print.c 73 KB
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/* Lisp object printing and output streams.
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   Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997,
                 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
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                 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

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GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
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it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
(at your option) any later version.
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GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.  */
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#include <config.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include "lisp.h"
#include "buffer.h"
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#include "character.h"
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#include "charset.h"
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#include "keyboard.h"
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#include "frame.h"
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#include "window.h"
#include "process.h"
#include "dispextern.h"
#include "termchar.h"
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#include "intervals.h"
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#include "blockinput.h"
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#include "termhooks.h"		/* For struct terminal.  */
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#include "font.h"
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Lisp_Object Vstandard_output, Qstandard_output;

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Lisp_Object Qtemp_buffer_setup_hook;

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/* These are used to print like we read.  */
extern Lisp_Object Qbackquote, Qcomma, Qcomma_at, Qcomma_dot, Qfunction;

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Lisp_Object Vfloat_output_format, Qfloat_output_format;
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#include <math.h>

#if STDC_HEADERS
#include <float.h>
#endif

/* Default to values appropriate for IEEE floating point.  */
#ifndef FLT_RADIX
#define FLT_RADIX 2
#endif
#ifndef DBL_MANT_DIG
#define DBL_MANT_DIG 53
#endif
#ifndef DBL_DIG
#define DBL_DIG 15
#endif
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#ifndef DBL_MIN
#define DBL_MIN 2.2250738585072014e-308
#endif

#ifdef DBL_MIN_REPLACEMENT
#undef DBL_MIN
#define DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_REPLACEMENT
#endif
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/* Define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND, an upper bound on the number of decimal digits
   needed to express a float without losing information.
   The general-case formula is valid for the usual case, IEEE floating point,
   but many compilers can't optimize the formula to an integer constant,
   so make a special case for it.  */
#if FLT_RADIX == 2 && DBL_MANT_DIG == 53
#define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND 17 /* IEEE floating point */
#else
#define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND ((int) ceil (log10 (pow (FLT_RADIX, DBL_MANT_DIG))))
#endif

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/* Avoid actual stack overflow in print.  */
int print_depth;

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/* Level of nesting inside outputting backquote in new style.  */
int new_backquote_output;
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/* Detect most circularities to print finite output.  */
#define PRINT_CIRCLE 200
Lisp_Object being_printed[PRINT_CIRCLE];

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/* When printing into a buffer, first we put the text in this
   block, then insert it all at once.  */
char *print_buffer;

/* Size allocated in print_buffer.  */
int print_buffer_size;
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/* Chars stored in print_buffer.  */
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int print_buffer_pos;
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/* Bytes stored in print_buffer.  */
int print_buffer_pos_byte;
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/* Maximum length of list to print in full; noninteger means
   effectively infinity */

Lisp_Object Vprint_length;

/* Maximum depth of list to print in full; noninteger means
   effectively infinity.  */

Lisp_Object Vprint_level;

/* Nonzero means print newlines in strings as \n.  */

int print_escape_newlines;

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/* Nonzero means to print single-byte non-ascii characters in strings as
   octal escapes.  */

int print_escape_nonascii;

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/* Nonzero means to print multibyte characters in strings as hex escapes.  */

int print_escape_multibyte;

Lisp_Object Qprint_escape_newlines;
Lisp_Object Qprint_escape_multibyte, Qprint_escape_nonascii;

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/* Nonzero means print (quote foo) forms as 'foo, etc.  */

int print_quoted;

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/* Non-nil means print #: before uninterned symbols.  */
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Lisp_Object Vprint_gensym;
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/* Non-nil means print recursive structures using #n= and #n# syntax.  */
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Lisp_Object Vprint_circle;

/* Non-nil means keep continuous number for #n= and #n# syntax
   between several print functions.  */

Lisp_Object Vprint_continuous_numbering;

/* Vprint_number_table is a vector like [OBJ1 STAT1 OBJ2 STAT2 ...],
   where OBJn are objects going to be printed, and STATn are their status,
   which may be different meanings during process.  See the comments of
   the functions print and print_preprocess for details.
   print_number_index keeps the last position the next object should be added,
   twice of which is the actual vector position in Vprint_number_table.  */
int print_number_index;
Lisp_Object Vprint_number_table;

/* PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT returns the I'th object in Vprint_number_table TABLE.
   PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS returns the status of the I'th object in TABLE.
   See the comment of the variable Vprint_number_table.  */
#define PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT(table,i) XVECTOR ((table))->contents[(i) * 2]
#define PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS(table,i) XVECTOR ((table))->contents[(i) * 2 + 1]
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/* Nonzero means print newline to stdout before next minibuffer message.
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   Defined in xdisp.c */

extern int noninteractive_need_newline;
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extern int minibuffer_auto_raise;

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void print_interval ();
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/* GDB resets this to zero on W32 to disable OutputDebugString calls.  */
int print_output_debug_flag = 1;

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175

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/* Low level output routines for characters and strings */
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/* Lisp functions to do output using a stream
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   must have the stream in a variable called printcharfun
   and must start with PRINTPREPARE, end with PRINTFINISH,
   and use PRINTDECLARE to declare common variables.
   Use PRINTCHAR to output one character,
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   or call strout to output a block of characters. */
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#define PRINTDECLARE							\
   struct buffer *old = current_buffer;					\
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   int old_point = -1, start_point = -1;				\
   int old_point_byte = -1, start_point_byte = -1;			\
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   int specpdl_count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();				\
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   int free_print_buffer = 0;						\
   int multibyte = !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);	\
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   Lisp_Object original

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#define PRINTPREPARE							\
   original = printcharfun;						\
   if (NILP (printcharfun)) printcharfun = Qt;				\
   if (BUFFERP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (XBUFFER (printcharfun) != current_buffer)			\
	 Fset_buffer (printcharfun);					\
       printcharfun = Qnil;						\
     }									\
   if (MARKERP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
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       EMACS_INT marker_pos;						\
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       if (! XMARKER (printcharfun)->buffer)				\
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         error ("Marker does not point anywhere");			\
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       if (XMARKER (printcharfun)->buffer != current_buffer)		\
         set_buffer_internal (XMARKER (printcharfun)->buffer);		\
       marker_pos = marker_position (printcharfun);			\
       if (marker_pos < BEGV || marker_pos > ZV)			\
	 error ("Marker is outside the accessible part of the buffer"); \
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       old_point = PT;							\
       old_point_byte = PT_BYTE;					\
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       SET_PT_BOTH (marker_pos,						\
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		    marker_byte_position (printcharfun));		\
       start_point = PT;						\
       start_point_byte = PT_BYTE;					\
       printcharfun = Qnil;						\
     }									\
   if (NILP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       Lisp_Object string;						\
       if (NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)		\
	   && ! print_escape_multibyte)					\
         specbind (Qprint_escape_multibyte, Qt);			\
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       if (! NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)		\
	   && ! print_escape_nonascii)					\
         specbind (Qprint_escape_nonascii, Qt);				\
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       if (print_buffer != 0)						\
	 {								\
	   string = make_string_from_bytes (print_buffer,		\
					    print_buffer_pos,		\
					    print_buffer_pos_byte);	\
	   record_unwind_protect (print_unwind, string);		\
	 }								\
       else								\
	 {								\
           print_buffer_size = 1000;					\
           print_buffer = (char *) xmalloc (print_buffer_size);		\
	   free_print_buffer = 1;					\
	 }								\
       print_buffer_pos = 0;						\
       print_buffer_pos_byte = 0;					\
     }									\
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   if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt) && ! noninteractive)			\
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     setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte);
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#define PRINTFINISH							\
   if (NILP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (print_buffer_pos != print_buffer_pos_byte			\
	   && NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters))	\
	 {								\
	   unsigned char *temp						\
	     = (unsigned char *) alloca (print_buffer_pos + 1);		\
	   copy_text (print_buffer, temp, print_buffer_pos_byte,	\
		      1, 0);						\
	   insert_1_both (temp, print_buffer_pos,			\
			  print_buffer_pos, 0, 1, 0);			\
	 }								\
       else								\
	 insert_1_both (print_buffer, print_buffer_pos,			\
			print_buffer_pos_byte, 0, 1, 0);		\
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       signal_after_change (PT - print_buffer_pos, 0, print_buffer_pos);\
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     }									\
   if (free_print_buffer)						\
     {									\
       xfree (print_buffer);						\
       print_buffer = 0;						\
     }									\
   unbind_to (specpdl_count, Qnil);					\
   if (MARKERP (original))						\
     set_marker_both (original, Qnil, PT, PT_BYTE);			\
   if (old_point >= 0)							\
     SET_PT_BOTH (old_point + (old_point >= start_point			\
			       ? PT - start_point : 0),			\
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		  old_point_byte + (old_point_byte >= start_point_byte	\
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				    ? PT_BYTE - start_point_byte : 0));	\
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   if (old != current_buffer)						\
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     set_buffer_internal (old);
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#define PRINTCHAR(ch) printchar (ch, printcharfun)

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/* This is used to restore the saved contents of print_buffer
   when there is a recursive call to print.  */
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static Lisp_Object
print_unwind (saved_text)
     Lisp_Object saved_text;
{
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  bcopy (SDATA (saved_text), print_buffer, SCHARS (saved_text));
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  return Qnil;
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}

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/* Print character CH using method FUN.  FUN nil means print to
   print_buffer.  FUN t means print to echo area or stdout if
   non-interactive.  If FUN is neither nil nor t, call FUN with CH as
   argument.  */
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static void
printchar (ch, fun)
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     unsigned int ch;
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     Lisp_Object fun;
{
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  if (!NILP (fun) && !EQ (fun, Qt))
    call1 (fun, make_number (ch));
  else
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    {
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      unsigned char str[MAX_MULTIBYTE_LENGTH];
      int len = CHAR_STRING (ch, str);

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      QUIT;
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      if (NILP (fun))
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	{
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	  if (print_buffer_pos_byte + len >= print_buffer_size)
	    print_buffer = (char *) xrealloc (print_buffer,
					      print_buffer_size *= 2);
	  bcopy (str, print_buffer + print_buffer_pos_byte, len);
	  print_buffer_pos += 1;
	  print_buffer_pos_byte += len;
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	}
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      else if (noninteractive)
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	{
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	  fwrite (str, 1, len, stdout);
	  noninteractive_need_newline = 1;
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	}
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      else
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	{
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	  int multibyte_p
	    = !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);
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	  setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte_p);
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	  insert_char (ch);
	  message_dolog (str, len, 0, multibyte_p);
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	}
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    }
}

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/* Output SIZE characters, SIZE_BYTE bytes from string PTR using
   method PRINTCHARFUN.  If SIZE < 0, use the string length of PTR for
   both SIZE and SIZE_BYTE.  PRINTCHARFUN nil means output to
   print_buffer.  PRINTCHARFUN t means output to the echo area or to
   stdout if non-interactive.  If neither nil nor t, call Lisp
   function PRINTCHARFUN for each character printed.  MULTIBYTE
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   non-zero means PTR contains multibyte characters.

   In the case where PRINTCHARFUN is nil, it is safe for PTR to point
   to data in a Lisp string.  Otherwise that is not safe.  */
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static void
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strout (ptr, size, size_byte, printcharfun, multibyte)
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     char *ptr;
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     int size, size_byte;
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     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
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     int multibyte;
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{
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  if (size < 0)
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    size_byte = size = strlen (ptr);
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    {
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      if (print_buffer_pos_byte + size_byte > print_buffer_size)
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	{
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	  print_buffer_size = print_buffer_size * 2 + size_byte;
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	  print_buffer = (char *) xrealloc (print_buffer,
					    print_buffer_size);
	}
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      bcopy (ptr, print_buffer + print_buffer_pos_byte, size_byte);
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      print_buffer_pos += size;
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      print_buffer_pos_byte += size_byte;
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    }
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  else if (noninteractive && EQ (printcharfun, Qt))
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    {
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      fwrite (ptr, 1, size_byte, stdout);
      noninteractive_need_newline = 1;
    }
  else if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt))
    {
      /* Output to echo area.  We're trying to avoid a little overhead
	 here, that's the reason we don't call printchar to do the
	 job.  */
      int i;
      int multibyte_p
	= !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);
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      setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte_p);
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      message_dolog (ptr, size_byte, 0, multibyte_p);
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      if (size == size_byte)
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	{
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	  for (i = 0; i < size; ++i)
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	    insert_char ((unsigned char) *ptr++);
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	}
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      else
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	{
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	  int len;
	  for (i = 0; i < size_byte; i += len)
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	    {
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	      int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (ptr + i, size_byte - i, len);
	      insert_char (ch);
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	    }
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	}
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    }
  else
    {
      /* PRINTCHARFUN is a Lisp function.  */
      int i = 0;
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      if (size == size_byte)
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	{
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	  while (i < size_byte)
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	    {
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	      int ch = ptr[i++];
	      PRINTCHAR (ch);
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	    }
	}
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      else
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	{
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	  while (i < size_byte)
	    {
	      /* Here, we must convert each multi-byte form to the
		 corresponding character code before handing it to
		 PRINTCHAR.  */
	      int len;
	      int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (ptr + i, size_byte - i, len);
	      PRINTCHAR (ch);
	      i += len;
	    }
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	}
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    }
}

/* Print the contents of a string STRING using PRINTCHARFUN.
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   It isn't safe to use strout in many cases,
   because printing one char can relocate.  */
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static void
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print_string (string, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object string;
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt) || NILP (printcharfun))
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    {
      int chars;

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      if (print_escape_nonascii)
	string = string_escape_byte8 (string);

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      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
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	chars = SCHARS (string);
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      else if (! print_escape_nonascii
	       && (EQ (printcharfun, Qt)
		   ? ! NILP (buffer_defaults.enable_multibyte_characters)
		   : ! NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)))
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	{
	  /* If unibyte string STRING contains 8-bit codes, we must
	     convert STRING to a multibyte string containing the same
	     character codes.  */
	  Lisp_Object newstr;
	  int bytes;

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	  chars = SBYTES (string);
	  bytes = parse_str_to_multibyte (SDATA (string), chars);
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	  if (chars < bytes)
	    {
	      newstr = make_uninit_multibyte_string (chars, bytes);
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	      bcopy (SDATA (string), SDATA (newstr), chars);
	      str_to_multibyte (SDATA (newstr), bytes, chars);
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	      string = newstr;
	    }
	}
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      else
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	chars = SBYTES (string);
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      if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt))
	{
	  /* Output to echo area.  */
	  int nbytes = SBYTES (string);
	  char *buffer;

	  /* Copy the string contents so that relocation of STRING by
	     GC does not cause trouble.  */
	  USE_SAFE_ALLOCA;

	  SAFE_ALLOCA (buffer, char *, nbytes);
	  bcopy (SDATA (string), buffer, nbytes);

	  strout (buffer, chars, SBYTES (string),
		  printcharfun, STRING_MULTIBYTE (string));

	  SAFE_FREE ();
	}
      else
	/* No need to copy, since output to print_buffer can't GC.  */
	strout (SDATA (string),
		chars, SBYTES (string),
		printcharfun, STRING_MULTIBYTE (string));
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    }
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  else
    {
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      /* Otherwise, string may be relocated by printing one char.
	 So re-fetch the string address for each character.  */
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      int i;
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      int size = SCHARS (string);
      int size_byte = SBYTES (string);
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      struct gcpro gcpro1;
      GCPRO1 (string);
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      if (size == size_byte)
	for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
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	  PRINTCHAR (SREF (string, i));
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      else
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	for (i = 0; i < size_byte; )
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	  {
	    /* Here, we must convert each multi-byte form to the
	       corresponding character code before handing it to PRINTCHAR.  */
	    int len;
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	    int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (SDATA (string) + i,
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					     size_byte - i, len);
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	    PRINTCHAR (ch);
	    i += len;
	  }
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      UNGCPRO;
    }
}

DEFUN ("write-char", Fwrite_char, Swrite_char, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output character CHARACTER to stream PRINTCHARFUN.
PRINTCHARFUN defaults to the value of `standard-output' (which see).  */)
     (character, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object character, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
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  CHECK_NUMBER (character);
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  PRINTPREPARE;
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  PRINTCHAR (XINT (character));
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return character;
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}

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/* Used from outside of print.c to print a block of SIZE
   single-byte chars at DATA on the default output stream.
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   Do not use this on the contents of a Lisp string.  */

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void
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write_string (data, size)
     char *data;
     int size;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  Lisp_Object printcharfun;

  printcharfun = Vstandard_output;

  PRINTPREPARE;
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  strout (data, size, size, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
}

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/* Used from outside of print.c to print a block of SIZE
   single-byte chars at DATA on a specified stream PRINTCHARFUN.
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   Do not use this on the contents of a Lisp string.  */

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void
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write_string_1 (data, size, printcharfun)
     char *data;
     int size;
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  PRINTPREPARE;
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  strout (data, size, size, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
}


void
temp_output_buffer_setup (bufname)
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    const char *bufname;
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{
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  register struct buffer *old = current_buffer;
  register Lisp_Object buf;

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  record_unwind_protect (set_buffer_if_live, Fcurrent_buffer ());

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  Fset_buffer (Fget_buffer_create (build_string (bufname)));

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  Fkill_all_local_variables ();
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  delete_all_overlays (current_buffer);
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  current_buffer->directory = old->directory;
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  current_buffer->read_only = Qnil;
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  current_buffer->filename = Qnil;
  current_buffer->undo_list = Qt;
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  eassert (current_buffer->overlays_before == NULL);
  eassert (current_buffer->overlays_after == NULL);
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  current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters
    = buffer_defaults.enable_multibyte_characters;
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  specbind (Qinhibit_read_only, Qt);
  specbind (Qinhibit_modification_hooks, Qt);
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  Ferase_buffer ();
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  XSETBUFFER (buf, current_buffer);
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  Frun_hooks (1, &Qtemp_buffer_setup_hook);
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  unbind_to (count, Qnil);

  specbind (Qstandard_output, buf);
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}

Lisp_Object
internal_with_output_to_temp_buffer (bufname, function, args)
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     const char *bufname;
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     Lisp_Object (*function) P_ ((Lisp_Object));
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     Lisp_Object args;
{
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  Lisp_Object buf, val;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;
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  GCPRO1 (args);
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  record_unwind_protect (Fset_buffer, Fcurrent_buffer ());
  temp_output_buffer_setup (bufname);
  buf = Vstandard_output;
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  UNGCPRO;
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  val = (*function) (args);

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  GCPRO1 (val);
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  temp_output_buffer_show (buf);
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  UNGCPRO;
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  return unbind_to (count, val);
}

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DEFUN ("with-output-to-temp-buffer",
       Fwith_output_to_temp_buffer, Swith_output_to_temp_buffer,
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       1, UNEVALLED, 0,
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       doc: /* Bind `standard-output' to buffer BUFNAME, eval BODY, then show that buffer.
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This construct makes buffer BUFNAME empty before running BODY.
It does not make the buffer current for BODY.
Instead it binds `standard-output' to that buffer, so that output
generated with `prin1' and similar functions in BODY goes into
the buffer.

At the end of BODY, this marks buffer BUFNAME unmodifed and displays
it in a window, but does not select it.  The normal way to do this is
by calling `display-buffer', then running `temp-buffer-show-hook'.
However, if `temp-buffer-show-function' is non-nil, it calls that
function instead (and does not run `temp-buffer-show-hook').  The
function gets one argument, the buffer to display.

The return value of `with-output-to-temp-buffer' is the value of the
last form in BODY.  If BODY does not finish normally, the buffer
BUFNAME is not displayed.

This runs the hook `temp-buffer-setup-hook' before BODY,
with the buffer BUFNAME temporarily current.  It runs the hook
`temp-buffer-show-hook' after displaying buffer BUFNAME, with that
buffer temporarily current, and the window that was used to display it
temporarily selected.  But it doesn't run `temp-buffer-show-hook'
if it uses `temp-buffer-show-function'.
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usage: (with-output-to-temp-buffer BUFNAME BODY...)  */)
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     (args)
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     Lisp_Object args;
{
  struct gcpro gcpro1;
  Lisp_Object name;
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  Lisp_Object buf, val;

  GCPRO1(args);
  name = Feval (Fcar (args));
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  CHECK_STRING (name);
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  temp_output_buffer_setup (SDATA (name));
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  buf = Vstandard_output;
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  UNGCPRO;
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  val = Fprogn (XCDR (args));
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  GCPRO1 (val);
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  temp_output_buffer_show (buf);
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  UNGCPRO;
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  return unbind_to (count, val);
}
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697 698

static void print ();
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static void print_preprocess ();
static void print_preprocess_string ();
static void print_object ();
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DEFUN ("terpri", Fterpri, Sterpri, 0, 1, 0,
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       doc: /* Output a newline to stream PRINTCHARFUN.
If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted or nil, the value of `standard-output' is used.  */)
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  (printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
  PRINTFINISH;
  return Qt;
}

DEFUN ("prin1", Fprin1, Sprin1, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output the printed representation of OBJECT, any Lisp object.
Quoting characters are printed when needed to make output that `read'
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can handle, whenever this is possible.  For complex objects, the behavior
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is controlled by `print-level' and `print-length', which see.
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OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.

Optional argument PRINTCHARFUN is the output stream, which can be one
of these:

   - a buffer, in which case output is inserted into that buffer at point;
   - a marker, in which case output is inserted at marker's position;
   - a function, in which case that function is called once for each
     character of OBJECT's printed representation;
   - a symbol, in which case that symbol's function definition is called; or
   - t, in which case the output is displayed in the echo area.

If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted, the value of `standard-output' (which see)
is used instead.  */)
     (object, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, 1);
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return object;
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}

/* a buffer which is used to hold output being built by prin1-to-string */
Lisp_Object Vprin1_to_string_buffer;

DEFUN ("prin1-to-string", Fprin1_to_string, Sprin1_to_string, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Return a string containing the printed representation of OBJECT.
OBJECT can be any Lisp object.  This function outputs quoting characters
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when necessary to make output that `read' can handle, whenever possible,
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unless the optional second argument NOESCAPE is non-nil.  For complex objects,
the behavior is controlled by `print-level' and `print-length', which see.
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OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.  */)
     (object, noescape)
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     Lisp_Object object, noescape;
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{
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  Lisp_Object printcharfun;
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  /* struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2; */
  Lisp_Object save_deactivate_mark;
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  struct buffer *previous;
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  specbind (Qinhibit_modification_hooks, Qt);
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  {
    PRINTDECLARE;

    /* Save and restore this--we are altering a buffer
       but we don't want to deactivate the mark just for that.
       No need for specbind, since errors deactivate the mark.  */
    save_deactivate_mark = Vdeactivate_mark;
    /* GCPRO2 (object, save_deactivate_mark); */
    abort_on_gc++;

    printcharfun = Vprin1_to_string_buffer;
    PRINTPREPARE;
    print (object, printcharfun, NILP (noescape));
    /* Make Vprin1_to_string_buffer be the default buffer after PRINTFINSH */
    PRINTFINISH;
  }
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  previous = current_buffer;
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  set_buffer_internal (XBUFFER (Vprin1_to_string_buffer));
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  object = Fbuffer_string ();
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  if (SBYTES (object) == SCHARS (object))
    STRING_SET_UNIBYTE (object);
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  /* Note that this won't make prepare_to_modify_buffer call
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     ask-user-about-supersession-threat because this buffer
     does not visit a file.  */
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  Ferase_buffer ();
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  set_buffer_internal (previous);
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  Vdeactivate_mark = save_deactivate_mark;
  /* UNGCPRO; */
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  abort_on_gc--;
  return unbind_to (count, object);
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}

DEFUN ("princ", Fprinc, Sprinc, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output the printed representation of OBJECT, any Lisp object.
No quoting characters are used; no delimiters are printed around
the contents of strings.

OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.

Optional argument PRINTCHARFUN is the output stream, which can be one
of these:

   - a buffer, in which case output is inserted into that buffer at point;
   - a marker, in which case output is inserted at marker's position;
   - a function, in which case that function is called once for each
     character of OBJECT's printed representation;
   - a symbol, in which case that symbol's function definition is called; or
   - t, in which case the output is displayed in the echo area.

If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted, the value of `standard-output' (which see)
is used instead.  */)
     (object, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return object;
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}

DEFUN ("print", Fprint, Sprint, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output the printed representation of OBJECT, with newlines around it.
Quoting characters are printed when needed to make output that `read'
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can handle, whenever this is possible.  For complex objects, the behavior
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is controlled by `print-level' and `print-length', which see.
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OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.

Optional argument PRINTCHARFUN is the output stream, which can be one
of these:

   - a buffer, in which case output is inserted into that buffer at point;
   - a marker, in which case output is inserted at marker's position;
   - a function, in which case that function is called once for each
     character of OBJECT's printed representation;
   - a symbol, in which case that symbol's function definition is called; or
   - t, in which case the output is displayed in the echo area.

If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted, the value of `standard-output' (which see)
is used instead.  */)
     (object, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;

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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
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  GCPRO1 (object);
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  PRINTPREPARE;
  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
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  print (object, printcharfun, 1);
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  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
  PRINTFINISH;
  UNGCPRO;
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  return object;
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}

/* The subroutine object for external-debugging-output is kept here
   for the convenience of the debugger.  */
Lisp_Object Qexternal_debugging_output;

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DEFUN ("external-debugging-output", Fexternal_debugging_output, Sexternal_debugging_output, 1, 1, 0,
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       doc: /* Write CHARACTER to stderr.
You can call print while debugging emacs, and pass it this function
to make it write to the debugging output.  */)
     (character)
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     Lisp_Object character;
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{
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  CHECK_NUMBER (character);
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  putc (XINT (character), stderr);
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#ifdef WINDOWSNT
  /* Send the output to a debugger (nothing happens if there isn't one).  */
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  if (print_output_debug_flag)
    {
      char buf[2] = {(char) XINT (character), '\0'};
      OutputDebugString (buf);
    }
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#endif

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  return character;
}
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/* This function is never called.  Its purpose is to prevent
   print_output_debug_flag from being optimized away.  */

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void
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debug_output_compilation_hack (x)
     int x;
{
  print_output_debug_flag = x;
}
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#if defined (GNU_LINUX)
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/* This functionality is not vitally important in general, so we rely on
   non-portable ability to use stderr as lvalue.  */

#define WITH_REDIRECT_DEBUGGING_OUTPUT 1

FILE *initial_stderr_stream = NULL;

DEFUN ("redirect-debugging-output", Fredirect_debugging_output, Sredirect_debugging_output,
       1, 2,
       "FDebug output file: \nP",
       doc: /* Redirect debugging output (stderr stream) to file FILE.
If FILE is nil, reset target to the initial stderr stream.
Optional arg APPEND non-nil (interactively, with prefix arg) means
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append to existing target file.  */)
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     (file, append)
     Lisp_Object file, append;
{
  if (initial_stderr_stream != NULL)
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    {
      BLOCK_INPUT;
      fclose (stderr);
      UNBLOCK_INPUT;
    }
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  stderr = initial_stderr_stream;
  initial_stderr_stream = NULL;

  if (STRINGP (file))
    {
      file = Fexpand_file_name (file, Qnil);
      initial_stderr_stream = stderr;
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      stderr = fopen (SDATA (file), NILP (append) ? "w" : "a");
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      if (stderr == NULL)
	{
	  stderr = initial_stderr_stream;
	  initial_stderr_stream = NULL;
	  report_file_error ("Cannot open debugging output stream",
			     Fcons (file, Qnil));
	}
    }
  return Qnil;
}
#endif /* GNU_LINUX */


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/* This is the interface for debugging printing.  */

void
debug_print (arg)
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
  Fprin1 (arg, Qexternal_debugging_output);
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  fprintf (stderr, "\r\n");
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}
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void
safe_debug_print (arg)
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
  int valid = valid_lisp_object_p (arg);

  if (valid > 0)
    debug_print (arg);
  else
    fprintf (stderr, "#<%s_LISP_OBJECT 0x%08lx>\r\n",
	     !valid ? "INVALID" : "SOME",
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	     (unsigned long) XHASH (arg)
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	     );
}

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DEFUN ("error-message-string", Ferror_message_string, Serror_message_string,
       1, 1, 0,
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       doc: /* Convert an error value (ERROR-SYMBOL . DATA) to an error message.
See Info anchor `(elisp)Definition of signal' for some details on how this
error message is constructed.  */)
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     (obj)
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     Lisp_Object obj;
{
  struct buffer *old = current_buffer;
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  Lisp_Object value;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;

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  /* If OBJ is (error STRING), just return STRING.
     That is not only faster, it also avoids the need to allocate
     space here when the error is due to memory full.  */
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  if (CONSP (obj) && EQ (XCAR (obj), Qerror)
      && CONSP (XCDR (obj))
      && STRINGP (XCAR (XCDR (obj)))
      && NILP (XCDR (XCDR (obj))))
    return XCAR (XCDR (obj));
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  print_error_message (obj, Vprin1_to_string_buffer, 0, Qnil);
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  set_buffer_internal (XBUFFER (Vprin1_to_string_buffer));
  value = Fbuffer_string ();

  GCPRO1 (value);
  Ferase_buffer ();
  set_buffer_internal (old);
  UNGCPRO;

  return value;
}

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/* Print an error message for the error DATA onto Lisp output stream
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   STREAM (suitable for the print functions).
   CONTEXT is a C string describing the context of the error.
   CALLER is the Lisp function inside which the error was signaled.  */
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void
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print_error_message (data, stream, context, caller)