text.texi 120 KB
 Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 @c This is part of the Emacs manual. @c Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2001, @c 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007 Free Software Foundation, Inc. @c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions. @node Text, Programs, Indentation, Top @chapter Commands for Human Languages @cindex text @cindex manipulating text The term @dfn{text} has two widespread meanings in our area of the computer field. One is data that is a sequence of characters. Any file that you edit with Emacs is text, in this sense of the word. The other meaning is more restrictive: a sequence of characters in a human language for humans to read (possibly after processing by a text formatter), as opposed to a program or binary data. This chapter is concerned with editing text in the narrower sense. Human languages have syntactic/stylistic conventions that can be supported or used to advantage by editor commands: conventions involving words, sentences, paragraphs, and capital letters. This chapter describes Emacs commands for all of these things. There are also commands for @dfn{filling}, which means rearranging the lines of a paragraph to be approximately equal in length. The commands for moving over and killing words, sentences and paragraphs, while intended primarily for editing text, are also often useful for editing programs. Emacs has several major modes for editing human-language text. If the file contains text pure and simple, use Text mode, which customizes Emacs in small ways for the syntactic conventions of text. Outline mode provides special commands for operating on text with an outline structure. @iftex @xref{Outline Mode}. @end iftex For text which contains embedded commands for text formatters, Emacs has other major modes, each for a particular formatter. Thus, for input to @TeX{}, you would use @TeX{} @iftex mode (@pxref{TeX Mode,,@TeX{} Mode}). @end iftex @ifnottex mode. @end ifnottex For input to groff or nroff, use Nroff mode. Instead of using a text formatter, you can edit formatted text in WYSIWYG style (what you see is what you get''), with Enriched mode. Then the formatting appears on the screen in Emacs while you edit. @iftex @xref{Formatted Text}. @end iftex @cindex ASCII art If you need to edit pictures made out of text characters (commonly referred to as ASCII art''), use @kbd{M-x edit-picture} to enter Picture mode, a special major mode for editing such pictures. @iftex @xref{Picture Mode,,, emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}. @end iftex @ifnottex @xref{Picture Mode}. @end ifnottex @cindex skeletons @cindex templates @cindex autotyping @cindex automatic typing The automatic typing'' features may be useful when writing text. @inforef{Top,, autotype}. @menu * Words:: Moving over and killing words. * Sentences:: Moving over and killing sentences. * Paragraphs:: Moving over paragraphs. * Pages:: Moving over pages. * Filling:: Filling or justifying text. * Case:: Changing the case of text. * Text Mode:: The major modes for editing text files. * Outline Mode:: Editing outlines. * TeX Mode:: Editing input to the formatter TeX. * HTML Mode:: Editing HTML, SGML, and XML files. * Nroff Mode:: Editing input to the formatter nroff. * Formatted Text:: Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion. * Text Based Tables:: Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion. @end menu @node Words @section Words @cindex words @cindex Meta commands and words Emacs has commands for moving over or operating on words. By convention, the keys for them are all Meta characters. @table @kbd @item M-f Move forward over a word (@code{forward-word}). @item M-b Move backward over a word (@code{backward-word}). @item M-d Kill up to the end of a word (@code{kill-word}). @item M-@key{DEL} Kill back to the beginning of a word (@code{backward-kill-word}). @item M-@@ Mark the end of the next word (@code{mark-word}). @item M-t Transpose two words or drag a word across others (@code{transpose-words}). @end table Notice how these keys form a series that parallels the character-based @kbd{C-f}, @kbd{C-b}, @kbd{C-d}, @key{DEL} and @kbd{C-t}. @kbd{M-@@} is cognate to @kbd{C-@@}, which is an alias for @kbd{C-@key{SPC}}. @kindex M-f @kindex M-b @findex forward-word @findex backward-word The commands @kbd{M-f} (@code{forward-word}) and @kbd{M-b} (@code{backward-word}) move forward and backward over words. These Meta characters are thus analogous to the corresponding control characters, @kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-b}, which move over single characters in the text. The analogy extends to numeric arguments, which serve as repeat counts. @kbd{M-f} with a negative argument moves backward, and @kbd{M-b} with a negative argument moves forward. Forward motion stops right after the last letter of the word, while backward motion stops right before the first letter. @kindex M-d @findex kill-word @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) kills the word after point. To be precise, it kills everything from point to the place @kbd{M-f} would move to. Thus, if point is in the middle of a word, @kbd{M-d} kills just the part after point. If some punctuation comes between point and the next word, it is killed along with the word. (If you wish to kill only the next word but not the punctuation before it, simply do @kbd{M-f} to get the end, and kill the word backwards with @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.) @kbd{M-d} takes arguments just like @kbd{M-f}. @findex backward-kill-word @kindex M-DEL @kbd{M-@key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-word}) kills the word before point. It kills everything from point back to where @kbd{M-b} would move to. For instance, if point is after the space in @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}}, it kills @w{@samp{FOO, }}. If you wish to kill just @samp{FOO}, and not the comma and the space, use @kbd{M-b M-d} instead of @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}. @c Don't index M-t and transpose-words here, they are indexed in @c fixit.texi, in the node "Transpose". @c @kindex M-t @c @findex transpose-words @kbd{M-t} (@code{transpose-words}) exchanges the word before or containing point with the following word. The delimiter characters between the words do not move. For example, @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}} transposes into @w{@samp{BAR, FOO}} rather than @samp{@w{BAR FOO,}}. @xref{Transpose}, for more on transposition. @kindex M-@@ @findex mark-word To operate on the next @var{n} words with an operation which applies between point and mark, you can either set the mark at point and then move over the words, or you can use the command @kbd{M-@@} (@code{mark-word}) which does not move point, but sets the mark where @kbd{M-f} would move to. @kbd{M-@@} accepts a numeric argument that says how many words to scan for the place to put the mark. In Transient Mark mode, this command activates the mark. The word commands' understanding of word boundaries is controlled by the syntax table. Any character can, for example, be declared to be a word delimiter. @xref{Syntax}. @node Sentences @section Sentences @cindex sentences @cindex manipulating sentences The Emacs commands for manipulating sentences and paragraphs are mostly on Meta keys, so as to be like the word-handling commands. @table @kbd @item M-a Move back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-sentence}). @item M-e Move forward to the end of the sentence (@code{forward-sentence}). @item M-k Kill forward to the end of the sentence (@code{kill-sentence}). @item C-x @key{DEL} Kill back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-kill-sentence}). @end table @kindex M-a @kindex M-e @findex backward-sentence @findex forward-sentence The commands @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} (@code{backward-sentence} and @code{forward-sentence}) move to the beginning and end of the current sentence, respectively. They were chosen to resemble @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e}, which move to the beginning and end of a line. Unlike them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} move over successive sentences if repeated. Moving backward over a sentence places point just before the first character of the sentence; moving forward places point right after the punctuation that ends the sentence. Neither one moves over the whitespace at the sentence boundary. @kindex M-k @kindex C-x DEL @findex kill-sentence @findex backward-kill-sentence Just as @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} have a kill command, @kbd{C-k}, to go with them, so @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} have a corresponding kill command @kbd{M-k} (@code{kill-sentence}) which kills from point to the end of the sentence. With minus one as an argument it kills back to the beginning of the sentence. Larger arguments serve as a repeat count. There is also a command, @kbd{C-x @key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-sentence}), for killing back to the beginning of a sentence. This command is useful when you change your mind in the middle of composing text. The sentence commands assume that you follow the American typist's convention of putting two spaces at the end of a sentence; they consider a sentence to end wherever there is a @samp{.}, @samp{?} or @samp{!} followed by the end of a line or two spaces, with any number of @samp{)}, @samp{]}, @samp{'}, or @samp{"} characters allowed in between. A sentence also begins or ends wherever a paragraph begins or ends. It is useful to follow this convention, because it makes a distinction between periods that end a sentence and periods that indicate abbreviations; that enables the Emacs sentence commands to distinguish, too. These commands do not stop for periods that indicate abbreviations. @vindex sentence-end-double-space If you want to use just one space between sentences, you can set the variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} to @code{nil} to make the sentence commands stop for single spaces. However, this mode has a drawback: there is no way to distinguish between periods that end sentences and those that indicate abbreviations. For convenient and reliable editing, we therefore recommend you follow the two-space convention. The variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} also affects filling (@pxref{Fill Commands}) in related ways. @vindex sentence-end The variable @code{sentence-end} controls how to recognize the end of a sentence. If non-@code{nil}, it is a regexp that matches the last few characters of a sentence, together with the whitespace following the sentence. If the value is @code{nil}, the default, then Emacs computes the regexp according to various criteria such as the value of @code{sentence-end-double-space}. @xref{Regexp Example}, for a detailed explanation of one of the regular expressions Emacs uses for this purpose. @vindex sentence-end-without-period Some languages do not use periods to indicate the end of a sentence. For example, sentences in Thai end with a double space but without a period. Set the variable @code{sentence-end-without-period} to @code{t} in such cases. @node Paragraphs @section Paragraphs @cindex paragraphs @cindex manipulating paragraphs @kindex M-@{ @kindex M-@} @findex backward-paragraph @findex forward-paragraph The Emacs commands for manipulating paragraphs are also on Meta keys. @table @kbd @item M-@{ Move back to previous paragraph beginning (@code{backward-paragraph}). @item M-@} Move forward to next paragraph end (@code{forward-paragraph}). @item M-h Put point and mark around this or next paragraph (@code{mark-paragraph}). @end table @kbd{M-@{} moves to the beginning of the current or previous paragraph, while @kbd{M-@}} moves to the end of the current or next paragraph. Blank lines and text-formatter command lines separate paragraphs and are not considered part of any paragraph. If there is a blank line before the paragraph, @kbd{M-@{} moves to the blank line, because that is convenient in practice. In Text mode, an indented line is not a paragraph break. If you want indented lines to have this effect, use Paragraph-Indent Text mode instead. @xref{Text Mode}. In major modes for programs, paragraphs begin and end only at blank lines. This makes the paragraph commands useful, even though there are no paragraphs as such in a program. When you have set a fill prefix, then paragraphs are delimited by all lines which don't start with the fill prefix. @xref{Filling}. @kindex M-h @findex mark-paragraph When you wish to operate on a paragraph, you can use the command @kbd{M-h} (@code{mark-paragraph}) to set the region around it. Thus, for example, @kbd{M-h C-w} kills the paragraph around or after point. The @kbd{M-h} command puts point at the beginning and mark at the end of the paragraph point was in. In Transient Mark mode, it activates the mark. If point is between paragraphs (in a run of blank lines, or at a boundary), the paragraph following point is surrounded by point and mark. If there are blank lines preceding the first line of the paragraph, one of these blank lines is included in the region. @vindex paragraph-start @vindex paragraph-separate The precise definition of a paragraph boundary is controlled by the variables @code{paragraph-separate} and @code{paragraph-start}. The value of @code{paragraph-start} is a regexp that should match any line that either starts or separates paragraphs. The value of @code{paragraph-separate} is another regexp that should match only lines that separate paragraphs without being part of any paragraph (for example, blank lines). Lines that start a new paragraph and are contained in it must match only @code{paragraph-start}, not @code{paragraph-separate}. Each regular expression must match at the left margin. For example, in Fundamental mode, @code{paragraph-start} is @w{@code{"\f\\|[ \t]*$"}}, and @code{paragraph-separate} is @w{@code{"[ \t\f]*$"}}. Normally it is desirable for page boundaries to separate paragraphs. The default values of these variables recognize the usual separator for pages. @node Pages @section Pages @cindex pages @cindex formfeed Files are often thought of as divided into @dfn{pages} by the @dfn{formfeed} character (@acronym{ASCII} control-L, octal code 014). When you print hardcopy for a file, this character forces a page break; thus, each page of the file goes on a separate page on paper. Most Emacs commands treat the page-separator character just like any other character: you can insert it with @kbd{C-q C-l}, and delete it with @key{DEL}. Thus, you are free to paginate your file or not. However, since pages are often meaningful divisions of the file, Emacs provides commands to move over them and operate on them. @table @kbd @item C-x [ Move point to previous page boundary (@code{backward-page}). @item C-x ] Move point to next page boundary (@code{forward-page}). @item C-x C-p Put point and mark around this page (or another page) (@code{mark-page}). @item C-x l Count the lines in this page (@code{count-lines-page}). @end table @kindex C-x [ @kindex C-x ] @findex forward-page @findex backward-page The @kbd{C-x [} (@code{backward-page}) command moves point to immediately after the previous page delimiter. If point is already right after a page delimiter, it skips that one and stops at the previous one. A numeric argument serves as a repeat count. The @kbd{C-x ]} (@code{forward-page}) command moves forward past the next page delimiter. @kindex C-x C-p @findex mark-page The @kbd{C-x C-p} command (@code{mark-page}) puts point at the beginning of the current page and the mark at the end. The page delimiter at the end is included (the mark follows it). The page delimiter at the front is excluded (point follows it). In Transient Mark mode, this command activates the mark. @kbd{C-x C-p C-w} is a handy way to kill a page to move it elsewhere. If you move to another page delimiter with @kbd{C-x [} and @kbd{C-x ]}, then yank the killed page, all the pages will be properly delimited once again. The reason @kbd{C-x C-p} includes only the following page delimiter in the region is to ensure that. A numeric argument to @kbd{C-x C-p} is used to specify which page to go to, relative to the current one. Zero means the current page. One means the next page, and @minus{}1 means the previous one. @kindex C-x l @findex count-lines-page The @kbd{C-x l} command (@code{count-lines-page}) is good for deciding where to break a page in two. It displays in the echo area the total number of lines in the current page, and then divides it up into those preceding the current line and those following, as in @example Page has 96 (72+25) lines @end example @noindent Notice that the sum is off by one; this is correct if point is not at the beginning of a line. @vindex page-delimiter The variable @code{page-delimiter} controls where pages begin. Its value is a regexp that matches the beginning of a line that separates pages. The normal value of this variable is @code{"^\f"}, which matches a formfeed character at the beginning of a line. @node Filling @section Filling Text @cindex filling text @dfn{Filling} text means breaking it up into lines that fit a specified width. Emacs does filling in two ways. In Auto Fill mode, inserting text with self-inserting characters also automatically fills it. There are also explicit fill commands that you can use when editing text leaves it unfilled. When you edit formatted text, you can specify a style of filling for each portion of the text (@pxref{Formatted Text}). @menu * Auto Fill:: Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically. * Fill Commands:: Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines. * Fill Prefix:: Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc. * Adaptive Fill:: How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically. * Refill:: Keeping paragraphs filled. * Longlines:: Editing text with very long lines. @end menu @node Auto Fill @subsection Auto Fill Mode @cindex Auto Fill mode @cindex mode, Auto Fill @dfn{Auto Fill} mode is a minor mode in which lines are broken automatically when they become too wide. Breaking happens only when you type a @key{SPC} or @key{RET}. @table @kbd @item M-x auto-fill-mode Enable or disable Auto Fill mode. @item @key{SPC} @itemx @key{RET} In Auto Fill mode, break lines when appropriate. @end table @findex auto-fill-mode @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} turns Auto Fill mode on if it was off, or off if it was on. With a positive numeric argument it always turns Auto Fill mode on, and with a negative argument always turns it off. You can see when Auto Fill mode is in effect by the presence of the word @samp{Fill} in the mode line, inside the parentheses. Auto Fill mode is a minor mode which is enabled or disabled for each buffer individually. @xref{Minor Modes}. In Auto Fill mode, lines are broken automatically at spaces when they get longer than the desired width. Line breaking and rearrangement takes place only when you type @key{SPC} or @key{RET}. If you wish to insert a space or newline without permitting line-breaking, type @kbd{C-q @key{SPC}} or @kbd{C-q C-j} (recall that a newline is really a control-J). Also, @kbd{C-o} inserts a newline without line breaking. Auto Fill mode works well with programming-language modes, because it indents new lines with @key{TAB}. If a line ending in a comment gets too long, the text of the comment is split into two comment lines. Optionally, new comment delimiters are inserted at the end of the first line and the beginning of the second so that each line is a separate comment; the variable @code{comment-multi-line} controls the choice (@pxref{Comments}). Adaptive filling (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}) works for Auto Filling as well as for explicit fill commands. It takes a fill prefix automatically from the second or first line of a paragraph. Auto Fill mode does not refill entire paragraphs; it can break lines but cannot merge lines. So editing in the middle of a paragraph can result in a paragraph that is not correctly filled. The easiest way to make the paragraph properly filled again is usually with the explicit fill commands. @ifnottex @xref{Fill Commands}. @end ifnottex Many users like Auto Fill mode and want to use it in all text files. The section on init files says how to arrange this permanently for yourself. @xref{Init File}. @node Fill Commands @subsection Explicit Fill Commands @table @kbd @item M-q  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 489 Fill current paragraph or active region (@code{fill-paragraph-or-region}).  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 490 491 @item C-x f Set the fill column (@code{set-fill-column}).  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 492 493 @item M-x fill-paragraph Fill current paragraph (@code{fill-paragraph}).  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 @item M-x fill-region Fill each paragraph in the region (@code{fill-region}). @item M-x fill-region-as-paragraph Fill the region, considering it as one paragraph. @item M-s Center a line. @end table @findex fill-paragraph  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 503 504 505 506  To refill a paragraph, use @kbd{M-x fill-paragraph}. This operates on the paragraph that point is inside, or the one after point if point is between paragraphs. Refilling works by removing all the line-breaks, then inserting new ones where necessary.  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 507 508 509 510 511  @findex fill-region To refill many paragraphs, use @kbd{M-x fill-region}, which finds the paragraphs in the region and fills each of them.  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 @kindex M-q @findex fill-paragraph-or-region The command @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph-or-region}), operates on the active region like @code{fill-region} when the mark is active in Transient Mark mode. Otherwise, it operates on the current paragraph like @code{fill-paragraph}.  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 519 @findex fill-region-as-paragraph  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 520 521 522 523 524 525  @kbd{M-q}, @code{fill-paragraph} and @code{fill-region} use the same criteria as @kbd{M-h} for finding paragraph boundaries (@pxref{Paragraphs}). For more control, you can use @kbd{M-x fill-region-as-paragraph}, which refills everything between point and mark as a single paragraph. This command deletes any blank lines within the region, so separate blocks of text end up combined into one block.  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 526 527 528 529 530 531  @cindex justification A numeric argument to @kbd{M-q} tells it to @dfn{justify} the text as well as filling it. This means that extra spaces are inserted to make the right margin line up exactly at the fill column. To remove the extra spaces, use @kbd{M-q} with no argument. (Likewise for  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 532 533 534 @code{fill-paragraph} and @code{fill-region}.) Another way to control justification, and choose other styles of filling, is with the @code{justification} text property; see @ref{Format Justification}.  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564 565 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597  @kindex M-s @r{(Text mode)} @cindex centering @findex center-line The command @kbd{M-s} (@code{center-line}) centers the current line within the current fill column. With an argument @var{n}, it centers @var{n} lines individually and moves past them. This binding is made by Text mode and is available only in that and related modes (@pxref{Text Mode}). @vindex fill-column @kindex C-x f @findex set-fill-column The maximum line width for filling is in the variable @code{fill-column}. Altering the value of @code{fill-column} makes it local to the current buffer; until that time, the default value is in effect. The default is initially 70. @xref{Locals}. The easiest way to set @code{fill-column} is to use the command @kbd{C-x f} (@code{set-fill-column}). With a numeric argument, it uses that as the new fill column. With just @kbd{C-u} as argument, it sets @code{fill-column} to the current horizontal position of point. Emacs commands normally consider a period followed by two spaces or by a newline as the end of a sentence; a period followed by just one space indicates an abbreviation and not the end of a sentence. To preserve the distinction between these two ways of using a period, the fill commands do not break a line after a period followed by just one space. If the variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} is @code{nil}, the fill commands expect and leave just one space at the end of a sentence. Ordinarily this variable is @code{t}, so the fill commands insist on two spaces for the end of a sentence, as explained above. @xref{Sentences}. @vindex colon-double-space If the variable @code{colon-double-space} is non-@code{nil}, the fill commands put two spaces after a colon. @vindex fill-nobreak-predicate The variable @code{fill-nobreak-predicate} is a hook (an abnormal hook, @pxref{Hooks}) specifying additional conditions where line-breaking is not allowed. Each function is called with no arguments, with point at a place where Emacs is considering breaking the line. If a function returns a non-@code{nil} value, then that's a bad place to break the line. Two standard functions you can use are @code{fill-single-word-nobreak-p} (don't break after the first word of a sentence or before the last) and @code{fill-french-nobreak-p} (don't break after @samp{(} or before @samp{)}, @samp{:} or @samp{?}). @node Fill Prefix @subsection The Fill Prefix @cindex fill prefix To fill a paragraph in which each line starts with a special marker (which might be a few spaces, giving an indented paragraph), you can use the @dfn{fill prefix} feature. The fill prefix is a string that Emacs expects every line to start with, and which is not included in filling. You can specify a fill prefix explicitly; Emacs can also deduce the fill prefix automatically (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}). @table @kbd @item C-x . Set the fill prefix (@code{set-fill-prefix}). @item M-q  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 598 Fill a paragraph using current fill prefix (@code{fill-paragraph-or-region}).  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2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148 2149 2150 2151 2152 2153 2154 2155 2156 2157 2158 2159 2160 2161 2162 2163 2164 2165 2166 2167 2168 2169 2170 2171 2172 2173 2174 2175 2176 2177 2178 2179 2180 2181 2182 2183 2184 2185 2186 2187 2188 2189 2190 2191 2192 2193 2194 2195 2196 2197 2198 2199 2200 2201 2202 2203 2204 2205 2206 2207 2208 2209 2210 2211 2212 2213 2214 2215 2216 2217 2218 2219 2220 2221 2222 2223 2224 2225 2226 2227 2228 2229 2230 2231 2232 2233 2234 2235 2236 2237 2238 2239 2240 2241 2242 2243 2244 2245 2246 2247 2248 2249 2250 2251 2252 2253 2254 2255 2256 2257 2258 @item M-x fill-individual-paragraphs Fill the region, considering each change of indentation as starting a new paragraph. @item M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs Fill the region, considering only paragraph-separator lines as starting a new paragraph. @end table @kindex C-x . @findex set-fill-prefix To specify a fill prefix for the current buffer, move to a line that starts with the desired prefix, put point at the end of the prefix, and type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: (@code{set-fill-prefix}). (That's a period after the @kbd{C-x}.) To turn off the fill prefix, specify an empty prefix: type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: with point at the beginning of a line. When a fill prefix is in effect, the fill commands remove the fill prefix from each line of the paragraph before filling and insert it on each line after filling. (The beginning of the first line of the paragraph is left unchanged, since often that is intentionally different.) Auto Fill mode also inserts the fill prefix automatically when it makes a new line. The @kbd{C-o} command inserts the fill prefix on new lines it creates, when you use it at the beginning of a line (@pxref{Blank Lines}). Conversely, the command @kbd{M-^} deletes the prefix (if it occurs) after the newline that it deletes (@pxref{Indentation}). For example, if @code{fill-column} is 40 and you set the fill prefix to @samp{;; }, then @kbd{M-q} in the following text @example ;; This is an ;; example of a paragraph ;; inside a Lisp-style comment. @end example @noindent produces this: @example ;; This is an example of a paragraph ;; inside a Lisp-style comment. @end example Lines that do not start with the fill prefix are considered to start paragraphs, both in @kbd{M-q} and the paragraph commands; this gives good results for paragraphs with hanging indentation (every line indented except the first one). Lines which are blank or indented once the prefix is removed also separate or start paragraphs; this is what you want if you are writing multi-paragraph comments with a comment delimiter on each line. @findex fill-individual-paragraphs You can use @kbd{M-x fill-individual-paragraphs} to set the fill prefix for each paragraph automatically. This command divides the region into paragraphs, treating every change in the amount of indentation as the start of a new paragraph, and fills each of these paragraphs. Thus, all the lines in one paragraph'' have the same amount of indentation. That indentation serves as the fill prefix for that paragraph. @findex fill-nonuniform-paragraphs @kbd{M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs} is a similar command that divides the region into paragraphs in a different way. It considers only paragraph-separating lines (as defined by @code{paragraph-separate}) as starting a new paragraph. Since this means that the lines of one paragraph may have different amounts of indentation, the fill prefix used is the smallest amount of indentation of any of the lines of the paragraph. This gives good results with styles that indent a paragraph's first line more or less that the rest of the paragraph. @vindex fill-prefix The fill prefix is stored in the variable @code{fill-prefix}. Its value is a string, or @code{nil} when there is no fill prefix. This is a per-buffer variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer, but there is a default value which you can change as well. @xref{Locals}. The @code{indentation} text property provides another way to control the amount of indentation paragraphs receive. @xref{Format Indentation}. @node Adaptive Fill @subsection Adaptive Filling @cindex adaptive filling The fill commands can deduce the proper fill prefix for a paragraph automatically in certain cases: either whitespace or certain punctuation characters at the beginning of a line are propagated to all lines of the paragraph. If the paragraph has two or more lines, the fill prefix is taken from the paragraph's second line, but only if it appears on the first line as well. If a paragraph has just one line, fill commands @emph{may} take a prefix from that line. The decision is complicated because there are three reasonable things to do in such a case: @itemize @bullet @item Use the first line's prefix on all the lines of the paragraph. @item Indent subsequent lines with whitespace, so that they line up under the text that follows the prefix on the first line, but don't actually copy the prefix from the first line. @item Don't do anything special with the second and following lines. @end itemize All three of these styles of formatting are commonly used. So the fill commands try to determine what you would like, based on the prefix that appears and on the major mode. Here is how. @vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp If the prefix found on the first line matches @code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}, or if it appears to be a comment-starting sequence (this depends on the major mode), then the prefix found is used for filling the paragraph, provided it would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines. Otherwise, the prefix found is converted to an equivalent number of spaces, and those spaces are used as the fill prefix for the rest of the lines, provided they would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines. In Text mode, and other modes where only blank lines and page delimiters separate paragraphs, the prefix chosen by adaptive filling never acts as a paragraph starter, so it can always be used for filling. @vindex adaptive-fill-mode @vindex adaptive-fill-regexp The variable @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} determines what kinds of line beginnings can serve as a fill prefix: any characters at the start of the line that match this regular expression are used. If you set the variable @code{adaptive-fill-mode} to @code{nil}, the fill prefix is never chosen automatically. @vindex adaptive-fill-function You can specify more complex ways of choosing a fill prefix automatically by setting the variable @code{adaptive-fill-function} to a function. This function is called with point after the left margin of a line, and it should return the appropriate fill prefix based on that line. If it returns @code{nil}, @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} gets a chance to find a prefix. @node Refill @subsection Refill Mode @cindex refilling text, word processor style @cindex modes, Refill @cindex Refill minor mode Refill minor mode provides support for keeping paragraphs filled as you type or modify them in other ways. It provides an effect similar to typical word processor behavior. This works by running a paragraph-filling command at suitable times. To toggle the use of Refill mode in the current buffer, type @kbd{M-x refill-mode}. When you are typing text, only characters which normally trigger auto filling, like the space character, will trigger refilling. This is to avoid making it too slow. Apart from self-inserting characters, other commands which modify the text cause refilling. The current implementation is preliminary and not robust. You can get better line wrapping'' behavior using Longlines mode. @xref{Longlines}. However, Longlines mode has an important side-effect: the newlines that it inserts for you are not saved to disk, so the files that you make with Longlines mode will appear to be completely unfilled if you edit them without Longlines mode. @node Longlines @subsection Long Lines Mode @cindex refilling text, word processor style @cindex modes, Long Lines @cindex word wrap @cindex Long Lines minor mode Long Lines mode is a minor mode for @dfn{word wrapping}; it lets you edit unfilled'' text files, which Emacs would normally display as a bunch of extremely long lines. Many text editors, such as those built into many web browsers, normally do word wrapping. @findex longlines-mode To enable Long Lines mode, type @kbd{M-x longlines-mode}. If the text is full of long lines, this will wrap'' them immediately---i.e., break up to fit in the window. As you edit the text, Long Lines mode automatically re-wraps lines by inserting or deleting @dfn{soft newlines} as necessary (@pxref{Hard and Soft Newlines}.) These soft newlines won't show up when you save the buffer into a file, or when you copy the text into the kill ring, clipboard, or a register. @findex longlines-auto-wrap Word wrapping is @emph{not} the same as ordinary filling (@pxref{Fill Commands}). It does not contract multiple spaces into a single space, recognize fill prefixes (@pxref{Fill Prefix}), or perform adaptive filling (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}). The reason for this is that a wrapped line is still, conceptually, a single line. Each soft newline is equivalent to exactly one space in that long line, and vice versa. However, you can still call filling functions such as @kbd{M-q}, and these will work as expected, inserting soft newlines that won't show up on disk or when the text is copied. You can even rely entirely on the normal fill commands by turning off automatic line wrapping, with @kbd{C-u M-x longlines-auto-wrap}. To turn automatic line wrapping back on, type @kbd{M-x longlines-auto-wrap}. @findex longlines-show-hard-newlines Type @kbd{RET} to insert a hard newline, one which automatic refilling will not remove. If you want to see where all the hard newlines are, type @kbd{M-x longlines-show-hard-newlines}. This will mark each hard newline with a special symbol. The same command with a prefix argument turns this display off. Long Lines mode does not change normal text files that are already filled, since the existing newlines are considered hard newlines. Before Long Lines can do anything, you need to transform each paragraph into a long line. One way is to set @code{fill-column} to a large number (e.g., @kbd{C-u 9999 C-x f}), re-fill all the paragraphs, and then set @code{fill-column} back to its original value. @node Case @section Case Conversion Commands @cindex case conversion Emacs has commands for converting either a single word or any arbitrary range of text to upper case or to lower case. @table @kbd @item M-l Convert following word to lower case (@code{downcase-word}). @item M-u Convert following word to upper case (@code{upcase-word}). @item M-c Capitalize the following word (@code{capitalize-word}). @item C-x C-l Convert region to lower case (@code{downcase-region}). @item C-x C-u Convert region to upper case (@code{upcase-region}). @end table @kindex M-l @kindex M-u @kindex M-c @cindex words, case conversion @cindex converting text to upper or lower case @cindex capitalizing words @findex downcase-word @findex upcase-word @findex capitalize-word The word conversion commands are the most useful. @kbd{M-l} (@code{downcase-word}) converts the word after point to lower case, moving past it. Thus, repeating @kbd{M-l} converts successive words. @kbd{M-u} (@code{upcase-word}) converts to all capitals instead, while @kbd{M-c} (@code{capitalize-word}) puts the first letter of the word into upper case and the rest into lower case. All these commands convert several words at once if given an argument. They are especially convenient for converting a large amount of text from all upper case to mixed case, because you can move through the text using @kbd{M-l}, @kbd{M-u} or @kbd{M-c} on each word as appropriate, occasionally using @kbd{M-f} instead to skip a word. When given a negative argument, the word case conversion commands apply to the appropriate number of words before point, but do not move point. This is convenient when you have just typed a word in the wrong case: you can give the case conversion command and continue typing. If a word case conversion command is given in the middle of a word, it applies only to the part of the word which follows point. (This is comparable to what @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) does.) With a negative argument, case conversion applies only to the part of the word before point. @kindex C-x C-l @kindex C-x C-u @findex downcase-region @findex upcase-region The other case conversion commands are @kbd{C-x C-u} (@code{upcase-region}) and @kbd{C-x C-l} (@code{downcase-region}), which convert everything between point and mark to the specified case. Point and mark do not move. The region case conversion commands @code{upcase-region} and @code{downcase-region} are normally disabled. This means that they ask for confirmation if you try to use them. When you confirm, you may enable the command, which means it will not ask for confirmation again. @xref{Disabling}. @node Text Mode @section Text Mode @cindex Text mode @cindex mode, Text @findex text-mode When you edit files of text in a human language, it's more convenient to use Text mode rather than Fundamental mode. To enter Text mode, type @kbd{M-x text-mode}. In Text mode, only blank lines and page delimiters separate paragraphs. As a result, paragraphs can be indented, and adaptive filling determines what indentation to use when filling a paragraph. @xref{Adaptive Fill}. @kindex TAB @r{(Text mode)} Text mode defines @key{TAB} to run @code{indent-relative} (@pxref{Indentation}), so that you can conveniently indent a line like the previous line. Text mode turns off the features concerned with comments except when you explicitly invoke them. It changes the syntax table so that single-quotes are considered part of words. However, if a word starts with single-quotes, these are treated as a prefix for purposes such as capitalization. That is, @kbd{M-c} will convert @samp{'hello'} into @samp{'Hello'}, as expected. @cindex Paragraph-Indent Text mode @cindex mode, Paragraph-Indent Text @findex paragraph-indent-text-mode @findex paragraph-indent-minor-mode If you indent the first lines of paragraphs, then you should use Paragraph-Indent Text mode rather than Text mode. In this mode, you do not need to have blank lines between paragraphs, because the first-line indentation is sufficient to start a paragraph; however paragraphs in which every line is indented are not supported. Use @kbd{M-x paragraph-indent-text-mode} to enter this mode. Use @kbd{M-x paragraph-indent-minor-mode} to enable an equivalent minor mode in situations where you can't change the major mode---in mail composition, for instance. @kindex M-TAB @r{(Text mode)} Text mode, and all the modes based on it, define @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} as the command @code{ispell-complete-word}, which performs completion of the partial word in the buffer before point, using the spelling dictionary as the space of possible words. @xref{Spelling}. If your window manager defines @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows, you can type @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} or @kbd{C-M-i}. @vindex text-mode-hook Entering Text mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook}. Other major modes related to Text mode also run this hook, followed by hooks of their own; this includes Paragraph-Indent Text mode, Nroff mode, @TeX{} mode, Outline mode, and Mail mode. Hook functions on @code{text-mode-hook} can look at the value of @code{major-mode} to see which of these modes is actually being entered. @xref{Hooks}. @ifnottex Emacs provides two other modes for editing text that is to be passed through a text formatter to produce fancy formatted printed output. @xref{Nroff Mode}, for editing input to the formatter nroff. @xref{TeX Mode,,@TeX{} Mode}, for editing input to the formatter TeX. Another mode is used for editing outlines. It allows you to view the text at various levels of detail. You can view either the outline headings alone or both headings and text; you can also hide some of the headings at lower levels from view to make the high level structure more visible. @xref{Outline Mode}. @end ifnottex @node Outline Mode @section Outline Mode @cindex Outline mode @cindex mode, Outline @cindex invisible lines @findex outline-mode @findex outline-minor-mode @vindex outline-minor-mode-prefix Outline mode is a major mode much like Text mode but intended for editing outlines. It allows you to make parts of the text temporarily invisible so that you can see the outline structure. Type @kbd{M-x outline-mode} to switch to Outline mode as the major mode of the current buffer. When Outline mode makes a line invisible, the line does not appear on the screen. The screen appears exactly as if the invisible line were deleted, except that an ellipsis (three periods in a row) appears at the end of the previous visible line. (Multiple consecutive invisible lines produce just one ellipsis.) Editing commands that operate on lines, such as @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}, treat the text of the invisible line as part of the previous visible line. Killing the ellipsis at the end of a visible line really kills all the following invisible lines. Outline minor mode provides the same commands as the major mode, Outline mode, but you can use it in conjunction with other major modes. Type @kbd{M-x outline-minor-mode} to enable the Outline minor mode in the current buffer. You can also specify this in the text of a file, with a file local variable of the form @samp{mode: outline-minor} (@pxref{File Variables}). @kindex C-c @@ @r{(Outline minor mode)} The major mode, Outline mode, provides special key bindings on the @kbd{C-c} prefix. Outline minor mode provides similar bindings with @kbd{C-c @@} as the prefix; this is to reduce the conflicts with the major mode's special commands. (The variable @code{outline-minor-mode-prefix} controls the prefix used.) @vindex outline-mode-hook Entering Outline mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook} followed by the hook @code{outline-mode-hook} (@pxref{Hooks}). @menu * Format: Outline Format. What the text of an outline looks like. * Motion: Outline Motion. Special commands for moving through outlines. * Visibility: Outline Visibility. Commands to control what is visible. * Views: Outline Views. Outlines and multiple views. * Foldout:: Folding means zooming in on outlines. @end menu @node Outline Format @subsection Format of Outlines @cindex heading lines (Outline mode) @cindex body lines (Outline mode) Outline mode assumes that the lines in the buffer are of two types: @dfn{heading lines} and @dfn{body lines}. A heading line represents a topic in the outline. Heading lines start with one or more stars; the number of stars determines the depth of the heading in the outline structure. Thus, a heading line with one star is a major topic; all the heading lines with two stars between it and the next one-star heading are its subtopics; and so on. Any line that is not a heading line is a body line. Body lines belong with the preceding heading line. Here is an example: @example * Food This is the body, which says something about the topic of food. ** Delicious Food This is the body of the second-level header. ** Distasteful Food This could have a body too, with several lines. *** Dormitory Food * Shelter Another first-level topic with its header line. @end example A heading line together with all following body lines is called collectively an @dfn{entry}. A heading line together with all following deeper heading lines and their body lines is called a @dfn{subtree}. @vindex outline-regexp You can customize the criterion for distinguishing heading lines by setting the variable @code{outline-regexp}. (The recommended ways to do this are in a major mode function or with a file local variable.) Any line whose beginning has a match for this regexp is considered a heading line. Matches that start within a line (not at the left margin) do not count. The length of the matching text determines the level of the heading; longer matches make a more deeply nested level. Thus, for example, if a text formatter has commands @samp{@@chapter}, @samp{@@section} and @samp{@@subsection} to divide the document into chapters and sections, you could make those lines count as heading lines by setting @code{outline-regexp} to @samp{"@@chap\\|@@\$$sub\$$*section"}. Note the trick: the two words @samp{chapter} and @samp{section} are equally long, but by defining the regexp to match only @samp{chap} we ensure that the length of the text matched on a chapter heading is shorter, so that Outline mode will know that sections are contained in chapters. This works as long as no other command starts with @samp{@@chap}. @vindex outline-level You can explicitly specify a rule for calculating the level of a heading line by setting the variable @code{outline-level}. The value of @code{outline-level} should be a function that takes no arguments and returns the level of the current heading. The recommended ways to set this variable are in a major mode command or with a file local variable. @node Outline Motion @subsection Outline Motion Commands Outline mode provides special motion commands that move backward and forward to heading lines. @table @kbd @item C-c C-n Move point to the next visible heading line (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}). @item C-c C-p Move point to the previous visible heading line (@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}). @item C-c C-f Move point to the next visible heading line at the same level as the one point is on (@code{outline-forward-same-level}). @item C-c C-b Move point to the previous visible heading line at the same level (@code{outline-backward-same-level}). @item C-c C-u Move point up to a lower-level (more inclusive) visible heading line (@code{outline-up-heading}). @end table @findex outline-next-visible-heading @findex outline-previous-visible-heading @kindex C-c C-n @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-p @r{(Outline mode)} @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}) moves down to the next heading line. @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}) moves similarly backward. Both accept numeric arguments as repeat counts. The names emphasize that invisible headings are skipped, but this is not really a special feature. All editing commands that look for lines ignore the invisible lines automatically. @findex outline-up-heading @findex outline-forward-same-level @findex outline-backward-same-level @kindex C-c C-f @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-b @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-u @r{(Outline mode)} More powerful motion commands understand the level structure of headings. @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{outline-forward-same-level}) and @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{outline-backward-same-level}) move from one heading line to another visible heading at the same depth in the outline. @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{outline-up-heading}) moves backward to another heading that is less deeply nested. @node Outline Visibility @subsection Outline Visibility Commands The other special commands of outline mode are used to make lines visible or invisible. Their names all start with @code{hide} or @code{show}. Most of them fall into pairs of opposites. They are not undoable; instead, you can undo right past them. Making lines visible or invisible is simply not recorded by the undo mechanism. Many of these commands act on the current'' heading line. If point is on a heading line, that is the current heading line; if point is on a body line, the current heading line is the nearest preceding header line. @table @kbd @item C-c C-c Make the current heading line's body invisible (@code{hide-entry}). @item C-c C-e Make the current heading line's body visible (@code{show-entry}). @item C-c C-d Make everything under the current heading invisible, not including the heading itself (@code{hide-subtree}). @item C-c C-s Make everything under the current heading visible, including body, subheadings, and their bodies (@code{show-subtree}). @item C-c C-l Make the body of the current heading line, and of all its subheadings, invisible (@code{hide-leaves}). @item C-c C-k Make all subheadings of the current heading line, at all levels, visible (@code{show-branches}). @item C-c C-i Make immediate subheadings (one level down) of the current heading line visible (@code{show-children}). @item C-c C-t Make all body lines in the buffer invisible (@code{hide-body}). @item C-c C-a Make all lines in the buffer visible (@code{show-all}). @item C-c C-q Hide everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines (@code{hide-sublevels}). @item C-c C-o Hide everything except for the heading or body that point is in, plus the headings leading up from there to the top level of the outline (@code{hide-other}). @end table @findex hide-entry @findex show-entry @kindex C-c C-c @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-e @r{(Outline mode)} Two commands that are exact opposites are @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{hide-entry}) and @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{show-entry}). They apply to the body lines directly following the current heading line. Subheadings and their bodies are not affected. @findex hide-subtree @findex show-subtree @kindex C-c C-s @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-d @r{(Outline mode)} @cindex subtree (Outline mode) Two more powerful opposites are @kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{hide-subtree}) and @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{show-subtree}). Both apply to the current heading line's @dfn{subtree}: its body, all its subheadings, both direct and indirect, and all of their bodies. In other words, the subtree contains everything following the current heading line, up to and not including the next heading of the same or higher rank. @findex hide-leaves @findex show-branches @kindex C-c C-l @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-k @r{(Outline mode)} Intermediate between a visible subtree and an invisible one is having all the subheadings visible but none of the body. There are two commands for doing this, depending on whether you want to hide the bodies or make the subheadings visible. They are @kbd{C-c C-l} (@code{hide-leaves}) and @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{show-branches}). @kindex C-c C-i @r{(Outline mode)} @findex show-children A little weaker than @code{show-branches} is @kbd{C-c C-i} (@code{show-children}). It makes just the direct subheadings visible---those one level down. Deeper subheadings remain invisible, if they were invisible. @findex hide-body @findex show-all @kindex C-c C-t @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-a @r{(Outline mode)} Two commands have a blanket effect on the whole file. @kbd{C-c C-t} (@code{hide-body}) makes all body lines invisible, so that you see just the outline structure (as a special exception, it will not hide lines at the top of the file, preceding the first header line, even though these are technically body lines). @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{show-all}) makes all lines visible. These commands can be thought of as a pair of opposites even though @kbd{C-c C-a} applies to more than just body lines. @findex hide-sublevels @kindex C-c C-q @r{(Outline mode)} The command @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{hide-sublevels}) hides all but the top level headings. With a numeric argument @var{n}, it hides everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines. @findex hide-other @kindex C-c C-o @r{(Outline mode)} The command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{hide-other}) hides everything except the heading and body text that point is in, plus its parents (the headers leading up from there to top level in the outline) and the top level headings. @findex reveal-mode When incremental search finds text that is hidden by Outline mode, it makes that part of the buffer visible. If you exit the search at that position, the text remains visible. You can also automatically make text visible as you navigate in it by using @kbd{M-x reveal-mode}. @node Outline Views @subsection Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views @cindex multiple views of outline @cindex views of an outline @cindex outline with multiple views @cindex indirect buffers and outlines You can display two views of a single outline at the same time, in different windows. To do this, you must create an indirect buffer using @kbd{M-x make-indirect-buffer}. The first argument of this command is the existing outline buffer name, and its second argument is the name to use for the new indirect buffer. @xref{Indirect Buffers}. Once the indirect buffer exists, you can display it in a window in the normal fashion, with @kbd{C-x 4 b} or other Emacs commands. The Outline mode commands to show and hide parts of the text operate on each buffer independently; as a result, each buffer can have its own view. If you want more than two views on the same outline, create additional indirect buffers. @node Foldout @subsection Folding Editing @cindex folding editing The Foldout package extends Outline mode and Outline minor mode with folding'' commands. The idea of folding is that you zoom in on a nested portion of the outline, while hiding its relatives at higher levels. Consider an Outline mode buffer with all the text and subheadings under level-1 headings hidden. To look at what is hidden under one of these headings, you could use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@kbd{M-x show-entry}) to expose the body, or @kbd{C-c C-i} to expose the child (level-2) headings. @kindex C-c C-z @findex foldout-zoom-subtree With Foldout, you use @kbd{C-c C-z} (@kbd{M-x foldout-zoom-subtree}). This exposes the body and child subheadings, and narrows the buffer so that only the @w{level-1} heading, the body and the level-2 headings are visible. Now to look under one of the level-2 headings, position the cursor on it and use @kbd{C-c C-z} again. This exposes the level-2 body and its level-3 child subheadings and narrows the buffer again. Zooming in on successive subheadings can be done as much as you like. A string in the mode line shows how deep you've gone. When zooming in on a heading, to see only the child subheadings specify a numeric argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-z}. The number of levels of children can be specified too (compare @kbd{M-x show-children}), e.g.@: @kbd{M-2 C-c C-z} exposes two levels of child subheadings. Alternatively, the body can be specified with a negative argument: @kbd{M-- C-c C-z}. The whole subtree can be expanded, similarly to @kbd{C-c C-s} (@kbd{M-x show-subtree}), by specifying a zero argument: @kbd{M-0 C-c C-z}. While you're zoomed in, you can still use Outline mode's exposure and hiding functions without disturbing Foldout. Also, since the buffer is narrowed, global'' editing actions will only affect text under the zoomed-in heading. This is useful for restricting changes to a particular chapter or section of your document. @kindex C-c C-x @findex foldout-exit-fold To unzoom (exit) a fold, use @kbd{C-c C-x} (@kbd{M-x foldout-exit-fold}). This hides all the text and subheadings under the top-level heading and returns you to the previous view of the buffer. Specifying a numeric argument exits that many levels of folds. Specifying a zero argument exits all folds. To cancel the narrowing of a fold without hiding the text and subheadings, specify a negative argument. For example, @kbd{M--2 C-c C-x} exits two folds and leaves the text and subheadings exposed. Foldout mode also provides mouse commands for entering and exiting folds, and for showing and hiding text: @table @asis @item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-1} zooms in on the heading clicked on @itemize @asis @item single click: expose body. @item double click: expose subheadings. @item triple click: expose body and subheadings. @item quad click: expose entire subtree. @end itemize @item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-2} exposes text under the heading clicked on @itemize @asis @item single click: expose body. @item double click: expose subheadings. @item triple click: expose body and subheadings. @item quad click: expose entire subtree. @end itemize @item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-3} hides text under the heading clicked on or exits fold @itemize @asis @item single click: hide subtree. @item double click: exit fold and hide text. @item triple click: exit fold without hiding text. @item quad click: exit all folds and hide text. @end itemize @end table @vindex foldout-mouse-modifiers You can specify different modifier keys (instead of @kbd{Control-Meta-}) by setting @code{foldout-mouse-modifiers}; but if you have already loaded the @file{foldout.el} library, you must reload it in order for this to take effect. To use the Foldout package, you can type @kbd{M-x load-library @key{RET} foldout @key{RET}}; or you can arrange for to do that automatically by putting this in your @file{.emacs} file: @example (eval-after-load "outline" '(require 'foldout)) @end example @node TeX Mode @section @TeX{} Mode @cindex @TeX{} mode @cindex La@TeX{} mode @cindex Sli@TeX{} mode @cindex Doc@TeX{} mode @cindex mode, @TeX{} @cindex mode, La@TeX{} @cindex mode, Sli@TeX{} @cindex mode, Doc@TeX{} @findex tex-mode @findex plain-tex-mode @findex latex-mode @findex slitex-mode @findex doctex-mode @TeX{} is a powerful text formatter written by Donald Knuth; it is also free software, like GNU Emacs. La@TeX{} is a simplified input format for @TeX{}, implemented by @TeX{} macros; it comes with @TeX{}. Sli@TeX{} is a special form of La@TeX{}.@footnote{Sli@TeX{} is obsoleted by the @samp{slides} document class and other alternative packages in recent La@TeX{} versions.} Doc@TeX{} (@file{.dtx}) is a special file format in which the La@TeX{} sources are written, combining sources with documentation. Emacs has a special @TeX{} mode for editing @TeX{} input files. It provides facilities for checking the balance of delimiters and for invoking @TeX{} on all or part of the file. @vindex tex-default-mode @TeX{} mode has four variants: Plain @TeX{} mode, La@TeX{} mode, Sli@TeX{} mode, and Doc@TeX{} mode (these distinct major modes differ only slightly). They are designed for editing the four different formats. The command @kbd{M-x tex-mode} looks at the contents of the buffer to determine whether the contents appear to be either La@TeX{} input, Sli@TeX{}, or Doc@TeX{} input; if so, it selects the appropriate mode. If the file contents do not appear to be La@TeX{}, Sli@TeX{} or Doc@TeX{}, it selects Plain @TeX{} mode. If the contents are insufficient to determine this, the variable @code{tex-default-mode} controls which mode is used. When @kbd{M-x tex-mode} does not guess right, you can use the commands @kbd{M-x plain-tex-mode}, @kbd{M-x latex-mode}, @kbd{M-x slitex-mode}, and @kbd{doctex-mode} to select explicitly the particular variants of @TeX{} mode. @menu * Editing: TeX Editing. Special commands for editing in TeX mode. * LaTeX: LaTeX Editing. Additional commands for LaTeX input files. * Printing: TeX Print. Commands for printing part of a file with TeX. * Misc: TeX Misc. Customization of TeX mode, and related features. @end menu @node TeX Editing @subsection @TeX{} Editing Commands Here are the special commands provided in @TeX{} mode for editing the text of the file. @table @kbd @item " Insert, according to context, either @samp{} or @samp{"} or @samp{''} (@code{tex-insert-quote}). @item C-j Insert a paragraph break (two newlines) and check the previous paragraph for unbalanced braces or dollar signs (@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}). @item M-x tex-validate-region Check each paragraph in the region for unbalanced braces or dollar signs. @item C-c @{ Insert @samp{@{@}} and position point between them (@code{tex-insert-braces}). @item C-c @} Move forward past the next unmatched close brace (@code{up-list}). @end table @findex tex-insert-quote @kindex " @r{(@TeX{} mode)} In @TeX{}, the character @samp{"} is not normally used; we use @samp{} to start a quotation and @samp{''} to end one. To make editing easier under this formatting convention, @TeX{} mode overrides the normal meaning of the key @kbd{"} with a command that inserts a pair of single-quotes or backquotes (@code{tex-insert-quote}). To be precise, this command inserts @samp{} after whitespace or an open brace, @samp{"} after a backslash, and @samp{''} after any other character. If you need the character @samp{"} itself in unusual contexts, use @kbd{C-q} to insert it. Also, @kbd{"} with a numeric argument always inserts that number of @samp{"} characters. You can turn off the feature of @kbd{"} expansion by eliminating that binding in the local map (@pxref{Key Bindings}). In @TeX{} mode, @samp{$} has a special syntax code which attempts to understand the way @TeX{} math mode delimiters match. When you insert a @samp{$} that is meant to exit math mode, the position of the matching @samp{$} that entered math mode is displayed for a second. This is the same feature that displays the open brace that matches a close brace that is inserted. However, there is no way to tell whether a @samp{$} enters math mode or leaves it; so when you insert a @samp{$} that enters math mode, the previous @samp{$} position is shown as if it were a match, even though they are actually unrelated. @findex tex-insert-braces @kindex C-c @{ @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex up-list @kindex C-c @} @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @TeX{} uses braces as delimiters that must match. Some users prefer to keep braces balanced at all times, rather than inserting them singly. Use @kbd{C-c @{} (@code{tex-insert-braces}) to insert a pair of braces. It leaves point between the two braces so you can insert the text that belongs inside. Afterward, use the command @kbd{C-c @}} (@code{up-list}) to move forward past the close brace. @findex tex-validate-region @findex tex-terminate-paragraph @kindex C-j @r{(@TeX{} mode)} There are two commands for checking the matching of braces. @kbd{C-j} (@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}) checks the paragraph before point, and inserts two newlines to start a new paragraph. It outputs a message in the echo area if any mismatch is found. @kbd{M-x tex-validate-region} checks a region, paragraph by paragraph. The errors are listed in the @samp{*Occur*} buffer, and you can use @kbd{C-c C-c} or @kbd{Mouse-2} in that buffer to go to a particular mismatch. Note that Emacs commands count square brackets and parentheses in @TeX{} mode, not just braces. This is not strictly correct for the purpose of checking @TeX{} syntax. However, parentheses and square brackets are likely to be used in text as matching delimiters and it is useful for the various motion commands and automatic match display to work with them. @node LaTeX Editing @subsection La@TeX{} Editing Commands La@TeX{} mode, and its variant, Sli@TeX{} mode, provide a few extra features not applicable to plain @TeX{}. @table @kbd @item C-c C-o Insert @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} for La@TeX{} block and position point on a line between them (@code{tex-latex-block}). @item C-c C-e Close the innermost La@TeX{} block not yet closed (@code{tex-close-latex-block}). @end table @findex tex-latex-block @kindex C-c C-o @r{(La@TeX{} mode)} @vindex latex-block-names In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} commands are used to group blocks of text. To insert a @samp{\begin} and a matching @samp{\end} (on a new line following the @samp{\begin}), use @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{tex-latex-block}). A blank line is inserted between the two, and point is left there. You can use completion when you enter the block type; to specify additional block type names beyond the standard list, set the variable @code{latex-block-names}. For example, here's how to add @samp{theorem}, @samp{corollary}, and @samp{proof}: @example (setq latex-block-names '("theorem" "corollary" "proof")) @end example @findex tex-close-latex-block @kindex C-c C-e @r{(La@TeX{} mode)} In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} commands must balance. You can use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{tex-close-latex-block}) to insert automatically a matching @samp{\end} to match the last unmatched @samp{\begin}. It indents the @samp{\end} to match the corresponding @samp{\begin}. It inserts a newline after @samp{\end} if point is at the beginning of a line. @node TeX Print @subsection @TeX{} Printing Commands You can invoke @TeX{} as an inferior of Emacs on either the entire contents of the buffer or just a region at a time. Running @TeX{} in this way on just one chapter is a good way to see what your changes look like without taking the time to format the entire file. @table @kbd @item C-c C-r Invoke @TeX{} on the current region, together with the buffer's header (@code{tex-region}). @item C-c C-b Invoke @TeX{} on the entire current buffer (@code{tex-buffer}). @item C-c @key{TAB} Invoke Bib@TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-bibtex-file}). @item C-c C-f Invoke @TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-file}). @item C-c C-l Recenter the window showing output from the inferior @TeX{} so that the last line can be seen (@code{tex-recenter-output-buffer}). @item C-c C-k Kill the @TeX{} subprocess (@code{tex-kill-job}). @item C-c C-p Print the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c C-f} command (@code{tex-print}). @item C-c C-v Preview the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c C-f} command (@code{tex-view}). @item C-c C-q Show the printer queue (@code{tex-show-print-queue}). @item C-c C-c Invoke some other compilation command on the entire current buffer (@code{tex-compile}). @end table @findex tex-buffer @kindex C-c C-b @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-print @kindex C-c C-p @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-view @kindex C-c C-v @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-show-print-queue @kindex C-c C-q @r{(@TeX{} mode)} You can pass the current buffer through an inferior @TeX{} by means of @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{tex-buffer}). The formatted output appears in a temporary file; to print it, type @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{tex-print}). Afterward, you can use @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{tex-show-print-queue}) to view the progress of your output towards being printed. If your terminal has the ability to display @TeX{} output files, you can preview the output on the terminal with @kbd{C-c C-v} (@code{tex-view}). @cindex @env{TEXINPUTS} environment variable @vindex tex-directory You can specify the directory to use for running @TeX{} by setting the variable @code{tex-directory}. @code{"."} is the default value. If your environment variable @env{TEXINPUTS} contains relative directory names, or if your files contains @samp{\input} commands with relative file names, then @code{tex-directory} @emph{must} be @code{"."} or you will get the wrong results. Otherwise, it is safe to specify some other directory, such as @code{"/tmp"}. @vindex tex-run-command @vindex latex-run-command @vindex slitex-run-command @vindex tex-dvi-print-command @vindex tex-dvi-view-command @vindex tex-show-queue-command If you want to specify which shell commands are used in the inferior @TeX{}, you can do so by setting the values of the variables @code{tex-run-command}, @code{latex-run-command}, @code{slitex-run-command}, @code{tex-dvi-print-command}, @code{tex-dvi-view-command}, and @code{tex-show-queue-command}. The default values may (or may not) be appropriate for your system. Normally, the file name given to these commands comes at the end of the command string; for example, @samp{latex @var{filename}}. In some cases, however, the file name needs to be embedded in the command; an example is when you need to provide the file name as an argument to one command whose output is piped to another. You can specify where to put the file name with @samp{*} in the command string. For example, @example (setq tex-dvi-print-command "dvips -f * | lpr") @end example @findex tex-kill-job @kindex C-c C-k @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-recenter-output-buffer @kindex C-c C-l @r{(@TeX{} mode)} The terminal output from @TeX{}, including any error messages, appears in a buffer called @samp{*tex-shell*}. If @TeX{} gets an error, you can switch to this buffer and feed it input (this works as in Shell mode; @pxref{Interactive Shell}). Without switching to this buffer you can scroll it so that its last line is visible by typing @kbd{C-c C-l}. Type @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{tex-kill-job}) to kill the @TeX{} process if you see that its output is no longer useful. Using @kbd{C-c C-b} or @kbd{C-c C-r} also kills any @TeX{} process still running. @findex tex-region @kindex C-c C-r @r{(@TeX{} mode)} You can also pass an arbitrary region through an inferior @TeX{} by typing @kbd{C-c C-r} (@code{tex-region}). This is tricky, however, because most files of @TeX{} input contain commands at the beginning to set parameters and define macros, without which no later part of the file will format correctly. To solve this problem, @kbd{C-c C-r} allows you to designate a part of the file as containing essential commands; it is included before the specified region as part of the input to @TeX{}. The designated part of the file is called the @dfn{header}. @cindex header (@TeX{} mode) To indicate the bounds of the header in Plain @TeX{} mode, you insert two special strings in the file. Insert @samp{%**start of header} before the header, and @samp{%**end of header} after it. Each string must appear entirely on one line, but there may be other text on the line before or after. The lines containing the two strings are included in the header. If @samp{%**start of header} does not appear within the first 100 lines of the buffer, @kbd{C-c C-r} assumes that there is no header. In La@TeX{} mode, the header begins with @samp{\documentclass} or @samp{\documentstyle} and ends with @samp{\begin@{document@}}. These are commands that La@TeX{} requires you to use in any case, so nothing special needs to be done to identify the header. @findex tex-file @kindex C-c C-f @r{(@TeX{} mode)} The commands (@code{tex-buffer}) and (@code{tex-region}) do all of their work in a temporary directory, and do not have available any of the auxiliary files needed by @TeX{} for cross-references; these commands are generally not suitable for running the final copy in which all of the cross-references need to be correct. When you want the auxiliary files for cross references, use @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{tex-file}) which runs @TeX{} on the current buffer's file, in that file's directory. Before running @TeX{}, it offers to save any modified buffers. Generally, you need to use (@code{tex-file}) twice to get the cross-references right. @vindex tex-start-options The value of the variable @code{tex-start-options} specifies options for the @TeX{} run. @vindex tex-start-commands The value of the variable @code{tex-start-commands} specifies @TeX{} commands for starting @TeX{}. The default value causes @TeX{} to run in nonstop mode. To run @TeX{} interactively, set the variable to @code{""}. @vindex tex-main-file Large @TeX{} documents are often split into several files---one main file, plus subfiles. Running @TeX{} on a subfile typically does not work; you have to run it on the main file. In order to make @code{tex-file} useful when you are editing a subfile, you can set the variable @code{tex-main-file} to the name of the main file. Then @code{tex-file} runs @TeX{} on that file. The most convenient way to use @code{tex-main-file} is to specify it in a local variable list in each of the subfiles. @xref{File Variables}. @findex tex-bibtex-file @kindex C-c TAB @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @vindex tex-bibtex-command For La@TeX{} files, you can use Bib@TeX{} to process the auxiliary file for the current buffer's file. Bib@TeX{} looks up bibliographic citations in a data base and prepares the cited references for the bibliography section. The command @kbd{C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{tex-bibtex-file}) runs the shell command (@code{tex-bibtex-command}) to produce a @samp{.bbl} file for the current buffer's file. Generally, you need to do @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{tex-file}) once to generate the @samp{.aux} file, then do @kbd{C-c @key{TAB}} (@code{tex-bibtex-file}), and then repeat @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{tex-file}) twice more to get the cross-references correct. @findex tex-compile @kindex C-c C-c @r{(@TeX{} mode)} To invoke some other compilation program on the current @TeX{} buffer, type @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{tex-compile}). This command knows how to pass arguments to many common programs, including @file{pdflatex}, @file{yap}, @file{xdvi}, and @file{dvips}. You can select your desired compilation program using the standard completion keys (@pxref{Completion}). @node TeX Misc @subsection @TeX{} Mode Miscellany @vindex tex-shell-hook @vindex tex-mode-hook @vindex latex-mode-hook @vindex slitex-mode-hook @vindex plain-tex-mode-hook Entering any variant of @TeX{} mode runs the hooks @code{text-mode-hook} and @code{tex-mode-hook}. Then it runs either @code{plain-tex-mode-hook}, @code{latex-mode-hook}, or @code{slitex-mode-hook}, whichever is appropriate. Starting the @TeX{} shell runs the hook @code{tex-shell-hook}. @xref{Hooks}. @findex iso-iso2tex @findex iso-tex2iso @findex iso-iso2gtex @findex iso-gtex2iso @cindex Latin-1 @TeX{} encoding @cindex @TeX{} encoding The commands @kbd{M-x iso-iso2tex}, @kbd{M-x iso-tex2iso}, @kbd{M-x iso-iso2gtex} and @kbd{M-x iso-gtex2iso} can be used to convert between Latin-1 encoded files and @TeX{}-encoded equivalents. @ignore @c Too cryptic to be useful, too cryptic for me to make it better -- rms. They are included by default in the @code{format-alist} variable, so they can be used with @kbd{M-x format-find-file}, for instance. @end ignore @ignore @c Not worth documenting if it is only for Czech -- rms. @findex tildify-buffer @findex tildify-region @cindex ties, @TeX{}, inserting @cindex hard spaces, @TeX{}, inserting The commands @kbd{M-x tildify-buffer} and @kbd{M-x tildify-region} insert @samp{~} (@dfn{tie}) characters where they are conventionally required. This is set up for Czech---customize the group @samp{tildify} for other languages or for other sorts of markup. @end ignore @cindex Ref@TeX{} package @cindex references, La@TeX{} @cindex La@TeX{} references For managing all kinds of references for La@TeX{}, you can use Ref@TeX{}. @inforef{Top,, reftex}. @node HTML Mode @section SGML, XML, and HTML Modes The major modes for SGML and HTML include indentation support and commands to operate on tags. This section describes the special commands of these modes. (HTML mode is a slightly customized variant of SGML mode.) @table @kbd @item C-c C-n @kindex C-c C-n @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-name-char Interactively specify a special character and insert the SGML @samp{&}-command for that character. @item C-c C-t @kindex C-c C-t @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-tag Interactively specify a tag and its attributes (@code{sgml-tag}). This command asks you for a tag name and for the attribute values, then inserts both the opening tag and the closing tag, leaving point between them. With a prefix argument @var{n}, the command puts the tag around the @var{n} words already present in the buffer after point. With @minus{}1 as argument, it puts the tag around the region. (In Transient Mark mode, it does this whenever a region is active.) @item C-c C-a @kindex C-c C-a @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-attributes Interactively insert attribute values for the current tag (@code{sgml-attributes}). @item C-c C-f @kindex C-c C-f @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-skip-tag-forward Skip across a balanced tag group (which extends from an opening tag through its corresponding closing tag) (@code{sgml-skip-tag-forward}). A numeric argument acts as a repeat count. @item C-c C-b @kindex C-c C-b @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-skip-tag-backward Skip backward across a balanced tag group (which extends from an opening tag through its corresponding closing tag) (@code{sgml-skip-tag-forward}). A numeric argument acts as a repeat count. @item C-c C-d @kindex C-c C-d @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-delete-tag Delete the tag at or after point, and delete the matching tag too (@code{sgml-delete-tag}). If the tag at or after point is an opening tag, delete the closing tag too; if it is a closing tag, delete the opening tag too. @item C-c ? @var{tag} @key{RET} @kindex C-c ? @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-tag-help Display a description of the meaning of tag @var{tag} (@code{sgml-tag-help}). If the argument @var{tag} is empty, describe the tag at point. @item C-c / @kindex C-c / @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-close-tag Insert a close tag for the innermost unterminated tag (@code{sgml-close-tag}). If called from within a tag or a comment, close this element instead of inserting a close tag. @item C-c 8 @kindex C-c 8 @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-name-8bit-mode Toggle a minor mode in which Latin-1 characters insert the corresponding SGML commands that stand for them, instead of the characters themselves (@code{sgml-name-8bit-mode}). @item C-c C-v @kindex C-c C-v @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-validate Run a shell command (which you must specify) to validate the current buffer as SGML (@code{sgml-validate}). @item C-c TAB @kindex C-c TAB @r{(SGML mode)} @findex sgml-tags-invisible Toggle the visibility of existing tags in the buffer. This can be used as a cheap preview. @end table @vindex sgml-xml-mode SGML mode and HTML mode support XML also. In XML, every opening tag must have an explicit closing tag. When @code{sgml-xml-mode} is non-@code{nil}, SGML mode and HTML mode always insert explicit closing tags. When you visit a file, these modes determine from the file contents whether it is XML or not, and set @code{sgml-xml-mode} accordingly, so that they do the right thing for the file in either case. @node Nroff Mode @section Nroff Mode @cindex nroff @findex nroff-mode Nroff mode is a mode like Text mode but modified to handle nroff commands present in the text. Invoke @kbd{M-x nroff-mode} to enter this mode. It differs from Text mode in only a few ways. All nroff command lines are considered paragraph separators, so that filling will never garble the nroff commands. Pages are separated by @samp{.bp} commands. Comments start with backslash-doublequote. Also, three special commands are provided that are not in Text mode: @findex forward-text-line @findex backward-text-line @findex count-text-lines @kindex M-n @r{(Nroff mode)} @kindex M-p @r{(Nroff mode)} @kindex M-? @r{(Nroff mode)} @table @kbd @item M-n Move to the beginning of the next line that isn't an nroff command (@code{forward-text-line}). An argument is a repeat count. @item M-p Like @kbd{M-n} but move up (@code{backward-text-line}). @item M-? Displays in the echo area the number of text lines (lines that are not nroff commands) in the region (@code{count-text-lines}). @end table @findex electric-nroff-mode The other feature of Nroff mode is that you can turn on Electric Nroff mode. This is a minor mode that you can turn on or off with @kbd{M-x electric-nroff-mode} (@pxref{Minor Modes}). When the mode is on, each time you use @key{RET} to end a line that contains an nroff command that opens a kind of grouping, the matching nroff command to close that grouping is automatically inserted on the following line. For example, if you are at the beginning of a line and type @kbd{.@: ( b @key{RET}}, this inserts the matching command @samp{.)b} on a new line following point. If you use Outline minor mode with Nroff mode (@pxref{Outline Mode}), heading lines are lines of the form @samp{.H} followed by a number (the header level). @vindex nroff-mode-hook Entering Nroff mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook}, followed by the hook @code{nroff-mode-hook} (@pxref{Hooks}). @node Formatted Text @section Editing Formatted Text @cindex Enriched mode @cindex mode, Enriched @cindex formatted text @cindex WYSIWYG @cindex word processing @dfn{Enriched mode} is a minor mode for editing files that contain formatted text in WYSIWYG fashion, as in a word processor. Currently, formatted text in Enriched mode can specify fonts, colors, underlining, margins, and types of filling and justification. In the future, we plan to implement other formatting features as well. Enriched mode is a minor mode (@pxref{Minor Modes}). It is typically used in conjunction with Text mode (@pxref{Text Mode}), but you can also use it with other major modes such as Outline mode and Paragraph-Indent Text mode. @cindex text/enriched MIME format Potentially, Emacs can store formatted text files in various file formats. Currently, only one format is implemented: @dfn{text/enriched} format, which is defined by the MIME protocol. @xref{Format Conversion,, Format Conversion, elisp, the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}, for details of how Emacs recognizes and converts file formats. The Emacs distribution contains a formatted text file that can serve as an example. Its name is @file{etc/enriched.doc}. It contains samples illustrating all the features described in this section. It also contains a list of ideas for future enhancements. @menu * Requesting Formatted Text:: Entering and exiting Enriched mode. * Hard and Soft Newlines:: There are two different kinds of newlines. * Editing Format Info:: How to edit text properties. * Faces: Format Faces. Bold, italic, underline, etc. * Color: Format Colors. Changing the color of text. * Indent: Format Indentation. Changing the left and right margins. * Justification: Format Justification. Centering, setting text flush with the left or right margin, etc. * Other: Format Properties. The "special" text properties submenu. * Forcing Enriched Mode:: How to force use of Enriched mode. @end menu @node Requesting Formatted Text @subsection Requesting to Edit Formatted Text Whenever you visit a file that Emacs saved in the text/enriched format, Emacs automatically converts the formatting information in the file into Emacs's own internal format (known as @dfn{text properties}), and turns on Enriched mode. @findex enriched-mode To create a new file of formatted text, first visit the nonexistent file, then type @kbd{M-x enriched-mode} before you start inserting text. This command turns on Enriched mode. Do this before you begin inserting text, to ensure that the text you insert is handled properly. More generally, the command @code{enriched-mode} turns Enriched mode on if it was off, and off if it was on. With a prefix argument, this command turns Enriched mode on if the argument is positive, and turns the mode off otherwise. When you save a buffer while Enriched mode is enabled in it, Emacs automatically converts the text to text/enriched format while writing it into the file. When you visit the file again, Emacs will automatically recognize the format, reconvert the text, and turn on Enriched mode again. @vindex enriched-translations You can add annotations for saving additional text properties, which Emacs normally does not save, by adding to @code{enriched-translations}. Note that the text/enriched standard requires any non-standard annotations to have names starting with @samp{x-}, as in @samp{x-read-only}. This ensures that they will not conflict with standard annotations that may be added later. @xref{Text Properties,,, elisp, the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}, for more information about text properties. @node Hard and Soft Newlines @subsection Hard and Soft Newlines @cindex hard newline @cindex soft newline @cindex newlines, hard and soft @cindex use-hard-newlines In formatted text, Emacs distinguishes between two different kinds of newlines, @dfn{hard} newlines and @dfn{soft} newlines. (You can enable or disable this feature separately in any buffer with the command @code{use-hard-newlines}.) Hard newlines are used to separate paragraphs, or items in a list, or anywhere that there should always be a line break regardless of the margins. The @key{RET} command (@code{newline}) and @kbd{C-o} (@code{open-line}) insert hard newlines. Soft newlines are used to make text fit between the margins. All the fill commands, including Auto Fill, insert soft newlines---and they delete only soft newlines. Although hard and soft newlines look the same, it is important to bear the difference in mind. Do not use @key{RET} to break lines in the middle of filled paragraphs, or else you will get hard newlines that are barriers to further filling. Instead, let Auto Fill mode break lines, so that if the text or the margins change, Emacs can refill the lines properly. @xref{Auto Fill}. On the other hand, in tables and lists, where the lines should always remain as you type them, you can use @key{RET} to end lines. For these lines, you may also want to set the justification style to @code{unfilled}. @xref{Format Justification}. @node Editing Format Info @subsection Editing Format Information There are two ways to alter the formatting information for a formatted text file: with keyboard commands, and with the mouse. The easiest way to add properties to your document is with the Text Properties menu. You can get to this menu in two ways: from the Edit menu in the menu bar (use @kbd{@key{F10} e t} if you have no mouse), or with @kbd{C-Mouse-2} (hold the @key{CTRL} key and press the middle mouse button). There are also keyboard commands described in the following section. Most of the items in the Text Properties menu lead to other submenus. These are described in the sections that follow. Some items run commands directly: @table @code @findex facemenu-remove-face-props @item Remove Face Properties Delete from the region all face and color text properties (@code{facemenu-remove-face-props}). @findex facemenu-remove-all @item Remove Text Properties Delete @emph{all} text properties from the region (@code{facemenu-remove-all}). @findex describe-text-properties @cindex text properties of characters @cindex overlays at character position @cindex widgets at buffer position @cindex buttons at buffer position @item Describe Properties List all the text properties, widgets, buttons, and overlays of the character following point (@code{describe-text-properties}). @item Display Faces Display a list of all the defined faces (@code{list-faces-display}). @item Display Colors Display a list of all the defined colors (@code{list-colors-display}). @end table @node Format Faces @subsection Faces in Formatted Text The Faces submenu lists various Emacs faces including @code{bold}, @code{italic}, and @code{underline} (@pxref{Faces}). These menu items operate on the region if it is active and nonempty. Otherwise, they specify to use that face for an immediately following self-inserting character. Instead of the menu, you can use these keyboard commands: @table @kbd @kindex M-o d @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-default @item M-o d Remove all @code{face} properties from the region (which includes specified colors), or force the following inserted character to have no @code{face} property (@code{facemenu-set-default}). @kindex M-o b @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-bold @item M-o b Add the face @code{bold} to the region or to the following inserted character (@code{facemenu-set-bold}). @kindex M-o i @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-italic @item M-o i Add the face @code{italic} to the region or to the following inserted character (@code{facemenu-set-italic}). @kindex M-o l @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-bold-italic @item M-o l Add the face @code{bold-italic} to the region or to the following inserted character (@code{facemenu-set-bold-italic}). @kindex M-o u @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-underline @item M-o u Add the face @code{underline} to the region or to the following inserted character (@code{facemenu-set-underline}). @kindex M-o o @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-face @item M-o o @var{face} @key{RET} Add the face @var{face} to the region or to the following inserted character (@code{facemenu-set-face}). @end table With a prefix argument, all these commands apply to an immediately following self-inserting character, disregarding the region. A self-inserting character normally inherits the @code{face} property (and most other text properties) from the preceding character in the buffer. If you use the above commands to specify face for the next self-inserting character, or the next section's commands to specify a foreground or background color for it, then it does not inherit the @code{face} property from the preceding character; instead it uses whatever you specified. It will still inherit other text properties, though. Strictly speaking, these commands apply only to the first following self-inserting character that you type. But if you insert additional characters after it, they will inherit from the first one. So it appears that these commands apply to all of them. Enriched mode defines two additional faces: @code{excerpt} and @code{fixed}. These correspond to codes used in the text/enriched file format. The @code{excerpt} face is intended for quotations. This face is the same as @code{italic} unless you customize it (@pxref{Face Customization}). The @code{fixed} face means, Use a fixed-width font for this part of the text.'' Applying the @code{fixed} face to a part of the text will cause that part of the text to appear in a fixed-width font, even if the default font is variable-width. This applies to Emacs and to other systems that display text/enriched format. So if you specifically want a certain part of the text to use a fixed-width font, you should specify the @code{fixed} face for that part. By default, the @code{fixed} face looks the same as @code{bold}. This is an attempt to distinguish it from @code{default}. You may wish to customize @code{fixed} to some other fixed-width medium font. @xref{Face Customization}. If your terminal cannot display different faces, you will not be able to see them, but you can still edit documents containing faces, and even add faces and colors to documents. The faces you specify will be visible when the file is viewed on a terminal that can display them. @node Format Colors @subsection Colors in Formatted Text You can specify foreground and background colors for portions of the text. There is a menu for specifying the foreground color and a menu for specifying the background color. Each color menu lists all the colors that you have used in Enriched mode in the current Emacs session. If you specify a color with a prefix argument---or, in Transient Mark mode, if the region is not active---then it applies to any immediately following self-inserting input. Otherwise, the command applies to the region. Each color menu contains one additional item: @samp{Other}. You can use this item to specify a color that is not listed in the menu; it reads the color name with the minibuffer. To display a list of available colors and their names, use the @samp{Display Colors} menu item in the Text Properties menu (@pxref{Editing Format Info}). Any color that you specify in this way, or that is mentioned in a formatted text file that you read in, is added to the corresponding color menu for the duration of the Emacs session. @findex facemenu-set-foreground @findex facemenu-set-background There are no predefined key bindings for specifying colors, but you can do so with the extended commands @kbd{M-x facemenu-set-foreground} and @kbd{M-x facemenu-set-background}. Both of these commands read the name of the color with the minibuffer. @node Format Indentation @subsection Indentation in Formatted Text When editing formatted text, you can specify different amounts of indentation for the right or left margin of an entire paragraph or a part of a paragraph. The margins you specify automatically affect the Emacs fill commands (@pxref{Filling}) and line-breaking commands. The Indentation submenu provides a convenient interface for specifying these properties. The submenu contains four items: @table @code @kindex C-x TAB @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex increase-left-margin @item Indent More Indent the region by 4 columns (@code{increase-left-margin}). In Enriched mode, this command is also available on @kbd{C-x @key{TAB}}; if you supply a numeric argument, that says how many columns to add to the margin (a negative argument reduces the number of columns). @item Indent Less Remove 4 columns of indentation from the region. @item Indent Right More Make the text narrower by indenting 4 columns at the right margin. @item Indent Right Less Remove 4 columns of indentation from the right margin. @end table You can use these commands repeatedly to increase or decrease the indentation. The most common way to use them is to change the indentation of an entire paragraph. For other uses, the effects of refilling can be hard to predict, except in some special cases like the one described next. The most common other use is to format paragraphs with @dfn{hanging indents}, which means that the first line is indented less than subsequent lines. To set up a hanging indent, increase the indentation of the region starting after the first word of the paragraph and running until the end of the paragraph. Indenting the first line of a paragraph is easier. Set the margin for the whole paragraph where you want it to be for the body of the paragraph, then indent the first line by inserting extra spaces or tabs. @vindex standard-indent The variable @code{standard-indent} specifies how many columns these commands should add to or subtract from the indentation. The default value is 4. The overall default right margin for Enriched mode is controlled by the variable @code{fill-column}, as usual. @kindex C-c [ @r{(Enriched mode)} @kindex C-c ] @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex set-left-margin @findex set-right-margin There are also two commands for setting the left or right margin of the region absolutely: @code{set-left-margin} and @code{set-right-margin}. Enriched mode binds these commands to @kbd{C-c [} and @kbd{C-c ]}, respectively. You can specify the margin width either with a numeric argument or in the minibuffer. Sometimes, as a result of editing, the filling of a paragraph becomes messed up---parts of the paragraph may extend past the left or right  Juri Linkov committed Oct 06, 2007 2259 margins. When this happens, use @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph-or-region}) to  Glenn Morris committed Sep 06, 2007 2260 2261 2262 2263 2264 2265 2266 2267 2268 2269 2270 2271 2272 2273 2274 2275 2276 2277 2278 2279 2280 2281 2282 2283 2284 2285 2286 2287 2288 2289 2290 2291 2292 2293 2294 2295 2296 2297 2298 2299 2300 2301 2302 2303 2304 2305 2306 2307 2308 2309 2310 2311 2312 2313 2314 2315 2316 2317 2318 2319 2320 2321 2322 2323 2324 2325 2326 2327 2328 2329 2330 2331 2332 2333 2334 2335 2336 2337 2338 2339 2340 2341 2342 2343 2344 2345 2346 2347 2348 2349 2350 2351 2352 2353 2354 2355 2356 2357 2358 2359 2360 2361 2362 2363 2364 2365 2366 2367 2368 2369 2370 2371 2372 2373 2374 2375 2376 2377 2378 2379 2380 2381 2382 2383 2384 2385 2386 2387 2388 2389 2390 2391 2392 2393 2394 2395 2396 2397 2398 2399 2400 2401 2402 2403 2404 2405 2406 2407 2408 2409 2410 2411 2412 2413 2414 2415 2416 2417 2418 2419 2420 2421 2422 2423 2424 2425 2426 2427 2428 2429 2430 2431 2432 2433 2434 2435 2436 2437 2438 2439 2440 2441 2442 2443 2444 2445 2446 2447 2448 2449 2450 2451 2452 2453 2454 2455 2456 2457 2458 2459 2460 2461 2462 2463 2464 2465 2466 2467 2468 2469 2470 2471 2472 2473 2474 2475 2476 2477 2478 2479 2480 2481 2482 2483 2484 2485 2486 2487 2488 2489 2490 2491 2492 2493 2494 2495 2496 2497 2498 2499 2500 2501 2502 2503 2504 2505 2506 2507 2508 2509 2510 2511 2512 2513 2514 2515 2516 2517 2518 2519 2520 2521 2522 2523 2524 2525 2526 2527 2528 2529 2530 2531 2532 2533 2534 2535 2536 2537 2538 2539 2540 2541 2542 2543 2544 2545 2546 2547 2548 2549 2550 2551 2552 2553 2554 2555 2556 2557 2558 2559 2560 2561 2562 2563 2564 2565 2566 2567 2568 2569 2570 2571 2572 2573 2574 2575 2576 2577 2578 2579 2580 2581 2582