NEWS 398 KB
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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2001-03-15
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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Temporary note:
 +++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
 --- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so we will look at it

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.3

** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.

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---
** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

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---
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** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

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---
** Support for BSD/OS 5.0 was added.

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* Changes in Emacs 21.3
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** New display feature: focus follows mouse.
By setting the variable x-autoselect-window to non-nil value, mouse will
autoselect the window it is in.  It is turned off by default.

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** The new command `describe-text-at' pops up a buffer with description
of text properties, overlays, and widgets at point, and lets you get
more information about them, by clicking on mouse-sensitive areas or
moving there and pressing RET.

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** font-lock: in modes like C and Lisp where the fontification assumes that
an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of any string or comment,
font-lock now highlights any such open-paren-in-column-zero in bold-red
if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it can cause
trouble with fontification and/or indentation.

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+++
** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.

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** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.

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The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

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** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (like
tool bar and the menu bar itself).  You can also move the vertical
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scroll bar to either side here or turn it off completely.  There is also
a menu-item to toggle displaying of current date and time, current line
and column number in the mode-line.
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** Emacs can now indicate in the mode-line the presence of new e-mails in
directory in addition to file.  See the documentation of the user option
`display-time-mail-directory'.
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** The new option `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' causes Info to behave
like the stand-alone Info reader (from the GNU Texinfo package) as far
as motion between nodes and their subnodes is concerned.  If it is t
(the default), Emacs behaves as before when you type SPC in a menu: it
visits the subnode pointed to by the first menu entry.  If this option
is nil, SPC scrolls to the end of the current node, and only then goes
to the first menu item, like the stand-alone reader does.

This change was already in Emacs 21.1, but wasn't advertised in the
NEWS.

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---
** LDAP support now defaults to ldapsearch from OpenLDAP version 2.

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** You can now disable pc-selection-mode after enabling it.
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M-x pc-selection-mode behaves like a proper minor mode, and with no
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argument it toggles the mode.

Turning off PC-Selection mode restores the global key bindings
that were replaced by turning on the mode.

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** Changes in support of colors on character terminals

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*** The new command-line option --color=MODE lets you specify a standard
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mode for a tty color support.  It is meant to be used on character
terminals whose capabilities are not set correctly in the terminal
database, or with terminal emulators which support colors, but don't
set the TERM environment variable to a name of a color-capable
terminal.  "emacs --color" uses the same color commands as GNU `ls'
when invoked with "ls --color", so if your terminal can support colors
in "ls --color", it will support "emacs --color" as well.  See the
user manual for the possible values of the MODE parameter.

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---
*** Emacs now supports several character terminals which provide more
than 8 colors.  For example, for `xterm', 16-color, 88-color, and
256-color modes are supported.  Emacs automatically notes at startup
the extended number of colors, and defines the appropriate entries for
all of these colors.

---
*** There's a new support for colors on `rxvt' terminal emulator.

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** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.

When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
screen size.  (For now, this works only on GNU and Unix systems, and
not with every window manager.)

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** Info-index finally offers completion.

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** Controlling the left and right fringe widths.

The left and right fringe widths can now be controlled by setting the
`left-fringe' and `right-fringe' frame parameters to an integer value
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specifying the width in pixels.  Setting the width to 0 effectively
removes the corresponding fringe.

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The actual fringe widths may deviate from the specified widths, since
the combined fringe widths must match an integral number of columns.
The extra width is distributed evenly between the left and right fringe.
For force a specific fringe width, specify the width as a negative
integer (if both widths are negative, only the left fringe gets the
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specified width).
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Setting the width to nil (the default), restores the default fringe
width which is the minimum number of pixels necessary to display any
of the currently defined fringe bitmaps.  The width of the built-in
fringe bitmaps is 8 pixels.

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** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

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C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.

- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.

- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
to new-kill-line, these commands now report: 

- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line

- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>

- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

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** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

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** In GUD mode when talking to GDB, C-x C-a C-j "jumps" the program
counter to the specified source line (the one where point is).

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** GUD mode improvements for jdb:
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*** Search for source files using jdb classpath and class
    information. Fast startup since there is no need to scan all
    source files up front. There is also no need to create and maintain
    lists of source directories to scan. Look at `gud-jdb-use-classpath'
    and `gud-jdb-classpath' customization variables documentation.

*** Supports the standard breakpoint (gud-break, gud-clear)
    set/clear operations from java source files under the classpath, stack
    traversal (gud-up, gud-down), and run until current stack finish
    (gud-finish).

*** Supports new jdb (Java 1.2 and later) in addition to oldjdb
    (Java 1.1 jdb).

*** The previous method of searching for source files has been
    preserved in case someone still wants/needs to use it.
    Set gud-jdb-use-classpath to nil.

  Added Customization Variables

*** gud-jdb-command-name.  What command line to use to invoke jdb.

*** gud-jdb-use-classpath. Allows selection of java source file searching
    method: set to t for new method, nil to scan gud-jdb-directories for
    java sources (previous method).

*** gud-jdb-directories. List of directories to scan and search for java
    classes using the original gud-jdb method (if gud-jdb-use-classpath
    is nil).

  Minor Improvements

*** Do not allow debugger output history variable to grow without bounds.

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** hide-ifdef-mode now uses overlays rather than selective-display
to hide its text.  This should be mostly transparent but slightly
changes the behavior of motion commands line C-e and C-p.

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** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
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doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
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special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

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** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

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** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.
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If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
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idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
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example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.
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** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.  If
you hit M-C-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h (mark-paragraph), or
C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region will now be extended
each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC M-C-SPC,
for example.  This feature also works for mark-end-of-sentence, if you
bind that to a key.
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** In the *Occur* buffer, `o' switches to it in another window, and
C-o displays the current line's occurrence in another window without
switching to it.
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** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

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** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.
With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
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if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding
paragraphs.
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** In Dired, the w command now copies the current line's file name
into the kill ring.

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** The variables dired-free-space-program and dired-free-space-args
have been renamed to directory-free-space-program and
directory-free-space-args, and they now apply whenever Emacs puts a
directory listing into a buffer.

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** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

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** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on
your current locale settings.  If it turns out that your terminal
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does not support the encoding implied by your locale (for example,
it inserts non-ASCII chars if you hit M-i), you will need to add
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	(set-keyboard-coding-system nil)

to your .emacs to revert to the old behavior.

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** A new coding system `euc-tw' has been added for traditional Chinese
in CNS encoding; it accepts both Big 5 and CNS as input; on saving,
Big 5 is then converted to CNS.

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** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
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automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
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according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.
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** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.
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** The default values of `tooltip-delay' and `tooltip-hide-delay'
were changed.

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** On terminals whose erase-char is ^H (Backspace), Emacs
now uses normal-erase-is-backspace-mode.

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** Etags changes.

*** In Prolog, etags creates tags for rules in addition to predicates.

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*** In Perl, packages are tags.  Subroutine tags are named from their
package.  You can jump to sub tags as you did before, by the sub name, or
additionally by looking for package::sub.

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*** New language PHP: tags are functions, classes and defines.  If
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the --members option is specified to etags, tags are vars also.

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** The command line option --no-windows has been changed to
--no-window-system.  The old one still works, but is deprecated.

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** `buffer-menu' and `list-buffers' now list buffers whose names begin
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with a space, if they visit files.

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** You can now customize fill-nobreak-predicate to control where
filling can break lines.  We provide two sample predicates,
fill-single-word-nobreak-p and fill-french-nobreak-p.
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** New user option `add-log-always-start-new-record'.
When this option is enabled, M-x add-change-log-entry will always
start a new record regardless of when the last record is.

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** New user option `sgml-xml'.
When this option is enabled, SGML tags are inserted in XML style,
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i.e., there is always a closing tag.
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When not customized, it becomes buffer-local when it can be inferred
from the file name or buffer contents.
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** New user option `isearch-resume-enabled'.
This option can be disabled, to avoid the normal behaviour of isearch
which puts calls to `isearch-resume' in the command history.

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** When the *scratch* buffer is recreated, its mode is set from
initial-major-mode, which normally is lisp-interaction-mode,
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instead of using default-major-mode.
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** Byte compiler warning and error messages have been brought more
in line with the output of other GNU tools.

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** Lisp-mode now uses font-lock-doc-face for the docstrings.
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** perl-mode has a new variable `perl-indent-continued-arguments'.

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** `special-display-buffer-names' and `special-display-regexps' now
understand two new boolean pseudo-frame-parameters `same-frame' and
`same-window'.

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** When pure storage overflows while dumping, Emacs now prints how
much pure storage it will approximately need.

** M-x setenv now expands environment variables of the form `$foo' and
`${foo}' in the specified new value of the environment variable.  To
include a `$' in the value, use `$$'.

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** File-name completion can now ignore directories.
If an element of the list in `completion-ignored-extensions' ends in a
slash `/', it indicates a subdirectory that should be ignored when
completing file names.  Elements of `completion-ignored-extensions'
which do not end in a slash are never considered when a completion
candidate is a directory.

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** New user option `inhibit-startup-buffer-menu'.
When loading many files, for instance with `emacs *', Emacs normally
displays a buffer menu.  This option turns the buffer menu off.

** Rmail now displays 5-digit message ids in its summary buffer.

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** When using M-x revert-buffer in a compilation buffer to rerun a
compilation, it is now made sure that the compilation buffer is reused
in case it has been renamed.

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** On MS Windows, the "system caret" now follows the cursor.
This enables Emacs to work better with programs that need to track
the cursor, for example screen magnifiers and text to speech programs.

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** Tooltips now work on MS Windows.
See the Emacs 21.1 NEWS entry for tooltips for details.

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** Pointing devices with more than 3 buttons are now supported on MS Windows.
The new variable `w32-pass-extra-mouse-buttons-to-system' controls
whether Emacs should handle the extra buttons itself (the default), or
pass them to Windows to be handled with system-wide functions.

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** Under X11, it is possible to swap Alt and Meta (and Super and Hyper).
The new variables `x-alt-keysym', `x-hyper-keysym', `x-meta-keysym',
and `x-super-keysym' can be used to choose which keysyms Emacs should
use for the modifiers.  For example, the following two lines swap
Meta and Alt:
    (setq x-alt-keysym 'meta)
    (setq x-meta-keysym 'alt)

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---
** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

---
** A French translation of the Emacs Tutorial is available.

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** New modes and packages

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*** Calc is now part of the Emacs distribution.

Calc is an advanced desk calculator and mathematical tool written in
Emacs Lisp.  Its documentation is in a separate manual; within Emacs,
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type "C-h i m calc RET" to read that manual.  A reference card is
available in `etc/calccard.tex' and `etc/calccard.ps'.
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*** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

The ELisp reference manual in Info format is built as part of the
Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
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Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).
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*** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
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together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).
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*** The ruler-mode.el library provides a minor mode for displaying an
"active" ruler in the header line.  You can use the mouse to visually
change the `fill-column', `window-margins' and `tab-stop-list'
settings.

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*** The reveal.el package provides the minor modes `reveal-mode' and
`global-reveal-mode' which will make text visible on the fly as you
move your cursor into hidden region of the buffer.
It should work with any package that uses overlays to hide parts
of a buffer, such as outline-minor-mode, hs-minor-mode, hide-ifdef-mode, ...

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*** master-mode.el implements a minor mode for scrolling a slave
buffer without leaving your current buffer, the master buffer.

It can be used by sql.el, for example: the SQL buffer is the master
and its SQLi buffer is the slave.  This allows you to scroll the SQLi
buffer containing the output from the SQL buffer containing the
commands.

This is how to use sql.el and master.el together: the variable
sql-buffer contains the slave buffer.  It is a local variable in the
SQL buffer.

(add-hook 'sql-mode-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-mode t)
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))
(add-hook 'sql-set-sqli-hook
   (function (lambda ()
	       (master-set-slave sql-buffer))))

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* Lisp Changes in Emacs 21.3

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** Interactive commands can be remapped through keymaps.

This is an alternative to using defadvice or substitute-key-definition
to modify the behaviour of a key binding using the normal keymap
binding and lookup functionality.

When a key sequence is bound to a command, and that command is
remapped to another command, that command is run instead of the
original command.

Example:
Suppose that minor mode my-mode has defined the commands
my-kill-line and my-kill-word, and it wants C-k (and any other key
bound to kill-line) to run the command my-kill-line instead of
kill-line, and likewise it wants to run my-kill-word instead of
kill-word.

Instead of rebinding C-k and the other keys in the minor mode map,
command remapping allows you to directly map kill-line into
my-kill-line and kill-word into my-kill-word through the minor mode
map using define-key:

   (define-key my-mode-map 'kill-line 'my-kill-line)
   (define-key my-mode-map 'kill-word 'my-kill-word)

Now, when my-mode is enabled, and the user enters C-k or M-d,
the commands my-kill-line and my-kill-word are run.

Notice that only one level of remapping is supported.  In the above
example, this means that if my-kill-line is remapped to other-kill,
then C-k still runs my-kill-line.

The following changes have been made to provide command remapping:

- define-key now accepts a command name as the KEY argument.
  This identifies the command to be remapped in the specified keymap.
  This is equivalent to specifying the command name as the only
  element of a vector, e.g [kill-line], except that when KEY is a
  symbol, the DEF argument must also be a symbol.

- In calls from Lisp, global-set-key, global-unset-key, local-set-key,
  and local-unset-key also accept a command name as the KEY argument.

- key-binding now remaps interactive commands unless the optional
  third argument NO-REMAP is non-nil.  It also accepts a command name
  as the KEY argument.

- lookup-key now accepts a command name as the KEY argument.

- where-is-internal now returns nil for a remapped command (e.g.
  kill-line if my-mode is enabled), and the actual key binding for
  the command it is remapped to (e.g. C-k for my-kill-line).
  It also has a new optional fifth argument, NO-REMAP, which inhibits
  remapping if non-nil (e.g. it returns C-k for kill-line and
  <kill-line> for my-kill-line).

- The new variable `this-original-command' contains the original
  command before remapping.  It is equal to `this-command' when the
  command was not remapped.

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** Atomic change groups.

To perform some changes in the current buffer "atomically" so that
they either all succeed or are all undone, use `atomic-change-group'
around the code that makes changes.  For instance:

  (atomic-change-group
    (insert foo)
    (delete-region x y))

If an error (or other nonlocal exit) occurs inside the body of
`atomic-change-group', it unmakes all the changes in that buffer that
were during the execution of the body.  The change group has no effect
on any other buffers--any such changes remain.

If you need something more sophisticated, you can directly call the
lower-level functions that `atomic-change-group' uses.  Here is how.

To set up a change group for one buffer, call `prepare-change-group'.
Specify the buffer as argument; it defaults to the current buffer.
This function returns a "handle" for the change group.  You must save
the handle to activate the change group and then finish it.

Before you change the buffer again, you must activate the change
group.  Pass the handle to `activate-change-group' afterward to
do this.

After you make the changes, you must finish the change group.  You can
either accept the changes or cancel them all.  Call
`accept-change-group' to accept the changes in the group as final;
call `cancel-change-group' to undo them all.

You should use `unwind-protect' to make sure the group is always
finished.  The call to `activate-change-group' should be inside the
`unwind-protect', in case the user types C-g just after it runs.
(This is one reason why `prepare-change-group' and
`activate-change-group' are separate functions.)  Once you finish the
group, don't use the handle again--don't try to finish the same group
twice.

To make a multibuffer change group, call `prepare-change-group' once
for each buffer you want to cover, then use `nconc' to combine the
returned values, like this:

  (nconc (prepare-change-group buffer-1)
         (prepare-change-group buffer-2))

You can then activate the multibuffer change group with a single call
to `activate-change-group', and finish it with a single call to
`accept-change-group' or `cancel-change-group'.

Nested use of several change groups for the same buffer works as you
would expect.  Non-nested use of change groups for the same buffer
will lead to undesirable results, so don't let it happen; the first
change group you start for any given buffer should be the last one
finished.

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** New function substring-no-properties.

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+++
*** The meanings of scroll-up-aggressively and scroll-down-aggressively
have been interchanged, so that the former now controls scrolling up,
and the latter now controls scrolling down.

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+++
** New function window-body-height.

This is like window-height but does not count the mode line
or the header line.

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** You can now make a window as short as one line.

A window that is just one line tall does not display either a mode
line or a header line, even if the variables `mode-line-format' and
`header-line-format' call for them.  A window that is two lines tall
cannot display both a mode line and a header line at once; if the
variables call for both, only the mode line actually appears.

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** The new frame parameter `tty-color-mode' specifies the mode to use
for color support on character terminal frames.  Its value can be a
number of colors to support, or a symbol.  See the Emacs Lisp
Reference manual for more detailed documentation.

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** Already true in Emacs 21.1, but not emphasized clearly enough:

Multibyte buffers can now faithfully record all 256 character codes
from 0 to 255.  As a result, most of the past reasons to use unibyte
buffers no longer exist.  We only know of three reasons to use them
now:

1. If you prefer to use unibyte text all of the time.

2. For reading files into temporary buffers, when you want to avoid
the time it takes to convert the format.

3. For binary files where format conversion would be pointless and
wasteful.

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** If text has a `keymap' property, that keymap takes precedence
over minor mode keymaps.

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** A hex escape in a string forces the string to be multibyte.
An octal escape makes it unibyte.

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** The position after an invisible, intangible character
is considered an unacceptable value for point;
intangibility processing effectively treats the following character
as part of the intangible region even if it is not itself intangible.

Thus, point can go before an invisible, intangible region, but not
after it.  This prevents C-f and C-b from appearing to stand still on
the screen.

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** define-abbrev now accepts an optional argument SYSTEM-FLAG.  If
non-nil, this marks the abbrev as a "system" abbrev, which means that
it won't be stored in the user's abbrevs file if he saves the abbrevs.
Major modes that predefine some abbrevs should always specify this
flag.

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** Support for Mocklisp has been removed.

** The function insert-string is now obsolete.

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** The precedence of file-name-handlers has been changed.
Instead of blindly choosing the first handler that matches,
find-file-name-handler now gives precedence to a file-name handler
that matches near the end of the file name.  More specifically, the
handler whose (match-beginning 0) is the largest is chosen.
In case of ties, the old "first matched" rule applies.

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** Dense keymaps now handle inheritance correctly.
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Previously a dense keymap would hide all of the simple-char key
bindings of the parent keymap.
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** jit-lock obeys a new text-property `jit-lock-defer-multiline'.
If a piece of text with that property gets contextually refontified
(see jit-lock-defer-contextually), then all of that text will
be refontified.  This is useful when the syntax of a textual element
depends on text several lines further down (and when font-lock-multiline
is not appropriate to solve that problem).  For example in Perl:

	s{
		foo
	}{
		bar
	}e

Adding/removing the last `e' changes the `bar' from being a piece of
text to being a piece of code, so you'd put a jit-lock-defer-multiline
property over the second half of the command to force (deferred)
refontification of `bar' whenever the `e' is added/removed.

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** describe-vector now takes a second argument `describer' which is
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called to print the entries' values.  It defaults to `princ'.
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** defcustom and other custom declarations now use a default group
(the last group defined in the same file) when no :group was given.

** emacsserver now runs pre-command-hook and post-command-hook when
it receives a request from emacsclient.

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** The variable `recursive-load-depth-limit' has been deleted.
Emacs now signals an error if the same file is loaded with more
than 3 levels of nesting.

** The default values of paragraph-start and indent-line-function have
been changed to reflect those used in Text mode rather than those used
in Indented-Text mode.
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** If a major mode function has a non-nil `no-clone-indirect'
property, `clone-indirect-buffer' signals an error if you use
it in that buffer.

** If you set `query-replace-skip-read-only' non-nil,
`query-replace' and related functions simply ignore
a match if part of it has a read-only property.

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** In `replace-match', the replacement text no longer inherits
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properties from surrounding text.
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** New function `buffer-local-value'.

- Function: buffer-local-value variable buffer

This function returns the buffer-local binding of VARIABLE (a symbol)
in buffer BUFFER.  If VARIABLE does not have a buffer-local binding in
buffer BUFFER, it returns the default value of VARIABLE instead.
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** The default value of `paragraph-start' and `indent-line-function' has
been changed to reflect the one used in Text mode rather than the one
used in Indented Text mode.
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** New function `text-clone-create'.  Text clones are chunks of text
that are kept identical by transparently propagating changes from one
clone to the other.

** font-lock can manage arbitrary text-properties beside `face'.
*** the FACENAME returned in font-lock-keywords can be a list
of the form (face FACE PROP1 VAL1 PROP@ VAL2 ...) so you can set
other properties than `face'.
*** font-lock-extra-managed-props can be set to make sure those extra
properties are automatically cleaned up by font-lock.

** The new function `run-mode-hooks' and the new macro `delay-mode-hooks'
are used by define-derived-mode to make sure the mode hook for the
parent mode is run at the end of the child mode.

** `provide' and `featurep' now accept an optional second argument
to test/provide subfeatures.  Also `provide' now checks `after-load-alist'
and run any code associated with the provided feature.

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** The variable `compilation-parse-errors-filename-function' can
be used to transform filenames found in compilation output.

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** Functions `file-name-sans-extension' and `file-name-extension' now
ignore the leading dots in file names, so that file names such as
`.emacs' are treated as extensionless.

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** Functions `user-uid' and `user-real-uid' now return floats if the
user UID doesn't fit in a Lisp integer.  Function `user-full-name'
accepts a float as UID parameter.

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** `define-key-after' now accepts keys longer than 1.

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** `define-derived-mode' now accepts nil as the parent.
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** The local variable `no-byte-compile' in elisp files is now obeyed.

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** New functions `keymap-prompt' and `current-active-maps'.

** New function `describe-buffer-bindings'.

** New vars `exec-suffixes' and `load-suffixes' used when
searching for an executable resp. an elisp file.

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** Variable aliases have been implemented

- Macro: defvaralias ALIAS-VAR BASE-VAR

This defines the symbol ALIAS-VAR as a variable alias for symbol
BASE-VAR.  This means that retrieving the value of ALIAS-VAR returns
the value of BASE-VAR, and changing the value of ALIAS-VAR changes the
value of BASE-VAR.

- Function: indirect-variable VARIABLE

This function returns the variable at the end of the chain of aliases
of VARIABLE.  If VARIABLE is not a symbol, or if VARIABLE is not
defined as an alias, the function returns VARIABLE.

It might be noteworthy that variables aliases work for all kinds of
variables, including buffer-local and frame-local variables.

** Functions from `post-gc-hook' are run at the end of garbage
collection.  The hook is run with GC inhibited, so use it with care.

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** If the second argument to `copy-file' is the name of a directory,
the file is copied to that directory instead of signaling an error.

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** The variables most-positive-fixnum and most-negative-fixnum
have been moved from the CL package to the core.

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** On MS Windows, locale-coding-system is used to interact with the OS.
The Windows specific variable w32-system-coding-system, which was
formerly used for that purpose is now an alias for locale-coding-system.

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** New packages:

*** The new package syntax.el provides an efficient way to find the
current syntactic context (as returned by parse-partial-sexp).

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*** The TCL package tcl-mode.el was replaced by tcl.el.
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This was actually done in Emacs-21.1, and was not documented.

*** The new package Ibuffer provides a powerful, completely
customizable replacement for buff-menu.el.
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818

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

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See the INSTALL file for information on installing extra libraries and
fonts to take advantage of the new graphical features and extra
charsets in this release.

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** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

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** Support for LynxOS has been added.

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** There are new configure options associated with the support for
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images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in `configure'
to list them.
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** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
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support 64-bit executables and also on Irix 6.5.  This increases the
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maximum buffer size.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.  Changes to
build on other 64-bit systems should be straightforward modulo any
necessary changes to unexec.
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** There is a new configure option `--disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** There is a new configure option `--without-xim' that instructs
Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.

** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.
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** This version can be built for the Macintosh, but does not implement
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all of the new display features described below.  The port currently
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lacks unexec, asynchronous processes, and networking support.  See the
"Emacs and the Mac OS" appendix in the Emacs manual, for the
description of aspects specific to the Mac.
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** Note that the MS-Windows port does not yet implement various of the
new display features described below.

857

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* Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes such as `overline', `strike-through', and `box' are ignored
on terminals.

The command-line options `-fg COLOR', `-bg COLOR', and `-rv' are now
supported on character terminals.

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Emacs automatically remaps all X-style color specifications to one of
the colors supported by the terminal.  This means you could have the
same color customizations that work both on a windowed display and on
a TTY or when Emacs is invoked with the -nw option.

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** New default font is Courier 12pt under X.

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** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
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You must configure Emacs with the option `--with-sound=yes' to enable
sound support.
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** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs can resize the minibuffer window unless it
is on a frame of its own.  You can control resizing and the maximum
minibuffer window size by setting the following variables:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.

Default is 0.25.

- User option: resize-mini-windows

How to resize mini-windows.  If nil, don't resize.  If t, always
resize to fit the size of the text.  If `grow-only', let mini-windows
grow only, until they become empty, at which point they are shrunk
again.

Default is `grow-only'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see
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** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is
non-nil.

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** File selection dialog on MS-Windows is supported.

When a file is visited by clicking File->Open, the MS-Windows version
now pops up a standard file selection dialog where you can select a
file to visit.  File->Save As also pops up that dialog.

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** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scroll bars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scroll bar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring
Emacs.

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
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imake configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
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Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
of how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level
changes.  Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is
displayed and is on by default.  The appearance of the bar is improved
if Emacs has been built with XPM image support.  Otherwise monochrome
icons will be used.

To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
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for specific modes (with copyright assignments).
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** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  The Lisp package `tooltip' implements them.  You can
turn them off via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

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** Automatic Hscrolling

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
`automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be
customized.

If a window is scrolled horizontally with set-window-hscroll, or
scroll-left/scroll-right (C-x <, C-x >), this serves as a lower bound
for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling will scroll
the text more to the left if necessary, but won't scroll the text more
to the right than the column set with set-window-hscroll etc.

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** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  By default, when a window is selected, the cursor is
solid; otherwise, it is hollow.  The user-option
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`cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to display the
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cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is shown, if
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non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.
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** Fringes to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.
You can change its appearance by modifying the face `mode-line'.
In particular, setting the `:box' attribute to nil turns off the 3D
appearance of the mode line.  (The 3D appearance makes the mode line
occupy more space, and thus might cause the first or the last line of
the window to be partially obscured.)

The variable `mode-line-inverse-video', which was used in older
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versions of emacs to make the mode-line stand out, is now deprecated.
However, setting it to nil will cause the `mode-line' face to be
ignored, and mode-lines to be drawn using the default text face.
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** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

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Different parts of the mode line have been made mouse-sensitive on all
systems which support the mouse.  Moving the mouse to a
mouse-sensitive part in the mode line changes the appearance of the
mouse pointer to an arrow, and help about available mouse actions is
displayed either in the echo area, or in the tooltip window if you
have enabled one.
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Currently, the following actions have been defined:

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- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line goes to the next buffer.
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- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name goes to the previous buffer.
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- Mouse-2 on the read-only or modified status in the mode line (`%' or
`*') toggles the status.

- Mouse-3 on the mode name displays a minor-mode menu.

** Hourglass pointer

Emacs can optionally display an hourglass pointer under X.  You can
turn the display on or off by customizing group `cursor'.

** Blinking cursor

M-x blink-cursor-mode toggles a blinking cursor under X and on
terminals having terminal capabilities `vi', `vs', and `ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group `cursor'.

** New font-lock support mode `jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to `lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function `jit-lock-mode' for more
details.

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

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** The default binding of the Delete key has changed.

The new user-option `normal-erase-is-backspace' can be set to
determine the effect of the Delete and Backspace function keys.

On window systems, the default value of this option is chosen
according to the keyboard used.  If the keyboard has both a Backspace
key and a Delete key, and both are mapped to their usual meanings, the
option's default value is set to t, so that Backspace can be used to
delete backward, and Delete can be used to delete forward.  On
keyboards which either have only one key (usually labeled DEL), or two
keys DEL and BS which produce the same effect, the option's value is
set to nil, and these keys delete backward.

If not running under a window system, setting this option accomplishes
a similar effect by mapping C-h, which is usually generated by the
Backspace key, to DEL, and by mapping DEL to C-d via
`keyboard-translate'.  The former functionality of C-h is available on
the F1 key.  You should probably not use this setting on a text-only
terminal if you don't have both Backspace, Delete and F1 keys.

Programmatically, you can call function normal-erase-is-backspace-mode
to toggle the behavior of the Delete and Backspace keys.

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** The default for user-option `next-line-add-newlines' has been
changed to nil, i.e. C-n will no longer add newlines at the end of a
buffer by default.

** The <home> and <end> keys now move to the beginning or end of the
current line, respectively.  C-<home> and C-<end> move to the
beginning and end of the buffer.

** Emacs now checks for recursive loads of Lisp files.  If the
recursion depth exceeds `recursive-load-depth-limit', an error is
signaled.

** When an error is signaled during the loading of the user's init
file, Emacs now pops up the *Messages* buffer.

** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set `load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

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The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs's byte
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compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

** Toggle buttons and radio buttons in menus.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
widgets for radio and toggle buttons in menus.  When configured for
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

** Item Save Options on the Options menu allows saving options set
using that menu.

** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face `trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the
whitespace.

** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

** The new user-option `confirm-kill-emacs' can be customized to
let Emacs ask for confirmation before exiting.

** The header line in an Info buffer is now displayed as an emacs
header-line (which is like a mode-line, but at the top of the window),
so that it remains visible even when the buffer has been scrolled.
This behavior may be disabled by customizing the option
`Info-use-header-line'.

** Polish, Czech, German, and French translations of Emacs' reference card
have been added.  They are named `pl-refcard.tex', `cs-refcard.tex',
`de-refcard.tex' and `fr-refcard.tex'.  Postscript files are included.

** An `Emacs Survival Guide', etc/survival.tex, is available.

** A reference card for Dired has been added.  Its name is
`dired-ref.tex'.  A French translation is available in
`fr-drdref.tex'.

** C-down-mouse-3 is bound differently.  Now if the menu bar is not
displayed it pops up a menu containing the items which would be on the
menu bar.  If the menu bar is displayed, it pops up the major mode
menu or the Edit menu if there is no major mode menu.

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** Variable `load-path' is no longer customizable through Customize.
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You can no longer use `M-x customize-variable' to customize `load-path'
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because it now contains a version-dependent component.  You can still
use `add-to-list' and `setq' to customize this variable in your
`~/.emacs' init file or to modify it from any Lisp program in general.
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** C-u C-x = provides detailed information about the character at
point in a pop-up window.

** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, use the `mouse-wheel-mode' command, or
customize the variable `mouse-wheel-mode'.

The variables `mouse-wheel-follow-mouse' and `mouse-wheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

** Emacs' auto-save list files are now by default stored in a
sub-directory `.emacs.d/auto-save-list/' of the user's home directory.
(On MS-DOS, this subdirectory's name is `_emacs.d/auto-save.list/'.)
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You can customize `auto-save-list-file-prefix' to change this location.
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** The function `getenv' is now callable interactively.

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** The new user-option `even-window-heights' can be set to nil
to prevent `display-buffer' from evening out window heights.

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** The new command M-x delete-trailing-whitespace RET will delete the
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trailing whitespace within the current restriction.  You can also add
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this function to `write-file-hooks' or `local-write-file-hooks'.

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** When visiting a file with M-x find-file-literally, no newlines will
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be added to the end of the buffer even if `require-final-newline' is
non-nil.
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** The new user-option `find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' can be
set to suppress warnings ``X and Y are the same file'' when visiting a
file that is already visited under a different name.

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** The new user-option `electric-help-shrink-window' can be set to
nil to prevent adjusting the help window size to the buffer size.

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** New command M-x describe-character-set reads a character set name
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and displays information about that.
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** The new variable `auto-mode-interpreter-regexp' contains a regular
expression matching interpreters, for file mode determination.

This regular expression is matched against the first line of a file to
determine the file's mode in `set-auto-mode' when Emacs can't deduce a
mode from the file's name.  If it matches, the file is assumed to be
interpreted by the interpreter matched by the second group of the
regular expression.  The mode is then determined as the mode
associated with that interpreter in `interpreter-mode-alist'.

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** New function executable-make-buffer-file-executable-if-script-p is
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suitable as an after-save-hook as an alternative to `executable-chmod'.
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** The most preferred coding-system is now used to save a buffer if
buffer-file-coding-system is `undecided' and it is safe for the buffer
contents.  (The most preferred is set by set-language-environment or
by M-x prefer-coding-system.)  Thus if you visit an ASCII file and
insert a non-ASCII character from your current language environment,
the file will be saved silently with the appropriate coding.
Previously you would be prompted for a safe coding system.

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** The many obsolete language `setup-...-environment' commands have
been removed -- use `set-language-environment'.

** The new Custom option `keyboard-coding-system' specifies a coding
system for keyboard input.

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** New variable `inhibit-iso-escape-detection' determines if Emacs'
coding system detection algorithm should pay attention to ISO2022's
escape sequences.  If this variable is non-nil, the algorithm ignores
such escape sequences.  The default value is nil, and it is
recommended not to change it except for the special case that you
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always want to read any escape code verbatim.  If you just want to
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read a specific file without decoding escape codes, use C-x RET c
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(`universal-coding-system-argument').  For instance, C-x RET c latin-1
RET C-x C-f filename RET.
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** Variable `default-korean-keyboard' is initialized properly from the
environment variable `HANGUL_KEYBOARD_TYPE'.

** New command M-x list-charset-chars reads a character set name and
displays all characters in that character set.

** M-x set-terminal-coding-system (C-x RET t) now allows CCL-based
coding systems such as cpXXX and cyrillic-koi8.

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** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.

** New language environments `Polish', `Latin-8' and `Latin-9'.
Latin-8 and Latin-9 correspond respectively to the ISO character sets
8859-14 (Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign).
GNU Intlfonts doesn't support these yet but recent X releases have
8859-15.  See etc/INSTALL for information on obtaining extra fonts.
There are new Leim input methods for Latin-8 and Latin-9 prefix (only)
and Polish `slash'.

** New language environments `Dutch' and `Spanish'.
These new environments mainly select appropriate translations
of the tutorial.

** In Ethiopic language environment, special key bindings for
function keys are changed as follows.  This is to conform to "Emacs
Lisp Coding Convention".

    new  command                            old-binding
    ---  -------                            -----------
    f3   ethio-fidel-to-sera-buffer         f5
    S-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-region         f5
    C-f3 ethio-fidel-to-sera-mail-or-marker f5

    f4   ethio-sera-to-fidel-buffer         unchanged
    S-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-region         unchanged
    C-f4 ethio-sera-to-fidel-mail-or-marker unchanged

    S-f5 ethio-toggle-punctuation           f3
    S-f6 ethio-modify-vowel                 f6
    S-f7 ethio-replace-space                f7
    S-f8 ethio-input-special-character      f8
    S-f9 ethio-replace-space                unchanged
    C-f9 ethio-toggle-space                 f2

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** There are new Leim input methods.
New input methods "turkish-postfix", "turkish-alt-postfix",
"greek-mizuochi", "TeX", and "greek-babel" are now part of the Leim
package.

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** The rule of input method "slovak" is slightly changed.  Now the
rules for translating "q" and "Q" to "`" (backquote) are deleted, thus
typing them inserts "q" and "Q" respectively.  Rules for translating
"=q", "+q", "=Q", and "+Q" to "`" are also deleted.  Now, to input
"`", you must type "=q".

** When your terminal can't display characters from some of the ISO
8859 character sets but can display Latin-1, you can display
more-or-less mnemonic sequences of ASCII/Latin-1 characters instead of
empty boxes (under a window system) or question marks (not under a
window system).  Customize the option `latin1-display' to turn this
on.

** M-; now calls comment-dwim which tries to do something clever based
on the context.  M-x kill-comment is now an alias to comment-kill,
defined in newcomment.el.  You can choose different styles of region
commenting with the variable `comment-style'.
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** New user options `display-time-mail-face' and
`display-time-use-mail-icon' control the appearance of mode-line mail
indicator used by the display-time package.  On a suitable display the
indicator can be an icon and is mouse-sensitive.

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** On window-systems, additional space can be put between text lines
on the display using several methods

- By setting frame parameter `line-spacing' to PIXELS.  PIXELS must be
a positive integer, and specifies that PIXELS number of pixels should
be put below text lines on the affected frame or frames.

- By setting X resource `lineSpacing', class `LineSpacing'.  This is
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equivalent to specifying the frame parameter.
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- By specifying `--line-spacing=N' or `-lsp N' on the command line.
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- By setting buffer-local variable `line-spacing'.  The meaning is
the same, but applies to the a particular buffer only.

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** The new command `clone-indirect-buffer' can be used to create
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an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current buffer.  The
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command `clone-indirect-buffer-other-window', bound to C-x 4 c,
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does the same but displays the indirect buffer in another window.
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** New user options `backup-directory-alist' and
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`make-backup-file-name-function' control the placement of backups,
typically in a single directory or in an invisible sub-directory.
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** New commands iso-iso2sgml and iso-sgml2iso convert between Latin-1
characters and the corresponding SGML (HTML) entities.

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** New X resources recognized
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*** The X resource `synchronous', class `Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.

Example:

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  emacs.synchronous: true
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*** The X resource `visualClass, class `VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form `CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are

  TrueColor
  PseudoColor
  DirectColor
  StaticColor
  GrayScale
  StaticGray

Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
`pseudocolor', `Pseudocolor' and `PseudoColor' all have the same
meaning.

The program `xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
`visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default
visual.

Example:

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  emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8
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*** The X resource `privateColormap', class `PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are `true' or `on'.

Example:

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  emacs.privateColormap: true
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** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces `scroll-bar', `border', `cursor' and `mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters `scroll-bar-foreground' and
`scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
`scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter `border-color'
sets the background color of face `border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters `cursor-color' and face `cursor', and frame
parameter `mouse-color' and face `mouse'.

Changing frame parameter `font' sets font-related attributes of the
`default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
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`foreground-color' or `background-color' sets the colors of the
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`default' face and vice versa.

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** New face `menu'.

The face `menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.

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** New frame parameter `screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter `screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is `screenGamma', class
`ScreenGamma'.

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

	emacs.pane.menubar.margin: 5

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The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the
LessTif/Motif one.
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*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, as in
LessTif and Motif.
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** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
`x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
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bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi and Less).
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This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in `default-indicate-empty-lines'.

** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
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value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-up-aggressively' is a
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number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.
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When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
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value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-down-aggressively' is a
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number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.
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** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either
M-x clone-buffer, C-u m <entry> RET or C-u g <entry> RET.
M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and several other special
buffers.

** The command `Info-search' now uses a search history.

** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing
`directory-abbrev-alist'.

** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

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** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

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** The function `replace-rectangle' is an alias for `string-rectangle'.
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** The new command M-x string-insert-rectangle is like `string-rectangle',
but inserts text instead of replacing it.
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** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

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** M-x query-replace recognizes a new command `e' (or `E') that lets
you edit the replacement string.
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** The new command mail-abbrev-complete-alias, bound to `M-TAB'
(if you load the library `mailabbrev'), lets you complete mail aliases
in the text, analogous to lisp-complete-symbol.
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** The variable `echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.
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** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), `user-init-file' is set
to the source name (.emacs.el), if that exists, after loading it.
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** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
the property `:help HELP' is now displayed under X, on MS-Windows, and
MS-DOS, either in the echo area or with tooltips.  Many standard menus
displayed by Emacs now have help strings.
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** New user option `read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to
read mail from the menu etc.
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** The environment variable `EMACSLOCKDIR' is no longer used on MS-Windows.
This environment variable was used when creating lock files.  Emacs on
MS-Windows does not use this variable anymore.  This change was made
before Emacs 21.1, but wasn't documented until now.
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** Highlighting of mouse-sensitive regions is now supported in the
MS-DOS version of Emacs.
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** The new command `msdos-set-mouse-buttons' forces the MS-DOS version
of Emacs to behave as if the mouse had a specified number of buttons.
This comes handy with mice that don't report their number of buttons
correctly.  One example is the wheeled mice, which report 3 buttons,
but clicks on the middle button are not passed to the MS-DOS version
of Emacs.
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** Customize changes
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*** Customize now supports comments about customized items.  Use the
`State' menu to add comments, or give a prefix argument to
M-x customize-set-variable or M-x customize-set-value.  Note that
customization comments will cause the customizations to fail in
earlier versions of Emacs.
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*** The new option `custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the
default).
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*** If Emacs was invoked with the `-q' or `--no-init-f