text.texi 119 KB
Newer Older
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1
@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
2
@c Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1987, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2001,
3
@c   2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
@node Text, Programs, Indentation, Top
@chapter Commands for Human Languages
@cindex text
@cindex manipulating text

  The term @dfn{text} has two widespread meanings in our area of the
computer field.  One is data that is a sequence of characters.  Any file
that you edit with Emacs is text, in this sense of the word.  The other
meaning is more restrictive: a sequence of characters in a human language
for humans to read (possibly after processing by a text formatter), as
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
15 16
opposed to a program or binary data.  This chapter is concerned with
editing text in the narrower sense.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

  Human languages have syntactic/stylistic conventions that can be
supported or used to advantage by editor commands: conventions involving
words, sentences, paragraphs, and capital letters.  This chapter
describes Emacs commands for all of these things.  There are also
commands for @dfn{filling}, which means rearranging the lines of a
paragraph to be approximately equal in length.  The commands for moving
over and killing words, sentences and paragraphs, while intended
primarily for editing text, are also often useful for editing programs.

  Emacs has several major modes for editing human-language text.  If the
file contains text pure and simple, use Text mode, which customizes
Emacs in small ways for the syntactic conventions of text.  Outline mode
provides special commands for operating on text with an outline
structure.
@iftex
@xref{Outline Mode}.
@end iftex

  For text which contains embedded commands for text formatters, Emacs
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
37
has other major modes, each for a particular formatter.  Thus, for
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
38 39
input to @TeX{}, you would use @TeX{}
@iftex
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
40
mode (@pxref{TeX Mode,,@TeX{} Mode}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
41
@end iftex
42
@ifnottex
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
43
mode.
44
@end ifnottex
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
45
For input to groff or nroff, use Nroff mode.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53

  Instead of using a text formatter, you can edit formatted text in
WYSIWYG style (``what you see is what you get''), with Enriched mode.
Then the formatting appears on the screen in Emacs while you edit.
@iftex
@xref{Formatted Text}.
@end iftex

54 55 56 57
@cindex ASCII art
  If you need to edit pictures made out of text characters (commonly
referred to as ``ASCII art''), use @kbd{M-x edit-picture} to enter
Picture mode, a special major mode for editing such pictures.
58
@iftex
59
@xref{Picture Mode,,, emacs-xtra, Specialized Emacs Features}.
60 61 62 63 64
@end iftex
@ifnottex
@xref{Picture Mode}.
@end ifnottex

65

66 67 68 69
@cindex skeletons
@cindex templates
@cindex autotyping
@cindex automatic typing
70
  The ``automatic typing'' features may be useful when writing text.
71
@inforef{Top,, autotype}.
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
72

Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82
@menu
* Words::	        Moving over and killing words.
* Sentences::	        Moving over and killing sentences.
* Paragraphs::	        Moving over paragraphs.
* Pages::	        Moving over pages.
* Filling::	        Filling or justifying text.
* Case::	        Changing the case of text.
* Text Mode::	        The major modes for editing text files.
* Outline Mode::        Editing outlines.
* TeX Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter TeX.
Stefan Monnier's avatar
Stefan Monnier committed
83
* HTML Mode::           Editing HTML, SGML, and XML files.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
84 85
* Nroff Mode::	        Editing input to the formatter nroff.
* Formatted Text::      Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion.
86
* Text Based Tables::   Editing text-based tables in WYSIWYG fashion.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108
@end menu

@node Words
@section Words
@cindex words
@cindex Meta commands and words

  Emacs has commands for moving over or operating on words.  By convention,
the keys for them are all Meta characters.

@table @kbd
@item M-f
Move forward over a word (@code{forward-word}).
@item M-b
Move backward over a word (@code{backward-word}).
@item M-d
Kill up to the end of a word (@code{kill-word}).
@item M-@key{DEL}
Kill back to the beginning of a word (@code{backward-kill-word}).
@item M-@@
Mark the end of the next word (@code{mark-word}).
@item M-t
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
109
Transpose two words or drag a word across others
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128
(@code{transpose-words}).
@end table

  Notice how these keys form a series that parallels the character-based
@kbd{C-f}, @kbd{C-b}, @kbd{C-d}, @key{DEL} and @kbd{C-t}.  @kbd{M-@@} is
cognate to @kbd{C-@@}, which is an alias for @kbd{C-@key{SPC}}.

@kindex M-f
@kindex M-b
@findex forward-word
@findex backward-word
  The commands @kbd{M-f} (@code{forward-word}) and @kbd{M-b}
(@code{backward-word}) move forward and backward over words.  These
Meta characters are thus analogous to the corresponding control
characters, @kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-b}, which move over single characters
in the text.  The analogy extends to numeric arguments, which serve as
repeat counts.  @kbd{M-f} with a negative argument moves backward, and
@kbd{M-b} with a negative argument moves forward.  Forward motion
stops right after the last letter of the word, while backward motion
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
129
stops right before the first letter.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
130 131 132 133 134 135 136 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145

@kindex M-d
@findex kill-word
  @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) kills the word after point.  To be
precise, it kills everything from point to the place @kbd{M-f} would
move to.  Thus, if point is in the middle of a word, @kbd{M-d} kills
just the part after point.  If some punctuation comes between point and the
next word, it is killed along with the word.  (If you wish to kill only the
next word but not the punctuation before it, simply do @kbd{M-f} to get
the end, and kill the word backwards with @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.)
@kbd{M-d} takes arguments just like @kbd{M-f}.

@findex backward-kill-word
@kindex M-DEL
  @kbd{M-@key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-word}) kills the word before
point.  It kills everything from point back to where @kbd{M-b} would
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
146 147 148 149
move to.  For instance, if point is after the space in @w{@samp{FOO,
BAR}}, it kills @w{@samp{FOO, }}.  If you wish to kill just
@samp{FOO}, and not the comma and the space, use @kbd{M-b M-d} instead
of @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
150

151 152 153 154
@c Don't index M-t and transpose-words here, they are indexed in
@c fixit.texi, in the node "Transpose".
@c @kindex M-t
@c @findex transpose-words
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
155 156 157 158
  @kbd{M-t} (@code{transpose-words}) exchanges the word before or
containing point with the following word.  The delimiter characters between
the words do not move.  For example, @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}} transposes into
@w{@samp{BAR, FOO}} rather than @samp{@w{BAR FOO,}}.  @xref{Transpose}, for
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
159
more on transposition.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170

@kindex M-@@
@findex mark-word
  To operate on the next @var{n} words with an operation which applies
between point and mark, you can either set the mark at point and then move
over the words, or you can use the command @kbd{M-@@} (@code{mark-word})
which does not move point, but sets the mark where @kbd{M-f} would move
to.  @kbd{M-@@} accepts a numeric argument that says how many words to
scan for the place to put the mark.  In Transient Mark mode, this command
activates the mark.

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
171 172 173
  The word commands' understanding of word boundaries is controlled
by the syntax table.  Any character can, for example, be declared to
be a word delimiter.  @xref{Syntax}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200

@node Sentences
@section Sentences
@cindex sentences
@cindex manipulating sentences

  The Emacs commands for manipulating sentences and paragraphs are mostly
on Meta keys, so as to be like the word-handling commands.

@table @kbd
@item M-a
Move back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-sentence}).
@item M-e
Move forward to the end of the sentence (@code{forward-sentence}).
@item M-k
Kill forward to the end of the sentence (@code{kill-sentence}).
@item C-x @key{DEL}
Kill back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-kill-sentence}).
@end table

@kindex M-a
@kindex M-e
@findex backward-sentence
@findex forward-sentence
  The commands @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} (@code{backward-sentence} and
@code{forward-sentence}) move to the beginning and end of the current
sentence, respectively.  They were chosen to resemble @kbd{C-a} and
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
201 202 203
@kbd{C-e}, which move to the beginning and end of a line.  Unlike
them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} move over successive sentences if
repeated.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219 220 221

  Moving backward over a sentence places point just before the first
character of the sentence; moving forward places point right after the
punctuation that ends the sentence.  Neither one moves over the
whitespace at the sentence boundary.

@kindex M-k
@kindex C-x DEL
@findex kill-sentence
@findex backward-kill-sentence
  Just as @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} have a kill command, @kbd{C-k}, to go
with them, so @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} have a corresponding kill command
@kbd{M-k} (@code{kill-sentence}) which kills from point to the end of
the sentence.  With minus one as an argument it kills back to the
beginning of the sentence.  Larger arguments serve as a repeat count.
There is also a command, @kbd{C-x @key{DEL}}
(@code{backward-kill-sentence}), for killing back to the beginning of a
sentence.  This command is useful when you change your mind in the
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
222
middle of composing text.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
223 224 225 226 227 228 229

  The sentence commands assume that you follow the American typist's
convention of putting two spaces at the end of a sentence; they consider
a sentence to end wherever there is a @samp{.}, @samp{?} or @samp{!}
followed by the end of a line or two spaces, with any number of
@samp{)}, @samp{]}, @samp{'}, or @samp{"} characters allowed in between.
A sentence also begins or ends wherever a paragraph begins or ends.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
230 231 232
It is useful to follow this convention, because it makes a distinction
between periods that end a sentence and periods that indicate
abbreviations; that enables the Emacs sentence commands to distinguish,
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
233
too.  These commands do not stop for periods that indicate abbreviations.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
234

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243
@vindex sentence-end-double-space
  If you want to use just one space between sentences, you can set the
variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} to @code{nil} to make the
sentence commands stop for single spaces.  However, this mode has a
drawback: there is no way to distinguish between periods that end
sentences and those that indicate abbreviations.  For convenient and
reliable editing, we therefore recommend you follow the two-space
convention.  The variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} also
affects filling (@pxref{Fill Commands}) in related ways.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
244

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253
@vindex sentence-end
  The variable @code{sentence-end} controls how to recognize the end
of a sentence.  If non-@code{nil}, it is a regexp that matches the
last few characters of a sentence, together with the whitespace
following the sentence.  If the value is @code{nil}, the default, then
Emacs computes the regexp according to various criteria such as the
value of @code{sentence-end-double-space}.  @xref{Regexp Example}, for
a detailed explanation of one of the regular expressions Emacs uses
for this purpose.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
254

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
255
@vindex sentence-end-without-period
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
256 257
  Some languages do not use periods to indicate the end of a sentence.
For example, sentences in Thai end with a double space but without a
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
258
period.  Set the variable @code{sentence-end-without-period} to
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
259
@code{t} in such cases.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269

@node Paragraphs
@section Paragraphs
@cindex paragraphs
@cindex manipulating paragraphs
@kindex M-@{
@kindex M-@}
@findex backward-paragraph
@findex forward-paragraph

Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
270
  The Emacs commands for manipulating paragraphs are also on Meta keys.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283

@table @kbd
@item M-@{
Move back to previous paragraph beginning (@code{backward-paragraph}).
@item M-@}
Move forward to next paragraph end (@code{forward-paragraph}).
@item M-h
Put point and mark around this or next paragraph (@code{mark-paragraph}).
@end table

  @kbd{M-@{} moves to the beginning of the current or previous
paragraph, while @kbd{M-@}} moves to the end of the current or next
paragraph.  Blank lines and text-formatter command lines separate
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
284 285 286 287 288 289 290
paragraphs and are not considered part of any paragraph.  If there is
a blank line before the paragraph, @kbd{M-@{} moves to the blank line,
because that is convenient in practice.

  In Text mode, an indented line is not a paragraph break.  If you
want indented lines to have this effect, use Paragraph-Indent Text
mode instead.  @xref{Text Mode}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
291 292

  In major modes for programs, paragraphs begin and end only at blank
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
293 294
lines.  This makes the paragraph commands useful, even though there
are no paragraphs as such in a program.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
295

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
296 297
  When you have set a fill prefix, then paragraphs are delimited by
all lines which don't start with the fill prefix.  @xref{Filling}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320

@kindex M-h
@findex mark-paragraph
  When you wish to operate on a paragraph, you can use the command
@kbd{M-h} (@code{mark-paragraph}) to set the region around it.  Thus,
for example, @kbd{M-h C-w} kills the paragraph around or after point.
The @kbd{M-h} command puts point at the beginning and mark at the end of
the paragraph point was in.  In Transient Mark mode, it activates the
mark.  If point is between paragraphs (in a run of blank lines, or at a
boundary), the paragraph following point is surrounded by point and
mark.  If there are blank lines preceding the first line of the
paragraph, one of these blank lines is included in the region.

@vindex paragraph-start
@vindex paragraph-separate
  The precise definition of a paragraph boundary is controlled by the
variables @code{paragraph-separate} and @code{paragraph-start}.  The
value of @code{paragraph-start} is a regexp that should match any line
that either starts or separates paragraphs.  The value of
@code{paragraph-separate} is another regexp that should match only lines
that separate paragraphs without being part of any paragraph (for
example, blank lines).  Lines that start a new paragraph and are
contained in it must match only @code{paragraph-start}, not
321 322 323 324
@code{paragraph-separate}.  Each regular expression must match at the
left margin.  For example, in Fundamental mode, @code{paragraph-start}
is @w{@code{"\f\\|[ \t]*$"}}, and @code{paragraph-separate} is
@w{@code{"[ \t\f]*$"}}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335

  Normally it is desirable for page boundaries to separate paragraphs.
The default values of these variables recognize the usual separator for
pages.

@node Pages
@section Pages

@cindex pages
@cindex formfeed
  Files are often thought of as divided into @dfn{pages} by the
336 337 338
@dfn{formfeed} character (@acronym{ASCII} control-L, octal code 014).
When you print hardcopy for a file, this character forces a page break;
thus, each page of the file goes on a separate page on paper.  Most Emacs
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370
commands treat the page-separator character just like any other
character: you can insert it with @kbd{C-q C-l}, and delete it with
@key{DEL}.  Thus, you are free to paginate your file or not.  However,
since pages are often meaningful divisions of the file, Emacs provides
commands to move over them and operate on them.

@table @kbd
@item C-x [
Move point to previous page boundary (@code{backward-page}).
@item C-x ]
Move point to next page boundary (@code{forward-page}).
@item C-x C-p
Put point and mark around this page (or another page) (@code{mark-page}).
@item C-x l
Count the lines in this page (@code{count-lines-page}).
@end table

@kindex C-x [
@kindex C-x ]
@findex forward-page
@findex backward-page
  The @kbd{C-x [} (@code{backward-page}) command moves point to immediately
after the previous page delimiter.  If point is already right after a page
delimiter, it skips that one and stops at the previous one.  A numeric
argument serves as a repeat count.  The @kbd{C-x ]} (@code{forward-page})
command moves forward past the next page delimiter.

@kindex C-x C-p
@findex mark-page
  The @kbd{C-x C-p} command (@code{mark-page}) puts point at the
beginning of the current page and the mark at the end.  The page
delimiter at the end is included (the mark follows it).  The page
371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378
delimiter at the front is excluded (point follows it).  In Transient
Mark mode, this command activates the mark.

  @kbd{C-x C-p C-w} is a handy way to kill a page to move it
elsewhere.  If you move to another page delimiter with @kbd{C-x [} and
@kbd{C-x ]}, then yank the killed page, all the pages will be properly
delimited once again.  The reason @kbd{C-x C-p} includes only the
following page delimiter in the region is to ensure that.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386

  A numeric argument to @kbd{C-x C-p} is used to specify which page to go
to, relative to the current one.  Zero means the current page.  One means
the next page, and @minus{}1 means the previous one.

@kindex C-x l
@findex count-lines-page
  The @kbd{C-x l} command (@code{count-lines-page}) is good for deciding
387
where to break a page in two.  It displays in the echo area the total number
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
388 389 390 391 392 393 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401
of lines in the current page, and then divides it up into those preceding
the current line and those following, as in

@example
Page has 96 (72+25) lines
@end example

@noindent
  Notice that the sum is off by one; this is correct if point is not at the
beginning of a line.

@vindex page-delimiter
  The variable @code{page-delimiter} controls where pages begin.  Its
value is a regexp that matches the beginning of a line that separates
402
pages.  The normal value of this variable is @code{"^\f"}, which
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422
matches a formfeed character at the beginning of a line.

@node Filling
@section Filling Text
@cindex filling text

  @dfn{Filling} text means breaking it up into lines that fit a
specified width.  Emacs does filling in two ways.  In Auto Fill mode,
inserting text with self-inserting characters also automatically fills
it.  There are also explicit fill commands that you can use when editing
text leaves it unfilled.  When you edit formatted text, you can specify
a style of filling for each portion of the text (@pxref{Formatted
Text}).

@menu
* Auto Fill::	        Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.
* Fill Commands::       Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines.
* Fill Prefix::	        Filling paragraphs that are indented
                          or in a comment, etc.
* Adaptive Fill::       How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
423
* Refill::              Keeping paragraphs filled.
424
* Longlines::           Editing text with very long lines.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 466 467
@end menu

@node Auto Fill
@subsection Auto Fill Mode
@cindex Auto Fill mode
@cindex mode, Auto Fill

  @dfn{Auto Fill} mode is a minor mode in which lines are broken
automatically when they become too wide.  Breaking happens only when
you type a @key{SPC} or @key{RET}.

@table @kbd
@item M-x auto-fill-mode
Enable or disable Auto Fill mode.
@item @key{SPC}
@itemx @key{RET}
In Auto Fill mode, break lines when appropriate.
@end table

@findex auto-fill-mode
  @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} turns Auto Fill mode on if it was off, or off
if it was on.  With a positive numeric argument it always turns Auto
Fill mode on, and with a negative argument always turns it off.  You can
see when Auto Fill mode is in effect by the presence of the word
@samp{Fill} in the mode line, inside the parentheses.  Auto Fill mode is
a minor mode which is enabled or disabled for each buffer individually.
@xref{Minor Modes}.

  In Auto Fill mode, lines are broken automatically at spaces when they
get longer than the desired width.  Line breaking and rearrangement
takes place only when you type @key{SPC} or @key{RET}.  If you wish to
insert a space or newline without permitting line-breaking, type
@kbd{C-q @key{SPC}} or @kbd{C-q C-j} (recall that a newline is really a
control-J).  Also, @kbd{C-o} inserts a newline without line breaking.

  Auto Fill mode works well with programming-language modes, because it
indents new lines with @key{TAB}.  If a line ending in a comment gets
too long, the text of the comment is split into two comment lines.
Optionally, new comment delimiters are inserted at the end of the first
line and the beginning of the second so that each line is a separate
comment; the variable @code{comment-multi-line} controls the choice
(@pxref{Comments}).

468
  Adaptive filling (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}) works for Auto Filling as
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
469 470 471 472 473 474 475
well as for explicit fill commands.  It takes a fill prefix
automatically from the second or first line of a paragraph.

  Auto Fill mode does not refill entire paragraphs; it can break lines but
cannot merge lines.  So editing in the middle of a paragraph can result in
a paragraph that is not correctly filled.  The easiest way to make the
paragraph properly filled again is usually with the explicit fill commands.
476
@ifnottex
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
477
@xref{Fill Commands}.
478
@end ifnottex
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
479 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509

  Many users like Auto Fill mode and want to use it in all text files.
The section on init files says how to arrange this permanently for yourself.
@xref{Init File}.

@node Fill Commands
@subsection Explicit Fill Commands

@table @kbd
@item M-q
Fill current paragraph (@code{fill-paragraph}).
@item C-x f
Set the fill column (@code{set-fill-column}).
@item M-x fill-region
Fill each paragraph in the region (@code{fill-region}).
@item M-x fill-region-as-paragraph
Fill the region, considering it as one paragraph.
@item M-s
Center a line.
@end table

@kindex M-q
@findex fill-paragraph
  To refill a paragraph, use the command @kbd{M-q}
(@code{fill-paragraph}).  This operates on the paragraph that point is
inside, or the one after point if point is between paragraphs.
Refilling works by removing all the line-breaks, then inserting new ones
where necessary.

@findex fill-region
  To refill many paragraphs, use @kbd{M-x fill-region}, which
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
510
finds the paragraphs in the region and fills each of them.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
511 512 513 514 515

@findex fill-region-as-paragraph
  @kbd{M-q} and @code{fill-region} use the same criteria as @kbd{M-h}
for finding paragraph boundaries (@pxref{Paragraphs}).  For more
control, you can use @kbd{M-x fill-region-as-paragraph}, which refills
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
516 517 518
everything between point and mark as a single paragraph.  This command
deletes any blank lines within the region, so separate blocks of text
end up combined into one block.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
519 520

@cindex justification
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
521 522 523 524
  A numeric argument to @kbd{M-q} tells it to @dfn{justify} the text
as well as filling it.  This means that extra spaces are inserted to
make the right margin line up exactly at the fill column.  To remove
the extra spaces, use @kbd{M-q} with no argument.  (Likewise for
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
525
@code{fill-region}.)  Another way to control justification, and choose
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
526 527
other styles of filling, is with the @code{justification} text
property; see @ref{Format Justification}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
528 529 530 531 532 533

@kindex M-s @r{(Text mode)}
@cindex centering
@findex center-line
  The command @kbd{M-s} (@code{center-line}) centers the current line
within the current fill column.  With an argument @var{n}, it centers
534 535 536
@var{n} lines individually and moves past them.  This binding is
made by Text mode and is available only in that and related modes
(@pxref{Text Mode}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 560 561 562 563 564

@vindex fill-column
@kindex C-x f
@findex set-fill-column
  The maximum line width for filling is in the variable
@code{fill-column}.  Altering the value of @code{fill-column} makes it
local to the current buffer; until that time, the default value is in
effect.  The default is initially 70.  @xref{Locals}.  The easiest way
to set @code{fill-column} is to use the command @kbd{C-x f}
(@code{set-fill-column}).  With a numeric argument, it uses that as the
new fill column.  With just @kbd{C-u} as argument, it sets
@code{fill-column} to the current horizontal position of point.

  Emacs commands normally consider a period followed by two spaces or by
a newline as the end of a sentence; a period followed by just one space
indicates an abbreviation and not the end of a sentence.  To preserve
the distinction between these two ways of using a period, the fill
commands do not break a line after a period followed by just one space.

  If the variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} is @code{nil}, the
fill commands expect and leave just one space at the end of a sentence.
Ordinarily this variable is @code{t}, so the fill commands insist on
two spaces for the end of a sentence, as explained above.  @xref{Sentences}.

@vindex colon-double-space
  If the variable @code{colon-double-space} is non-@code{nil}, the
fill commands put two spaces after a colon.

565
@vindex fill-nobreak-predicate
566 567 568
  The variable @code{fill-nobreak-predicate} is a hook (an abnormal
hook, @pxref{Hooks}) specifying additional conditions where
line-breaking is not allowed.  Each function is called with no
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
569
arguments, with point at a place where Emacs is considering breaking
570
the line.  If a function returns a non-@code{nil} value, then that's
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
571
a bad place to break the line.  Two standard functions you can use are
572 573 574 575
@code{fill-single-word-nobreak-p} (don't break after the first word of
a sentence or before the last) and @code{fill-french-nobreak-p} (don't
break after @samp{(} or before @samp{)}, @samp{:} or @samp{?}).

Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601
@node Fill Prefix
@subsection The Fill Prefix

@cindex fill prefix
  To fill a paragraph in which each line starts with a special marker
(which might be a few spaces, giving an indented paragraph), you can use
the @dfn{fill prefix} feature.  The fill prefix is a string that Emacs
expects every line to start with, and which is not included in filling.
You can specify a fill prefix explicitly; Emacs can also deduce the
fill prefix automatically (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}).

@table @kbd
@item C-x .
Set the fill prefix (@code{set-fill-prefix}).
@item M-q
Fill a paragraph using current fill prefix (@code{fill-paragraph}).
@item M-x fill-individual-paragraphs
Fill the region, considering each change of indentation as starting a
new paragraph.
@item M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs
Fill the region, considering only paragraph-separator lines as starting
a new paragraph.
@end table

@kindex C-x .
@findex set-fill-prefix
602 603
  To specify a fill prefix for the current buffer, move to a line that
starts with the desired prefix, put point at the end of the prefix,
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
604 605 606
and type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: (@code{set-fill-prefix}).  (That's a period
after the @kbd{C-x}.)  To turn off the fill prefix, specify an empty
prefix: type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: with point at the beginning of a line.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
607 608

  When a fill prefix is in effect, the fill commands remove the fill
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617
prefix from each line of the paragraph before filling and insert it on
each line after filling.  (The beginning of the first line of the
paragraph is left unchanged, since often that is intentionally
different.)  Auto Fill mode also inserts the fill prefix automatically
when it makes a new line.  The @kbd{C-o} command inserts the fill
prefix on new lines it creates, when you use it at the beginning of a
line (@pxref{Blank Lines}).  Conversely, the command @kbd{M-^} deletes
the prefix (if it occurs) after the newline that it deletes
(@pxref{Indentation}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734

  For example, if @code{fill-column} is 40 and you set the fill prefix
to @samp{;; }, then @kbd{M-q} in the following text

@example
;; This is an
;; example of a paragraph
;; inside a Lisp-style comment.
@end example

@noindent
produces this:

@example
;; This is an example of a paragraph
;; inside a Lisp-style comment.
@end example

  Lines that do not start with the fill prefix are considered to start
paragraphs, both in @kbd{M-q} and the paragraph commands; this gives
good results for paragraphs with hanging indentation (every line
indented except the first one).  Lines which are blank or indented once
the prefix is removed also separate or start paragraphs; this is what
you want if you are writing multi-paragraph comments with a comment
delimiter on each line.

@findex fill-individual-paragraphs
  You can use @kbd{M-x fill-individual-paragraphs} to set the fill
prefix for each paragraph automatically.  This command divides the
region into paragraphs, treating every change in the amount of
indentation as the start of a new paragraph, and fills each of these
paragraphs.  Thus, all the lines in one ``paragraph'' have the same
amount of indentation.  That indentation serves as the fill prefix for
that paragraph.

@findex fill-nonuniform-paragraphs
  @kbd{M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs} is a similar command that divides
the region into paragraphs in a different way.  It considers only
paragraph-separating lines (as defined by @code{paragraph-separate}) as
starting a new paragraph.  Since this means that the lines of one
paragraph may have different amounts of indentation, the fill prefix
used is the smallest amount of indentation of any of the lines of the
paragraph.  This gives good results with styles that indent a paragraph's
first line more or less that the rest of the paragraph.

@vindex fill-prefix
  The fill prefix is stored in the variable @code{fill-prefix}.  Its value
is a string, or @code{nil} when there is no fill prefix.  This is a
per-buffer variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer,
but there is a default value which you can change as well.  @xref{Locals}.

  The @code{indentation} text property provides another way to control
the amount of indentation paragraphs receive.  @xref{Format Indentation}.

@node Adaptive Fill
@subsection Adaptive Filling

@cindex adaptive filling
  The fill commands can deduce the proper fill prefix for a paragraph
automatically in certain cases: either whitespace or certain punctuation
characters at the beginning of a line are propagated to all lines of the
paragraph.

  If the paragraph has two or more lines, the fill prefix is taken from
the paragraph's second line, but only if it appears on the first line as
well.

  If a paragraph has just one line, fill commands @emph{may} take a
prefix from that line.  The decision is complicated because there are
three reasonable things to do in such a case:

@itemize @bullet
@item
Use the first line's prefix on all the lines of the paragraph.

@item
Indent subsequent lines with whitespace, so that they line up under the
text that follows the prefix on the first line, but don't actually copy
the prefix from the first line.

@item
Don't do anything special with the second and following lines.
@end itemize

  All three of these styles of formatting are commonly used.  So the
fill commands try to determine what you would like, based on the prefix
that appears and on the major mode.  Here is how.

@vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp
  If the prefix found on the first line matches
@code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}, or if it appears to be a
comment-starting sequence (this depends on the major mode), then the
prefix found is used for filling the paragraph, provided it would not
act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines.

  Otherwise, the prefix found is converted to an equivalent number of
spaces, and those spaces are used as the fill prefix for the rest of the
lines, provided they would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent
lines.

  In Text mode, and other modes where only blank lines and page
delimiters separate paragraphs, the prefix chosen by adaptive filling
never acts as a paragraph starter, so it can always be used for filling.

@vindex adaptive-fill-mode
@vindex adaptive-fill-regexp
  The variable @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} determines what kinds of line
beginnings can serve as a fill prefix: any characters at the start of
the line that match this regular expression are used.  If you set the
variable @code{adaptive-fill-mode} to @code{nil}, the fill prefix is
never chosen automatically.

@vindex adaptive-fill-function
  You can specify more complex ways of choosing a fill prefix
automatically by setting the variable @code{adaptive-fill-function} to a
function.  This function is called with point after the left margin of a
line, and it should return the appropriate fill prefix based on that
735 736
line.  If it returns @code{nil}, @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} gets
a chance to find a prefix.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
737

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762
@node Refill
@subsection Refill Mode
@cindex refilling text, word processor style
@cindex modes, Refill
@cindex Refill minor mode

  Refill minor mode provides support for keeping paragraphs filled as
you type or modify them in other ways.  It provides an effect similar
to typical word processor behavior.  This works by running a
paragraph-filling command at suitable times.

  To toggle the use of Refill mode in the current buffer, type
@kbd{M-x refill-mode}.  When you are typing text, only characters
which normally trigger auto filling, like the space character, will
trigger refilling.  This is to avoid making it too slow.  Apart from
self-inserting characters, other commands which modify the text cause
refilling.

  The current implementation is preliminary and not robust.  You can
get better ``line wrapping'' behavior using Longlines mode.
@xref{Longlines}.  However, Longlines mode has an important
side-effect: the newlines that it inserts for you are not saved to
disk, so the files that you make with Longlines mode will appear to be
completely unfilled if you edit them without Longlines mode.

763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799
@node Longlines
@subsection Long Lines Mode
@cindex refilling text, word processor style
@cindex modes, Long Lines
@cindex word wrap
@cindex Long Lines minor mode

  Long Lines mode is a minor mode for @dfn{word wrapping}; it lets you
edit ``unfilled'' text files, which Emacs would normally display as a
bunch of extremely long lines.  Many text editors, such as those built
into many web browsers, normally do word wrapping.

@findex longlines-mode
  To enable Long Lines mode, type @kbd{M-x longlines-mode}.  If the
text is full of long lines, this will ``wrap'' them
immediately---i.e., break up to fit in the window.  As you edit the
text, Long Lines mode automatically re-wraps lines by inserting or
deleting @dfn{soft newlines} as necessary (@pxref{Hard and Soft
Newlines}.)  These soft newlines won't show up when you save the
buffer into a file, or when you copy the text into the kill ring,
clipboard, or a register.

@findex longlines-auto-wrap
  Word wrapping is @emph{not} the same as ordinary filling
(@pxref{Fill Commands}).  It does not contract multiple spaces into a
single space, recognize fill prefixes (@pxref{Fill Prefix}), or
perform adaptive filling (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}).  The reason for this
is that a wrapped line is still, conceptually, a single line.  Each
soft newline is equivalent to exactly one space in that long line, and
vice versa.  However, you can still call filling functions such as
@kbd{M-q}, and these will work as expected, inserting soft newlines
that won't show up on disk or when the text is copied.  You can even
rely entirely on the normal fill commands by turning off automatic
line wrapping, with @kbd{C-u M-x longlines-auto-wrap}.  To turn
automatic line wrapping back on, type @kbd{M-x longlines-auto-wrap}.

@findex longlines-show-hard-newlines
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
800 801 802 803 804
  Type @kbd{RET} to insert a hard newline, one which automatic
refilling will not remove.  If you want to see where all the hard
newlines are, type @kbd{M-x longlines-show-hard-newlines}.  This will
mark each hard newline with a special symbol.  The same command with a
prefix argument turns this display off.
805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812

  Long Lines mode does not change normal text files that are already
filled, since the existing newlines are considered hard newlines.
Before Long Lines can do anything, you need to transform each
paragraph into a long line.  One way is to set @code{fill-column} to a
large number (e.g., @kbd{C-u 9999 C-x f}), re-fill all the paragraphs,
and then set @code{fill-column} back to its original value.

Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858
@node Case
@section Case Conversion Commands
@cindex case conversion

  Emacs has commands for converting either a single word or any arbitrary
range of text to upper case or to lower case.

@table @kbd
@item M-l
Convert following word to lower case (@code{downcase-word}).
@item M-u
Convert following word to upper case (@code{upcase-word}).
@item M-c
Capitalize the following word (@code{capitalize-word}).
@item C-x C-l
Convert region to lower case (@code{downcase-region}).
@item C-x C-u
Convert region to upper case (@code{upcase-region}).
@end table

@kindex M-l
@kindex M-u
@kindex M-c
@cindex words, case conversion
@cindex converting text to upper or lower case
@cindex capitalizing words
@findex downcase-word
@findex upcase-word
@findex capitalize-word
  The word conversion commands are the most useful.  @kbd{M-l}
(@code{downcase-word}) converts the word after point to lower case, moving
past it.  Thus, repeating @kbd{M-l} converts successive words.
@kbd{M-u} (@code{upcase-word}) converts to all capitals instead, while
@kbd{M-c} (@code{capitalize-word}) puts the first letter of the word
into upper case and the rest into lower case.  All these commands convert
several words at once if given an argument.  They are especially convenient
for converting a large amount of text from all upper case to mixed case,
because you can move through the text using @kbd{M-l}, @kbd{M-u} or
@kbd{M-c} on each word as appropriate, occasionally using @kbd{M-f} instead
to skip a word.

  When given a negative argument, the word case conversion commands apply
to the appropriate number of words before point, but do not move point.
This is convenient when you have just typed a word in the wrong case: you
can give the case conversion command and continue typing.

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
859 860 861 862 863
  If a word case conversion command is given in the middle of a word,
it applies only to the part of the word which follows point.  (This is
comparable to what @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) does.)  With a
negative argument, case conversion applies only to the part of the
word before point.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897

@kindex C-x C-l
@kindex C-x C-u
@findex downcase-region
@findex upcase-region
  The other case conversion commands are @kbd{C-x C-u}
(@code{upcase-region}) and @kbd{C-x C-l} (@code{downcase-region}), which
convert everything between point and mark to the specified case.  Point and
mark do not move.

  The region case conversion commands @code{upcase-region} and
@code{downcase-region} are normally disabled.  This means that they ask
for confirmation if you try to use them.  When you confirm, you may
enable the command, which means it will not ask for confirmation again.
@xref{Disabling}.

@node Text Mode
@section Text Mode
@cindex Text mode
@cindex mode, Text
@findex text-mode

  When you edit files of text in a human language, it's more convenient
to use Text mode rather than Fundamental mode.  To enter Text mode, type
@kbd{M-x text-mode}.

  In Text mode, only blank lines and page delimiters separate
paragraphs.  As a result, paragraphs can be indented, and adaptive
filling determines what indentation to use when filling a paragraph.
@xref{Adaptive Fill}.

@kindex TAB @r{(Text mode)}
  Text mode defines @key{TAB} to run @code{indent-relative}
(@pxref{Indentation}), so that you can conveniently indent a line like
898
the previous line.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
899 900

  Text mode turns off the features concerned with comments except when
901 902
you explicitly invoke them.  It changes the syntax table so that
single-quotes are considered part of words.  However, if a word starts
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
903 904 905
with single-quotes, these are treated as a prefix for purposes such as
capitalization.  That is, @kbd{M-c} will convert @samp{'hello'} into
@samp{'Hello'}, as expected.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
906 907 908 909

@cindex Paragraph-Indent Text mode
@cindex mode, Paragraph-Indent Text
@findex paragraph-indent-text-mode
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
910
@findex paragraph-indent-minor-mode
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
911
  If you indent the first lines of paragraphs, then you should use
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919
Paragraph-Indent Text mode rather than Text mode.  In this mode, you
do not need to have blank lines between paragraphs, because the
first-line indentation is sufficient to start a paragraph; however
paragraphs in which every line is indented are not supported.  Use
@kbd{M-x paragraph-indent-text-mode} to enter this mode.  Use @kbd{M-x
paragraph-indent-minor-mode} to enable an equivalent minor mode in
situations where you can't change the major mode---in mail
composition, for instance.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
920 921

@kindex M-TAB @r{(Text mode)}
922 923 924 925 926
  Text mode, and all the modes based on it, define @kbd{M-@key{TAB}}
as the command @code{ispell-complete-word}, which performs completion
of the partial word in the buffer before point, using the spelling
dictionary as the space of possible words.  @xref{Spelling}.  If your
window manager defines @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} to switch windows, you can
927
type @kbd{@key{ESC} @key{TAB}} or @kbd{C-M-i}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936

@vindex text-mode-hook
  Entering Text mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook}.  Other major
modes related to Text mode also run this hook, followed by hooks of
their own; this includes Paragraph-Indent Text mode, Nroff mode, @TeX{}
mode, Outline mode, and Mail mode.  Hook functions on
@code{text-mode-hook} can look at the value of @code{major-mode} to see
which of these modes is actually being entered.  @xref{Hooks}.

937
@ifnottex
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
938 939 940
  Emacs provides two other modes for editing text that is to be passed
through a text formatter to produce fancy formatted printed output.
@xref{Nroff Mode}, for editing input to the formatter nroff.
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
941
@xref{TeX Mode,,@TeX{} Mode}, for editing input to the formatter TeX.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
942 943 944 945 946 947

  Another mode is used for editing outlines.  It allows you to view the
text at various levels of detail.  You can view either the outline
headings alone or both headings and text; you can also hide some of the
headings at lower levels from view to make the high level structure more
visible.  @xref{Outline Mode}.
948
@end ifnottex
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964

@node Outline Mode
@section Outline Mode
@cindex Outline mode
@cindex mode, Outline
@cindex invisible lines

@findex outline-mode
@findex outline-minor-mode
@vindex outline-minor-mode-prefix
  Outline mode is a major mode much like Text mode but intended for
editing outlines.  It allows you to make parts of the text temporarily
invisible so that you can see the outline structure.  Type @kbd{M-x
outline-mode} to switch to Outline mode as the major mode of the current
buffer.

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
965 966 967 968 969
  When Outline mode makes a line invisible, the line does not appear
on the screen.  The screen appears exactly as if the invisible line
were deleted, except that an ellipsis (three periods in a row) appears
at the end of the previous visible line.  (Multiple consecutive
invisible lines produce just one ellipsis.)
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
970 971 972

  Editing commands that operate on lines, such as @kbd{C-n} and
@kbd{C-p}, treat the text of the invisible line as part of the previous
973 974
visible line.  Killing the ellipsis at the end of a visible line
really kills all the following invisible lines.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996

  Outline minor mode provides the same commands as the major mode,
Outline mode, but you can use it in conjunction with other major modes.
Type @kbd{M-x outline-minor-mode} to enable the Outline minor mode in
the current buffer.  You can also specify this in the text of a file,
with a file local variable of the form @samp{mode: outline-minor}
(@pxref{File Variables}).

@kindex C-c @@ @r{(Outline minor mode)}
  The major mode, Outline mode, provides special key bindings on the
@kbd{C-c} prefix.  Outline minor mode provides similar bindings with
@kbd{C-c @@} as the prefix; this is to reduce the conflicts with the
major mode's special commands.  (The variable
@code{outline-minor-mode-prefix} controls the prefix used.)

@vindex outline-mode-hook
  Entering Outline mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook} followed by
the hook @code{outline-mode-hook} (@pxref{Hooks}).

@menu
* Format: Outline Format.	   What the text of an outline looks like.
* Motion: Outline Motion.	   Special commands for moving through
997
                                     outlines.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
998 999
* Visibility: Outline Visibility.  Commands to control what is visible.
* Views: Outline Views.            Outlines and multiple views.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1000
* Foldout::                        Folding means zooming in on outlines.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041
@end menu

@node Outline Format
@subsection Format of Outlines

@cindex heading lines (Outline mode)
@cindex body lines (Outline mode)
  Outline mode assumes that the lines in the buffer are of two types:
@dfn{heading lines} and @dfn{body lines}.  A heading line represents a
topic in the outline.  Heading lines start with one or more stars; the
number of stars determines the depth of the heading in the outline
structure.  Thus, a heading line with one star is a major topic; all the
heading lines with two stars between it and the next one-star heading
are its subtopics; and so on.  Any line that is not a heading line is a
body line.  Body lines belong with the preceding heading line.  Here is
an example:

@example
* Food
This is the body,
which says something about the topic of food.

** Delicious Food
This is the body of the second-level header.

** Distasteful Food
This could have
a body too, with
several lines.

*** Dormitory Food

* Shelter
Another first-level topic with its header line.
@end example

  A heading line together with all following body lines is called
collectively an @dfn{entry}.  A heading line together with all following
deeper heading lines and their body lines is called a @dfn{subtree}.

@vindex outline-regexp
1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055
  You can customize the criterion for distinguishing heading lines by
setting the variable @code{outline-regexp}.  (The recommended ways to
do this are in a major mode function or with a file local variable.)
Any line whose beginning has a match for this regexp is considered a
heading line.  Matches that start within a line (not at the left
margin) do not count.

  The length of the matching text determines the level of the heading;
longer matches make a more deeply nested level.  Thus, for example, if
a text formatter has commands @samp{@@chapter}, @samp{@@section} and
@samp{@@subsection} to divide the document into chapters and sections,
you could make those lines count as heading lines by setting
@code{outline-regexp} to @samp{"@@chap\\|@@\\(sub\\)*section"}.  Note
the trick: the two words @samp{chapter} and @samp{section} are equally
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1056 1057
long, but by defining the regexp to match only @samp{chap} we ensure
that the length of the text matched on a chapter heading is shorter,
1058 1059 1060
so that Outline mode will know that sections are contained in
chapters.  This works as long as no other command starts with
@samp{@@chap}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1061 1062

@vindex outline-level
1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068
  You can explicitly specify a rule for calculating the level of a
heading line by setting the variable @code{outline-level}.  The value
of @code{outline-level} should be a function that takes no arguments
and returns the level of the current heading.  The recommended ways to
set this variable are in a major mode command or with a file local
variable.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102

@node Outline Motion
@subsection Outline Motion Commands

  Outline mode provides special motion commands that move backward and
forward to heading lines.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-n
Move point to the next visible heading line
(@code{outline-next-visible-heading}).
@item C-c C-p
Move point to the previous visible heading line
(@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}).
@item C-c C-f
Move point to the next visible heading line at the same level
as the one point is on (@code{outline-forward-same-level}).
@item C-c C-b
Move point to the previous visible heading line at the same level
(@code{outline-backward-same-level}).
@item C-c C-u
Move point up to a lower-level (more inclusive) visible heading line
(@code{outline-up-heading}).
@end table

@findex outline-next-visible-heading
@findex outline-previous-visible-heading
@kindex C-c C-n @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-p @r{(Outline mode)}
  @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}) moves down to the next
heading line.  @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}) moves
similarly backward.  Both accept numeric arguments as repeat counts.  The
names emphasize that invisible headings are skipped, but this is not really
a special feature.  All editing commands that look for lines ignore the
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1103
invisible lines automatically.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126

@findex outline-up-heading
@findex outline-forward-same-level
@findex outline-backward-same-level
@kindex C-c C-f @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-b @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-u @r{(Outline mode)}
  More powerful motion commands understand the level structure of headings.
@kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{outline-forward-same-level}) and
@kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{outline-backward-same-level}) move from one
heading line to another visible heading at the same depth in
the outline.  @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{outline-up-heading}) moves
backward to another heading that is less deeply nested.

@node Outline Visibility
@subsection Outline Visibility Commands

  The other special commands of outline mode are used to make lines visible
or invisible.  Their names all start with @code{hide} or @code{show}.
Most of them fall into pairs of opposites.  They are not undoable; instead,
you can undo right past them.  Making lines visible or invisible is simply
not recorded by the undo mechanism.

1127 1128 1129 1130 1131
  Many of these commands act on the ``current'' heading line.  If
point is on a heading line, that is the current heading line; if point
is on a body line, the current heading line is the nearest preceding
header line.

Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1132
@table @kbd
1133 1134 1135 1136
@item C-c C-c
Make the current heading line's body invisible (@code{hide-entry}).
@item C-c C-e
Make the current heading line's body visible (@code{show-entry}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1137
@item C-c C-d
1138
Make everything under the current heading invisible, not including the
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1139 1140
heading itself (@code{hide-subtree}).
@item C-c C-s
1141
Make everything under the current heading visible, including body,
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1142 1143
subheadings, and their bodies (@code{show-subtree}).
@item C-c C-l
1144
Make the body of the current heading line, and of all its subheadings,
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1145 1146
invisible (@code{hide-leaves}).
@item C-c C-k
1147 1148
Make all subheadings of the current heading line, at all levels,
visible (@code{show-branches}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1149
@item C-c C-i
1150 1151 1152 1153 1154 1155
Make immediate subheadings (one level down) of the current heading
line visible (@code{show-children}).
@item C-c C-t
Make all body lines in the buffer invisible (@code{hide-body}).
@item C-c C-a
Make all lines in the buffer visible (@code{show-all}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1156 1157 1158 1159 1160 1161 1162 1163 1164 1165 1166 1167 1168 1169
@item C-c C-q
Hide everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines
(@code{hide-sublevels}).
@item C-c C-o
Hide everything except for the heading or body that point is in, plus
the headings leading up from there to the top level of the outline
(@code{hide-other}).
@end table

@findex hide-entry
@findex show-entry
@kindex C-c C-c @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(Outline mode)}
  Two commands that are exact opposites are @kbd{C-c C-c}
1170 1171 1172
(@code{hide-entry}) and @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{show-entry}).  They apply
to the body lines directly following the current heading line.
Subheadings and their bodies are not affected.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178

@findex hide-subtree
@findex show-subtree
@kindex C-c C-s @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-d @r{(Outline mode)}
@cindex subtree (Outline mode)
1179 1180 1181 1182 1183
  Two more powerful opposites are @kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{hide-subtree})
and @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{show-subtree}).  Both apply to the current
heading line's @dfn{subtree}: its body, all its subheadings, both
direct and indirect, and all of their bodies.  In other words, the
subtree contains everything following the current heading line, up to
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1184
and not including the next heading of the same or higher rank.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1185 1186 1187 1188 1189 1190 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 1196 1197 1198 1199 1200

@findex hide-leaves
@findex show-branches
@kindex C-c C-l @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-k @r{(Outline mode)}
  Intermediate between a visible subtree and an invisible one is having
all the subheadings visible but none of the body.  There are two
commands for doing this, depending on whether you want to hide the
bodies or make the subheadings visible.  They are @kbd{C-c C-l}
(@code{hide-leaves}) and @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{show-branches}).

@kindex C-c C-i @r{(Outline mode)}
@findex show-children
  A little weaker than @code{show-branches} is @kbd{C-c C-i}
(@code{show-children}).  It makes just the direct subheadings
visible---those one level down.  Deeper subheadings remain invisible, if
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1201
they were invisible.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207 1208

@findex hide-body
@findex show-all
@kindex C-c C-t @r{(Outline mode)}
@kindex C-c C-a @r{(Outline mode)}
  Two commands have a blanket effect on the whole file.  @kbd{C-c C-t}
(@code{hide-body}) makes all body lines invisible, so that you see just
1209 1210 1211 1212 1213 1214
the outline structure (as a special exception, it will not hide lines
at the top of the file, preceding the first header line, even though
these are technically body lines).  @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{show-all})
makes all lines visible.  These commands can be thought of as a pair
of opposites even though @kbd{C-c C-a} applies to more than just body
lines.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1215 1216 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224

@findex hide-sublevels
@kindex C-c C-q @r{(Outline mode)}
  The command @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{hide-sublevels}) hides all but the
top level headings.  With a numeric argument @var{n}, it hides everything
except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines.

@findex hide-other
@kindex C-c C-o @r{(Outline mode)}
  The command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{hide-other}) hides everything except
1225 1226 1227
the heading and body text that point is in, plus its parents (the headers
leading up from there to top level in the outline) and the top level
headings.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1228

1229
@findex reveal-mode
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1230 1231
  When incremental search finds text that is hidden by Outline mode,
it makes that part of the buffer visible.  If you exit the search
1232 1233 1234
at that position, the text remains visible.  You can also
automatically make text visible as you navigate in it by using
@kbd{M-x reveal-mode}.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1235 1236 1237 1238 1239 1240 1241 1242 1243 1244 1245 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255

@node Outline Views
@subsection Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views

@cindex multiple views of outline
@cindex views of an outline
@cindex outline with multiple views
@cindex indirect buffers and outlines
  You can display two views of a single outline at the same time, in
different windows.  To do this, you must create an indirect buffer using
@kbd{M-x make-indirect-buffer}.  The first argument of this command is
the existing outline buffer name, and its second argument is the name to
use for the new indirect buffer.  @xref{Indirect Buffers}.

  Once the indirect buffer exists, you can display it in a window in the
normal fashion, with @kbd{C-x 4 b} or other Emacs commands.  The Outline
mode commands to show and hide parts of the text operate on each buffer
independently; as a result, each buffer can have its own view.  If you
want more than two views on the same outline, create additional indirect
buffers.

Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1256
@node Foldout
1257
@subsection Folding Editing
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1258 1259

@cindex folding editing
1260 1261 1262 1263
  The Foldout package extends Outline mode and Outline minor mode with
``folding'' commands.  The idea of folding is that you zoom in on a
nested portion of the outline, while hiding its relatives at higher
levels.
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1264

1265
  Consider an Outline mode buffer with all the text and subheadings under
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1266
level-1 headings hidden.  To look at what is hidden under one of these
1267 1268
headings, you could use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@kbd{M-x show-entry}) to expose
the body, or @kbd{C-c C-i} to expose the child (level-2) headings.
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1269 1270 1271

@kindex C-c C-z
@findex foldout-zoom-subtree
1272 1273
  With Foldout, you use @kbd{C-c C-z} (@kbd{M-x foldout-zoom-subtree}).
This exposes the body and child subheadings, and narrows the buffer so
1274
that only the @w{level-1} heading, the body and the level-2 headings are
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1275 1276 1277 1278
visible.  Now to look under one of the level-2 headings, position the
cursor on it and use @kbd{C-c C-z} again.  This exposes the level-2 body
and its level-3 child subheadings and narrows the buffer again.  Zooming
in on successive subheadings can be done as much as you like.  A string
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1279
in the mode line shows how deep you've gone.
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1280

1281
  When zooming in on a heading, to see only the child subheadings specify
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1282 1283 1284
a numeric argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-z}.  The number of levels of children
can be specified too (compare @kbd{M-x show-children}), e.g.@: @kbd{M-2
C-c C-z} exposes two levels of child subheadings.  Alternatively, the
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1285
body can be specified with a negative argument: @kbd{M-- C-c C-z}.  The
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1286 1287 1288
whole subtree can be expanded, similarly to @kbd{C-c C-s} (@kbd{M-x
show-subtree}), by specifying a zero argument: @kbd{M-0 C-c C-z}.

1289
  While you're zoomed in, you can still use Outline mode's exposure and
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1290
hiding functions without disturbing Foldout.  Also, since the buffer is
1291
narrowed, ``global'' editing actions will only affect text under the
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1292 1293 1294 1295 1296
zoomed-in heading.  This is useful for restricting changes to a
particular chapter or section of your document.

@kindex C-c C-x
@findex foldout-exit-fold
1297
  To unzoom (exit) a fold, use @kbd{C-c C-x} (@kbd{M-x foldout-exit-fold}).
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1298 1299
This hides all the text and subheadings under the top-level heading and
returns you to the previous view of the buffer.  Specifying a numeric
1300 1301
argument exits that many levels of folds.  Specifying a zero argument
exits all folds.
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1302

1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308
  To cancel the narrowing of a fold without hiding the text and
subheadings, specify a negative argument.  For example, @kbd{M--2 C-c
C-x} exits two folds and leaves the text and subheadings exposed.

  Foldout mode also provides mouse commands for entering and exiting
folds, and for showing and hiding text:
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1309 1310

@table @asis
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1311
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-1} zooms in on the heading clicked on
1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321
@itemize @asis
@item
single click: expose body.
@item
double click: expose subheadings.
@item
triple click: expose body and subheadings.
@item
quad click: expose entire subtree.
@end itemize
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1322
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-2} exposes text under the heading clicked on
1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332
@itemize @asis
@item
single click: expose body.
@item
double click: expose subheadings.
@item
triple click: expose body and subheadings.
@item
quad click: expose entire subtree.
@end itemize
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1333
@item @kbd{C-M-Mouse-3} hides text under the heading clicked on or exits fold
1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343
@itemize @asis
@item
single click: hide subtree.
@item
double click: exit fold and hide text.
@item
triple click: exit fold without hiding text.
@item
quad click: exit all folds and hide text.
@end itemize
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1344 1345 1346
@end table

@vindex foldout-mouse-modifiers
1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358
  You can specify different modifier keys (instead of
@kbd{Control-Meta-}) by setting @code{foldout-mouse-modifiers}; but if
you have already loaded the @file{foldout.el} library, you must reload
it in order for this to take effect.

  To use the Foldout package, you can type @kbd{M-x load-library
@key{RET} foldout @key{RET}}; or you can arrange for to do that
automatically by putting this in your @file{.emacs} file:

@example
(eval-after-load "outline" '(require 'foldout))
@end example
Dave Love's avatar
Dave Love committed
1359

1360
@node TeX Mode
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1361 1362 1363 1364
@section @TeX{} Mode
@cindex @TeX{} mode
@cindex La@TeX{} mode
@cindex Sli@TeX{} mode
1365
@cindex Doc@TeX{} mode
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1366 1367 1368
@cindex mode, @TeX{}
@cindex mode, La@TeX{}
@cindex mode, Sli@TeX{}
1369
@cindex mode, Doc@TeX{}
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1370 1371 1372 1373
@findex tex-mode
@findex plain-tex-mode
@findex latex-mode
@findex slitex-mode
1374
@findex doctex-mode
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1375

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1376
  @TeX{} is a powerful text formatter written by Donald Knuth; it is
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1377
also free software, like GNU Emacs.  La@TeX{} is a simplified input
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
1378
format for @TeX{}, implemented by @TeX{} macros; it comes with @TeX{}.
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1379
Sli@TeX{} is a special form of La@TeX{}.@footnote{Sli@TeX{} is
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1380
obsoleted by the @samp{slides} document class and other alternative
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1381
packages in recent La@TeX{} versions.}  Doc@TeX{} (@file{.dtx}) is a
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1382 1383
special file format in which the La@TeX{} sources are written,
combining sources with documentation.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389

  Emacs has a special @TeX{} mode for editing @TeX{} input files.
It provides facilities for checking the balance of delimiters and for
invoking @TeX{} on all or part of the file.

@vindex tex-default-mode
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1390
  @TeX{} mode has four variants: Plain @TeX{} mode, La@TeX{} mode,
1391 1392 1393
Sli@TeX{} mode, and Doc@TeX{} mode (these distinct major modes differ
only slightly).  They are designed for editing the four different
formats.  The command @kbd{M-x tex-mode} looks at the contents of the
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1394
buffer to determine whether the contents appear to be either La@TeX{}
1395
input, Sli@TeX{}, or Doc@TeX{} input; if so, it selects the
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1396
appropriate mode.  If the file contents do not appear to be La@TeX{},
1397 1398
Sli@TeX{} or Doc@TeX{}, it selects Plain @TeX{} mode.  If the contents
are insufficient to determine this, the variable
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1399 1400 1401
@code{tex-default-mode} controls which mode is used.

  When @kbd{M-x tex-mode} does not guess right, you can use the commands
1402 1403 1404
@kbd{M-x plain-tex-mode}, @kbd{M-x latex-mode}, @kbd{M-x slitex-mode},
and @kbd{doctex-mode} to select explicitly the particular variants of
@TeX{} mode.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1405 1406 1407 1408 1409

@menu
* Editing: TeX Editing.   Special commands for editing in TeX mode.
* LaTeX: LaTeX Editing.   Additional commands for LaTeX input files.
* Printing: TeX Print.    Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.
1410
* Misc: TeX Misc.         Customization of TeX mode, and related features.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 1472 1473 1474 1475 1476 1477
@end menu

@node TeX Editing
@subsection @TeX{} Editing Commands

  Here are the special commands provided in @TeX{} mode for editing the
text of the file.

@table @kbd
@item "
Insert, according to context, either @samp{``} or @samp{"} or
@samp{''} (@code{tex-insert-quote}).
@item C-j
Insert a paragraph break (two newlines) and check the previous
paragraph for unbalanced braces or dollar signs
(@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}).
@item M-x tex-validate-region
Check each paragraph in the region for unbalanced braces or dollar signs.
@item C-c @{
Insert @samp{@{@}} and position point between them (@code{tex-insert-braces}).
@item C-c @}
Move forward past the next unmatched close brace (@code{up-list}).
@end table

@findex tex-insert-quote
@kindex " @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  In @TeX{}, the character @samp{"} is not normally used; we use
@samp{``} to start a quotation and @samp{''} to end one.  To make
editing easier under this formatting convention, @TeX{} mode overrides
the normal meaning of the key @kbd{"} with a command that inserts a pair
of single-quotes or backquotes (@code{tex-insert-quote}).  To be
precise, this command inserts @samp{``} after whitespace or an open
brace, @samp{"} after a backslash, and @samp{''} after any other
character.

  If you need the character @samp{"} itself in unusual contexts, use
@kbd{C-q} to insert it.  Also, @kbd{"} with a numeric argument always
inserts that number of @samp{"} characters.  You can turn off the
feature of @kbd{"} expansion by eliminating that binding in the local
map (@pxref{Key Bindings}).

  In @TeX{} mode, @samp{$} has a special syntax code which attempts to
understand the way @TeX{} math mode delimiters match.  When you insert a
@samp{$} that is meant to exit math mode, the position of the matching
@samp{$} that entered math mode is displayed for a second.  This is the
same feature that displays the open brace that matches a close brace that
is inserted.  However, there is no way to tell whether a @samp{$} enters
math mode or leaves it; so when you insert a @samp{$} that enters math
mode, the previous @samp{$} position is shown as if it were a match, even
though they are actually unrelated.

@findex tex-insert-braces
@kindex C-c @{ @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex up-list
@kindex C-c @} @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  @TeX{} uses braces as delimiters that must match.  Some users prefer
to keep braces balanced at all times, rather than inserting them
singly.  Use @kbd{C-c @{} (@code{tex-insert-braces}) to insert a pair of
braces.  It leaves point between the two braces so you can insert the
text that belongs inside.  Afterward, use the command @kbd{C-c @}}
(@code{up-list}) to move forward past the close brace.

@findex tex-validate-region
@findex tex-terminate-paragraph
@kindex C-j @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  There are two commands for checking the matching of braces.  @kbd{C-j}
(@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}) checks the paragraph before point, and
1478
inserts two newlines to start a new paragraph.  It outputs a message in
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493
the echo area if any mismatch is found.  @kbd{M-x tex-validate-region}
checks a region, paragraph by paragraph.  The errors are listed in the
@samp{*Occur*} buffer, and you can use @kbd{C-c C-c} or @kbd{Mouse-2} in
that buffer to go to a particular mismatch.

  Note that Emacs commands count square brackets and parentheses in
@TeX{} mode, not just braces.  This is not strictly correct for the
purpose of checking @TeX{} syntax.  However, parentheses and square
brackets are likely to be used in text as matching delimiters and it is
useful for the various motion commands and automatic match display to
work with them.

@node LaTeX Editing
@subsection La@TeX{} Editing Commands

Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1494
  La@TeX{} mode, and its variant, Sli@TeX{} mode, provide a few extra
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1495 1496 1497 1498
features not applicable to plain @TeX{}.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-o
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1499
Insert @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} for La@TeX{} block and position
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1500 1501
point on a line between them (@code{tex-latex-block}).
@item C-c C-e
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1502
Close the innermost La@TeX{} block not yet closed
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1503 1504 1505 1506
(@code{tex-close-latex-block}).
@end table

@findex tex-latex-block
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1507
@kindex C-c C-o @r{(La@TeX{} mode)}
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1508
@vindex latex-block-names
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1509
  In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} commands are used to
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522
group blocks of text.  To insert a @samp{\begin} and a matching
@samp{\end} (on a new line following the @samp{\begin}), use @kbd{C-c
C-o} (@code{tex-latex-block}).  A blank line is inserted between the
two, and point is left there.  You can use completion when you enter the
block type; to specify additional block type names beyond the standard
list, set the variable @code{latex-block-names}.  For example, here's
how to add @samp{theorem}, @samp{corollary}, and @samp{proof}:

@example
(setq latex-block-names '("theorem" "corollary" "proof"))
@end example

@findex tex-close-latex-block
Karl Berry's avatar
Karl Berry committed
1523 1524
@kindex C-c C-e @r{(La@TeX{} mode)}
  In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} commands must
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561
balance.  You can use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{tex-close-latex-block}) to
insert automatically a matching @samp{\end} to match the last unmatched
@samp{\begin}.  It indents the @samp{\end} to match the corresponding
@samp{\begin}.  It inserts a newline after @samp{\end} if point is at
the beginning of a line.

@node TeX Print
@subsection @TeX{} Printing Commands

  You can invoke @TeX{} as an inferior of Emacs on either the entire
contents of the buffer or just a region at a time.  Running @TeX{} in
this way on just one chapter is a good way to see what your changes
look like without taking the time to format the entire file.

@table @kbd
@item C-c C-r
Invoke @TeX{} on the current region, together with the buffer's header
(@code{tex-region}).
@item C-c C-b
Invoke @TeX{} on the entire current buffer (@code{tex-buffer}).
@item C-c @key{TAB}
Invoke Bib@TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-bibtex-file}).
@item C-c C-f
Invoke @TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-file}).
@item C-c C-l
Recenter the window showing output from the inferior @TeX{} so that
the last line can be seen (@code{tex-recenter-output-buffer}).
@item C-c C-k
Kill the @TeX{} subprocess (@code{tex-kill-job}).
@item C-c C-p
Print the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c
C-f} command (@code{tex-print}).
@item C-c C-v
Preview the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c
C-f} command (@code{tex-view}).
@item C-c C-q
Show the printer queue (@code{tex-show-print-queue}).
1562 1563 1564
@item C-c C-c
Invoke some other compilation command on the entire current buffer
(@code{tex-compile}).
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582
@end table

@findex tex-buffer
@kindex C-c C-b @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex tex-print
@kindex C-c C-p @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex tex-view
@kindex C-c C-v @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
@findex tex-show-print-queue
@kindex C-c C-q @r{(@TeX{} mode)}
  You can pass the current buffer through an inferior @TeX{} by means of
@kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{tex-buffer}).  The formatted output appears in a
temporary file; to print it, type @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{tex-print}).
Afterward, you can use @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{tex-show-print-queue}) to
view the progress of your output towards being printed.  If your terminal
has the ability to display @TeX{} output files, you can preview the
output on the terminal with @kbd{C-c C-v} (@code{tex-view}).

Gerd Moellmann's avatar
Gerd Moellmann committed
1583
@cindex @env{TEXINPUTS} environment variable
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1584 1585 1586
@vindex tex-directory
  You can specify the directory to use for running @TeX{} by setting the
variable @code{tex-directory}.  @code{"."} is the default value.  If
Gerd Moellmann's avatar
Gerd Moellmann committed
1587
your environment variable @env{TEXINPUTS} contains relative directory
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602
names, or if your files contains @samp{\input} commands with relative
file names, then @code{tex-directory} @emph{must} be @code{"."} or you
will get the wrong results.  Otherwise, it is safe to specify some other