print.c 65.7 KB
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/* Lisp object printing and output streams.
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   Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1988, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1997,
                 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
                 2005 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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This file is part of GNU Emacs.

GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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any later version.

GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
GNU General Public License for more details.

You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
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the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.  */
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#include <config.h>
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#include <stdio.h>
#include "lisp.h"
#include "buffer.h"
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#include "charset.h"
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#include "keyboard.h"
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#include "frame.h"
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#include "window.h"
#include "process.h"
#include "dispextern.h"
#include "termchar.h"
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#include "intervals.h"

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Lisp_Object Vstandard_output, Qstandard_output;

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Lisp_Object Qtemp_buffer_setup_hook;

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/* These are used to print like we read.  */
extern Lisp_Object Qbackquote, Qcomma, Qcomma_at, Qcomma_dot, Qfunction;

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Lisp_Object Vfloat_output_format, Qfloat_output_format;
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/* Work around a problem that happens because math.h on hpux 7
   defines two static variables--which, in Emacs, are not really static,
   because `static' is defined as nothing.  The problem is that they are
   defined both here and in lread.c.
   These macros prevent the name conflict.  */
#if defined (HPUX) && !defined (HPUX8)
#define _MAXLDBL print_maxldbl
#define _NMAXLDBL print_nmaxldbl
#endif

#include <math.h>

#if STDC_HEADERS
#include <float.h>
#endif

/* Default to values appropriate for IEEE floating point.  */
#ifndef FLT_RADIX
#define FLT_RADIX 2
#endif
#ifndef DBL_MANT_DIG
#define DBL_MANT_DIG 53
#endif
#ifndef DBL_DIG
#define DBL_DIG 15
#endif
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#ifndef DBL_MIN
#define DBL_MIN 2.2250738585072014e-308
#endif

#ifdef DBL_MIN_REPLACEMENT
#undef DBL_MIN
#define DBL_MIN DBL_MIN_REPLACEMENT
#endif
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/* Define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND, an upper bound on the number of decimal digits
   needed to express a float without losing information.
   The general-case formula is valid for the usual case, IEEE floating point,
   but many compilers can't optimize the formula to an integer constant,
   so make a special case for it.  */
#if FLT_RADIX == 2 && DBL_MANT_DIG == 53
#define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND 17 /* IEEE floating point */
#else
#define DOUBLE_DIGITS_BOUND ((int) ceil (log10 (pow (FLT_RADIX, DBL_MANT_DIG))))
#endif

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/* Avoid actual stack overflow in print.  */
int print_depth;

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/* Nonzero if inside outputting backquote in old style.  */
int old_backquote_output;

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/* Detect most circularities to print finite output.  */
#define PRINT_CIRCLE 200
Lisp_Object being_printed[PRINT_CIRCLE];

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/* When printing into a buffer, first we put the text in this
   block, then insert it all at once.  */
char *print_buffer;

/* Size allocated in print_buffer.  */
int print_buffer_size;
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/* Chars stored in print_buffer.  */
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int print_buffer_pos;
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/* Bytes stored in print_buffer.  */
int print_buffer_pos_byte;
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/* Maximum length of list to print in full; noninteger means
   effectively infinity */

Lisp_Object Vprint_length;

/* Maximum depth of list to print in full; noninteger means
   effectively infinity.  */

Lisp_Object Vprint_level;

/* Nonzero means print newlines in strings as \n.  */

int print_escape_newlines;

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/* Nonzero means to print single-byte non-ascii characters in strings as
   octal escapes.  */

int print_escape_nonascii;

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/* Nonzero means to print multibyte characters in strings as hex escapes.  */

int print_escape_multibyte;

Lisp_Object Qprint_escape_newlines;
Lisp_Object Qprint_escape_multibyte, Qprint_escape_nonascii;

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/* Nonzero means print (quote foo) forms as 'foo, etc.  */

int print_quoted;

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/* Non-nil means print #: before uninterned symbols.  */
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Lisp_Object Vprint_gensym;
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/* Non-nil means print recursive structures using #n= and #n# syntax.  */
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Lisp_Object Vprint_circle;

/* Non-nil means keep continuous number for #n= and #n# syntax
   between several print functions.  */

Lisp_Object Vprint_continuous_numbering;

/* Vprint_number_table is a vector like [OBJ1 STAT1 OBJ2 STAT2 ...],
   where OBJn are objects going to be printed, and STATn are their status,
   which may be different meanings during process.  See the comments of
   the functions print and print_preprocess for details.
   print_number_index keeps the last position the next object should be added,
   twice of which is the actual vector position in Vprint_number_table.  */
int print_number_index;
Lisp_Object Vprint_number_table;

/* PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT returns the I'th object in Vprint_number_table TABLE.
   PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS returns the status of the I'th object in TABLE.
   See the comment of the variable Vprint_number_table.  */
#define PRINT_NUMBER_OBJECT(table,i) XVECTOR ((table))->contents[(i) * 2]
#define PRINT_NUMBER_STATUS(table,i) XVECTOR ((table))->contents[(i) * 2 + 1]
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/* Nonzero means print newline to stdout before next minibuffer message.
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   Defined in xdisp.c */

extern int noninteractive_need_newline;
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extern int minibuffer_auto_raise;

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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
static int print_chars;
static int max_print;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
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void print_interval ();
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/* Low level output routines for characters and strings */
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/* Lisp functions to do output using a stream
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   must have the stream in a variable called printcharfun
   and must start with PRINTPREPARE, end with PRINTFINISH,
   and use PRINTDECLARE to declare common variables.
   Use PRINTCHAR to output one character,
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   or call strout to output a block of characters. */
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#define PRINTDECLARE							\
   struct buffer *old = current_buffer;					\
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   int old_point = -1, start_point = -1;				\
   int old_point_byte = -1, start_point_byte = -1;			\
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   int specpdl_count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();				\
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   int free_print_buffer = 0;						\
   int multibyte = !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);	\
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   Lisp_Object original

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#define PRINTPREPARE							\
   original = printcharfun;						\
   if (NILP (printcharfun)) printcharfun = Qt;				\
   if (BUFFERP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (XBUFFER (printcharfun) != current_buffer)			\
	 Fset_buffer (printcharfun);					\
       printcharfun = Qnil;						\
     }									\
   if (MARKERP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
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       EMACS_INT marker_pos;						\
       if (!(XMARKER (printcharfun)->buffer))				\
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         error ("Marker does not point anywhere");			\
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       if (XMARKER (printcharfun)->buffer != current_buffer)		\
         set_buffer_internal (XMARKER (printcharfun)->buffer);		\
       marker_pos = marker_position (printcharfun);			\
       if (marker_pos < BEGV || marker_pos > ZV)			\
	 error ("Marker is outside the accessible part of the buffer"); \
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       old_point = PT;							\
       old_point_byte = PT_BYTE;					\
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       SET_PT_BOTH (marker_pos,						\
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		    marker_byte_position (printcharfun));		\
       start_point = PT;						\
       start_point_byte = PT_BYTE;					\
       printcharfun = Qnil;						\
     }									\
   if (NILP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       Lisp_Object string;						\
       if (NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)		\
	   && ! print_escape_multibyte)					\
         specbind (Qprint_escape_multibyte, Qt);			\
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       if (! NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters)		\
	   && ! print_escape_nonascii)					\
         specbind (Qprint_escape_nonascii, Qt);				\
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       if (print_buffer != 0)						\
	 {								\
	   string = make_string_from_bytes (print_buffer,		\
					    print_buffer_pos,		\
					    print_buffer_pos_byte);	\
	   record_unwind_protect (print_unwind, string);		\
	 }								\
       else								\
	 {								\
           print_buffer_size = 1000;					\
           print_buffer = (char *) xmalloc (print_buffer_size);		\
	   free_print_buffer = 1;					\
	 }								\
       print_buffer_pos = 0;						\
       print_buffer_pos_byte = 0;					\
     }									\
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   if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt) && ! noninteractive)			\
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     setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte);
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#define PRINTFINISH							\
   if (NILP (printcharfun))						\
     {									\
       if (print_buffer_pos != print_buffer_pos_byte			\
	   && NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters))	\
	 {								\
	   unsigned char *temp						\
	     = (unsigned char *) alloca (print_buffer_pos + 1);		\
	   copy_text (print_buffer, temp, print_buffer_pos_byte,	\
		      1, 0);						\
	   insert_1_both (temp, print_buffer_pos,			\
			  print_buffer_pos, 0, 1, 0);			\
	 }								\
       else								\
	 insert_1_both (print_buffer, print_buffer_pos,			\
			print_buffer_pos_byte, 0, 1, 0);		\
     }									\
   if (free_print_buffer)						\
     {									\
       xfree (print_buffer);						\
       print_buffer = 0;						\
     }									\
   unbind_to (specpdl_count, Qnil);					\
   if (MARKERP (original))						\
     set_marker_both (original, Qnil, PT, PT_BYTE);			\
   if (old_point >= 0)							\
     SET_PT_BOTH (old_point + (old_point >= start_point			\
			       ? PT - start_point : 0),			\
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		  old_point_byte + (old_point_byte >= start_point_byte	\
			       ? PT_BYTE - start_point_byte : 0));	\
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   if (old != current_buffer)						\
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     set_buffer_internal (old);
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#define PRINTCHAR(ch) printchar (ch, printcharfun)

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/* This is used to restore the saved contents of print_buffer
   when there is a recursive call to print.  */
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static Lisp_Object
print_unwind (saved_text)
     Lisp_Object saved_text;
{
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  bcopy (SDATA (saved_text), print_buffer, SCHARS (saved_text));
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  return Qnil;
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}

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/* Print character CH using method FUN.  FUN nil means print to
   print_buffer.  FUN t means print to echo area or stdout if
   non-interactive.  If FUN is neither nil nor t, call FUN with CH as
   argument.  */
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static void
printchar (ch, fun)
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     unsigned int ch;
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     Lisp_Object fun;
{
#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  if (max_print)
    print_chars++;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */

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  if (!NILP (fun) && !EQ (fun, Qt))
    call1 (fun, make_number (ch));
  else
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    {
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      unsigned char str[MAX_MULTIBYTE_LENGTH];
      int len = CHAR_STRING (ch, str);

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      QUIT;
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      if (NILP (fun))
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	{
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	  if (print_buffer_pos_byte + len >= print_buffer_size)
	    print_buffer = (char *) xrealloc (print_buffer,
					      print_buffer_size *= 2);
	  bcopy (str, print_buffer + print_buffer_pos_byte, len);
	  print_buffer_pos += 1;
	  print_buffer_pos_byte += len;
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	}
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      else if (noninteractive)
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	{
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	  fwrite (str, 1, len, stdout);
	  noninteractive_need_newline = 1;
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	}
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      else
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	{
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	  int multibyte_p
	    = !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);
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	  setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte_p);
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	  insert_char (ch);
	  message_dolog (str, len, 0, multibyte_p);
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	}
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    }
}

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/* Output SIZE characters, SIZE_BYTE bytes from string PTR using
   method PRINTCHARFUN.  If SIZE < 0, use the string length of PTR for
   both SIZE and SIZE_BYTE.  PRINTCHARFUN nil means output to
   print_buffer.  PRINTCHARFUN t means output to the echo area or to
   stdout if non-interactive.  If neither nil nor t, call Lisp
   function PRINTCHARFUN for each character printed.  MULTIBYTE
   non-zero means PTR contains multibyte characters.  */

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static void
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strout (ptr, size, size_byte, printcharfun, multibyte)
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     char *ptr;
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     int size, size_byte;
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     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
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     int multibyte;
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{
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  if (size < 0)
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    size_byte = size = strlen (ptr);
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    {
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      if (print_buffer_pos_byte + size_byte > print_buffer_size)
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	{
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	  print_buffer_size = print_buffer_size * 2 + size_byte;
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	  print_buffer = (char *) xrealloc (print_buffer,
					    print_buffer_size);
	}
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      bcopy (ptr, print_buffer + print_buffer_pos_byte, size_byte);
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      print_buffer_pos += size;
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      print_buffer_pos_byte += size_byte;
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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
      if (max_print)
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        print_chars += size;
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#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
    }
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  else if (noninteractive && EQ (printcharfun, Qt))
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    {
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      fwrite (ptr, 1, size_byte, stdout);
      noninteractive_need_newline = 1;
    }
  else if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt))
    {
      /* Output to echo area.  We're trying to avoid a little overhead
	 here, that's the reason we don't call printchar to do the
	 job.  */
      int i;
      int multibyte_p
	= !NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters);
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      setup_echo_area_for_printing (multibyte_p);
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      message_dolog (ptr, size_byte, 0, multibyte_p);
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      if (size == size_byte)
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	{
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	  for (i = 0; i < size; ++i)
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	    insert_char ((unsigned char )*ptr++);
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	}
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      else
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	{
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	  int len;
	  for (i = 0; i < size_byte; i += len)
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	    {
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	      int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (ptr + i, size_byte - i, len);
	      insert_char (ch);
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	    }
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	}
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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
      if (max_print)
        print_chars += size;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
    }
  else
    {
      /* PRINTCHARFUN is a Lisp function.  */
      int i = 0;
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      if (size == size_byte)
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	{
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	  while (i < size_byte)
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	    {
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	      int ch = ptr[i++];
	      PRINTCHAR (ch);
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	    }
	}
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      else
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	{
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	  while (i < size_byte)
	    {
	      /* Here, we must convert each multi-byte form to the
		 corresponding character code before handing it to
		 PRINTCHAR.  */
	      int len;
	      int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (ptr + i, size_byte - i, len);
	      PRINTCHAR (ch);
	      i += len;
	    }
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	}
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    }
}

/* Print the contents of a string STRING using PRINTCHARFUN.
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   It isn't safe to use strout in many cases,
   because printing one char can relocate.  */
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static void
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print_string (string, printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object string;
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt) || NILP (printcharfun))
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    {
      int chars;

      if (STRING_MULTIBYTE (string))
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	chars = SCHARS (string);
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      else if (EQ (printcharfun, Qt)
	       ? ! NILP (buffer_defaults.enable_multibyte_characters)
	       : ! NILP (current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters))
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	{
	  /* If unibyte string STRING contains 8-bit codes, we must
	     convert STRING to a multibyte string containing the same
	     character codes.  */
	  Lisp_Object newstr;
	  int bytes;

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	  chars = SBYTES (string);
	  bytes = parse_str_to_multibyte (SDATA (string), chars);
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	  if (chars < bytes)
	    {
	      newstr = make_uninit_multibyte_string (chars, bytes);
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	      bcopy (SDATA (string), SDATA (newstr), chars);
	      str_to_multibyte (SDATA (newstr), bytes, chars);
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	      string = newstr;
	    }
	}
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      else
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	chars = SBYTES (string);
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      /* strout is safe for output to a frame (echo area) or to print_buffer.  */
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      strout (SDATA (string),
	      chars, SBYTES (string),
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	      printcharfun, STRING_MULTIBYTE (string));
    }
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  else
    {
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      /* Otherwise, string may be relocated by printing one char.
	 So re-fetch the string address for each character.  */
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      int i;
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      int size = SCHARS (string);
      int size_byte = SBYTES (string);
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      struct gcpro gcpro1;
      GCPRO1 (string);
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      if (size == size_byte)
	for (i = 0; i < size; i++)
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	  PRINTCHAR (SREF (string, i));
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      else
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	for (i = 0; i < size_byte; )
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	  {
	    /* Here, we must convert each multi-byte form to the
	       corresponding character code before handing it to PRINTCHAR.  */
	    int len;
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	    int ch = STRING_CHAR_AND_LENGTH (SDATA (string) + i,
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					     size_byte - i, len);
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	    if (!CHAR_VALID_P (ch, 0))
	      {
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		ch = SREF (string, i);
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		len = 1;
	      }
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	    PRINTCHAR (ch);
	    i += len;
	  }
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      UNGCPRO;
    }
}

DEFUN ("write-char", Fwrite_char, Swrite_char, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output character CHARACTER to stream PRINTCHARFUN.
PRINTCHARFUN defaults to the value of `standard-output' (which see).  */)
     (character, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object character, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
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  CHECK_NUMBER (character);
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  PRINTPREPARE;
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  PRINTCHAR (XINT (character));
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return character;
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}

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/* Used from outside of print.c to print a block of SIZE
   single-byte chars at DATA on the default output stream.
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   Do not use this on the contents of a Lisp string.  */

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void
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write_string (data, size)
     char *data;
     int size;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  Lisp_Object printcharfun;

  printcharfun = Vstandard_output;

  PRINTPREPARE;
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  strout (data, size, size, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
}

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/* Used from outside of print.c to print a block of SIZE
   single-byte chars at DATA on a specified stream PRINTCHARFUN.
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   Do not use this on the contents of a Lisp string.  */

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void
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write_string_1 (data, size, printcharfun)
     char *data;
     int size;
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  PRINTPREPARE;
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  strout (data, size, size, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
}


void
temp_output_buffer_setup (bufname)
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    const char *bufname;
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{
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  register struct buffer *old = current_buffer;
  register Lisp_Object buf;

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  record_unwind_protect (set_buffer_if_live, Fcurrent_buffer ());

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  Fset_buffer (Fget_buffer_create (build_string (bufname)));

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  Fkill_all_local_variables ();
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  delete_all_overlays (current_buffer);
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  current_buffer->directory = old->directory;
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  current_buffer->read_only = Qnil;
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  current_buffer->filename = Qnil;
  current_buffer->undo_list = Qt;
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  eassert (current_buffer->overlays_before == NULL);
  eassert (current_buffer->overlays_after == NULL);
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  current_buffer->enable_multibyte_characters
    = buffer_defaults.enable_multibyte_characters;
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  specbind (Qinhibit_read_only, Qt);
  specbind (Qinhibit_modification_hooks, Qt);
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  Ferase_buffer ();
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  XSETBUFFER (buf, current_buffer);
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  Frun_hooks (1, &Qtemp_buffer_setup_hook);
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  unbind_to (count, Qnil);

  specbind (Qstandard_output, buf);
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}

Lisp_Object
internal_with_output_to_temp_buffer (bufname, function, args)
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     const char *bufname;
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     Lisp_Object (*function) P_ ((Lisp_Object));
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     Lisp_Object args;
{
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  Lisp_Object buf, val;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;
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  GCPRO1 (args);
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  record_unwind_protect (Fset_buffer, Fcurrent_buffer ());
  temp_output_buffer_setup (bufname);
  buf = Vstandard_output;
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  UNGCPRO;
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  val = (*function) (args);

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  GCPRO1 (val);
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  temp_output_buffer_show (buf);
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  UNGCPRO;
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  return unbind_to (count, val);
}

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DEFUN ("with-output-to-temp-buffer",
       Fwith_output_to_temp_buffer, Swith_output_to_temp_buffer,
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       1, UNEVALLED, 0,
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       doc: /* Bind `standard-output' to buffer BUFNAME, eval BODY, then show that buffer.
The buffer is cleared out initially, and marked as unmodified when done.
All output done by BODY is inserted in that buffer by default.
The buffer is displayed in another window, but not selected.
The value of the last form in BODY is returned.
If BODY does not finish normally, the buffer BUFNAME is not displayed.

The hook `temp-buffer-setup-hook' is run before BODY,
with the buffer BUFNAME temporarily current.
The hook `temp-buffer-show-hook' is run after the buffer is displayed,
with the buffer temporarily current, and the window that was used
to display it temporarily selected.

If variable `temp-buffer-show-function' is non-nil, call it at the end
to get the buffer displayed instead of just displaying the non-selected
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buffer and calling the hook.  It gets one argument, the buffer to display.
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usage: (with-output-to-temp-buffer BUFNAME BODY ...)  */)
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     (args)
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     Lisp_Object args;
{
  struct gcpro gcpro1;
  Lisp_Object name;
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  int count = SPECPDL_INDEX ();
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  Lisp_Object buf, val;

  GCPRO1(args);
  name = Feval (Fcar (args));
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  CHECK_STRING (name);
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  temp_output_buffer_setup (SDATA (name));
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  buf = Vstandard_output;
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  UNGCPRO;
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  val = Fprogn (XCDR (args));
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  GCPRO1 (val);
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  temp_output_buffer_show (buf);
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  UNGCPRO;
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  return unbind_to (count, val);
}
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691 692

static void print ();
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static void print_preprocess ();
static void print_preprocess_string ();
static void print_object ();
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DEFUN ("terpri", Fterpri, Sterpri, 0, 1, 0,
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       doc: /* Output a newline to stream PRINTCHARFUN.
If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted or nil, the value of `standard-output' is used.  */)
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  (printcharfun)
     Lisp_Object printcharfun;
{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
  PRINTFINISH;
  return Qt;
}

DEFUN ("prin1", Fprin1, Sprin1, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output the printed representation of OBJECT, any Lisp object.
Quoting characters are printed when needed to make output that `read'
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can handle, whenever this is possible.  For complex objects, the behavior
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is controlled by `print-level' and `print-length', which see.
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OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.

Optional argument PRINTCHARFUN is the output stream, which can be one
of these:

   - a buffer, in which case output is inserted into that buffer at point;
   - a marker, in which case output is inserted at marker's position;
   - a function, in which case that function is called once for each
     character of OBJECT's printed representation;
   - a symbol, in which case that symbol's function definition is called; or
   - t, in which case the output is displayed in the echo area.

If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted, the value of `standard-output' (which see)
is used instead.  */)
     (object, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  max_print = 0;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, 1);
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return object;
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}

/* a buffer which is used to hold output being built by prin1-to-string */
Lisp_Object Vprin1_to_string_buffer;

DEFUN ("prin1-to-string", Fprin1_to_string, Sprin1_to_string, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Return a string containing the printed representation of OBJECT.
OBJECT can be any Lisp object.  This function outputs quoting characters
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when necessary to make output that `read' can handle, whenever possible,
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unless the optional second argument NOESCAPE is non-nil.
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OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.  */)
     (object, noescape)
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     Lisp_Object object, noescape;
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{
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  Lisp_Object printcharfun;
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  /* struct gcpro gcpro1, gcpro2; */
  Lisp_Object save_deactivate_mark;
  int count = specpdl_ptr - specpdl;
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  struct buffer *previous;
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  specbind (Qinhibit_modification_hooks, Qt);
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  {
    PRINTDECLARE;
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    /* Save and restore this--we are altering a buffer
       but we don't want to deactivate the mark just for that.
       No need for specbind, since errors deactivate the mark.  */
    save_deactivate_mark = Vdeactivate_mark;
    /* GCPRO2 (object, save_deactivate_mark); */
    abort_on_gc++;

    printcharfun = Vprin1_to_string_buffer;
    PRINTPREPARE;
    print (object, printcharfun, NILP (noescape));
    /* Make Vprin1_to_string_buffer be the default buffer after PRINTFINSH */
    PRINTFINISH;
  }

  previous = current_buffer;
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  set_buffer_internal (XBUFFER (Vprin1_to_string_buffer));
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  object = Fbuffer_string ();
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  if (SBYTES (object) == SCHARS (object))
    STRING_SET_UNIBYTE (object);
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  /* Note that this won't make prepare_to_modify_buffer call
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     ask-user-about-supersession-threat because this buffer
     does not visit a file.  */
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  Ferase_buffer ();
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  set_buffer_internal (previous);
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  Vdeactivate_mark = save_deactivate_mark;
  /* UNGCPRO; */
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  abort_on_gc--;
  return unbind_to (count, object);
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}

DEFUN ("princ", Fprinc, Sprinc, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output the printed representation of OBJECT, any Lisp object.
No quoting characters are used; no delimiters are printed around
the contents of strings.

OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.

Optional argument PRINTCHARFUN is the output stream, which can be one
of these:

   - a buffer, in which case output is inserted into that buffer at point;
   - a marker, in which case output is inserted at marker's position;
   - a function, in which case that function is called once for each
     character of OBJECT's printed representation;
   - a symbol, in which case that symbol's function definition is called; or
   - t, in which case the output is displayed in the echo area.

If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted, the value of `standard-output' (which see)
is used instead.  */)
     (object, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
  PRINTPREPARE;
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  print (object, printcharfun, 0);
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  PRINTFINISH;
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  return object;
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}

DEFUN ("print", Fprint, Sprint, 1, 2, 0,
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       doc: /* Output the printed representation of OBJECT, with newlines around it.
Quoting characters are printed when needed to make output that `read'
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can handle, whenever this is possible.  For complex objects, the behavior
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is controlled by `print-level' and `print-length', which see.
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OBJECT is any of the Lisp data types: a number, a string, a symbol,
a list, a buffer, a window, a frame, etc.

A printed representation of an object is text which describes that object.

Optional argument PRINTCHARFUN is the output stream, which can be one
of these:

   - a buffer, in which case output is inserted into that buffer at point;
   - a marker, in which case output is inserted at marker's position;
   - a function, in which case that function is called once for each
     character of OBJECT's printed representation;
   - a symbol, in which case that symbol's function definition is called; or
   - t, in which case the output is displayed in the echo area.

If PRINTCHARFUN is omitted, the value of `standard-output' (which see)
is used instead.  */)
     (object, printcharfun)
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     Lisp_Object object, printcharfun;
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{
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  PRINTDECLARE;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;

#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  print_chars = 0;
  max_print = MAX_PRINT_CHARS;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
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  if (NILP (printcharfun))
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    printcharfun = Vstandard_output;
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  GCPRO1 (object);
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  PRINTPREPARE;
  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
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  print (object, printcharfun, 1);
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  PRINTCHAR ('\n');
  PRINTFINISH;
#ifdef MAX_PRINT_CHARS
  max_print = 0;
  print_chars = 0;
#endif /* MAX_PRINT_CHARS */
  UNGCPRO;
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  return object;
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}

/* The subroutine object for external-debugging-output is kept here
   for the convenience of the debugger.  */
Lisp_Object Qexternal_debugging_output;

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DEFUN ("external-debugging-output", Fexternal_debugging_output, Sexternal_debugging_output, 1, 1, 0,
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       doc: /* Write CHARACTER to stderr.
You can call print while debugging emacs, and pass it this function
to make it write to the debugging output.  */)
     (character)
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     Lisp_Object character;
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{
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  CHECK_NUMBER (character);
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  putc (XINT (character), stderr);
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#ifdef WINDOWSNT
  /* Send the output to a debugger (nothing happens if there isn't one).  */
  {
    char buf[2] = {(char) XINT (character), '\0'};
    OutputDebugString (buf);
  }
#endif

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  return character;
}
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#if defined(GNU_LINUX)

/* This functionality is not vitally important in general, so we rely on
   non-portable ability to use stderr as lvalue.  */

#define WITH_REDIRECT_DEBUGGING_OUTPUT 1

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FILE *initial_stderr_stream = NULL;

DEFUN ("redirect-debugging-output", Fredirect_debugging_output, Sredirect_debugging_output,
       1, 2,
       "FDebug output file: \nP",
       doc: /* Redirect debugging output (stderr stream) to file FILE.
If FILE is nil, reset target to the initial stderr stream.
Optional arg APPEND non-nil (interactively, with prefix arg) means
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append to existing target file.  */)
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     (file, append)
     Lisp_Object file, append;
{
  if (initial_stderr_stream != NULL)
    fclose(stderr);
  stderr = initial_stderr_stream;
  initial_stderr_stream = NULL;

  if (STRINGP (file))
    {
      file = Fexpand_file_name (file, Qnil);
      initial_stderr_stream = stderr;
      stderr = fopen(SDATA (file), NILP (append) ? "w" : "a");
      if (stderr == NULL)
	{
	  stderr = initial_stderr_stream;
	  initial_stderr_stream = NULL;
	  report_file_error ("Cannot open debugging output stream",
			     Fcons (file, Qnil));
	}
    }
  return Qnil;
}
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#endif /* GNU_LINUX */

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/* This is the interface for debugging printing.  */

void
debug_print (arg)
     Lisp_Object arg;
{
  Fprin1 (arg, Qexternal_debugging_output);
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  fprintf (stderr, "\r\n");
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}
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DEFUN ("error-message-string", Ferror_message_string, Serror_message_string,
       1, 1, 0,
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       doc: /* Convert an error value (ERROR-SYMBOL . DATA) to an error message.
See Info anchor `(elisp)Definition of signal' for some details on how this
error message is constructed.  */)
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     (obj)
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     Lisp_Object obj;
{
  struct buffer *old = current_buffer;
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  Lisp_Object value;
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  struct gcpro gcpro1;

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  /* If OBJ is (error STRING), just return STRING.
     That is not only faster, it also avoids the need to allocate
     space here when the error is due to memory full.  */
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  if (CONSP (obj) && EQ (XCAR (obj), Qerror)
      && CONSP (XCDR (obj))
      && STRINGP (XCAR (XCDR (obj)))
      && NILP (XCDR (XCDR (obj))))
    return XCAR (XCDR (obj));
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  print_error_message (obj