fns.c 122 KB
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/* Random utility Lisp functions.
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   Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 87, 93, 94, 95, 97, 98, 1999 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
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the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 59 Temple Place - Suite 330,
Boston, MA 02111-1307, USA.  */
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#include <config.h>
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#ifdef HAVE_UNISTD_H
#include <unistd.h>
#endif
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#include <time.h>
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/* Note on some machines this defines `vector' as a typedef,
   so make sure we don't use that name in this file.  */
#undef vector
#define vector *****

#include "lisp.h"
#include "commands.h"
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#include "charset.h"
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#include "buffer.h"
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#include "keyboard.h"
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#include "intervals.h"
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#include "frame.h"
#include "window.h"
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#if defined (HAVE_MENUS) && defined (HAVE_X_WINDOWS)
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#include "xterm.h"
#endif
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#ifndef NULL
#define NULL (void *)0
#endif

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#ifndef min
#define min(a, b) ((a) < (b) ? (a) : (b))
#define max(a, b) ((a) > (b) ? (a) : (b))
#endif

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/* Nonzero enables use of dialog boxes for questions
   asked by mouse commands.  */
int use_dialog_box;

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extern int minibuffer_auto_raise;
extern Lisp_Object minibuf_window;

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Lisp_Object Qstring_lessp, Qprovide, Qrequire;
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Lisp_Object Qyes_or_no_p_history;
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Lisp_Object Qcursor_in_echo_area;
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Lisp_Object Qwidget_type;
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extern Lisp_Object Qinput_method_function;

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static int internal_equal ();
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extern long get_random ();
extern void seed_random ();

#ifndef HAVE_UNISTD_H
extern long time ();
#endif
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DEFUN ("identity", Fidentity, Sidentity, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return the argument unchanged.")
  (arg)
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
  return arg;
}

DEFUN ("random", Frandom, Srandom, 0, 1, 0,
  "Return a pseudo-random number.\n\
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All integers representable in Lisp are equally likely.\n\
  On most systems, this is 28 bits' worth.\n\
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With positive integer argument N, return random number in interval [0,N).\n\
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With argument t, set the random number seed from the current time and pid.")
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  (n)
     Lisp_Object n;
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{
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  EMACS_INT val;
  Lisp_Object lispy_val;
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  unsigned long denominator;
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  if (EQ (n, Qt))
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    seed_random (getpid () + time (NULL));
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  if (NATNUMP (n) && XFASTINT (n) != 0)
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    {
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      /* Try to take our random number from the higher bits of VAL,
	 not the lower, since (says Gentzel) the low bits of `random'
	 are less random than the higher ones.  We do this by using the
	 quotient rather than the remainder.  At the high end of the RNG
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	 it's possible to get a quotient larger than n; discarding
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	 these values eliminates the bias that would otherwise appear
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	 when using a large n.  */
      denominator = ((unsigned long)1 << VALBITS) / XFASTINT (n);
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      do
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	val = get_random () / denominator;
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      while (val >= XFASTINT (n));
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    }
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  else
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    val = get_random ();
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  XSETINT (lispy_val, val);
  return lispy_val;
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}

/* Random data-structure functions */

DEFUN ("length", Flength, Slength, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return the length of vector, list or string SEQUENCE.\n\
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A byte-code function object is also allowed.\n\
If the string contains multibyte characters, this is not the necessarily\n\
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the number of bytes in the string; it is the number of characters.\n\
To get the number of bytes, use `string-bytes'")
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  (sequence)
     register Lisp_Object sequence;
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{
  register Lisp_Object tail, val;
  register int i;

 retry:
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  if (STRINGP (sequence))
    XSETFASTINT (val, XSTRING (sequence)->size);
  else if (VECTORP (sequence))
    XSETFASTINT (val, XVECTOR (sequence)->size);
  else if (CHAR_TABLE_P (sequence))
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    XSETFASTINT (val, (MIN_CHAR_COMPOSITION
		       + (CHAR_FIELD2_MASK | CHAR_FIELD3_MASK)
		       - 1));
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  else if (BOOL_VECTOR_P (sequence))
    XSETFASTINT (val, XBOOL_VECTOR (sequence)->size);
  else if (COMPILEDP (sequence))
    XSETFASTINT (val, XVECTOR (sequence)->size & PSEUDOVECTOR_SIZE_MASK);
  else if (CONSP (sequence))
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    {
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      for (i = 0, tail = sequence; !NILP (tail); i++)
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	{
	  QUIT;
	  tail = Fcdr (tail);
	}

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      XSETFASTINT (val, i);
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    }
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  else if (NILP (sequence))
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    XSETFASTINT (val, 0);
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  else
    {
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      sequence = wrong_type_argument (Qsequencep, sequence);
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      goto retry;
    }
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  return val;
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}

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/* This does not check for quits.  That is safe
   since it must terminate.  */

DEFUN ("safe-length", Fsafe_length, Ssafe_length, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return the length of a list, but avoid error or infinite loop.\n\
This function never gets an error.  If LIST is not really a list,\n\
it returns 0.  If LIST is circular, it returns a finite value\n\
which is at least the number of distinct elements.")
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  (list)
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     Lisp_Object list;
{
  Lisp_Object tail, halftail, length;
  int len = 0;

  /* halftail is used to detect circular lists.  */
  halftail = list;
  for (tail = list; CONSP (tail); tail = XCONS (tail)->cdr)
    {
      if (EQ (tail, halftail) && len != 0)
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	break;
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      len++;
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      if ((len & 1) == 0)
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	halftail = XCONS (halftail)->cdr;
    }

  XSETINT (length, len);
  return length;
}

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DEFUN ("string-bytes", Fstring_bytes, Sstring_bytes, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return the number of bytes in STRING.\n\
If STRING is a multibyte string, this is greater than the length of STRING.")
  (string)
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     Lisp_Object string;
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{
  CHECK_STRING (string, 1);
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  return make_number (STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string)));
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}

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DEFUN ("string-equal", Fstring_equal, Sstring_equal, 2, 2, 0,
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  "Return t if two strings have identical contents.\n\
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Case is significant, but text properties are ignored.\n\
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Symbols are also allowed; their print names are used instead.")
  (s1, s2)
     register Lisp_Object s1, s2;
{
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  if (SYMBOLP (s1))
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    XSETSTRING (s1, XSYMBOL (s1)->name);
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  if (SYMBOLP (s2))
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    XSETSTRING (s2, XSYMBOL (s2)->name);
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  CHECK_STRING (s1, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (s2, 1);

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  if (XSTRING (s1)->size != XSTRING (s2)->size
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      || STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (s1)) != STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (s2))
      || bcmp (XSTRING (s1)->data, XSTRING (s2)->data, STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (s1))))
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    return Qnil;
  return Qt;
}

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DEFUN ("compare-strings", Fcompare_strings,
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       Scompare_strings, 6, 7, 0,
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  "Compare the contents of two strings, converting to multibyte if needed.\n\
In string STR1, skip the first START1 characters and stop at END1.\n\
In string STR2, skip the first START2 characters and stop at END2.\n\
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END1 and END2 default to the full lengths of the respective strings.\n\
\n\
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Case is significant in this comparison if IGNORE-CASE is nil.\n\
Unibyte strings are converted to multibyte for comparison.\n\
\n\
The value is t if the strings (or specified portions) match.\n\
If string STR1 is less, the value is a negative number N;\n\
  - 1 - N is the number of characters that match at the beginning.\n\
If string STR1 is greater, the value is a positive number N;\n\
  N - 1 is the number of characters that match at the beginning.")
  (str1, start1, end1, str2, start2, end2, ignore_case)
     Lisp_Object str1, start1, end1, start2, str2, end2, ignore_case;
{
  register int end1_char, end2_char;
  register int i1, i1_byte, i2, i2_byte;

  CHECK_STRING (str1, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (str2, 1);
  if (NILP (start1))
    start1 = make_number (0);
  if (NILP (start2))
    start2 = make_number (0);
  CHECK_NATNUM (start1, 2);
  CHECK_NATNUM (start2, 3);
  if (! NILP (end1))
    CHECK_NATNUM (end1, 4);
  if (! NILP (end2))
    CHECK_NATNUM (end2, 4);

  i1 = XINT (start1);
  i2 = XINT (start2);

  i1_byte = string_char_to_byte (str1, i1);
  i2_byte = string_char_to_byte (str2, i2);

  end1_char = XSTRING (str1)->size;
  if (! NILP (end1) && end1_char > XINT (end1))
    end1_char = XINT (end1);

  end2_char = XSTRING (str2)->size;
  if (! NILP (end2) && end2_char > XINT (end2))
    end2_char = XINT (end2);

  while (i1 < end1_char && i2 < end2_char)
    {
      /* When we find a mismatch, we must compare the
	 characters, not just the bytes.  */
      int c1, c2;

      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (str1))
	FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c1, str1, i1, i1_byte);
      else
	{
	  c1 = XSTRING (str1)->data[i1++];
	  c1 = unibyte_char_to_multibyte (c1);
	}

      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (str2))
	FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c2, str2, i2, i2_byte);
      else
	{
	  c2 = XSTRING (str2)->data[i2++];
	  c2 = unibyte_char_to_multibyte (c2);
	}

      if (c1 == c2)
	continue;

      if (! NILP (ignore_case))
	{
	  Lisp_Object tem;

	  tem = Fupcase (make_number (c1));
	  c1 = XINT (tem);
	  tem = Fupcase (make_number (c2));
	  c2 = XINT (tem);
	}

      if (c1 == c2)
	continue;

      /* Note that I1 has already been incremented
	 past the character that we are comparing;
	 hence we don't add or subtract 1 here.  */
      if (c1 < c2)
	return make_number (- i1);
      else
	return make_number (i1);
    }

  if (i1 < end1_char)
    return make_number (i1 - XINT (start1) + 1);
  if (i2 < end2_char)
    return make_number (- i1 + XINT (start1) - 1);

  return Qt;
}

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DEFUN ("string-lessp", Fstring_lessp, Sstring_lessp, 2, 2, 0,
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  "Return t if first arg string is less than second in lexicographic order.\n\
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Case is significant.\n\
Symbols are also allowed; their print names are used instead.")
  (s1, s2)
     register Lisp_Object s1, s2;
{
  register int end;
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  register int i1, i1_byte, i2, i2_byte;
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  if (SYMBOLP (s1))
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    XSETSTRING (s1, XSYMBOL (s1)->name);
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  if (SYMBOLP (s2))
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    XSETSTRING (s2, XSYMBOL (s2)->name);
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  CHECK_STRING (s1, 0);
  CHECK_STRING (s2, 1);

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  i1 = i1_byte = i2 = i2_byte = 0;

  end = XSTRING (s1)->size;
  if (end > XSTRING (s2)->size)
    end = XSTRING (s2)->size;
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  while (i1 < end)
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    {
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      /* When we find a mismatch, we must compare the
	 characters, not just the bytes.  */
      int c1, c2;

      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (s1))
	FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c1, s1, i1, i1_byte);
      else
	c1 = XSTRING (s1)->data[i1++];

      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (s2))
	FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c2, s2, i2, i2_byte);
      else
	c2 = XSTRING (s2)->data[i2++];

      if (c1 != c2)
	return c1 < c2 ? Qt : Qnil;
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    }
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  return i1 < XSTRING (s2)->size ? Qt : Qnil;
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}

static Lisp_Object concat ();

/* ARGSUSED */
Lisp_Object
concat2 (s1, s2)
     Lisp_Object s1, s2;
{
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
  Lisp_Object args[2];
  args[0] = s1;
  args[1] = s2;
  return concat (2, args, Lisp_String, 0);
#else
  return concat (2, &s1, Lisp_String, 0);
#endif /* NO_ARG_ARRAY */
}

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/* ARGSUSED */
Lisp_Object
concat3 (s1, s2, s3)
     Lisp_Object s1, s2, s3;
{
#ifdef NO_ARG_ARRAY
  Lisp_Object args[3];
  args[0] = s1;
  args[1] = s2;
  args[2] = s3;
  return concat (3, args, Lisp_String, 0);
#else
  return concat (3, &s1, Lisp_String, 0);
#endif /* NO_ARG_ARRAY */
}

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DEFUN ("append", Fappend, Sappend, 0, MANY, 0,
  "Concatenate all the arguments and make the result a list.\n\
The result is a list whose elements are the elements of all the arguments.\n\
Each argument may be a list, vector or string.\n\
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The last argument is not copied, just used as the tail of the new list.")
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  (nargs, args)
     int nargs;
     Lisp_Object *args;
{
  return concat (nargs, args, Lisp_Cons, 1);
}

DEFUN ("concat", Fconcat, Sconcat, 0, MANY, 0,
  "Concatenate all the arguments and make the result a string.\n\
The result is a string whose elements are the elements of all the arguments.\n\
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Each argument may be a string or a list or vector of characters (integers).\n\
\n\
Do not use individual integers as arguments!\n\
The behavior of `concat' in that case will be changed later!\n\
If your program passes an integer as an argument to `concat',\n\
you should change it right away not to do so.")
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  (nargs, args)
     int nargs;
     Lisp_Object *args;
{
  return concat (nargs, args, Lisp_String, 0);
}

DEFUN ("vconcat", Fvconcat, Svconcat, 0, MANY, 0,
  "Concatenate all the arguments and make the result a vector.\n\
The result is a vector whose elements are the elements of all the arguments.\n\
Each argument may be a list, vector or string.")
  (nargs, args)
     int nargs;
     Lisp_Object *args;
{
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  return concat (nargs, args, Lisp_Vectorlike, 0);
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}

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/* Retrun a copy of a sub char table ARG.  The elements except for a
   nested sub char table are not copied.  */
static Lisp_Object
copy_sub_char_table (arg)
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     Lisp_Object arg;
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{
  Lisp_Object copy = make_sub_char_table (XCHAR_TABLE (arg)->defalt);
  int i;

  /* Copy all the contents.  */
  bcopy (XCHAR_TABLE (arg)->contents, XCHAR_TABLE (copy)->contents,
	 SUB_CHAR_TABLE_ORDINARY_SLOTS * sizeof (Lisp_Object));
  /* Recursively copy any sub char-tables in the ordinary slots.  */
  for (i = 32; i < SUB_CHAR_TABLE_ORDINARY_SLOTS; i++)
    if (SUB_CHAR_TABLE_P (XCHAR_TABLE (arg)->contents[i]))
      XCHAR_TABLE (copy)->contents[i]
	= copy_sub_char_table (XCHAR_TABLE (copy)->contents[i]);

  return copy;
}


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DEFUN ("copy-sequence", Fcopy_sequence, Scopy_sequence, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return a copy of a list, vector or string.\n\
The elements of a list or vector are not copied; they are shared\n\
with the original.")
  (arg)
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
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  if (NILP (arg)) return arg;
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  if (CHAR_TABLE_P (arg))
    {
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      int i;
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      Lisp_Object copy;

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      copy = Fmake_char_table (XCHAR_TABLE (arg)->purpose, Qnil);
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      /* Copy all the slots, including the extra ones.  */
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      bcopy (XVECTOR (arg)->contents, XVECTOR (copy)->contents,
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	     ((XCHAR_TABLE (arg)->size & PSEUDOVECTOR_SIZE_MASK)
	      * sizeof (Lisp_Object)));
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      /* Recursively copy any sub char tables in the ordinary slots
         for multibyte characters.  */
      for (i = CHAR_TABLE_SINGLE_BYTE_SLOTS;
	   i < CHAR_TABLE_ORDINARY_SLOTS; i++)
	if (SUB_CHAR_TABLE_P (XCHAR_TABLE (arg)->contents[i]))
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	  XCHAR_TABLE (copy)->contents[i]
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	    = copy_sub_char_table (XCHAR_TABLE (copy)->contents[i]);
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      return copy;
    }

  if (BOOL_VECTOR_P (arg))
    {
      Lisp_Object val;
      int size_in_chars
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	= (XBOOL_VECTOR (arg)->size + BITS_PER_CHAR - 1) / BITS_PER_CHAR;
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      val = Fmake_bool_vector (Flength (arg), Qnil);
      bcopy (XBOOL_VECTOR (arg)->data, XBOOL_VECTOR (val)->data,
	     size_in_chars);
      return val;
    }

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  if (!CONSP (arg) && !VECTORP (arg) && !STRINGP (arg))
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    arg = wrong_type_argument (Qsequencep, arg);
  return concat (1, &arg, CONSP (arg) ? Lisp_Cons : XTYPE (arg), 0);
}

static Lisp_Object
concat (nargs, args, target_type, last_special)
     int nargs;
     Lisp_Object *args;
     enum Lisp_Type target_type;
     int last_special;
{
  Lisp_Object val;
  register Lisp_Object tail;
  register Lisp_Object this;
  int toindex;
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  int toindex_byte;
  register int result_len;
  register int result_len_byte;
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  register int argnum;
  Lisp_Object last_tail;
  Lisp_Object prev;
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  int some_multibyte;
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  /* When we make a multibyte string, we must pay attention to the
     byte combining problem, i.e., a byte may be combined with a
     multibyte charcter of the previous string.  This flag tells if we
     must consider such a situation or not.  */
  int maybe_combine_byte;
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  /* In append, the last arg isn't treated like the others */
  if (last_special && nargs > 0)
    {
      nargs--;
      last_tail = args[nargs];
    }
  else
    last_tail = Qnil;

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  /* Canonicalize each argument.  */
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  for (argnum = 0; argnum < nargs; argnum++)
    {
      this = args[argnum];
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      if (!(CONSP (this) || NILP (this) || VECTORP (this) || STRINGP (this)
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	    || COMPILEDP (this) || BOOL_VECTOR_P (this)))
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	{
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	  if (INTEGERP (this))
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            args[argnum] = Fnumber_to_string (this);
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	  else
	    args[argnum] = wrong_type_argument (Qsequencep, this);
	}
    }

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  /* Compute total length in chars of arguments in RESULT_LEN.
     If desired output is a string, also compute length in bytes
     in RESULT_LEN_BYTE, and determine in SOME_MULTIBYTE
     whether the result should be a multibyte string.  */
  result_len_byte = 0;
  result_len = 0;
  some_multibyte = 0;
  for (argnum = 0; argnum < nargs; argnum++)
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    {
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      int len;
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      this = args[argnum];
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      len = XFASTINT (Flength (this));
      if (target_type == Lisp_String)
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	{
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	  /* We must count the number of bytes needed in the string
	     as well as the number of characters.  */
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	  int i;
	  Lisp_Object ch;
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	  int this_len_byte;
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	  if (VECTORP (this))
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	    for (i = 0; i < len; i++)
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	      {
		ch = XVECTOR (this)->contents[i];
		if (! INTEGERP (ch))
		  wrong_type_argument (Qintegerp, ch);
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		this_len_byte = CHAR_BYTES (XINT (ch));
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		result_len_byte += this_len_byte;
		if (this_len_byte > 1)
		  some_multibyte = 1;
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	      }
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	  else if (BOOL_VECTOR_P (this) && XBOOL_VECTOR (this)->size > 0)
	    wrong_type_argument (Qintegerp, Faref (this, make_number (0)));
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	  else if (CONSP (this))
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	    for (; CONSP (this); this = XCONS (this)->cdr)
	      {
		ch = XCONS (this)->car;
		if (! INTEGERP (ch))
		  wrong_type_argument (Qintegerp, ch);
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		this_len_byte = CHAR_BYTES (XINT (ch));
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		result_len_byte += this_len_byte;
		if (this_len_byte > 1)
		  some_multibyte = 1;
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	      }
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	  else if (STRINGP (this))
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	    {
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	      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (this))
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		{
		  some_multibyte = 1;
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		  result_len_byte += STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (this));
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		}
	      else
		result_len_byte += count_size_as_multibyte (XSTRING (this)->data,
							    XSTRING (this)->size);
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	    }
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	}
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      result_len += len;
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    }

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  if (! some_multibyte)
    result_len_byte = result_len;
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  /* Create the output object.  */
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  if (target_type == Lisp_Cons)
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    val = Fmake_list (make_number (result_len), Qnil);
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  else if (target_type == Lisp_Vectorlike)
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    val = Fmake_vector (make_number (result_len), Qnil);
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  else if (some_multibyte)
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    val = make_uninit_multibyte_string (result_len, result_len_byte);
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  else
    val = make_uninit_string (result_len);
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  /* In `append', if all but last arg are nil, return last arg.  */
  if (target_type == Lisp_Cons && EQ (val, Qnil))
    return last_tail;
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  /* Copy the contents of the args into the result.  */
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  if (CONSP (val))
    tail = val, toindex = -1;		/* -1 in toindex is flag we are making a list */
  else
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    toindex = 0, toindex_byte = 0;
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  prev = Qnil;

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  maybe_combine_byte = 0;
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  for (argnum = 0; argnum < nargs; argnum++)
    {
      Lisp_Object thislen;
      int thisleni;
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      register unsigned int thisindex = 0;
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      register unsigned int thisindex_byte = 0;
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      this = args[argnum];
      if (!CONSP (this))
	thislen = Flength (this), thisleni = XINT (thislen);

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      if (STRINGP (this) && STRINGP (val)
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	  && ! NULL_INTERVAL_P (XSTRING (this)->intervals))
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	copy_text_properties (make_number (0), thislen, this,
			      make_number (toindex), val, Qnil);
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      /* Between strings of the same kind, copy fast.  */
      if (STRINGP (this) && STRINGP (val)
	  && STRING_MULTIBYTE (this) == some_multibyte)
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	{
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	  int thislen_byte = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (this));
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	  bcopy (XSTRING (this)->data, XSTRING (val)->data + toindex_byte,
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		 STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (this)));
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	  if (some_multibyte
	      && toindex_byte > 0
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	      && !ASCII_BYTE_P (XSTRING (val)->data[toindex_byte - 1])
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	      && !CHAR_HEAD_P (XSTRING (this)->data[0]))
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	    maybe_combine_byte = 1;
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	  toindex_byte += thislen_byte;
	  toindex += thisleni;
	}
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      /* Copy a single-byte string to a multibyte string.  */
      else if (STRINGP (this) && STRINGP (val))
	{
	  toindex_byte += copy_text (XSTRING (this)->data,
				     XSTRING (val)->data + toindex_byte,
				     XSTRING (this)->size, 0, 1);
	  toindex += thisleni;
	}
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      else
	/* Copy element by element.  */
	while (1)
	  {
	    register Lisp_Object elt;

	    /* Fetch next element of `this' arg into `elt', or break if
	       `this' is exhausted. */
	    if (NILP (this)) break;
	    if (CONSP (this))
	      elt = XCONS (this)->car, this = XCONS (this)->cdr;
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	    else if (thisindex >= thisleni)
	      break;
	    else if (STRINGP (this))
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	      {
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		int c;
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		if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (this))
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		  {
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		    FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c, this,
					       thisindex,
					       thisindex_byte);
		    XSETFASTINT (elt, c);
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		  }
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		else
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		  {
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		    XSETFASTINT (elt, XSTRING (this)->data[thisindex++]);
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		    if (some_multibyte
			&& (XINT (elt) >= 0240
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			    || (XINT (elt) >= 0200
				&& ! NILP (Vnonascii_translation_table)))
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			&& XINT (elt) < 0400)
		      {
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			c = unibyte_char_to_multibyte (XINT (elt));
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			XSETINT (elt, c);
		      }
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		  }
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	      }
	    else if (BOOL_VECTOR_P (this))
	      {
		int byte;
		byte = XBOOL_VECTOR (this)->data[thisindex / BITS_PER_CHAR];
		if (byte & (1 << (thisindex % BITS_PER_CHAR)))
		  elt = Qt;
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		else
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		  elt = Qnil;
		thisindex++;
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	      }
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	    else
	      elt = XVECTOR (this)->contents[thisindex++];
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	    /* Store this element into the result.  */
	    if (toindex < 0)
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	      {
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		XCONS (tail)->car = elt;
		prev = tail;
		tail = XCONS (tail)->cdr;
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	      }
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	    else if (VECTORP (val))
	      XVECTOR (val)->contents[toindex++] = elt;
	    else
	      {
		CHECK_NUMBER (elt, 0);
		if (SINGLE_BYTE_CHAR_P (XINT (elt)))
		  {
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		    if (some_multibyte
			&& toindex_byte > 0
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			&& !ASCII_BYTE_P (XSTRING (val)->data[toindex_byte - 1])
			&& !CHAR_HEAD_P (XINT (elt)))
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		      maybe_combine_byte = 1;
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		    XSTRING (val)->data[toindex_byte++] = XINT (elt);
		    toindex++;
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		  }
		else
		  /* If we have any multibyte characters,
		     we already decided to make a multibyte string.  */
		  {
		    int c = XINT (elt);
		    unsigned char work[4], *str;
		    int i = CHAR_STRING (c, work, str);

		    /* P exists as a variable
		       to avoid a bug on the Masscomp C compiler.  */
		    unsigned char *p = & XSTRING (val)->data[toindex_byte];
		    bcopy (str, p, i);
		    toindex_byte += i;
		    toindex++;
		  }
	      }
	  }
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    }
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  if (!NILP (prev))
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    XCONS (prev)->cdr = last_tail;

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  if (maybe_combine_byte)
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    /* Character counter of the multibyte string VAL may be wrong
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       because of byte combining problem.  We must re-calculate it.  */
    XSTRING (val)->size = multibyte_chars_in_text (XSTRING (val)->data,
						   XSTRING (val)->size_byte);

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  return val;
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}

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static Lisp_Object string_char_byte_cache_string;
static int string_char_byte_cache_charpos;
static int string_char_byte_cache_bytepos;

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void
clear_string_char_byte_cache ()
{
  string_char_byte_cache_string = Qnil;
}

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/* Return the character index corresponding to CHAR_INDEX in STRING.  */

int
string_char_to_byte (string, char_index)
     Lisp_Object string;
     int char_index;
{
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  int i, i_byte;
  int best_below, best_below_byte;
  int best_above, best_above_byte;
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  if (! STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
    return char_index;

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  best_below = best_below_byte = 0;
  best_above = XSTRING (string)->size;
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  best_above_byte = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
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  if (EQ (string, string_char_byte_cache_string))
    {
      if (string_char_byte_cache_charpos < char_index)
	{
	  best_below = string_char_byte_cache_charpos;
	  best_below_byte = string_char_byte_cache_bytepos;
	}
      else
	{
	  best_above = string_char_byte_cache_charpos;
	  best_above_byte = string_char_byte_cache_bytepos;
	}
    }

  if (char_index - best_below < best_above - char_index)
    {
      while (best_below < char_index)
	{
	  int c;
	  FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c, string, best_below, best_below_byte);
	}
      i = best_below;
      i_byte = best_below_byte;
    }
  else
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    {
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      while (best_above > char_index)
	{
	  int best_above_byte_saved = --best_above_byte;

	  while (best_above_byte > 0
		 && !CHAR_HEAD_P (XSTRING (string)->data[best_above_byte]))
	    best_above_byte--;
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	  if (!BASE_LEADING_CODE_P (XSTRING (string)->data[best_above_byte]))
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	    best_above_byte = best_above_byte_saved;
	  best_above--;
	}
      i = best_above;
      i_byte = best_above_byte;
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    }

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  string_char_byte_cache_bytepos = i_byte;
  string_char_byte_cache_charpos = i;
  string_char_byte_cache_string = string;

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  return i_byte;
}
868

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/* Return the character index corresponding to BYTE_INDEX in STRING.  */

int
string_byte_to_char (string, byte_index)
     Lisp_Object string;
     int byte_index;
{
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  int i, i_byte;
  int best_below, best_below_byte;
  int best_above, best_above_byte;
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  if (! STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
    return byte_index;

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  best_below = best_below_byte = 0;
  best_above = XSTRING (string)->size;
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  best_above_byte = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
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  if (EQ (string, string_char_byte_cache_string))
    {
      if (string_char_byte_cache_bytepos < byte_index)
	{
	  best_below = string_char_byte_cache_charpos;
	  best_below_byte = string_char_byte_cache_bytepos;
	}
      else
	{
	  best_above = string_char_byte_cache_charpos;
	  best_above_byte = string_char_byte_cache_bytepos;
	}
    }

  if (byte_index - best_below_byte < best_above_byte - byte_index)
    {
      while (best_below_byte < byte_index)
	{
	  int c;
	  FETCH_STRING_CHAR_ADVANCE (c, string, best_below, best_below_byte);
	}
      i = best_below;
      i_byte = best_below_byte;
    }
  else
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    {
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      while (best_above_byte > byte_index)
	{
	  int best_above_byte_saved = --best_above_byte;

	  while (best_above_byte > 0
		 && !CHAR_HEAD_P (XSTRING (string)->data[best_above_byte]))
	    best_above_byte--;
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	  if (!BASE_LEADING_CODE_P (XSTRING (string)->data[best_above_byte]))
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	    best_above_byte = best_above_byte_saved;
	  best_above--;
	}
      i = best_above;
      i_byte = best_above_byte;
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    }

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  string_char_byte_cache_bytepos = i_byte;
  string_char_byte_cache_charpos = i;
  string_char_byte_cache_string = string;

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  return i;
}
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/* Convert STRING to a multibyte string.
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   Single-byte characters 0240 through 0377 are converted
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   by adding nonascii_insert_offset to each.  */

Lisp_Object
string_make_multibyte (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
  unsigned char *buf;
  int nbytes;

  if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
    return string;

  nbytes = count_size_as_multibyte (XSTRING (string)->data,
				    XSTRING (string)->size);
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  /* If all the chars are ASCII, they won't need any more bytes
     once converted.  In that case, we can return STRING itself.  */
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  if (nbytes == STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string)))
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    return string;

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  buf = (unsigned char *) alloca (nbytes);
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  copy_text (XSTRING (string)->data, buf, STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string)),
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	     0, 1);

  return make_multibyte_string (buf, XSTRING (string)->size, nbytes);
}

/* Convert STRING to a single-byte string.  */

Lisp_Object
string_make_unibyte (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
  unsigned char *buf;

  if (! STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
    return string;

  buf = (unsigned char *) alloca (XSTRING (string)->size);

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  copy_text (XSTRING (string)->data, buf, STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string)),
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	     1, 0);

  return make_unibyte_string (buf, XSTRING (string)->size);
}
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DEFUN ("string-make-multibyte", Fstring_make_multibyte, Sstring_make_multibyte,
       1, 1, 0,
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  "Return the multibyte equivalent of STRING.\n\
The function `unibyte-char-to-multibyte' is used to convert\n\
each unibyte character to a multibyte character.")
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  (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
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  CHECK_STRING (string, 0);

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  return string_make_multibyte (string);
}

DEFUN ("string-make-unibyte", Fstring_make_unibyte, Sstring_make_unibyte,
       1, 1, 0,
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  "Return the unibyte equivalent of STRING.\n\
Multibyte character codes are converted to unibyte\n\
by using just the low 8 bits.")
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  (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
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  CHECK_STRING (string, 0);

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  return string_make_unibyte (string);
}
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DEFUN ("string-as-unibyte", Fstring_as_unibyte, Sstring_as_unibyte,
       1, 1, 0,
  "Return a unibyte string with the same individual bytes as STRING.\n\
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If STRING is unibyte, the result is STRING itself.\n\
Otherwise it is a newly created string, with no text properties.")
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  (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
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  CHECK_STRING (string, 0);

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  if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
    {
      string = Fcopy_sequence (string);
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      XSTRING (string)->size = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
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      XSTRING (string)->intervals = NULL_INTERVAL;
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      SET_STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string), -1);
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    }
  return string;
}

DEFUN ("string-as-multibyte", Fstring_as_multibyte, Sstring_as_multibyte,
       1, 1, 0,
  "Return a multibyte string with the same individual bytes as STRING.\n\
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If STRING is multibyte, the result is STRING itself.\n\
Otherwise it is a newly created string, with no text properties.")
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  (string)
     Lisp_Object string;
{
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  CHECK_STRING (string, 0);

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  if (! STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
    {
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      int nbytes = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
      int newlen = multibyte_chars_in_text (XSTRING (string)->data, nbytes);

      string = Fcopy_sequence (string);
      XSTRING (string)->size = newlen;
      XSTRING (string)->size_byte = nbytes;
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      XSTRING (string)->intervals = NULL_INTERVAL;
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    }
  return string;
}
1050

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DEFUN ("copy-alist", Fcopy_alist, Scopy_alist, 1, 1, 0,
  "Return a copy of ALIST.\n\
This is an alist which represents the same mapping from objects to objects,\n\
but does not share the alist structure with ALIST.\n\
The objects mapped (cars and cdrs of elements of the alist)\n\
are shared, however.\n\
Elements of ALIST that are not conses are also shared.")
  (alist)
     Lisp_Object alist;
{
  register Lisp_Object tem;

  CHECK_LIST (alist, 0);
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  if (NILP (alist))
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    return alist;
  alist = concat (1, &alist, Lisp_Cons, 0);
  for (tem = alist; CONSP (tem); tem = XCONS (tem)->cdr)
    {
      register Lisp_Object car;
      car = XCONS (tem)->car;

      if (CONSP (car))
	XCONS (tem)->car = Fcons (XCONS (car)->car, XCONS (car)->cdr);
    }
  return alist;
}

DEFUN ("substring", Fsubstring, Ssubstring, 2, 3, 0,
  "Return a substring of STRING, starting at index FROM and ending before TO.\n\
TO may be nil or omitted; then the substring runs to the end of STRING.\n\
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If FROM or TO is negative, it counts from the end.\n\
\n\
This function allows vectors as well as strings.")
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  (string, from, to)
     Lisp_Object string;
     register Lisp_Object from, to;
{
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  Lisp_Object res;
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  int size;
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  int size_byte;
  int from_char, to_char;
  int from_byte, to_byte;
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  if (! (STRINGP (string) || VECTORP (string)))
    wrong_type_argument (Qarrayp, string);
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  CHECK_NUMBER (from, 1);
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  if (STRINGP (string))
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    {
      size = XSTRING (string)->size;
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      size_byte = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
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    }
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  else
    size = XVECTOR (string)->size;

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  if (NILP (to))
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    {
      to_char = size;
      to_byte = size_byte;
    }
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  else
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    {
      CHECK_NUMBER (to, 2);

      to_char = XINT (to);
      if (to_char < 0)
	to_char += size;

      if (STRINGP (string))
	to_byte = string_char_to_byte (string, to_char);
    }

  from_char = XINT (from);
  if (from_char < 0)
    from_char += size;
  if (STRINGP (string))
    from_byte = string_char_to_byte (string, from_char);
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  if (!(0 <= from_char && from_char <= to_char && to_char <= size))
    args_out_of_range_3 (string, make_number (from_char),
			 make_number (to_char));
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  if (STRINGP (string))
    {
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      res = make_specified_string (XSTRING (string)->data + from_byte,
				   to_char - from_char, to_byte - from_byte,
				   STRING_MULTIBYTE (string));
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      copy_text_properties (make_number (from_char), make_number (to_char),
			    string, make_number (0), res, Qnil);
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    }
  else
    res = Fvector (to_char - from_char,
		   XVECTOR (string)->contents + from_char);

  return res;
}

/* Extract a substring of STRING, giving start and end positions
   both in characters and in bytes.  */

Lisp_Object
substring_both (string, from, from_byte, to, to_byte)
     Lisp_Object string;
     int from, from_byte, to, to_byte;
{
  Lisp_Object res;
  int size;
  int size_byte;

  if (! (STRINGP (string) || VECTORP (string)))
    wrong_type_argument (Qarrayp, string);

  if (STRINGP (string))
    {
      size = XSTRING (string)->size;
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      size_byte = STRING_BYTES (XSTRING (string));
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    }
  else
    size = XVECTOR (string)->size;

  if (!(0 <= from && from <= to && to <= size))
    args_out_of_range_3 (string, make_number (from), make_number (to));

  if (STRINGP (string))
    {
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      res = make_specified_string (XSTRING (string)->data + from_byte,
				   to - from, to_byte - from_byte,
				   STRING_MULTIBYTE (string));
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      copy_text_properties (make_number (from), make_number (to),
			    string, make_number (0), res, Qnil);
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    }
  else
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    res = Fvector (to - from,
		   XVECTOR (string)->contents + from);
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  return res;
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