the region, considering each change of indentation as starting a
new paragraph.
@item M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs
Fill the region, considering only paragraph-separator lines as starting
a new paragraph.
@end table

@kindex C-x .
@findex set-fill-prefix
  To specify a fill prefix for the current buffer, move to a line that
starts with the desired prefix, put point at the end of the prefix,
and type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: (@code{set-fill-prefix}).  (That's a period
after the @kbd{C-x}.)  To turn off the fill prefix, specify an empty
prefix: type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: with point at the beginning of a line.

  When a fill prefix is in effect, the fill commands remove the fill
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prefix from each line of the paragraph before filling, and insert it
on each line after filling.  (The beginning of the first line of the
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paragraph is left unchanged, since often that is intentionally
different.)  Auto Fill mode also inserts the fill prefix automatically
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when it makes a new line (@pxref{Auto Fill}).  The @kbd{C-o} command
inserts the fill prefix on new lines it creates, when you use it at
the beginning of a line (@pxref{Blank Lines}).  Conversely, the
command @kbd{M-^} deletes the prefix (if it occurs) after the newline
that it deletes (@pxref{Indentation}).
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  For example, if @code{fill-column} is 40 and you set the fill prefix
to @samp{;; }, then @kbd{M-q} in the following text

@example
;; This is an
;; example of a paragraph
;; inside a Lisp-style comment.
@end example

@noindent
produces this:

@example
;; This is an example of a paragraph
;; inside a Lisp-style comment.
@end example

  Lines that do not start with the fill prefix are considered to start
paragraphs, both in @kbd{M-q} and the paragraph commands; this gives
good results for paragraphs with hanging indentation (every line
indented except the first one).  Lines which are blank or indented once
the prefix is removed also separate or start paragraphs; this is what
you want if you are writing multi-paragraph comments with a comment
delimiter on each line.

@findex fill-individual-paragraphs
  You can use @kbd{M-x fill-individual-paragraphs} to set the fill
prefix for each paragraph automatically.  This command divides the
region into paragraphs, treating every change in the amount of
indentation as the start of a new paragraph, and fills each of these
paragraphs.  Thus, all the lines in one ``paragraph'' have the same
amount of indentation.  That indentation serves as the fill prefix for
that paragraph.

@findex fill-nonuniform-paragraphs
  @kbd{M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs} is a similar command that divides
the region into paragraphs in a different way.  It considers only
paragraph-separating lines (as defined by @code{paragraph-separate}) as
starting a new paragraph.  Since this means that the lines of one
paragraph may have different amounts of indentation, the fill prefix
used is the smallest amount of indentation of any of the lines of the
paragraph.  This gives good results with styles that indent a paragraph's
first line more or less that the rest of the paragraph.

@vindex fill-prefix
  The fill prefix is stored in the variable @code{fill-prefix}.  Its value
is a string, or @code{nil} when there is no fill prefix.  This is a
per-buffer variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer,
but there is a default value which you can change as well.  @xref{Locals}.

  The @code{indentation} text property provides another way to control
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the amount of indentation paragraphs receive.  @xref{Enriched
Indentation}.
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@node Adaptive Fill
@subsection Adaptive Filling

@cindex adaptive filling
  The fill commands can deduce the proper fill prefix for a paragraph
automatically in certain cases: either whitespace or certain punctuation
characters at the beginning of a line are propagated to all lines of the
paragraph.

  If the paragraph has two or more lines, the fill prefix is taken from
the paragraph's second line, but only if it appears on the first line as
well.

  If a paragraph has just one line, fill commands @emph{may} take a
prefix from that line.  The decision is complicated because there are
three reasonable things to do in such a case:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Use the first line's prefix on all the lines of the paragraph.

@item
Indent subsequent lines with whitespace, so that they line up under the
text that follows the prefix on the first line, but don't actually copy
the prefix from the first line.

@item
Don't do anything special with the second and following lines.
@end itemize

  All three of these styles of formatting are commonly used.  So the
fill commands try to determine what you would like, based on the prefix
that appears and on the major mode.  Here is how.

@vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp
  If the prefix found on the first line matches
@code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}, or if it appears to be a
comment-starting sequence (this depends on the major mode), then the
prefix found is used for filling the paragraph, provided it would not
act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines.

  Otherwise, the prefix found is converted to an equivalent number of
spaces, and those spaces are used as the fill prefix for the rest of the
lines, provided they would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent
lines.

  In Text mode, and other modes where only blank lines and page
delimiters separate paragraphs, the prefix chosen by adaptive filling
never acts as a paragraph starter, so it can always be used for filling.

@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@vindex adaptive-fill-regexp
  The variable @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} determines what kinds of line
beginnings can serve as a fill prefix: any characters at the start of
the line that match this regular expression are used.  If you set the
variable @code{adaptive-fill-mode} to @code{nil}, the fill prefix is
never chosen automatically.

@vindex adaptive-fill-function
  You can specify more complex ways of choosing a fill prefix
automatically by setting the variable @code{adaptive-fill-function} to a
function.  This function is called with point after the left margin of a
line, and it should return the appropriate fill prefix based on that
line.  If it returns @code{nil}, @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} gets
a chance to find a prefix.

@node Case
@section Case Conversion Commands
@cindex case conversion

  Emacs has commands for converting either a single word or any arbitrary
range of text to upper case or to lower case.

@table @kbd
@item M-l
Convert following word to lower case (@code{downcase-word}).
@item M-u
Convert following word to upper case (@code{upcase-word}).
@item M-c
Capitalize the following word (@code{capitalize-word}).
@item C-x C-l
Convert region to lower case (@code{downcase-region}).
@item C-x C-u
Convert region to upper case (@code{upcase-region}).
@end table

@kindex M-l
@kindex M-u
@kindex M-c
@cindex words, case conversion
@cindex converting text to upper or lower case
@cindex capitalizing words
@findex downcase-word
@findex upcase-word
@findex capitalize-word
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  @kbd{M-l} (@code{downcase-word}) converts the word after point to
lower case, moving past it.  Thus, repeating @kbd{M-l} converts
successive words.  @kbd{M-u} (@code{upcase-word}) converts to all
capitals instead, while @kbd{M-c} (@code{capitalize-word}) puts the
first letter of the word into upper case and the rest into lower case.
All these commands convert several words at once if given an argument.
They are especially convenient for converting a large amount of text
from all upper case to mixed case, because you can move through the
text using @kbd{M-l}, @kbd{M-u} or @kbd{M-c} on each word as
appropriate, occasionally using @kbd{M-f} instead to skip a word.
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  When given a negative argument, the word case conversion commands apply
to the appropriate number of words before point, but do not move point.
This is convenient when you have just typed a word in the wrong case: you
can give the case conversion command and continue typing.

  If a word case conversion command is given in the middle of a word,
it applies only to the part of the word which follows point.  (This is
comparable to what @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) does.)  With a
negative argument, case conversion applies only to the part of the
word before point.

@kindex C-x C-l
@kindex C-x C-u
@findex downcase-region
@findex upcase-region
  The other case conversion commands are @kbd{C-x C-u}
(@code{upcase-region}) and @kbd{C-x C-l} (@code{downcase-region}), which
convert everything between point and mark to the specified case.  Point and
mark do not move.

  The region case conversion commands @code{upcase-region} and
@code{downcase-region} are normally disabled.  This means that they ask
for confirmation if you try to use them.  When you confirm, you may
enable the command, which means it will not ask for confirmation again.
@xref{Disabling}.

@node Text Mode
@section Text Mode
@cindex Text mode
@cindex mode, Text
@findex text-mode

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  Text mode is a major mode for editing files of text in a human
language.  Files which have names ending in the extension @file{.txt}
are usually opened in Text mode (@pxref{Choosing Modes}).  To
explicitly switch to Text mode, type @kbd{M-x text-mode}.
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  In Text mode, only blank lines and page delimiters separate
paragraphs.  As a result, paragraphs can be indented, and adaptive
filling determines what indentation to use when filling a paragraph.
@xref{Adaptive Fill}.

@kindex TAB @r{(Text mode)}
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  In Text mode, the @key{TAB} (@code{indent-for-tab-command}) command
usually inserts whitespace up to the next tab stop, instead of
indenting the current line.  @xref{Indentation}, for details.
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  Text mode turns off the features concerned with comments except when
you explicitly invoke them.  It changes the syntax table so that
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single-quotes are considered part of words (e.g.@: @samp{don't} is
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considered one word).  However, if a word starts with a single-quote,
it is treated as a prefix for the purposes of capitalization
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(e.g.@: @kbd{M-c} converts @samp{'hello'} into @samp{'Hello'}, as
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expected).
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@cindex Paragraph-Indent Text mode
@cindex mode, Paragraph-Indent Text
@findex paragraph-indent-text-mode
@findex paragraph-indent-minor-mode
  If you indent the first lines of paragraphs, then you should use
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Paragraph-Indent Text mode (@kbd{M-x paragraph-indent-text-mode})
rather than Text mode.  In that mode, you do not need to have blank
lines between paragraphs, because the first-line indentation is
sufficient to start a paragraph; however paragraphs in which every
line is indented are not supported.  Use @kbd{M-x
paragraph-indent-minor-mode} to enable an equivalent minor mode for
situations where you shouldn't change the major mode---in mail
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composition, for instance.

@kindex M-TAB @r{(Text mode)}
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  Text mode binds @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to @code{ispell-complete-word}.
This command performs completion of the partial word in the buffer
before point, using the spelling dictionary as the space of possible
words.  @xref{Spelling}.  If your window manager defines
@kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows, you can type @kbd{@key{ESC}
@key{TAB}} or @kbd{C-M-i} instead.
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@vindex text-mode-hook
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  Entering Text mode runs the mode hook @code{text-mode-hook}
(@pxref{Major Modes}).

  The following sections describe several major modes that are
@dfn{derived} from Text mode.  These derivatives share most of the
features of Text mode described above.  In particular, derivatives of
Text mode run @code{text-mode-hook} prior to running their own mode
hooks.
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@node Outline Mode
@section Outline Mode
@cindex Outline mode
@cindex mode, Outline
@cindex invisible lines

@findex outline-mode
@findex outline-minor-mode
@vindex outline-minor-mode-prefix
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@vindex outline-mode-hook
  Outline mode is a major mode derived from Text mode, which is
specialized for editing outlines.  It provides commands to navigate
between entries in the outline structure, and commands to make parts
of a buffer temporarily invisible, so that the outline structure may
be more easily viewed.  Type @kbd{M-x outline-mode} to switch to
Outline mode.  Entering Outline mode runs the hook
@code{text-mode-hook} followed by the hook @code{outline-mode-hook}
(@pxref{Hooks}).

  When you use an Outline mode command to make a line invisible
(@pxref{Outline Visibility}), the line disappears from the screen.  An
ellipsis (three periods in a row) is displayed at the end of the
previous visible line, to indicate the hidden text.  Multiple
consecutive invisible lines produce just one ellipsis.
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  Editing commands that operate on lines, such as @kbd{C-n} and
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@kbd{C-p}, treat the text of the invisible line as part of the
previous visible line.  Killing the ellipsis at the end of a visible
line really kills all the following invisible text associated with the
ellipsis.

  Outline minor mode is a buffer-local minor mode which provides the
same commands as the major mode, Outline mode, but can be used in
conjunction with other major modes.  You can type @kbd{M-x
outline-minor-mode} to toggle Outline minor mode in the current
buffer, or use a file-local variable setting to enable it in a
specific file (@pxref{File Variables}).
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@kindex C-c @@ @r{(Outline minor mode)}
  The major mode, Outline mode, provides special key bindings on the
@kbd{C-c} prefix.  Outline minor mode provides similar bindings with
@kbd{C-c @@} as the prefix; this is to reduce the conflicts with the
major mode's special commands.  (The variable
@code{outline-minor-mode-prefix} controls the prefix used.)

@menu
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* Outline Format::      What the text of an outline looks like.
* Outline Motion::      Special commands for moving through outlines.
* Outline Visibility::  Commands to control what is visible.
* Outline Views::       Outlines and multiple views.
* Foldout::             Folding means zooming in on outlines.
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@end menu

@node Outline Format
@subsection Format of Outlines

@cindex heading lines (Outline mode)
@cindex body lines (Outline mode)
  Outline mode assumes that the lines in the buffer are of two types:
@dfn{heading lines} and @dfn{body lines}.  A heading line represents a
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topic in the outline.  Heading lines start with one or more asterisk
(@samp{*}) characters; the number of asterisks determines the depth of
the heading in the outline structure.  Thus, a heading line with one
@samp{*} is a major topic; all the heading lines with two @samp{*}s
between it and the next one-@samp{*} heading are its subtopics; and so
on.  Any line that is not a heading line is a body line.  Body lines
belong with the preceding heading line.  Here is an example:
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@example
* Food
This is the body,
which says something about the topic of food.

** Delicious Food
This is the body of the second-level header.

** Distasteful Food
This could have
a body too, with
several lines.

*** Dormitory Food

* Shelter
Another first-level topic with its header line.
@end example

  A heading line together with all following body lines is called
collectively an @dfn{entry}.  A heading line together with all following
deeper heading lines and their body lines is called a @dfn{subtree}.

@vindex outline-regexp
  You can customize the criterion for distinguishing heading lines by
setting the variable @code{outline-regexp}.  (The recommended ways to
do this are in a major mode function or with a file local variable.)
Any line whose beginning has a match for this regexp is considered a
heading line.  Matches that start within a line (not at the left
margin) do not count.

  The length of the matching text determines the level of the heading;
longer matches make a more deeply nested level.  Thus, for example, if
a text formatter has commands @samp{@@chapter}, @samp{@@section} and
@samp{@@subsection} to divide the document into chapters and sections,
you could make those lines count as heading lines by setting
@code{outline-regexp} to @samp{"@@chap\\|@@\\(sub\\)*section"}.  Note
the trick: the two words @samp{chapter} and @samp{section} are equally
long, but by defining the regexp to match only @samp{chap} we ensure
that the length of the text matched on a chapter heading is shorter,
so that Outline mode will know that sections are contained in
chapters.  This works as long as no other command starts with
@samp{@@chap}.

@vindex outline-level
  You can explicitly specify a rule for calculating the level of a
heading line by setting the variable @code{outline-level}.  The value
of @code{outline-level} should be a function that takes no arguments
and returns the level of the current heading.  The recommended ways to
set this variable are in a major mode command or with a file local
variable.

@node Outline Motion
@subsection Outline Motion Commands

  Outline mode provides special motion commands that move backward and
forward to heading lines.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-n
Move point to the next visible heading line
(@code{outline-next-visible-heading}).
@item C-c C-p
Move point to the previous visible heading line
(@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}).
@item C-c C-f
Move point to the next visible heading line at the same level
as the one point is on (@code{outline-forward-same-level}).
@item C-c C-b
Move point to the previous visible heading line at the same level
(@code{outline-backward-same-level}).
@item C-c C-u
Move point up to a lower-level (more inclusive) visible heading line
(@code{outline-up-heading}).
@end table

@findex outline-next-visible-heading
@findex outline-previous-visible-heading
@kindex C-c C-n @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-p @r{(Outline mode)}
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  @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}) moves down to
the next heading line.  @kbd{C-c C-p}
(@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}) moves similarly backward.
Both accept numeric arguments as repeat counts.
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@findex outline-up-heading
@findex outline-forward-same-level
@findex outline-backward-same-level
@kindex C-c C-f @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-b @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-u @r{(Outline mode)}
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  The commands @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{outline-forward-same-level}) and
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@kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{outline-backward-same-level}) move from one
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heading line to another visible heading at the same depth in the
outline.  @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{outline-up-heading}) moves backward to
another heading that is less deeply nested.
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@node Outline Visibility
@subsection Outline Visibility Commands

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  Outline mode provides several commands for temporarily hiding or
revealing parts of the buffer, based on the outline structure.  These
commands are not undoable; their effects are simply not recorded by
the undo mechanism, so you can undo right past them (@pxref{Undo}).
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  Many of these commands act on the ``current'' heading line.  If
point is on a heading line, that is the current heading line; if point
is on a body line, the current heading line is the nearest preceding
header line.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-c
Make the current heading line's body invisible (@code{hide-entry}).
@item C-c C-e
Make the current heading line's body visible (@code{show-entry}).
@item C-c C-d
Make everything under the current heading invisible, not including the
heading itself (@code{hide-subtree}).
@item C-c C-s
Make everything under the current heading visible, including body,
subheadings, and their bodies (@code{show-subtree}).
@item C-c C-l
Make the body of the current heading line, and of all its subheadings,
invisible (@code{hide-leaves}).
@item C-c C-k
Make all subheadings of the current heading line, at all levels,
visible (@code{show-branches}).
@item C-c C-i
Make immediate subheadings (one level down) of the current heading
line visible (@code{show-children}).
@item C-c C-t
Make all body lines in the buffer invisible (@code{hide-body}).
@item C-c C-a
Make all lines in the buffer visible (@code{show-all}).
@item C-c C-q
Hide everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines
(@code{hide-sublevels}).
@item C-c C-o
Hide everything except for the heading or body that point is in, plus
the headings leading up from there to the top level of the outline
(@code{hide-other}).
@end table

@findex hide-entry
@findex show-entry
@kindex C-c C-c @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(Outline mode)}
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  The simplest of these commands are @kbd{C-c C-c}
(@code{hide-entry}), which hides the body lines directly following the
current heading line, and @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{show-entry}), which
reveals them.  Subheadings and their bodies are not affected.
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@findex hide-subtree
@findex show-subtree
@kindex C-c C-s @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-d @r{(Outline mode)}
@cindex subtree (Outline mode)
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  The commands @kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{hide-subtree}) and @kbd{C-c C-s}
(@code{show-subtree}) are more powerful.  They apply to the current
heading line's @dfn{subtree}: its body, all of its subheadings, both
direct and indirect, and all of their bodies.
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@findex hide-leaves
@findex show-branches
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@findex show-children
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@kindex C-c C-l @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-k @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-i @r{(Outline mode)}
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  The command @kbd{C-c C-l} (@code{hide-leaves}) hides the body of the
current heading line as well as all the bodies in its subtree; the
subheadings themselves are left visible.  The command @kbd{C-c C-k}
(@code{show-branches}) reveals the subheadings, if they had previously
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been hidden (e.g.@: by @kbd{C-c C-d}).  The command @kbd{C-c C-i}
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(@code{show-children}) is a weaker version of this; it reveals just
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the direct subheadings, i.e.@: those one level down.
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@findex hide-other
@kindex C-c C-o @r{(Outline mode)}
  The command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{hide-other}) hides everything
except the entry that point is in, plus its parents (the headers
leading up from there to top level in the outline) and the top level
headings.
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@findex hide-body
@findex show-all
@kindex C-c C-t @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-a @r{(Outline mode)}
@findex hide-sublevels
@kindex C-c C-q @r{(Outline mode)}
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  The remaining commands affect the whole buffer.  @kbd{C-c C-t}
(@code{hide-body}) makes all body lines invisible, so that you see
just the outline structure (as a special exception, it will not hide
lines at the top of the file, preceding the first header line, even
though these are technically body lines).  @kbd{C-c C-a}
(@code{show-all}) makes all lines visible.  @kbd{C-c C-q}
(@code{hide-sublevels}) hides all but the top level headings; with a
numeric argument @var{n}, it hides everything except the top @var{n}
levels of heading lines.
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@findex reveal-mode
  When incremental search finds text that is hidden by Outline mode,
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it makes that part of the buffer visible.  If you exit the search at
that position, the text remains visible.  You can also automatically
make text visible as you navigate in it by using Reveal mode (@kbd{M-x
reveal-mode}), a buffer-local minor mode.
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@node Outline Views
@subsection Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views

@cindex multiple views of outline
@cindex views of an outline
@cindex outline with multiple views
@cindex indirect buffers and outlines
  You can display two views of a single outline at the same time, in
different windows.  To do this, you must create an indirect buffer using
@kbd{M-x make-indirect-buffer}.  The first argument of this command is
the existing outline buffer name, and its second argument is the name to
use for the new indirect buffer.  @xref{Indirect Buffers}.

  Once the indirect buffer exists, you can display it in a window in the
normal fashion, with @kbd{C-x 4 b} or other Emacs commands.  The Outline
mode commands to show and hide parts of the text operate on each buffer
independently; as a result, each buffer can have its own view.  If you
want more than two views on the same outline, create additional indirect
buffers.

@node Foldout
@subsection Folding Editing

@cindex folding editing
  The Foldout package extends Outline mode and Outline minor mode with
``folding'' commands.  The idea of folding is that you zoom in on a
nested portion of the outline, while hiding its relatives at higher
levels.

  Consider an Outline mode buffer with all the text and subheadings under
level-1 headings hidden.  To look at what is hidden under one of these
headings, you could use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@kbd{M-x show-entry}) to expose
the body, or @kbd{C-c C-i} to expose the child (level-2) headings.

@kindex C-c C-z
@findex foldout-zoom-subtree
  With Foldout, you use @kbd{C-c C-z} (@kbd{M-x foldout-zoom-subtree}).
This exposes the body and child subheadings, and narrows the buffer so
that only the @w{level-1} heading, the body and the level-2 headings are
visible.  Now to look under one of the level-2 headings, position the
cursor on it and use @kbd{C-c C-z} again.  This exposes the level-2 body
and its level-3 child subheadings and narrows the buffer again.  Zooming
in on successive subheadings can be done as much as you like.  A string
in the mode line shows how deep you've gone.

  When zooming in on a heading, to see only the child subheadings specify
a numeric argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-z}.  The number of levels of children
can be specified too (compare @kbd{M-x show-children}), e.g.@: @kbd{M-2
C-c C-z} exposes two levels of child subheadings.  Alternatively, the
body can be specified with a negative argument: @kbd{M-- C-c C-z}.  The
whole subtree can be expanded, similarly to @kbd{C-c C-s} (@kbd{M-x
show-subtree}), by specifying a zero argument: @kbd{M-0 C-c C-z}.

  While you're zoomed in, you can still use Outline mode's exposure and
hiding functions without disturbing Foldout.  Also, since the buffer is
narrowed, ``global'' editing actions will only affect text under the
zoomed-in heading.  This is useful for restricting changes to a
particular chapter or section of your document.

@kindex C-c C-x
@findex foldout-exit-fold
  To unzoom (exit) a fold, use @kbd{C-c C-x} (@kbd{M-x foldout-exit-fold}).
This hides all the text and subheadings under the top-level heading and
returns you to the previous view of the buffer.  Specifying a numeric
argument exits that many levels of folds.  Specifying a zero argument
exits all folds.

  To cancel the narrowing of a fold without hiding the text and
subheadings, specify a negative argument.  For example, @kbd{M--2 C-c
C-x} exits two folds and leaves the text and subheadings exposed.

  Foldout mode also provides mouse commands for entering and exiting
folds, and for showing and hiding text:

@table @asis
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-1} zooms in on the heading clicked on
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@itemize @w{}
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@item
single click: expose body.
@item
double click: expose subheadings.
@item
triple click: expose body and subheadings.
@item
quad click: expose entire subtree.
@end itemize
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-2} exposes text under the heading clicked on
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@itemize @w{}
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@item
single click: expose body.
@item
double click: expose subheadings.
@item
triple click: expose body and subheadings.
@item
quad click: expose entire subtree.
@end itemize
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-3} hides text under the heading clicked on or exits fold
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@itemize @w{}
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@item
single click: hide subtree.
@item
double click: exit fold and hide text.
@item
triple click: exit fold without hiding text.
@item
quad click: exit all folds and hide text.
@end itemize
@end table

@vindex foldout-mouse-modifiers
  You can specify different modifier keys (instead of
@kbd{Control-Meta-}) by setting @code{foldout-mouse-modifiers}; but if
you have already loaded the @file{foldout.el} library, you must reload
it in order for this to take effect.

  To use the Foldout package, you can type @kbd{M-x load-library
@key{RET} foldout @key{RET}}; or you can arrange for to do that
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automatically by putting this in your init file (@pxref{Init File}):
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@example
(eval-after-load "outline" '(require 'foldout))
@end example

@node TeX Mode
@section @TeX{} Mode
@cindex @TeX{} mode
@cindex La@TeX{} mode
@cindex Sli@TeX{} mode
@cindex Doc@TeX{} mode
@cindex mode, @TeX{}
@cindex mode, La@TeX{}
@cindex mode, Sli@TeX{}
@cindex mode, Doc@TeX{}
@findex tex-mode
@findex plain-tex-mode
@findex latex-mode
@findex slitex-mode
@findex doctex-mode
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@findex bibtex-mode

  Emacs provides special major modes for editing files written in
@TeX{} and its related formats.  @TeX{} is a powerful text formatter
written by Donald Knuth; like GNU Emacs, it is free software.
La@TeX{} is a simplified input format for @TeX{}, implemented using
@TeX{} macros.  Doc@TeX{} is a special file format in which the
La@TeX{} sources are written, combining sources with documentation.
Sli@TeX{} is an obsolete special form of La@TeX{}.@footnote{It has
been replaced by the @samp{slides} document class, which comes with
La@TeX{}.}
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@vindex tex-default-mode
  @TeX{} mode has four variants: Plain @TeX{} mode, La@TeX{} mode,
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Doc@TeX{} mode, and Sli@TeX{} mode.  These distinct major modes differ
only slightly, and are designed for editing the four different
formats.  Emacs selects the appropriate mode by looking at the
contents of the buffer.  (This is done by the @code{tex-mode} command,
which is normally called automatically when you visit a @TeX{}-like
file.  @xref{Choosing Modes}.)  If the contents are insufficient to
determine this, Emacs chooses the mode specified by the variable
@code{tex-default-mode}; its default value is @code{latex-mode}.  If
Emacs does not guess right, you can select the correct variant of
@TeX{} mode using the command @kbd{M-x plain-tex-mode}, @kbd{M-x
latex-mode}, @kbd{M-x slitex-mode}, or @kbd{doctex-mode}.

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  The following sections document the features of @TeX{} mode and its
variants.  There are several other @TeX{}-related Emacs packages,
which are not documented in this manual:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Bib@TeX{} mode is a major mode for Bib@TeX{} files, which are commonly
used for keeping bibliographic references for La@TeX{} documents.  For
more information, see the documentation string for the command
@code{bibtex-mode}.

@item
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The Ref@TeX{} package provides a minor mode which can be used with
La@TeX{} mode to manage bibliographic references.
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@ifinfo
@xref{Top,The Ref@TeX{} Manual,,reftex}.
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
For more information, see the Ref@TeX{} Info manual, which is
distributed with Emacs.
@end ifnotinfo

@item
The AUC@TeX{} package provides more advanced features for editing
@TeX{} and its related formats, including the ability to preview
@TeX{} equations within Emacs buffers.  Unlike Bib@TeX{} mode and the
Ref@TeX{} package, AUC@TeX{} is not distributed with Emacs by default.
It can be downloaded via the Package Menu (@pxref{Packages}); once
installed, see
@ifinfo
@ref{Top,The AUC@TeX{} Manual,,auctex}.
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
the AUC@TeX{} manual, which is included with the package.
@end ifnotinfo
@end itemize
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@menu
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* TeX Editing::   Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX Editing:: Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* TeX Print::     Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
* TeX Misc::      Customization of TeX mode, and related features.
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@end menu

@node TeX Editing
@subsection @TeX{} Editing Commands

@table @kbd
@item "
Insert, according to context, either @samp{``} or @samp{"} or
@samp{''} (@code{tex-insert-quote}).
@item C-j
Insert a paragraph break (two newlines) and check the previous
paragraph for unbalanced braces or dollar signs
(@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}).
@item M-x tex-validate-region
Check each paragraph in the region for unbalanced braces or dollar signs.
@item C-c @{
Insert @samp{@{@}} and position point between them (@code{tex-insert-braces}).
@item C-c @}
Move forward past the next unmatched close brace (@code{up-list}).
@end table

@findex tex-insert-quote
@kindex " @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
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  In @TeX{}, the character @samp{"} is not normally used; instead,
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quotations begin with @samp{``} and end with @samp{''}.  @TeX{} mode
therefore binds the @kbd{"} key to the @code{tex-insert-quote}
command.  This inserts @samp{``} after whitespace or an open brace,
@samp{"} after a backslash, and @samp{''} after any other character.
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  As a special exception, if you type @kbd{"} when the text before
point is either @samp{``} or @samp{''}, Emacs replaces that preceding
text with a single @samp{"} character.  You can therefore type
@kbd{""} to insert @samp{"}, should you ever need to do so.  (You can
also use @kbd{C-q "} to insert this character.)

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  In @TeX{} mode, @samp{$} has a special syntax code which attempts to
understand the way @TeX{} math mode delimiters match.  When you insert a
@samp{$} that is meant to exit math mode, the position of the matching
@samp{$} that entered math mode is displayed for a second.  This is the
same feature that displays the open brace that matches a close brace that
is inserted.  However, there is no way to tell whether a @samp{$} enters
math mode or leaves it; so when you insert a @samp{$} that enters math
mode, the previous @samp{$} position is shown as if it were a match, even
though they are actually unrelated.

@findex tex-insert-braces
@kindex C-c @{ @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex up-list
@kindex C-c @} @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  @TeX{} uses braces as delimiters that must match.  Some users prefer
to keep braces balanced at all times, rather than inserting them
singly.  Use @kbd{C-c @{} (@code{tex-insert-braces}) to insert a pair of
braces.  It leaves point between the two braces so you can insert the
text that belongs inside.  Afterward, use the command @kbd{C-c @}}
(@code{up-list}) to move forward past the close brace.

@findex tex-validate-region
@findex tex-terminate-paragraph
@kindex C-j @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
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  There are two commands for checking the matching of braces.
@kbd{C-j} (@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}) checks the paragraph before
point, and inserts two newlines to start a new paragraph.  It outputs
a message in the echo area if any mismatch is found.  @kbd{M-x
tex-validate-region} checks a region, paragraph by paragraph.  The
errors are listed in an @samp{*Occur*} buffer; you can use the usual
Occur mode commands in that buffer, such as @kbd{C-c C-c}, to visit a
particular mismatch (@pxref{Other Repeating Search}).
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  Note that Emacs commands count square brackets and parentheses in
@TeX{} mode, not just braces.  This is not strictly correct for the
purpose of checking @TeX{} syntax.  However, parentheses and square
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brackets are likely to be used in text as matching delimiters, and it
is useful for the various motion commands and automatic match display
to work with them.
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@node LaTeX Editing
@subsection La@TeX{} Editing Commands

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  La@TeX{} mode provides a few extra features not applicable to plain
@TeX{}:
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@table @kbd
@item C-c C-o
Insert @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} for La@TeX{} block and position
point on a line between them (@code{tex-latex-block}).
@item C-c C-e
Close the innermost La@TeX{} block not yet closed
(@code{tex-close-latex-block}).
@end table

@findex tex-latex-block
@kindex C-c C-o @r{(La@TeX{} mode)}
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  In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} tags are used to
group blocks of text.  To insert a block, type @kbd{C-c C-o}
(@code{tex-latex-block}).  This prompts for a block type, and inserts
the appropriate matching @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} tags, leaving a
blank line between the two and moving point there.
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@vindex latex-block-names
  When entering the block type argument to @kbd{C-c C-o}, you can use
the usual completion commands (@pxref{Completion}).  The default
completion list contains the standard La@TeX{} block types.  If you
want additional block types for completion, customize the list
variable @code{latex-block-names}.
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@findex tex-close-latex-block
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(La@TeX{} mode)}
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  In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} tags must balance.
You can use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{tex-close-latex-block}) to insert an
@samp{\end} tag which matches the last unmatched @samp{\begin}.  It
also indents the @samp{\end} to match the corresponding @samp{\begin},
and inserts a newline after the @samp{\end} tag if point is at the
beginning of a line.
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@node TeX Print
@subsection @TeX{} Printing Commands

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  You can invoke @TeX{} as an subprocess of Emacs, supplying either
the entire contents of the buffer or just part of it (e.g.@: one
chapter of a larger document).
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@table @kbd
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@item C-c C-b
Invoke @TeX{} on the entire current buffer (@code{tex-buffer}).
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@item C-c C-r
Invoke @TeX{} on the current region, together with the buffer's header
(@code{tex-region}).
@item C-c C-f
Invoke @TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-file}).
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@item C-c C-v
Preview the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c
C-f} command (@code{tex-view}).
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@item C-c C-p
Print the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-b}, @kbd{C-c C-r}, or
@kbd{C-c C-f} command (@code{tex-print}).

@item C-c @key{TAB}
Invoke Bib@TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-bibtex-file}).
@item C-c C-l
Recenter the window showing output from @TeX{} so that the last line
can be seen (@code{tex-recenter-output-buffer}).
@item C-c C-k
Kill the @TeX{} subprocess (@code{tex-kill-job}).
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@item C-c C-c
Invoke some other compilation command on the entire current buffer
(@code{tex-compile}).
@end table

@findex tex-buffer
@kindex C-c C-b @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex tex-view
@kindex C-c C-v @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
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@findex tex-print
@kindex C-c C-p @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  To pass the current buffer through @TeX{}, type @kbd{C-c C-b}
(@code{tex-buffer}).  The formatted output goes in a temporary file,
normally a @file{.dvi} file.  Afterwards, you can type @kbd{C-c C-v}
(@code{tex-view}) to launch an external program, such as
@command{xdvi}, to view this output file.  You can also type @kbd{C-c
C-p} (@code{tex-print}) to print a hardcopy of the output file.
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@cindex @env{TEXINPUTS} environment variable
@vindex tex-directory
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  By default, @kbd{C-c C-b} runs @TeX{} in the current directory.  The
output of @TeX{} also goes in this directory.  To run @TeX{} in a
different directory, change the variable @code{tex-directory} to the
desired directory name.  If your environment variable @env{TEXINPUTS}
contains relative directory names, or if your files contains
@samp{\input} commands with relative file names, then
@code{tex-directory} @emph{must} be @code{"."} or you will get the
wrong results.  Otherwise, it is safe to specify some other directory,
such as @code{"/tmp"}.
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@vindex tex-run-command
@vindex latex-run-command
@vindex tex-dvi-view-command
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@vindex tex-dvi-print-command
  The buffer's @TeX{} variant determines what shell command @kbd{C-c
C-b} actually runs.  In Plain @TeX{} mode, it is specified by the
variable @code{tex-run-command}, which defaults to @code{"tex"}.  In
La@TeX{} mode, it is specified by @code{latex-run-command}, which
defaults to @code{"latex"}.  The shell command that @kbd{C-c C-v} runs
to view the @file{.dvi} output is determined by the variable
@code{tex-dvi-view-command}, regardless of the @TeX{} variant.  The
shell command that @kbd{C-c C-p} runs to print the output is
determined by the variable @code{tex-dvi-print-command}.

  Normally, Emacs automatically appends the output file name to the
shell command strings described in the preceding paragraph.  For
example, if @code{tex-dvi-view-command} is @code{"xdvi"}, @kbd{C-c
C-v} runs @command{xdvi @var{output-file-name}}.  In some cases,
however, the file name needs to be embedded in the command, e.g.@: if
you need to provide the file name as an argument to one command whose
output is piped to another.  You can specify where to put the file
name with @samp{*} in the command string.  For example,
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@example
(setq tex-dvi-print-command "dvips -f * | lpr")
@end example

@findex tex-kill-job
@kindex C-c C-k @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex tex-recenter-output-buffer
@kindex C-c C-l @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
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  The terminal output from @TeX{}, including any error messages,
appears in a buffer called @samp{*tex-shell*}.  If @TeX{} gets an
error, you can switch to this buffer and feed it input (this works as
in Shell mode; @pxref{Interactive Shell}).  Without switching to this
buffer you can scroll it so that its last line is visible by typing
@kbd{C-c C-l}.
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  Type @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{tex-kill-job}) to kill the @TeX{} process if
you see that its output is no longer useful.  Using @kbd{C-c C-b} or
@kbd{C-c C-r} also kills any @TeX{} process still running.

@findex tex-region
@kindex C-c C-r @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
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  You can also pass an arbitrary region through @TeX{} by typing
@kbd{C-c C-r} (@code{tex-region}).  This is tricky, however, because
most files of @TeX{} input contain commands at the beginning to set
parameters and define macros, without which no later part of the file
will format correctly.  To solve this problem, @kbd{C-c C-r} allows
you to designate a part of the file as containing essential commands;
it is included before the specified region as part of the input to
@TeX{}.  The designated part of the file is called the @dfn{header}.
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@cindex header (@TeX{} mode)
  To indicate the bounds of the header in Plain @TeX{} mode, you insert two
special strings in the file.  Insert @samp{%**start of header} before the
header, and @samp{%**end of header} after it.  Each string must appear
entirely on one line, but there may be other text on the line before or
after.  The lines containing the two strings are included in the header.
If @samp{%**start of header} does not appear within the first 100 lines of
the buffer, @kbd{C-c C-r} assumes that there is no header.

  In La@TeX{} mode, the header begins with @samp{\documentclass} or
@samp{\documentstyle} and ends with @samp{\begin@{document@}}.  These
are commands that La@TeX{} requires you to use in any case, so nothing
special needs to be done to identify the header.

@findex tex-file
@kindex C-c C-f @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  The commands (@code{tex-buffer}) and (@code{tex-region}) do all of their
work in a temporary directory, and do not have available any of the auxiliary
files needed by @TeX{} for cross-references; these commands are generally
not suitable for running the final copy in which all of the cross-references
need to be correct.

  When you want the auxiliary files for cross references, use @kbd{C-c
C-f} (@code{tex-file}) which runs @TeX{} on the current buffer's file,
in that file's directory.  Before running @TeX{}, it offers to save any
modified buffers.  Generally, you need to use (@code{tex-file}) twice to
get the cross-references right.

@vindex tex-start-options
  The value of the variable @code{tex-start-options} specifies
options for the @TeX{} run.

@vindex tex-start-commands
  The value of the variable @code{tex-start-commands} specifies @TeX{}
commands for starting @TeX{}.  The default value causes @TeX{} to run
in nonstop mode.  To run @TeX{} interactively, set the variable to
@code{""}.

@vindex tex-main-file
  Large @TeX{} documents are often split into several files---one main
file, plus subfiles.  Running @TeX{} on a subfile typically does not
work; you have to run it on the main file.  In order to make
@code{tex-file} useful when you are editing a subfile, you can set the
variable @code{tex-main-file} to the name of the main file.  Then
@code{tex-file} runs @TeX{} on that file.

  The most convenient way to use @code{tex-main-file} is to specify it
in a local variable list in each of the subfiles.  @xref{File
Variables}.

@findex tex-bibtex-file
@kindex C-c TAB @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@vindex tex-bibtex-command
  For La@TeX{} files, you can use Bib@TeX{} to process the auxiliary
file for the current buffer's file.  Bib@TeX{} looks up bibliographic
citations in a data base and prepares the cited references for the
bibliography section.  The command @kbd{C-c @key{TAB}}
(@code{tex-bibtex-file}) runs the shell command
(@code{tex-bibtex-command}) to produce a @samp{.bbl} file for the
current buffer's file.  Generally, you need to do @kbd{C-c C-f}
(@code{tex-file}) once to generate the @samp{.aux} file, then do
@kbd{C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{tex-bibtex-file}), and then repeat @kbd{C-c C-f}
(@code{tex-file}) twice more to get the cross-references correct.

@findex tex-compile
@kindex C-c C-c @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  To invoke some other compilation program on the current @TeX{}
buffer, type @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{tex-compile}).  This command knows
how to pass arguments to many common programs, including
@file{pdflatex}, @file{yap}, @file{xdvi}, and @file{dvips}.  You can
select your desired compilation program using the standard completion
keys (@pxref{Completion}).

@node TeX Misc
@subsection @TeX{} Mode Miscellany

@vindex tex-shell-hook
@vindex tex-mode-hook
@vindex latex-mode-hook
@vindex slitex-mode-hook
@vindex plain-tex-mode-hook
  Entering any variant of @TeX{} mode runs the hooks
@code{text-mode-hook} and @code{tex-mode-hook}.  Then it runs either
@code{plain-tex-mode-hook}, @code{latex-mode-hook}, or
@code{slitex-mode-hook}, whichever is appropriate.  Starting the
@TeX{} shell runs the hook @code{tex-shell-hook}.  @xref{Hooks}.

@findex iso-iso2tex
@findex iso-tex2iso
@findex iso-iso2gtex
@findex iso-gtex2iso
@cindex Latin-1 @TeX{} encoding
@cindex @TeX{} encoding
  The commands @kbd{M-x iso-iso2tex}, @kbd{M-x iso-tex2iso}, @kbd{M-x
iso-iso2gtex} and @kbd{M-x iso-gtex2iso} can be used to convert
between Latin-1 encoded files and @TeX{}-encoded equivalents.

@node HTML Mode
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@section SGML and HTML Modes
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@cindex SGML mode
@cindex HTML mode
@cindex mode, SGML
@cindex mode, HTML
@findex sgml-mode
@findex html-mode

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  The major modes for SGML and HTML provide indentation support and
commands for operating on tags.  HTML mode is a slightly customized
variant of SGML mode.
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@table @kbd
@item C-c C-n
@kindex C-c C-n @r{(SGML mode)}
@findex sgml-name-char
Interactively specify a special character and insert the SGML
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@samp{&}-command for that character (@code{sgml-name-char}).
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@item C-c C-t
@kindex C-c C-t @r{(SGML mode)}
@findex sgml-tag
Interactively specify a tag and its attributes (@code{sgml-tag}).
This command asks you for a tag name and for the attribute values,
then inserts both the opening tag and the closing tag, leaving point
between them.

With a prefix argument @var{n}, the command puts the tag around the
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@var{n} words already present in the buffer after point.  Whenever a
region is active, it puts the tag around the region (when Transient
Mark mode is off, it does this when a numeric argument of @minus{}1 is
supplied.)
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