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;;; ruby-mode.el --- Major mode for editing Ruby files

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;; Copyright (C) 1994-2014 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Authors: Yukihiro Matsumoto
;;	Nobuyoshi Nakada
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;; URL: http://www.emacswiki.org/cgi-bin/wiki/RubyMode
;; Created: Fri Feb  4 14:49:13 JST 1994
;; Keywords: languages ruby
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;; Version: 1.2
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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.

;;; Commentary:

;; Provides font-locking, indentation support, and navigation for Ruby code.
;;
;; If you're installing manually, you should add this to your .emacs
;; file after putting it on your load path:
;;
;;    (autoload 'ruby-mode "ruby-mode" "Major mode for ruby files" t)
;;    (add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.rb$" . ruby-mode))
;;    (add-to-list 'interpreter-mode-alist '("ruby" . ruby-mode))
;;
;; Still needs more docstrings; search below for TODO.

;;; Code:

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(defgroup ruby nil
  "Major mode for editing Ruby code."
  :prefix "ruby-"
  :group 'languages)

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(defconst ruby-block-beg-keywords
  '("class" "module" "def" "if" "unless" "case" "while" "until" "for" "begin" "do")
  "Keywords at the beginning of blocks.")

(defconst ruby-block-beg-re
  (regexp-opt ruby-block-beg-keywords)
  "Regexp to match the beginning of blocks.")

(defconst ruby-non-block-do-re
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  (regexp-opt '("while" "until" "for" "rescue") 'symbols)
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  "Regexp to match keywords that nest without blocks.")

(defconst ruby-indent-beg-re
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  (concat "^\\(\\s *" (regexp-opt '("class" "module" "def")) "\\|"
          (regexp-opt '("if" "unless" "case" "while" "until" "for" "begin"))
          "\\)\\_>")
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  "Regexp to match where the indentation gets deeper.")

(defconst ruby-modifier-beg-keywords
  '("if" "unless" "while" "until")
  "Modifiers that are the same as the beginning of blocks.")

(defconst ruby-modifier-beg-re
  (regexp-opt ruby-modifier-beg-keywords)
  "Regexp to match modifiers same as the beginning of blocks.")

(defconst ruby-modifier-re
  (regexp-opt (cons "rescue" ruby-modifier-beg-keywords))
  "Regexp to match modifiers.")

(defconst ruby-block-mid-keywords
  '("then" "else" "elsif" "when" "rescue" "ensure")
  "Keywords where the indentation gets shallower in middle of block statements.")

(defconst ruby-block-mid-re
  (regexp-opt ruby-block-mid-keywords)
  "Regexp to match where the indentation gets shallower in middle of block statements.")

(defconst ruby-block-op-keywords
  '("and" "or" "not")
  "Regexp to match boolean keywords.")

(defconst ruby-block-hanging-re
  (regexp-opt (append ruby-modifier-beg-keywords ruby-block-op-keywords))
  "Regexp to match hanging block modifiers.")

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(defconst ruby-block-end-re "\\_<end\\_>")
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(defconst ruby-defun-beg-re
  '"\\(def\\|class\\|module\\)"
  "Regexp to match the beginning of a defun, in the general sense.")

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(defconst ruby-singleton-class-re
  "class\\s *<<"
  "Regexp to match the beginning of a singleton class context.")

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(eval-and-compile
  (defconst ruby-here-doc-beg-re
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  "\\(<\\)<\\(-\\)?\\(\\([a-zA-Z0-9_]+\\)\\|[\"]\\([^\"]+\\)[\"]\\|[']\\([^']+\\)[']\\)"
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  "Regexp to match the beginning of a heredoc.")

  (defconst ruby-expression-expansion-re
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    "\\(?:[^\\]\\|\\=\\)\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*\\(#\\({[^}\n\\\\]*\\(\\\\.[^}\n\\\\]*\\)*}\\|\\(\\$\\|@\\|@@\\)\\(\\w\\|_\\)+\\|\\$[^a-zA-Z \n]\\)\\)"))
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(defun ruby-here-doc-end-match ()
  "Return a regexp to find the end of a heredoc.

This should only be called after matching against `ruby-here-doc-beg-re'."
  (concat "^"
          (if (match-string 2) "[ \t]*" nil)
          (regexp-quote
           (or (match-string 4)
               (match-string 5)
               (match-string 6)))))

(defconst ruby-delimiter
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  (concat "[?$/%(){}#\"'`.:]\\|<<\\|\\[\\|\\]\\|\\_<\\("
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          ruby-block-beg-re
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          "\\)\\_>\\|" ruby-block-end-re
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          "\\|^=begin\\|" ruby-here-doc-beg-re))

(defconst ruby-negative
  (concat "^[ \t]*\\(\\(" ruby-block-mid-re "\\)\\>\\|"
          ruby-block-end-re "\\|}\\|\\]\\)")
  "Regexp to match where the indentation gets shallower.")

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(defconst ruby-operator-re "[-,.+*/%&|^~=<>:]\\|\\\\$"
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  "Regexp to match operators.")

(defconst ruby-symbol-chars "a-zA-Z0-9_"
  "List of characters that symbol names may contain.")
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(defconst ruby-symbol-re (concat "[" ruby-symbol-chars "]")
  "Regexp to match symbols.")

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(defvar ruby-use-smie t)
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(defvar ruby-mode-map
  (let ((map (make-sparse-keymap)))
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    (unless ruby-use-smie
      (define-key map (kbd "M-C-b") 'ruby-backward-sexp)
      (define-key map (kbd "M-C-f") 'ruby-forward-sexp)
      (define-key map (kbd "M-C-q") 'ruby-indent-exp))
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    (when ruby-use-smie
      (define-key map (kbd "M-C-d") 'smie-down-list))
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    (define-key map (kbd "M-C-p") 'ruby-beginning-of-block)
    (define-key map (kbd "M-C-n") 'ruby-end-of-block)
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    (define-key map (kbd "C-c {") 'ruby-toggle-block)
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    map)
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  "Keymap used in Ruby mode.")
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(easy-menu-define
  ruby-mode-menu
  ruby-mode-map
  "Ruby Mode Menu"
  '("Ruby"
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    ["Beginning of Block" ruby-beginning-of-block t]
    ["End of Block" ruby-end-of-block t]
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    ["Toggle Block" ruby-toggle-block t]
    "--"
    ["Backward Sexp" ruby-backward-sexp
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     :visible (not ruby-use-smie)]
    ["Backward Sexp" backward-sexp
     :visible ruby-use-smie]
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    ["Forward Sexp" ruby-forward-sexp
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     :visible (not ruby-use-smie)]
    ["Forward Sexp" forward-sexp
     :visible ruby-use-smie]
    ["Indent Sexp" ruby-indent-exp
     :visible (not ruby-use-smie)]
    ["Indent Sexp" prog-indent-sexp
     :visible ruby-use-smie]))
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(defvar ruby-mode-syntax-table
  (let ((table (make-syntax-table)))
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\' "\"" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\" "\"" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\` "\"" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?# "<" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\n ">" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\\ "\\" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?$ "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?_ "_" table)
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    (modify-syntax-entry ?: "_" table)
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    (modify-syntax-entry ?< "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?> "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?& "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?| "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?% "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?= "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?/ "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?+ "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?* "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?- "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\; "." table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\( "()" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\) ")(" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\{ "(}" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\} "){" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\[ "(]" table)
    (modify-syntax-entry ?\] ")[" table)
    table)
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  "Syntax table to use in Ruby mode.")
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(defcustom ruby-indent-tabs-mode nil
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  "Indentation can insert tabs in Ruby mode if this is non-nil."
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  :type 'boolean
  :group 'ruby
  :safe 'booleanp)
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(defcustom ruby-indent-level 2
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  "Indentation of Ruby statements."
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  :type 'integer
  :group 'ruby
  :safe 'integerp)
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(defcustom ruby-comment-column (default-value 'comment-column)
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  "Indentation column of comments."
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  :type 'integer
  :group 'ruby
  :safe 'integerp)
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(defconst ruby-alignable-keywords '(if while unless until begin case for def)
  "Keywords that can be used in `ruby-align-to-stmt-keywords'.")

(defcustom ruby-align-to-stmt-keywords '(def)
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  "Keywords after which we align the expression body to statement.

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When nil, an expression that begins with one these keywords is
indented to the column of the keyword.  Example:

  tee = if foo
          bar
        else
          qux
        end

If this value is t or contains a symbol with the name of given
keyword, the expression is indented to align to the beginning of
the statement:

  tee = if foo
    bar
  else
    qux
  end

Only has effect when `ruby-use-smie' is t.
"
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  :type `(choice
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          (const :tag "None" nil)
          (const :tag "All" t)
          (repeat :tag "User defined"
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                  (choice ,@(mapcar
                             (lambda (kw) (list 'const kw))
                             ruby-alignable-keywords))))
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  :group 'ruby
  :safe 'listp
  :version "24.4")

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(defcustom ruby-align-chained-calls nil
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  "If non-nil, align chained method calls.

Each method call on a separate line will be aligned to the column
of its parent.
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Only has effect when `ruby-use-smie' is t."
  :type 'boolean
  :group 'ruby
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  :safe 'booleanp
  :version "24.4")
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(defcustom ruby-deep-arglist t
  "Deep indent lists in parenthesis when non-nil.
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Also ignores spaces after parenthesis when `space'.
Only has effect when `ruby-use-smie' is nil."
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  :type 'boolean
  :group 'ruby
  :safe 'booleanp)
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;; FIXME Woefully under documented.  What is the point of the last `t'?.
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(defcustom ruby-deep-indent-paren '(?\( ?\[ ?\] t)
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  "Deep indent lists in parenthesis when non-nil.
The value t means continuous line.
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Also ignores spaces after parenthesis when `space'.
Only has effect when `ruby-use-smie' is nil."
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  :type '(choice (const nil)
                 character
                 (repeat (choice character
                                 (cons character (choice (const nil)
                                                         (const t)))
                                 (const t) ; why?
                                 )))
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  :group 'ruby)

(defcustom ruby-deep-indent-paren-style 'space
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  "Default deep indent style.
Only has effect when `ruby-use-smie' is nil."
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  :type '(choice (const t) (const nil) (const space))
  :group 'ruby)
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(defcustom ruby-encoding-map
  '((us-ascii       . nil)       ;; Do not put coding: us-ascii
    (shift-jis      . cp932)     ;; Emacs charset name of Shift_JIS
    (shift_jis      . cp932)     ;; MIME charset name of Shift_JIS
    (japanese-cp932 . cp932))    ;; Emacs charset name of CP932
  "Alist to map encoding name from Emacs to Ruby.
Associating an encoding name with nil means it needs not be
explicitly declared in magic comment."
  :type '(repeat (cons (symbol :tag "From") (symbol :tag "To")))
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  :group 'ruby)

(defcustom ruby-insert-encoding-magic-comment t
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  "Insert a magic Ruby encoding comment upon save if this is non-nil.
The encoding will be auto-detected.  The format of the encoding comment
is customizable via `ruby-encoding-magic-comment-style'.

When set to `always-utf8' an utf-8 comment will always be added,
even if it's not required."
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  :type 'boolean :group 'ruby)

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(defcustom ruby-encoding-magic-comment-style 'ruby
  "The style of the magic encoding comment to use."
  :type '(choice
          (const :tag "Emacs Style" emacs)
          (const :tag "Ruby Style" ruby)
          (const :tag "Custom Style" custom))
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  :group 'ruby
  :version "24.4")
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(defcustom ruby-custom-encoding-magic-comment-template "# encoding: %s"
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  "A custom encoding comment template.
It is used when `ruby-encoding-magic-comment-style' is set to `custom'."
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  :type 'string
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  :group 'ruby
  :version "24.4")
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(defcustom ruby-use-encoding-map t
  "Use `ruby-encoding-map' to set encoding magic comment if this is non-nil."
  :type 'boolean :group 'ruby)

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;;; SMIE support

(require 'smie)

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;; Here's a simplified BNF grammar, for reference:
;; http://www.cse.buffalo.edu/~regan/cse305/RubyBNF.pdf
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(defconst ruby-smie-grammar
  (smie-prec2->grammar
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   (smie-merge-prec2s
    (smie-bnf->prec2
     '((id)
       (insts (inst) (insts ";" insts))
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       (inst (exp) (inst "iuwu-mod" exp)
             ;; Somewhat incorrect (both can be used multiple times),
             ;; but avoids lots of conflicts:
             (exp "and" exp) (exp "or" exp))
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       (exp  (exp1) (exp "," exp) (exp "=" exp)
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             (id " @ " exp))
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       (exp1 (exp2) (exp2 "?" exp1 ":" exp1))
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       (exp2 (exp3) (exp3 "." exp2))
       (exp3 ("def" insts "end")
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             ("begin" insts-rescue-insts "end")
             ("do" insts "end")
             ("class" insts "end") ("module" insts "end")
             ("for" for-body "end")
             ("[" expseq "]")
             ("{" hashvals "}")
             ("{" insts "}")
             ("while" insts "end")
             ("until" insts "end")
             ("unless" insts "end")
             ("if" if-body "end")
             ("case"  cases "end"))
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       (formal-params ("opening-|" exp "closing-|"))
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       (for-body (for-head ";" insts))
       (for-head (id "in" exp))
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       (cases (exp "then" insts)
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              (cases "when" cases) (insts "else" insts))
       (expseq (exp) );;(expseq "," expseq)
       (hashvals (id "=>" exp1) (hashvals "," hashvals))
       (insts-rescue-insts (insts)
                           (insts-rescue-insts "rescue" insts-rescue-insts)
                           (insts-rescue-insts "ensure" insts-rescue-insts))
       (itheni (insts) (exp "then" insts))
       (ielsei (itheni) (itheni "else" insts))
       (if-body (ielsei) (if-body "elsif" if-body)))
     '((nonassoc "in") (assoc ";") (right " @ ")
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       (assoc ",") (right "="))
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     '((assoc "when"))
     '((assoc "elsif"))
     '((assoc "rescue" "ensure"))
     '((assoc ",")))

    (smie-precs->prec2
     '((right "=")
       (right "+=" "-=" "*=" "/=" "%=" "**=" "&=" "|=" "^="
              "<<=" ">>=" "&&=" "||=")
       (left ".." "...")
       (left "+" "-")
       (left "*" "/" "%" "**")
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       (left "&&" "||")
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       (left "^" "&" "|")
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       (nonassoc "<=>")
       (nonassoc ">" ">=" "<" "<=")
       (nonassoc "==" "===" "!=")
       (nonassoc "=~" "!~")
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       (left "<<" ">>")
       (right "."))))))
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(defun ruby-smie--bosp ()
  (save-excursion (skip-chars-backward " \t")
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                  (or (bolp) (memq (char-before) '(?\; ?=)))))
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(defun ruby-smie--implicit-semi-p ()
  (save-excursion
    (skip-chars-backward " \t")
    (not (or (bolp)
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             (memq (char-before) '(?\[ ?\())
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             (and (memq (char-before)
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                        '(?\; ?- ?+ ?* ?/ ?: ?. ?, ?\\ ?& ?> ?< ?% ?~ ?^))
                  ;; Not a binary operator symbol.
                  (not (eq (char-before (1- (point))) ?:))
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                  ;; Not the end of a regexp or a percent literal.
                  (not (memq (car (syntax-after (1- (point)))) '(7 15))))
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             (and (eq (char-before) ?\?)
                  (equal (save-excursion (ruby-smie--backward-token)) "?"))
             (and (eq (char-before) ?=)
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                  ;; Not a symbol :==, :!=, or a foo= method.
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                  (string-match "\\`\\s." (save-excursion
                                            (ruby-smie--backward-token))))
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             (and (eq (char-before) ?|)
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                  (member (save-excursion (ruby-smie--backward-token))
                          '("|" "||")))
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             (and (eq (car (syntax-after (1- (point)))) 2)
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                  (member (save-excursion (ruby-smie--backward-token))
                          '("iuwu-mod" "and" "or")))
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             (save-excursion
               (forward-comment 1)
               (eq (char-after) ?.))))))
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(defun ruby-smie--redundant-do-p (&optional skip)
  (save-excursion
    (if skip (backward-word 1))
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    (member (nth 2 (smie-backward-sexp ";")) '("while" "until" "for"))))
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(defun ruby-smie--opening-pipe-p ()
  (save-excursion
    (if (eq ?| (char-before)) (forward-char -1))
    (skip-chars-backward " \t\n")
    (or (eq ?\{ (char-before))
        (looking-back "\\_<do" (- (point) 2)))))
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(defun ruby-smie--closing-pipe-p ()
  (save-excursion
    (if (eq ?| (char-before)) (forward-char -1))
    (and (re-search-backward "|" (line-beginning-position) t)
         (ruby-smie--opening-pipe-p))))

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(defun ruby-smie--args-separator-p (pos)
  (and
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   (< pos (line-end-position))
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   (or (eq (char-syntax (preceding-char)) '?w)
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       ;; FIXME: Check that the preceding token is not a keyword.
       ;; This isn't very important most of the time, though.
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       (and (memq (preceding-char) '(?! ??))
            (eq (char-syntax (char-before (1- (point)))) '?w)))
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   (save-excursion
     (goto-char pos)
     (or (and (eq (char-syntax (char-after)) ?w)
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              (not (looking-at (regexp-opt '("unless" "if" "while" "until" "or"
                                             "else" "elsif" "do" "end" "and")
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                                           'symbols))))
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         (memq (car (syntax-after pos)) '(7 15))
         (looking-at "[([]\\|[-+!~]\\sw\\|:\\(?:\\sw\\|\\s.\\)")))))
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(defun ruby-smie--at-dot-call ()
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  (and (eq ?w (char-syntax (following-char)))
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       (eq (char-before) ?.)
       (not (eq (char-before (1- (point))) ?.))))
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(defun ruby-smie--forward-token ()
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  (let ((pos (point)))
    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
    (cond
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     ((and (looking-at "\n") (looking-at "\\s\""))  ;A heredoc.
      ;; Tokenize the whole heredoc as semicolon.
      (goto-char (scan-sexps (point) 1))
      ";")
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     ((and (looking-at "[\n#]")
           (ruby-smie--implicit-semi-p)) ;Only add implicit ; when needed.
      (if (eolp) (forward-char 1) (forward-comment 1))
      ";")
     (t
      (forward-comment (point-max))
      (cond
       ((and (< pos (point))
             (save-excursion
               (ruby-smie--args-separator-p (prog1 (point) (goto-char pos)))))
        " @ ")
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       ((looking-at ":\\s.+")
        (goto-char (match-end 0)) (match-string 0)) ;bug#15208.
       ((looking-at "\\s\"") "")                    ;A string.
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       (t
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        (let ((dot (ruby-smie--at-dot-call))
              (tok (smie-default-forward-token)))
          (when dot
            (setq tok (concat "." tok)))
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          (cond
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           ((member tok '("unless" "if" "while" "until"))
            (if (save-excursion (forward-word -1) (ruby-smie--bosp))
                tok "iuwu-mod"))
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           ((string-match-p "\\`|[*&]?\\'" tok)
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            (forward-char (- 1 (length tok)))
            (setq tok "|")
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            (cond
             ((ruby-smie--opening-pipe-p) "opening-|")
             ((ruby-smie--closing-pipe-p) "closing-|")
             (t tok)))
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           ((and (equal tok "") (looking-at "\\\\\n"))
            (goto-char (match-end 0)) (ruby-smie--forward-token))
           ((equal tok "do")
            (cond
             ((not (ruby-smie--redundant-do-p 'skip)) tok)
             ((> (save-excursion (forward-comment (point-max)) (point))
                 (line-end-position))
              (ruby-smie--forward-token)) ;Fully redundant.
             (t ";")))
           (t tok)))))))))
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(defun ruby-smie--backward-token ()
  (let ((pos (point)))
    (forward-comment (- (point)))
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    (cond
     ((and (> pos (line-end-position)) (ruby-smie--implicit-semi-p))
      (skip-chars-forward " \t") ";")
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     ((and (bolp) (not (bobp)))         ;Presumably a heredoc.
      ;; Tokenize the whole heredoc as semicolon.
      (goto-char (scan-sexps (point) -1))
      ";")
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     ((and (> pos (point)) (not (bolp))
           (ruby-smie--args-separator-p pos))
      ;; We have "ID SPC ID", which is a method call, but it binds less tightly
      ;; than commas, since a method call can also be "ID ARG1, ARG2, ARG3".
      ;; In some textbooks, "e1 @ e2" is used to mean "call e1 with arg e2".
      " @ ")
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     (t
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      (let ((tok (smie-default-backward-token))
            (dot (ruby-smie--at-dot-call)))
        (when dot
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          (setq tok (concat "." tok)))
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        (when (and (eq ?: (char-before)) (string-match "\\`\\s." tok))
          (forward-char -1) (setq tok (concat ":" tok))) ;; bug#15208.
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        (cond
         ((member tok '("unless" "if" "while" "until"))
          (if (ruby-smie--bosp)
              tok "iuwu-mod"))
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         ((equal tok "|")
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          (cond
           ((ruby-smie--opening-pipe-p) "opening-|")
           ((ruby-smie--closing-pipe-p) "closing-|")
           (t tok)))
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         ((string-match-p "\\`|[*&]\\'" tok)
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          (forward-char 1)
          (substring tok 1))
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         ((and (equal tok "") (eq ?\\ (char-before)) (looking-at "\n"))
          (forward-char -1) (ruby-smie--backward-token))
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         ((equal tok "do")
          (cond
           ((not (ruby-smie--redundant-do-p)) tok)
           ((> (save-excursion (forward-word 1)
                               (forward-comment (point-max)) (point))
               (line-end-position))
            (ruby-smie--backward-token)) ;Fully redundant.
           (t ";")))
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         (t tok)))))))
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(defun ruby-smie--indent-to-stmt ()
  (save-excursion
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    (smie-backward-sexp ";")
    (cons 'column (smie-indent-virtual))))
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(defun ruby-smie--indent-to-stmt-p (keyword)
  (or (eq t ruby-align-to-stmt-keywords)
      (memq (intern keyword) ruby-align-to-stmt-keywords)))

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(defun ruby-smie-rules (kind token)
  (pcase (cons kind token)
    (`(:elem . basic) ruby-indent-level)
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    ;; "foo" "bar" is the concatenation of the two strings, so the second
    ;; should be aligned with the first.
    (`(:elem . args) (if (looking-at "\\s\"") 0))
    ;; (`(:after . ",") (smie-rule-separator kind))
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    (`(:before . ";")
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     (cond
      ((smie-rule-parent-p "def" "begin" "do" "class" "module" "for"
                           "while" "until" "unless"
                           "if" "then" "elsif" "else" "when"
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                           "rescue" "ensure" "{")
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       (smie-rule-parent ruby-indent-level))
      ;; For (invalid) code between switch and case.
      ;; (if (smie-parent-p "switch") 4)
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      ))
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    (`(:before . ,(or `"(" `"[" `"{"))
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     (cond
      ((and (equal token "{")
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            (not (smie-rule-prev-p "(" "{" "[" "," "=>" "=" "return" ";"))
            (save-excursion
              (forward-comment -1)
              (not (eq (preceding-char) ?:))))
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       ;; Curly block opener.
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       (ruby-smie--indent-to-stmt))
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      ((smie-rule-hanging-p)
       ;; Treat purely syntactic block-constructs as being part of their parent,
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       ;; when the opening token is hanging and the parent is not an
       ;; open-paren.
       (cond
        ((eq (car (smie-indent--parent)) t) nil)
        ;; When after `.', let's always de-indent,
        ;; because when `.' is inside the line, the
        ;; additional indentation from it looks out of place.
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        ((smie-rule-parent-p ".")
         (let (smie--parent)
           (save-excursion
             ;; Traverse up the parents until the parent is "." at
             ;; indentation, or any other token.
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             (while (and (let ((parent (smie-indent--parent)))
                           (goto-char (cadr parent))
                           (save-excursion
                             (unless (integerp (car parent)) (forward-char -1))
                             (not (ruby-smie--bosp))))
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                         (progn
                           (setq smie--parent nil)
                           (smie-rule-parent-p "."))))
             (smie-rule-parent))))
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        (t (smie-rule-parent))))))
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    (`(:after . ,(or `"(" "[" "{"))
     ;; FIXME: Shouldn't this be the default behavior of
     ;; `smie-indent-after-keyword'?
     (save-excursion
       (forward-char 1)
       (skip-chars-forward " \t")
       ;; `smie-rule-hanging-p' is not good enough here,
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       ;; because we want to reject hanging tokens at bol, too.
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       (unless (or (eolp) (forward-comment 1))
         (cons 'column (current-column)))))
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    (`(:before . " @ ")
     (save-excursion
       (skip-chars-forward " \t")
       (cons 'column (current-column))))
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    (`(:before . "do") (ruby-smie--indent-to-stmt))
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    (`(:before . ".")
     (if (smie-rule-sibling-p)
         (and ruby-align-chained-calls 0)
       ruby-indent-level))
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    (`(:before . ,(or `"else" `"then" `"elsif" `"rescue" `"ensure"))
     (smie-rule-parent))
    (`(:before . "when")
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     ;; Align to the previous `when', but look up the virtual
     ;; indentation of `case'.
     (if (smie-rule-sibling-p) 0 (smie-rule-parent)))
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    (`(:after . ,(or "=" "iuwu-mod" "+" "-" "*" "/" "&&" "||" "%" "**" "^" "&"
                     "<=>" ">" "<" ">=" "<=" "==" "===" "!=" "<<" ">>"
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                     "+=" "-=" "*=" "/=" "%=" "**=" "&=" "|=" "^=" "|"
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                     "<<=" ">>=" "&&=" "||=" "and" "or"))
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     (and (smie-rule-parent-p ";" nil)
          (smie-indent--hanging-p)
          ruby-indent-level))
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    (`(:after . ,(or "?" ":")) ruby-indent-level)
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    (`(:before . ,(guard (memq (intern-soft token) ruby-alignable-keywords)))
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     (when (not (ruby--at-indentation-p))
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       (if (ruby-smie--indent-to-stmt-p token)
           (ruby-smie--indent-to-stmt)
         (cons 'column (current-column)))))
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    ))
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(defun ruby--at-indentation-p (&optional point)
  (save-excursion
    (unless point (setq point (point)))
    (forward-line 0)
    (skip-chars-forward " \t")
    (eq (point) point)))

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(defun ruby-imenu-create-index-in-block (prefix beg end)
  "Create an imenu index of methods inside a block."
  (let ((index-alist '()) (case-fold-search nil)
        name next pos decl sing)
    (goto-char beg)
    (while (re-search-forward "^\\s *\\(\\(class\\s +\\|\\(class\\s *<<\\s *\\)\\|module\\s +\\)\\([^\(<\n ]+\\)\\|\\(def\\|alias\\)\\s +\\([^\(\n ]+\\)\\)" end t)
      (setq sing (match-beginning 3))
      (setq decl (match-string 5))
      (setq next (match-end 0))
      (setq name (or (match-string 4) (match-string 6)))
      (setq pos (match-beginning 0))
      (cond
       ((string= "alias" decl)
        (if prefix (setq name (concat prefix name)))
        (push (cons name pos) index-alist))
       ((string= "def" decl)
        (if prefix
            (setq name
                  (cond
                   ((string-match "^self\." name)
                    (concat (substring prefix 0 -1) (substring name 4)))
                  (t (concat prefix name)))))
        (push (cons name pos) index-alist)
        (ruby-accurate-end-of-block end))
       (t
        (if (string= "self" name)
            (if prefix (setq name (substring prefix 0 -1)))
          (if prefix (setq name (concat (substring prefix 0 -1) "::" name)))
          (push (cons name pos) index-alist))
        (ruby-accurate-end-of-block end)
        (setq beg (point))
        (setq index-alist
              (nconc (ruby-imenu-create-index-in-block
                      (concat name (if sing "." "#"))
                      next beg) index-alist))
        (goto-char beg))))
    index-alist))

(defun ruby-imenu-create-index ()
  "Create an imenu index of all methods in the buffer."
  (nreverse (ruby-imenu-create-index-in-block nil (point-min) nil)))

(defun ruby-accurate-end-of-block (&optional end)
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  "Jump to the end of the current block or END, whichever is closer."
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  (let (state
        (end (or end (point-max))))
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    (if ruby-use-smie
        (save-restriction
          (back-to-indentation)
          (narrow-to-region (point) end)
          (smie-forward-sexp))
      (while (and (setq state (apply 'ruby-parse-partial end state))
                    (>= (nth 2 state) 0) (< (point) end))))))
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(defun ruby-mode-variables ()
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  "Set up initial buffer-local variables for Ruby mode."
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  (setq indent-tabs-mode ruby-indent-tabs-mode)
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  (if ruby-use-smie
      (smie-setup ruby-smie-grammar #'ruby-smie-rules
                  :forward-token  #'ruby-smie--forward-token
                  :backward-token #'ruby-smie--backward-token)
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    (setq-local indent-line-function 'ruby-indent-line))
  (setq-local require-final-newline t)
  (setq-local comment-start "# ")
  (setq-local comment-end "")
  (setq-local comment-column ruby-comment-column)
  (setq-local comment-start-skip "#+ *")
  (setq-local parse-sexp-ignore-comments t)
  (setq-local parse-sexp-lookup-properties t)
  (setq-local paragraph-start (concat "$\\|" page-delimiter))
  (setq-local paragraph-separate paragraph-start)
  (setq-local paragraph-ignore-fill-prefix t))
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(defun ruby--insert-coding-comment (encoding)
  "Insert a magic coding comment for ENCODING.
The style of the comment is controlled by `ruby-encoding-magic-comment-style'."
  (let ((encoding-magic-comment-template
         (pcase ruby-encoding-magic-comment-style
           (`ruby "# coding: %s")
           (`emacs "# -*- coding: %s -*-")
           (`custom
            ruby-custom-encoding-magic-comment-template))))
    (insert
     (format encoding-magic-comment-template encoding)
     "\n")))

(defun ruby--detect-encoding ()
  (if (eq ruby-insert-encoding-magic-comment 'always-utf8)
      "utf-8"
    (let ((coding-system
           (or save-buffer-coding-system
               buffer-file-coding-system)))
      (if coding-system
          (setq coding-system
                (or (coding-system-get coding-system 'mime-charset)
                    (coding-system-change-eol-conversion coding-system nil))))
      (if coding-system
          (symbol-name
           (if ruby-use-encoding-map
               (let ((elt (assq coding-system ruby-encoding-map)))
                 (if elt (cdr elt) coding-system))
             coding-system))
        "ascii-8bit"))))

(defun ruby--encoding-comment-required-p ()
  (or (eq ruby-insert-encoding-magic-comment 'always-utf8)
      (re-search-forward "[^\0-\177]" nil t)))

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(defun ruby-mode-set-encoding ()
  "Insert a magic comment header with the proper encoding if necessary."
  (save-excursion
    (widen)
    (goto-char (point-min))
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    (when (ruby--encoding-comment-required-p)
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      (goto-char (point-min))
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      (let ((coding-system (ruby--detect-encoding)))
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        (when coding-system
          (if (looking-at "^#!") (beginning-of-line 2))
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          (cond ((looking-at "\\s *#\\s *.*\\(en\\)?coding\\s *:\\s *\\([-a-z0-9_]*\\)")
                 ;; update existing encoding comment if necessary
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                 (unless (string= (match-string 2) coding-system)
                   (goto-char (match-beginning 2))
                   (delete-region (point) (match-end 2))
                   (insert coding-system)))
                ((looking-at "\\s *#.*coding\\s *[:=]"))
                (t (when ruby-insert-encoding-magic-comment
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                     (ruby--insert-coding-comment coding-system))))
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          (when (buffer-modified-p)
            (basic-save-buffer-1)))))))
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(defvar ruby--electric-indent-chars '(?. ?\) ?} ?\]))

(defun ruby--electric-indent-p (char)
  (cond
   ((memq char ruby--electric-indent-chars)
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    ;; Reindent after typing a char affecting indentation.
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    (ruby--at-indentation-p (1- (point))))
   ((memq (char-after) ruby--electric-indent-chars)
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    ;; Reindent after inserting something in front of the above.
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    (ruby--at-indentation-p (1- (point))))
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   ((or (and (>= char ?a) (<= char ?z)) (memq char '(?_ ?? ?! ?:)))
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    (let ((pt (point)))
      (save-excursion
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        (skip-chars-backward "[:alpha:]:_?!")
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        (and (ruby--at-indentation-p)
             (looking-at (regexp-opt (cons "end" ruby-block-mid-keywords)))
             ;; Outdent after typing a keyword.
             (or (eq (match-end 0) pt)
                 ;; Reindent if it wasn't a keyword after all.
                 (eq (match-end 0) (1- pt)))))))))

;; FIXME: Remove this?  It's unused here, but some redefinitions of
;; `ruby-calculate-indent' in user init files still call it.
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(defun ruby-current-indentation ()
  "Return the indentation level of current line."
  (save-excursion
    (beginning-of-line)
    (back-to-indentation)
    (current-column)))

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(defun ruby-indent-line (&optional ignored)
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  "Correct the indentation of the current Ruby line."
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  (interactive)
  (ruby-indent-to (ruby-calculate-indent)))

(defun ruby-indent-to (column)
  "Indent the current line to COLUMN."
  (when column
    (let (shift top beg)
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      (and (< column 0) (error "Invalid nesting"))
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      (setq shift (current-column))
      (beginning-of-line)
      (setq beg (point))
      (back-to-indentation)
      (setq top (current-column))
      (skip-chars-backward " \t")
      (if (>= shift top) (setq shift (- shift top))
        (setq shift 0))
      (if (and (bolp)
               (= column top))
          (move-to-column (+ column shift))
        (move-to-column top)
        (delete-region beg (point))
        (beginning-of-line)
        (indent-to column)
        (move-to-column (+ column shift))))))

(defun ruby-special-char-p (&optional pos)
  "Return t if the character before POS is a special character.
If omitted, POS defaults to the current point.
Special characters are `?', `$', `:' when preceded by whitespace,
and `\\' when preceded by `?'."
  (setq pos (or pos (point)))
  (let ((c (char-before pos)) (b (and (< (point-min) pos)
				      (char-before (1- pos)))))
    (cond ((or (eq c ??) (eq c ?$)))
          ((and (eq c ?:) (or (not b) (eq (char-syntax b) ? ))))
          ((eq c ?\\) (eq b ??)))))

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(defun ruby-singleton-class-p (&optional pos)
  (save-excursion
    (when pos (goto-char pos))
    (forward-word -1)
    (and (or (bolp) (not (eq (char-before (point)) ?_)))
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         (looking-at ruby-singleton-class-re))))
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(defun ruby-expr-beg (&optional option)
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  "Check if point is possibly at the beginning of an expression.
OPTION specifies the type of the expression.
Can be one of `heredoc', `modifier', `expr-qstr', `expr-re'."
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  (save-excursion
    (store-match-data nil)
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    (let ((space (skip-chars-backward " \t"))
          (start (point)))
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      (cond
       ((bolp) t)
       ((progn
          (forward-char -1)
          (and (looking-at "\\?")
               (or (eq (char-syntax (char-before (point))) ?w)
                   (ruby-special-char-p))))
        nil)
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       ((looking-at ruby-operator-re))
       ((eq option 'heredoc)
        (and (< space 0) (not (ruby-singleton-class-p start))))
       ((or (looking-at "[\\[({,;]")
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            (and (looking-at "[!?]")
                 (or (not (eq option 'modifier))
                     (bolp)
                     (save-excursion (forward-char -1) (looking-at "\\Sw$"))))
            (and (looking-at ruby-symbol-re)
                 (skip-chars-backward ruby-symbol-chars)
                 (cond
                  ((looking-at (regexp-opt
                                (append ruby-block-beg-keywords
                                        ruby-block-op-keywords
                                        ruby-block-mid-keywords)
                                'words))
                   (goto-char (match-end 0))
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                   (not (looking-at "\\s_")))
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                  ((eq option 'expr-qstr)
                   (looking-at "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-z0-9_]* +%[^ \t]"))
                  ((eq option 'expr-re)
                   (looking-at "[a-zA-Z][a-zA-z0-9_]* +/[^ \t]"))
                  (t nil)))))))))

(defun ruby-forward-string (term &optional end no-error expand)
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  "Move forward across one balanced pair of string delimiters.
Skips escaped delimiters. If EXPAND is non-nil, also ignores
delimiters in interpolated strings.

TERM should be a string containing either a single, self-matching
delimiter (e.g. \"/\"), or a pair of matching delimiters with the
close delimiter first (e.g. \"][\").

When non-nil, search is bounded by position END.

Throws an error if a balanced match is not found, unless NO-ERROR
is non-nil, in which case nil will be returned.

This command assumes the character after point is an opening
delimiter."
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  (let ((n 1) (c (string-to-char term))
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        (re (concat "[^\\]\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*\\("
                    (if (string= term "^") ;[^] is not a valid regexp
                        "\\^"
                      (concat "[" term "]"))
                    (when expand "\\|\\(#{\\)")
                    "\\)")))
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    (while (and (re-search-forward re end no-error)
                (if (match-beginning 3)
                    (ruby-forward-string "}{" end no-error nil)
                  (> (setq n (if (eq (char-before (point)) c)
                                     (1- n) (1+ n))) 0)))
      (forward-char -1))
    (cond ((zerop n))
          (no-error nil)
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          ((error "Unterminated string")))))
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(defun ruby-deep-indent-paren-p (c)
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  "TODO: document."
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  (cond ((listp ruby-deep-indent-paren)
         (let ((deep (assoc c ruby-deep-indent-paren)))
           (cond (deep
                  (or (cdr deep) ruby-deep-indent-paren-style))
                 ((memq c ruby-deep-indent-paren)
                  ruby-deep-indent-paren-style))))
        ((eq c ruby-deep-indent-paren) ruby-deep-indent-paren-style)
        ((eq c ?\( ) ruby-deep-arglist)))

(defun ruby-parse-partial (&optional end in-string nest depth pcol indent)
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  "TODO: document throughout function body."
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  (or depth (setq depth 0))
  (or indent (setq indent 0))
  (when (re-search-forward ruby-delimiter end 'move)
    (let ((pnt (point)) w re expand)
      (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
      (cond
       ((and (memq (char-before) '(?@ ?$)) (looking-at "\\sw"))
        (goto-char pnt))
       ((looking-at "[\"`]")            ;skip string
        (cond
         ((and (not (eobp))
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               (ruby-forward-string (buffer-substring (point) (1+ (point)))
                                    end t t))
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          nil)
         (t
          (setq in-string (point))
          (goto-char end))))
       ((looking-at "'")
        (cond
         ((and (not (eobp))
               (re-search-forward "[^\\]\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*'" end t))
          nil)
         (t
          (setq in-string (point))
          (goto-char end))))
       ((looking-at "/=")
        (goto-char pnt))
       ((looking-at "/")
        (cond
         ((and (not (eobp)) (ruby-expr-beg 'expr-re))
          (if (ruby-forward-string "/" end t t)
              nil
            (setq in-string (point))
            (goto-char end)))
         (t
          (goto-char pnt))))
       ((looking-at "%")
        (cond
         ((and (not (eobp))
               (ruby-expr-beg 'expr-qstr)
               (not (looking-at "%="))
               (looking-at "%[QqrxWw]?\\([^a-zA-Z0-9 \t\n]\\)"))
          (goto-char (match-beginning 1))
          (setq expand (not (memq (char-before) '(?q ?w))))
          (setq w (match-string 1))
          (cond
           ((string= w "[") (setq re "]["))
           ((string= w "{") (setq re "}{"))
           ((string= w "(") (setq re ")("))
           ((string= w "<") (setq re "><"))
           ((and expand (string= w "\\"))
            (setq w (concat "\\" w))))
          (unless (cond (re (ruby-forward-string re end t expand))
                        (expand (ruby-forward-string w end t t))
                        (t (re-search-forward
                            (if (string= w "\\")
                                "\\\\[^\\]*\\\\"
                              (concat "[^\\]\\(\\\\\\\\\\)*" w))
                            end t)))
            (setq in-string (point))
            (goto-char end)))
         (t
          (goto-char pnt))))
       ((looking-at "\\?")              ;skip ?char
        (cond
         ((and (ruby-expr-beg)
               (looking-at "?\\(\\\\C-\\|\\\\M-\\)*\\\\?."))
          (goto-char (match-end 0)))
         (t
          (goto-char pnt))))
       ((looking-at "\\$")              ;skip $char
        (goto-char pnt)
        (forward-char 1))
       ((looking-at "#")                ;skip comment
        (forward-line 1)
        (goto-char (point))
        )
       ((looking-at "[\\[{(]")
        (let ((deep (ruby-deep-indent-paren-p (char-after))))
          (if (and deep (or (not (eq (char-after) ?\{)) (ruby-expr-beg)))
              (progn
                (and (eq deep 'space) (looking-at ".\\s +[^# \t\n]")
                     (setq pnt (1- (match-end 0))))
                (setq nest (cons (cons (char-after (point)) pnt) nest))
                (setq pcol (cons (cons pnt depth) pcol))
                (setq depth 0))
            (setq nest (cons (cons (char-after (point)) pnt) nest))
            (setq depth (1+ depth))))
        (goto-char pnt)
        )
       ((looking-at "[])}]")
        (if (ruby-deep-indent-paren-p (matching-paren (char-after)))
            (setq depth (cdr (car pcol)) pcol (cdr pcol))
          (setq depth (1- depth)))
        (setq nest (cdr nest))
        (goto-char pnt))
       ((looking-at ruby-block-end-re)
        (if (or (and (not (bolp))
                     (progn
                       (forward-char -1)
                       (setq w (char-after (point)))
                       (or (eq ?_ w)
                           (eq ?. w))))
                (progn
                  (goto-char pnt)
                  (setq w (char-after (point)))
                  (or (eq ?_ w)
                      (eq ?! w)
                      (eq ?? w))))
            nil
          (setq nest (cdr nest))
          (setq depth (1- depth)))
        (goto-char pnt))
       ((looking-at "def\\s +[^(\n;]*")
        (if (or (bolp)
                (progn
                  (forward-char -1)
                  (not (eq ?_ (char-after (point))))))
            (progn
              (setq nest (cons (cons nil pnt) nest))
              (setq depth (1+ depth))))
        (goto-char (match-end 0)))
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       ((looking-at (concat "\\_<\\(" ruby-block-beg-re "\\)\\_>"))
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        (and
         (save-match-data
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           (or (not (looking-at "do\\_>"))
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               (save-excursion
                 (back-to-indentation)
                 (not (looking-at ruby-non-block-do-re)))))
         (or (bolp)
             (progn
               (forward-char -1)
               (setq w (char-after (point)))
               (not (or (eq ?_ w)
                        (eq ?. w)))))
         (goto-char pnt)
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         (not (eq ?! (char-after (point))))
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         (skip-chars-forward " \t")
         (goto-char (match-beginning 0))
         (or (not (looking-at ruby-modifier-re))
             (ruby-expr-beg 'modifier))
         (goto-char pnt)
         (setq nest (cons (cons nil pnt) nest))
         (setq depth (1+ depth)))
        (goto-char pnt))
       ((looking-at ":\\(['\"]\\)")
        (goto-char (match-beginning 1))
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        (ruby-forward-string (match-string 1) end t))
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       ((looking-at ":\\([-,.+*/%&|^~<>]=?\\|===?\\|<=>\\|![~=]?\\)")
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        (goto-char (match-end 0)))
       ((looking-at ":\\([a-zA-Z_][a-zA-Z_0-9]*[!?=]?\\)?")
        (goto-char (match-end 0)))
       ((or (looking-at "\\.\\.\\.?")
            (looking-at "\\.[0-9]+")
            (looking-at "\\.[a-zA-Z_0-9]+")
            (looking-at "\\."))
        (goto-char (match-end 0)))
       ((looking-at "^=begin")
        (if (re-search-forward "^=end" end t)
            (forward-line 1)
          (setq in-string (match-end 0))
          (goto-char end)))
       ((looking-at "<<")
        (cond
         ((and (ruby-expr-beg 'heredoc)
               (looking-at "<<\\(-\\)?\\(\\([\"'`]\\)\\([^\n]+?\\)\\3\\|\\(?:\\sw\\|\\s_\\)+\\)"))
          (setq re (regexp-quote (or (match-string 4) (match-string 2))))
          (if (match-beginning 1) (setq re (concat "\\s *" re)))
          (let* ((id-end (goto-char (match-end 0)))
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                 (line-end-position (point-at-eol))
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                 (state (list in-string nest depth pcol indent)))
            ;; parse the rest of the line
            (while (and (> line-end-position (point))
                        (setq state (apply 'ruby-parse-partial
                                           line-end-position state))))
            (setq in-string (car state)
                  nest (nth 1 state)
                  depth (nth 2 state)
                  pcol (nth 3 state)
                  indent (nth 4 state))
            ;; skip heredoc section
            (if (re-search-forward (concat "^" re "$") end 'move)
                (forward-line 1)
              (setq in-string id-end)
              (goto-char end))))
         (t
          (goto-char pnt))))
       ((looking-at "^__END__$")
        (goto-char pnt))
       ((and (looking-at ruby-here-doc-beg-re)
	     (boundp 'ruby-indent-point))
        (if (re-search-forward (ruby-here-doc-end-match)
                               ruby-indent-point t)
            (forward-line 1)
          (setq in-string (match-end 0))
          (goto-char ruby-indent-point)))
       (t
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        (error (format "Bad string %s"
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                       (buffer-substring (point) pnt)
                       ))))))
  (list in-string nest depth pcol))

(defun ruby-parse-region (start end)
  "TODO: document."
  (let (state)
    (save-excursion
      (if start
          (goto-char start)
        (ruby-beginning-of-indent))
      (save-restriction
        (narrow-to-region (point) end)
        (while (and (> end (point))
                    (setq state (apply 'ruby-parse-partial end state))))))
    (list (nth 0 state)                 ; in-string
          (car (nth 1 state))           ; nest
          (nth 2 state)                 ; depth
          (car (car (nth 3 state)))     ; pcol
          ;(car (nth 5 state))          ; indent
          )))

(defun ruby-indent-size (pos nest)
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  "Return the indentation level in spaces NEST levels deeper than POS."
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