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		       GNU Emacs FAQ: Introduction
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[To find what has changed, view the `Changes' posting or inspect the change
 bars in the text of the questions.]
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This is the introduction to a list of frequently asked questions (FAQ) about
GNU Emacs with answers.  This article contains a listing of the questions;
subsequent articles contain the questions and answers.
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The FAQ is posted to reduce the noise level in the `gnu.emacs.help' newsgroup
(which is also the `help-gnu-emacs' mailing list) which results from the
repetition of frequently asked questions, wrong answers to these questions,
corrections to the wrong answers, corrections to the corrections, debate, name
calling, etc.  Also, it serves as a repository of the canonical "best" answers
to these questions.  However, if you know a better answer or even a slight
change that improves an answer, please tell me!
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If you know the answer of a question is in the FAQ, please reply to the
question by e-mail instead of posting.  Help reduce noise!
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The FAQ is crossposted to `comp.emacs' because some sites do not receive the
`gnu.*' newsgroups.  The FAQ is also crossposted to `news.answers'.
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Please suggest new questions, answers, wording changes, deletions, etc.  The
most helpful form for suggestions is a context diff (ie., the output of `diff
-c').  Include `FAQ' in the subject of messages sent to me about the FAQ.
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Please do not send questions to me just because you do not want to disturb a
lot of people and you think I would know the answer.  I do not have time to
answer questions individually.  :-(
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Full instructions for getting the latest FAQ are in question 29.  Also see the
`Introduction to news.answers' posting in the `news.answers' newsgroup, or send
e-mail to `mail-server@pit-manager.mit.edu' with `help' on a body line, or use
FTP, WAIS, or Prospero to pit-manager.mit.edu.
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Future plans for this FAQ list include:

  * A new section devoted to GNUS questions.
  * Verification for files available via FTP and for mailing lists.
  * Up-to-date IP addresses for sites mentioned for FTP access.
  * A Texinfo version.
  * Marking questions in the list below that have been changed recently.
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-- 
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Joe Wells <jbw@cs.bu.edu>

Member of the League for Programming Freedom --- send e-mail for details
----------------------------------------------------------------------

Notation Used in the Answers
  
1:   What do things like this mean: C-h, M-C-a, RET, etc.?
2:   What do you mean when you write things like this: type "ESC a"?
3:   What if I don't have a Meta key?
4:   What if I don't have an Escape key?
5:   What does "M-x command" mean?
6:   What do things like this mean: etc/SERVICE, src/config.h,
     lisp/default.el?
7:   What are FSF, LPF, OSF, GNU, RMS, FTP, and GPL?

Sources of Information and Help

8:   I'm just starting GNU Emacs; how do I do basic editing?
9:   How do I find out how to do something in GNU Emacs?
10:  Where can I get GNU Emacs on the net (or by snail mail)?
11:  Where can I get help in installing GNU Emacs?
12:  How do I get a printed copy of the GNU Emacs manual?
13:  How do I install a piece of Texinfo documentation?
14:  How do I print a Texinfo file?
15:  Can I view Info files without using GNU Emacs?
16:  Where can I get documentation on GNU Emacs Lisp?
17:  Has someone written an GNU Emacs Lisp package that does XXX?
18:  Where can I get GNU Emacs Lisp packages that don't come with Emacs?
19:  How do I submit code to the Emacs Lisp Archive?
20:  What informational files are available for GNU Emacs?
21:  Where can I get the latest VM, Supercite, GNUS, Calc, Calendar,
     Ange-FTP, VIP, Dired, Ispell, Epoch, Demacs, Freemacs, or Patch?
22:  What is the real legal meaning of the GNU copyleft?
23:  What are appropriate messages for gnu.emacs.help, gnu.emacs.bug,
     comp.emacs, etc.?
24:  How do I unsubscribe to this mailing list?
25:  What is the LPF and why should I join it?
26:  What is the current address of the FSF?
27:  What is the current address of the LPF?
28:  Where can I get other up-to-date GNU stuff?
29:  Where can I get the latest version of this document (the FAQ list)?

GNU Emacs and Various Computing Environments

30:  Where does the name "Emacs" come from?
31:  What is the latest version of GNU Emacs?
32:  When will GNU Emacs 19 be available?
33:  What will be different about GNU Emacs 19?
34:  Is there an Emacs that has better mouse and X window support?
35:  Where can I get the "unofficial HP GNU Emacs"?
36:  Where can I get Emacs for my PC?
37:  Where can I get Emacs for my Atari ST?
38:  Where can I get Emacs for my Amiga?
39:  Where can I get Emacs for my Apple computer?
40:  Where can I get Emacs with NeWS support?
41:  How do I get Emacs running on VMS under DECwindows?
42:  How do I use emacstool under SunView?
43:  How do I make Emacs display 8-bit characters?
44:  How do I input 8-bit characters?
45:  How do I use an already running Emacs from another window?
46:  Where can I get an Emacs that can handle kanji characters?
47:  Where can I get an Emacs that can handle Chinese?
48:  Where is an Emacs that can handle Semitic (right-to-left) alphabets?

Binding Keys to Commands

49:  Why does Emacs say "Key sequence XXX uses invalid prefix characters"?
50:  Why doesn't this [terminal or window-system setup] code work in my
     .emacs file, but it works just fine after Emacs starts up?
51:  Other than that, why does my key binding fail?
52:  How do I use function keys under X Windows?
53:  How do I tell what characters my function or arrow keys emit?
54:  Why does Emacs spontaneously start displaying "I-search:" and beeping?
55:  How do I disable the use of C-s and C-q for flow control?
56:  What do I do if my terminal is sending C-s and C-q for flow control and
     I can't disable it?
57:  How do I make Emacs honor C-s and C-q for flow control instead of for
     commands?
58:  Why does Emacs never see C-s and C-q through my network connection?
59:  How do I use commands bound to C-s and C-q (or any key) if these keys
     are filtered out?
60:  How do I "swap" two keys?
61:  Why does the "BackSpace" key invoke help?
62:  How do I type DEL on PC terminal emulators?
63:  Can I make my "Compose" key behave like a "Meta" key?
64:  Why don't the arrow keys work?
65:  How do I bind a combination of modifier key and function key?
66:  Why doesn't my Meta key work in an xterm window?
67:  Why doesn't my ExtendChar key work as a Meta key under HP-UX 8.0?
68:  Where can I get key bindings to make Emacs emulate WordStar?
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Building/Installing/Porting Emacs and Machine/OS-Specific Bugs
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69:  Why does Emacs crash with "Fatal error (6).Abort" under SunOS 4.1?
70:  Why do I get an "f68881_used undefined" error, when I build Emacs on my
     Sun 3?
71:  Why does Emacs ignore my X resources (my .Xdefaults file)?
72:  How do I get Emacs to compile with all features under OpenWindows?
73:  How do I build Emacs under HP-UX 8.0?
74:  What should I do if I have trouble building Emacs?
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Weird/Confusing Problems
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75:  Does Emacs have problems with files larger than 8 megabytes?
76:  Why does Emacs start up using the wrong directory?
77:  How do I edit a file with a "$" in its name?
78:  Why does Shell mode lose track of the shell's current directory?
79:  Why doesn't Emacs expand my aliases when sending mail?
80:  Why doesn't my change to load-path work?
81:  Why does the cursor always go to the wrong column when I move up or
     down one line?
82:  Why does Emacs hang with message "Unknown XMenu error" with X11R4?
83:  Why doesn't display-time show the load average in the mode line
     anymore?
84:  Why doesn't GNUS work anymore via NNTP?
85:  Why does ispell sometimes ignore the local dictionary?
86:  How do I get rid of the ^M junk in my Shell buffer?
87:  Are there any security risks in GNU Emacs?
88:  How do I recover my mail files after RMAIL munges their format?
89:  Why do I get "Process shell exited abnormally with code 1"?
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Configuring Emacs for Yourself
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90:  How do I set up a .emacs file properly?
91:  How do you debug a .emacs file?
92:  How do I turn on abbrevs by default just in mode XXX?
93:  How do I turn on Auto-Fill mode by default?
94:  How do I make Emacs use a certain major mode for certain files?
95:  What are the valid X resource settings (ie., stuff in .Xdefaults file)?
96:  How do I stop Emacs from beeping on a terminal?
97:  How do I turn down the bell volume in Emacs running under X Windows?
98:  How do I change load-path?
99:  How do I change the included text prefix in mail/news followups?
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Emacs Lisp Programming

100: What dialect of Lisp is Emacs Lisp?
101: How close is Emacs Lisp to Common Lisp?
102: How do I execute a piece of Emacs Lisp code?
103: How do I make a set of operations work only within a region?
104: How can I highlight text in Emacs?
105: How do I change Emacs's idea of the tab character's length?

Carrying Out Common Tasks

106: How do I insert ">"'s in the beginning of every line in a buffer?
107: How do I insert "_^H" characters before each character in a paragraph
     to get an underlined paragraph?
108: How do I repeat a command as many times as possible?
109: How do I search for or delete unprintable (8-bit or control)
     characters?
110: How do I control Emacs's case-sensitivity when searching/replacing?
111: How do I tell Emacs to automatically indent a new line to the
     indentation of the previous line?
112: How do I make Emacs "typeover" or "overwrite" instead of inserting?
113: How do I show which parenthesis matches the one I'm looking at?
114: How do I make Emacs behave like this: when I go up or down, the cursor
     should stay in the same column even if the line is too short?
115: How do I read news under Emacs?
116: In C mode, can I show just the lines that will be left after #ifdef
     commands are handled by the compiler?
117: Is there an equivalent to the "." (dot) command of vi?
118: How do I make Emacs display the current line (or column) number?
119: How do I tell Emacs to iconify itself?
120: How do I use regexps (regular expressions) in Emacs?
121: How do I perform a replace operation across more than one file?
122: How do I make Emacs wrap words for me?
123: Where can I get a better spelling checker for Emacs?
124: How can I spell-check TeX or *roff documents?
125: How can I make Emacs automatically scroll horizontally?



Notation Used in the Answers                                                 -
  
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  You may skip this section if you are reasonably familiar with GNU Emacs.
  Some of these are not actually frequently asked questions, but knowing
  them is important for understanding the answers to the rest of the
  questions.

1: What do things like this mean: C-h, M-C-a, RET, etc.?
  
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  C-a means press the "a" key while holding down the "Control" key.  The
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  ASCII code this sends will generally be the value that would be sent by
  pressing just "a" minus 96 or 64.  Either way it will be a number from 0
  to 31.
  
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  M-a means press the "a" key while holding down the "Meta" key.  The
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  ASCII code this sends is the sum of the ASCII code that would be sent by
  pressing just "a" and 128.
  
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  M-C-a means press the "a" key while holding down both the "Control" key
  and the "Meta" key.  C-M-a is a synonym for M-C-a.
  
  * RET means press the "Return" key.  RET is the same as C-m.  This sends
    ASCII code 13.
  * LFD means press the "Linefeed" key.  LFD is also the same as C-j.  This
    sends ASCII code 10.  Under Unix, ASCII code 10 is more often called
    "Newline".
  * DEL means press the "Delete" key.  DEL is the same as C-?.  This sends
    ASCII code 127.  (WARNING: It is a misnomer to call C-? a "control" key,
    since 127 has both bits 6 and 7 turned ON, and the rule for control keys
    is that they have 6 and 7 turned OFF.  Also, on very few keyboards does
    Control-? generate ASCII code 127.  In fact, Control-? (which is
    actually Control-Shift-/) is more likely to generate C-_, ASCII code
    31!)
  * ESC means press the "Escape" key.  ESC is the same as C-[.  This sends
    ASCII code 27.
  * SPC means press the "Space" key.  This send ASCII code 32.
  * TAB means press the "Tab" key.  TAB is the same as C-i.  This send ASCII
    code 9.
  
  For C-@ and C-^, usually you don't have to hold down the shift key and you
  can type Control-2 or Control-6 instead.  For C-_, you may have to hold
  down the shift key, typing Control-Shift-Hyphen.  C-@ can often be
  generated by typing Control-Space.  C-@ is often called the NUL character,
  and has ASCII value 0.  C-_ can often be generated by typing Control-7 or
  Control-/.  C-? (aka DEL) may be generated by typing Shift-BackSpace or    +
  Control-BackSpace.  Try Control with all of the digits on your keyboard to +
  see what gets generated.
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  To read more about this online, type "C-h i m emacs RET m characters
  RET", and also "C-h i m emacs RET m keys RET".
  
2: What do you mean when you write things like this: type "ESC a"?
  
  I will enclose key sequences that are longer than one key inside double
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  quotes.  These notations refer to single key strokes (some with
  modifiers):
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    C-x, M-x, M-C-x
    RET, LFD, DEL, ESC, SPC, TAB
  
  I separate these from other keys within double quotes by spaces.  Any
  real spaces that I write inside double quotes can be ignored, only SPC
  means press the space key.  All other characters within double quotes
  represent single keys (some shifted).
  
3: What if I don't have a Meta key?
  
  Instead of typing M-a, you can type "ESC a" instead.  In fact, Emacs
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  converts M-a internally into "ESC a" anyway (depending on the value of
  meta-prefix-char).
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4: What if I don't have an Escape key?
  
  Type C-[ instead.  This should send ASCII code 27 just like an Escape
  key would.
  
5: What does "M-x command" mean?
  
  "M-x command" means type M-x, then type the name of the command, then
  type RET.
  
  M-x is simply the default key sequence that invokes the command
  "execute-extended-command".  This command allows you to run any Emacs
  command if you can remember the command's name.  If you can't remember
  the command's name, you can type TAB and SPC for completion, and ? for a
  list of possibilities.  An Emacs "command" is any "interactive" Emacs
  function.
  
  NOTE: Your system administrator may have bound other key sequences to
  invoke execute-extended-command.  A function key labeled "Do" is a good
  candidate for this.
  
  To run non-interactive Emacs functions, use M-ESC instead and type a
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  Lisp form that invokes the function (see question 102).
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6: What do things like this mean: etc/SERVICE, src/config.h,
 lisp/default.el?
  
  These are the names of files that are part of the GNU Emacs
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  distribution.  The GNU Emacs distribution is divided into several
  subdirectories; the important subdirectories are named "etc", "lisp",
  and "src".
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  If you use GNU Emacs, but don't know where it is kept on your system,
  start Emacs, then type "C-h v exec-directory RET".  The directory name
  that is displayed by this will be the full pathname of the "etc"
  directory of your installed GNU Emacs distribution.
  
  Some of these files are available individually via FTP or e-mail, see
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  question 20.
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7: What are FSF, LPF, OSF, GNU, RMS, FTP, and GPL?
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  FSF == Free Software Foundation
  LPF == League for Programming Freedom
  OSF == Open Software Foundation
  GNU == GNU's Not Unix
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  RMS == Richard Matthew Stallman
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  FTP == File Transfer Protocol
  GPL == GNU General Public Licence
  
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  NOTE: Avoid confusing the FSF, the LPF, and the OSF.  The LPF opposes
  look-and-feel copyrights and software patents.  The FSF aims to make high
  quality free software available for everyone.  The OSF is a commercial
  organization which wants to provide an alternative, standardized version
  of Unix not controlled by AT&T.
  
  NOTE: The word "free" in the title of the Free Software Foundation refers
  to "freedom", not "zero dollars".  Anyone can charge any price for
  GPL-covered software that they want to.  However, in practice, the freedom
  enforced by the GPL leads to low prices, because you can always get the
  software for less money from someone else, because everyone has the right
  to resell or give away GPL-covered software.
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Sources of Information and Help

8: I'm just starting GNU Emacs; how do I do basic editing?
  
  Type "C-h t" to invoke the self-paced tutorial.  Typing just C-h is
  how to enter the help system.
  
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  WARNING: Your system administrator may have changed C-h to act like DEL.
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  You can use M-x help-for-help instead to invoke help.  To discover what
  key (if any) invokes help on your system, type "M-x where-is RET
  help-for-help RET".  This will print a comma-separated list of key
  sequences in the echo area.  Ignore the last character in each key
  sequence listed.  Each of the resulting key sequences invokes help.
  
  NOTE: Emacs's help facility works best if help is invoked by a single
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  key.  The variable help-char should hold the value of this character.  
  Andrew Arensburger <arensb@kong.gsfc.nasa.gov> wrote a patch that allows   +
  the help facility to work properly when invoked by multiple character      +
  sequences.                                                                 +
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9: How do I find out how to do something in GNU Emacs?
  
  There are several methods for finding out how to do things in Emacs.
  
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  * You should become familiar with the online documentation for Emacs.  The +
    complete text of the Emacs manual is available online in a hypertext
    format via the "Info" manual reader.  Type "C-h i" to invoke Info.
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  * You can order a hardcopy of the manual from the FSF.  See question 12.   +
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  * You can get a printed reference card listing commands and keys to invoke +
    them.  You can order one from the FSF for $1 (or 10 for $5), or you can
    print your own from the etc/refcard.tex file in the Emacs distribution.
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  * You can list all of the commands whose names contain a certain word      +
    (actually which match a regular expression) using the "command-apropos"
    command.  Type "C-h a" to invoke this command.
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  * You can list all of the functions and variables whose names contain a    +
    certain word using the "apropos" command.  M-x apropos invokes this
    command.
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  * There are many other commands in Emacs for getting help and information. +
    To get a list of these commands, type "C-h C-h C-h".
  
  NOTE: You may find that command-apropos and apropos are extremely slow
  on your system.  This will be fixed in Emacs 19.  If you can't wait that
  long, there is a "fast-apropos.el" file available in the Emacs Lisp
  Archive (see question 18) that contains the fix.  This file
  also contains a "super-apropos" command that will list all the functions
  and variables whose documentation strings contain a certain word.
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10: Where can I get GNU Emacs on the net (or by snail mail)?
  
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  Look in the files etc/DISTRIB and etc/FTP for information on nearby
  archive sites.  If you don't already have GNU Emacs, see question 20       !
  for how to get these two files.
  
  The latest version is always available via anonymous FTP at MIT
  (prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/emacs-18.58.tar.Z).                               !
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11: Where can I get help in installing GNU Emacs?
  
  Look in the file etc/SERVICE for names of companies and individuals who
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  will sell you this type of service.  An up-to-date version of the
  SERVICE file is available on prep.ai.mit.edu.  See question 20
  for how to retrieve this file.
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12: How do I get a printed copy of the GNU Emacs manual?
  
  You can order a printed copy of the GNU Emacs manual from the FSF for
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  $20.  For 6 or more manuals the price is $13 each.  {The price may be      !
  tax-deductible as a business expense.  Can someone tell me for certain?  I !
  know that pure donations to the FSF are tax-deductible, but I don't know   !
  about payments for manuals or tapes.}                                      !
  
  The full TeX source for the manual also comes in the "man" directory of
  the Emacs distribution, if you're daring enough to try to print out this
  300 page manual yourself (see question 14).
  
  If you absolutely have to print your own copy, and you don't have TeX, you
  can get a PostScript version via anonymous FTP (cs.ubc.ca:                 -
  src/gnu/manuals_ps/emacs-18.57.ps.Z, which site requests that you please
  CONFINE ANY MAJOR FTPING TO LATE EVENINGS OR EARLY MORNINGS OUR TIME
  (pacific time zone, GMT-8)).
  
  If you don't have TeX you can convert the Texinfo sources into
  {t,n,ps}roff format with the "texi2roff" program, which is available via
  anonymous FTP (archive.cis.ohio-state.edu:
  /pub/gnu/texi2roff/texi2roff.shar.Z)
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  Carl Witty <cwitty@cs.stanford.edu> writes:
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    The Emacs manual is also available online in the Info system, which is
    available by typing "C-h i".  In this form, it has hypertext links and
    is very easy to browse or search; many people prefer it to the printed
    manual.
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13: How do I install a piece of Texinfo documentation?
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  First create Info files from the Texinfo files with the "makeinfo"
  program.  makeinfo is available as part of the latest Texinfo package
  (prep.ai.mit.edu:/pub/gnu/texinfo-2.12.tar.Z).                             -
  
  For information about the Texinfo format, read the Texinfo manual which
  comes with Emacs.  This manual also comes installed in Info format, so you
  can read it online.
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  Neither texinfo-format-buffer nor the makeinfo program install the
  resulting Info files in Emacs's Info tree.  To install Info files:
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  1. Move the files to the "info" directory in the installed Emacs
     distribution.  See question 6 if you don't know where that
     is.
  
  2. Edit the file info/dir in the installed Emacs distribution, and add a
     line for the top level node in the Info package that you are
     installing.  Follow the examples are already in this file.  The format
     is:
  
       * Topic: (relative-pathname).  Short description of topic.
  
  If you want to install Info files and you don't have the necessary
  privileges, you have several options:                                      !
                                                                             !
  * Info files don't actually need to be installed before being used.  You   !
    can feed a file name to the Info-goto-node command (invoked by pressing
    "g" in Info mode) by typing the name of the file in parentheses.  This
    goes to the node named "Top" in that file.  For example, to view a Info
    file named "XXX" in your home directory, you can type this:
  
      C-h i g (~/XXX) RET
  
  * You can create your own Info directory.  You can tell Emacs where the    !
    Info directory is by setting the value of the variable Info-directory
    to its pathname.  For example, to use a private Info directory which
    is a subdirectory of your home directory named "Info", you could do
    this:
  
      (setq Info-directory (expand-file-name "~/Info"))
  
    You will need a top-level Info file named "dir" in this directory.
    You can include the system-wide Info directory in your private Info
    directory with symbolic links or by copying it.
  
  * You can use an enhanced version of lisp/info.el that handles multiple    +
    Info directories.  Then you can more easily use a mix of private and     +
    shared Info files.  Dave Gillespie <daveg@csvax.cs.caltech.edu> has      +
    written one such enhancement and I am told there are others.             +
  
14: How do I print a Texinfo file?
  
  NOTE: You can't get nice printed output from Info files; you must still    +
  have the original Texinfo source file for the manual you want to print.    +
  
  1. Make sure the first line of the Texinfo file looks like this:
  
       \input texinfo
  
     You may need to alter "texinfo" to the full pathname of the
     texinfo.tex file, which comes with Emacs as man/texinfo.tex (or copy
     or link it into the current directory).
  
  2. tex XXX.texinfo
  
  3. texindex XXX.??
  
     The "texindex" program comes with Emacs as man/texindex.c.
  
  4. tex XXX.texinfo
  
  5. Print the DVI file XXX.dvi in the normal way for printing DVI files
     at your site.
  
  To get more general instructions, retrieve the latest Texinfo package
  mentioned in question 13.
  
15: Can I view Info files without using GNU Emacs?
  
  Yes, the `info', `xinfo', and `ivinfo' programs do this.  info uses
  curses, xinfo uses standard X11R4 libraries, and ivinfo uses InterViews.
  You can get info as part of the latest Texinfo package (see question 13).
  xinfo is available separately (prep.ai.mit.edu:
  pub/gnu/xinfo-1.01.01.tar.Z).  ivinfo is available in a comp.sources.misc
  archive or from Tom Horsley <tom@ssd.csd.harris.com>.  For ivinfo, you
  need Stanford's InterViews C++ X library, available via anonymous FTP
  (interviews.stanford.edu).
  
16: Where can I get documentation on GNU Emacs Lisp?
  
  Within Emacs, you can type "C-h f" to get the documentation for a
  function, "C-h v" for a variable.
  
  For more information, obtain the GNU Emacs Lisp Reference Manual for Emacs
  18 under Unix.  It is available from the FSF for $50 (or 5 for $200).  The
  latest revision available for FTP is edition 1.03 dated 28 January 1991.
  
  For online use, a set of pregenerated Info files is available with the
  Texinfo source for the Emacs Lisp manual via anonymous FTP (Emacs Lisp
  Archive, prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/elisp-manual-1.03.tar.Z).  (You can also  !
  create the Info files from the Texinfo source.)  See question 13 for
  details on how to install these files online.
  
  If you are daring enough to try to print this 550 page manual out
  yourself, for instructions see question 14.
  
  Also, as a popular USENET saying goes, "Use the Force, Read the Source".
  
17: Has someone written an GNU Emacs Lisp package that does XXX?
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  Probably.  A listing of Emacs Lisp packages, called the Lisp Code
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  Directory, is being maintained by Dave Brennan <brennan@hal.com> and       !
  Dave Sill <de5@ornl.gov>.  You can search through this list to find if
  someone has written something that fits your needs.
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  This list is file "LCD-datafile.Z" in the Emacs Lisp Archive.  (See
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  question 18 for methods for getting this file.)  The files "lispdir.el.Z"
  and "lispdir.doc.Z" in the archive contain information to help you use the
  list.  Once you have installed lispdir.el and LCD-datafile, then you can
  use the "M-x lisp-dir-apropos" command to look things up in the database.
  For example, the command "M-x lisp-dir-apropos RET ange-ftp RET" produces
  this (outdated) output:
  
		    GNU Emacs Lisp Code Apropos -- "ange-ftp"
  
    ange-ftp (3.112)  91-08-12
	 Andy Norman, <ange@hplb.hpl.hp.com>
	 archive.cis.ohio-state.edu:
	   /pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/as-is/ange-ftp.el.Z
	 transparent FTP Support for GNU Emacs
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18: Where can I get GNU Emacs Lisp packages that don't come with Emacs?
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  First, check the Lisp Code Directory to find the name of the package you
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  are looking for.  (See question 17).  Then check local archives and
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  the Emacs Lisp Archive to find a copy of the relevant files.  Then, if
  you still haven't found it, you can send e-mail to the author asking for
  a copy.
  
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  NOTE: The archive maintainers do not have time to answer individual
  requests for packages or the list of packages in the archive.  If you
  cannot use FTP or UUCP to access the archive yourself, try to find a
  friend who can, but please don't ask the maintainers.
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  You can access the Emacs Lisp Archive via anonymous FTP
  (archive.cis.ohio-state.edu:/pub/gnu/emacs/elisp-archive/).  Fetch the
  file "README" first.
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  NOTE: Any files with names ending in ".Z" are compressed, and you should
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  use "binary" mode in FTP to retrieve them.  You should also use binary
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  mode whenever you retrieve any files with names ending in ".elc".
  
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19: How do I submit code to the Emacs Lisp Archive?
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  Submissions should be mailed to elisp-archive@cis.ohio-state.edu.  Mail
  messages (submissions) are automatically saved and periodically archived.
  Urgent mail may be sent directly to Dave Sill <de5@ornl.gov> or Dave
  Brennan <brennan@hal.com> or should contain the string "urgent" in the     !
  subject.  The incomoing ftp directory is no longer available at the
  request of Ohio State.
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  However, if someone has a submission with multiple files (which would be
  archived as a tar file) or binary files, then FTP transfer is preferred
  and can be arranged via an anonymous FTP site.  This is faster than
  uudecoding, unsharing, etc., and re-packaging files.
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  Before submitting anything, please read the file "guidelines.Z", which is
  available in the archive.  Whenever possible submissions should contain
  a complete LCD entry since this helps reduce administrative overhead for
  the maintainers.  You can include an entry in this format:
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    ;; LCD Archive Entry:
    ;; package name|author's name|email address
    ;; |description
    ;; |date|version|archive path
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  For example:
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    ;; LCD Archive Entry:
    ;; tex-complete|Sebastian Kremer|sk@thp.Uni-Koeln.DE
    ;; |Minibuffer name completion for editing [La]TeX.
    ;; |91-03-26|$Revision: 1.12 $|~/packages/tex-complete.el.Z
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  Dave Brennan has software which automatically looks for data in this
  format.  The format is fairly flexible.  The entry ends when a line is
  reached with a different prefix or the seventh field terminator is
  seen.
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20: What informational files are available for GNU Emacs?
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  This isn't a frequently asked question, but it should be!  A variety of
  informational files about GNU Emacs and relevant aspects of the GNU
  project are available for you to read.
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  The following files are available in the "etc" directory of the GNU
  Emacs distribution, and also the latest versions are available
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  individually via anonymous FTP (prep.ai.mit.edu:/pub/gnu/etc/):
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    APPLE -- Why the FSF doen't support GNU Emacs on Apple computers
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    DISTRIB -- GNU Emacs Availability Information,
      including the popular "Free Software Foundation Order Form"
    FTP -- How to get GNU Software by Internet FTP or by UUCP
    GNU -- The GNU Manifesto
    INTERVIEW -- Richard Stallman discusses his public-domain
		       UNIX-compatible software system
			      with BYTE editors
    MACHINES -- Status of GNU Emacs on Various Machines and Systems
    MAILINGLISTS -- GNU Project Electronic Mailing Lists
    SERVICE -- GNU Service Directory
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    SUN-SUPPORT -- including "Using Emacstool with GNU Emacs"                !
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  These files are available in the "etc" directory of the GNU Emacs
  distribution:
  
    DIFF -- Differences between GNU Emacs and Twenex Emacs
    CCADIFF -- Differences between GNU Emacs and CCA Emacs
    GOSDIFF -- Differences between GNU Emacs and Gosling (Unipress??) Emacs
    COPYING -- GNU Emacs General Public License
    NEWS -- GNU Emacs News, a history of user-visible changes
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    LPF -- Why you should join the League for Programming Freedom
    FAQ -- GNU Emacs Frequently Asked Questions (You're reading it)
    OPTIONS -- a complete explanation of startup option handling
  
  These files are available via anonymous FTP (prep.ai.mit.edu:/pub/gnu/):
  
    tasks -- GNU Task List
    standards.text -- GNU Coding Standards
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  In addition, all of the above files are available directly from the FSF
  via e-mail.  Of course, please try to get them from a local source
  first.
  
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  These additional files are available from the FSF via e-mail:
  
  * GNU's Bulletin, June, 1991 -- this file includes:
      GNU'S Who
      What Is the Free Software Foundation?
      What Is Copyleft?
      A Small Way to Help Free Software
      GNUs Flashes (important recent developments for project GNU)
      Free Software Support (and how to get it!)
      Copyrighted Programming Languages
      AT&T Threatens Users of X Windows (and other software patent threats)
      Project Gutenberg
      GNU Project Status Report
      GNU in Japan
      GNU Wish List
      Help Keep Government Software Free
      GNU Software Available Now
        Contents of the Emacs Tape
        Contents of the Compiler Tape
        Contents of the X11 Tapes
        VMS Emacs and Compiler Tapes
      GNU Documentation
      How to Get GNU Software
      Free Software for Microcomputers
        GNU Software on Apple computers
        GNU Software on the Amiga
        GNU Software on the Atari
        GNUish MS-DOS project
        Freemacs, an Extensible Editor for MS-DOS
      GNU in Japan
      FSF Order Form
      Thank GNUs
  * Legal issues about contributing code to GNU
  * GNU Project Status Report
  
21: Where can I get the latest VM, Supercite, GNUS, Calc, Calendar,
 Ange-FTP, VIP, Dired, Ispell, Epoch, Demacs, Freemacs, or Patch?
  
  {If you know of any other packages that are so substantial that they
  deserve to be mentioned here, please tell me.  Having its own mailing list
  or newsgroup or more than half a megabyte of source code are good signs.}
  
  * VM (View Mail) -- another mail reader within Emacs
  
    Author: Kyle Jones <kyle@uunet.uu.net>
    Latest released version: 4.41
    Beta test version: 5.31
    Anonymous FTP:
      Emacs Lisp Archive: packages/vm-4.41.tar.Z, as-is/timer.shar.Z         -
      ftp.uu.net:/pub/vm-{4.41,5.31beta}.tar.Z
    Newsgroups and mailing lists:
      Info-VM:
        gnu.emacs.vm.info
        info-vm-request@uunet.uu.net (for subscriptions)
        info-vm@uunet.uu.net (for submissions)                               +
      Bug-VM:
        gnu.emacs.vm.bug
        bug-vm-request@uunet.uu.net (for subscriptions)
        bug-vm@uunet.uu.net (for submissions)                                +
  
  * SuperCite -- mail and news citation package within Emacs
  
    Author: Barry Warsaw <bwarsaw@cen.com>
    Mailing list: supercite-request@anthem.nlm.nih.gov (for subscriptions)
                  supercite@anthem.nlm.nih.gov (for submissions)             +
    Latest version: 2.2
    Anonymous FTP:
      Emacs Lisp Archive: packages/sc-2.2.tar.Z
    Via e-mail:
      To: library@cme.nist.gov
      Subject: help
  
    NOTE: Superyank is an old version of SuperCite.
  
  * GNUS -- news reader within Emacs
  
    Author: Masanobu Umeda <umerin@mse.kyutech.ac.jp>
    Latest official version: 3.13
    Unofficial test version: 3.14.1
    Anonymous FTP:
      cs.umn.edu:pub/gnu/emacs/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z.
      aun.uninett.no:pub/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z
      wnoc-fuk.wide.ad.jp:pub/GNU/etc/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z
      liasun3.epfl.ch:pub/gnu/emacs/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z
      aix370.rrz.uni-koeln.de:/pub/gnu/emacs/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z
      funet.fi:/networking/news/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z
      src.doc.ic.ac.uk:/gnu/EmacsBits/gnus/gnus-3.14.1.tar.Z
      Emacs Lisp Archive: packages/gnus-3.13.tar.Z
    Newsgroups and mailing lists:
      English-only:    
        gnu.emacs.gnus
        info-gnus-english-request@cis.ohio-state.edu (for subscriptions)
        info-gnus-english@cis.ohio-state.edu (for submissions)               +
      Japanese (and some English):
        info-gnus-request@flab.fujitsu.co.jp (for subscriptions)
        info-gnus@flab.fujitsu.co.jp (for submissions)                       +
  
  * Calc -- poor man's Mathematica within Emacs
  
    Author: Dave Gillespie <daveg@csvax.cs.caltech.edu>
    Latest released version: 2.02                                            !
    Anonymous FTP:
      csvax.cs.caltech.edu:pub/calc-2.02.tar.Z                               !
      prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/calc-2.02.tar.Z                                !
    NOTE: Unlike Wolfram Research, Dave has never threatened to sue anyone
      for having a program with a similar command language to Calc.  :-)
  
  * Calendar/Diary -- calendar manager within Emacs
  
    Author: Ed Reingold <reingold@cs.uiuc.edu>
    Latest version: 4.01
    Anonymous FTP:
      emr.cs.uiuc.edu:/pub/emacs/calendar
    Via e-mail:
      To: reingold@cs.uiuc.edu
      Subject: send-emacs-cal
      Put your best internet e-mail address in the body.
  
  * Ange-FTP -- adds transparent FTP access to Emacs's file access routines
  
    Author: Andy Norman <ange@hplb.hpl.hp.com>
    Latest version: 3.143
    Anonymous FTP:
      ftp.gnu.ai.mit.edu:ange-ftp/ange-ftp.el.Z
      Emacs Lisp Archive:
        as-is/ange-ftp.el.Z (current version)
	packages/ange-ftp.el.Z (old version)
    Mailing list: ange-ftp-lovers-request@anorman.hpl.hp.com (subscriptions) !
                  ange-ftp-lovers@anorman.hpl.hp.com (for submissions)       +
    NOTE: now with support for accessing VMS systems
  
  * VIP -- vi emulation for Emacs                                            -
  
    Author: Aamod Sane <sane@cs.uiuc.edu>
    Latest released version: 4.3                                             +
    Anonymous FTP:
      cs.uiuc.edu:pub/vip4.3.tar.Z
      Emacs Lisp Archive: modes/vip-mode.tar.Z
    NOTE: This version much more closely emulates vi than the one
      distributed with Emacs.
  
    Version distributed with Emacs: 3.5
    Author: Masahiko Sato <ms@sail.stanford.edu,
                           masahiko@sato.riec.tohoku.junet>
  
  * Dired -- directory editor for Emacs
  
    Author: Sebastian Kremer <sk@thp.uni-koeln.de>
    Latest released version: 5.239                                           +
    Anonymous FTP: ftp.cs.buffalo.edu:pub/Emacs/diredall.tar.Z               -
                   ftp.uni-koeln.de:pub/gnu/emacs/diredall.tar.Z             -
    NOTE: This is a huge improvement over the Dired distributed with Emacs.
      This version will be in Emacs 19.
  
  * AUC TeX -- enhanced LaTeX mode                                           +
                                                                             +
    Author: Kresten Krab Thorup <krab@iesd.auc.dk>                           +
    Latest released version: 5.4                                             +
    Anonymous FTP: iesd.auc.dk:pub/emacs-lisp/auc-tex-5.4.tar.Z              +
    Mailing list:                                                            +
      auc-tex-request@iesd.auc.dk (for subscriptions)                        +
      auc-tex@iesd.auc.dk (for submissions)                                  +
      auc-tex_mgr@iesd.auc.dk (auc-tex development team)                     +
                                                                             +
  * Hyperbole -- extensible hypertext management system within Emacs         +
                                                                             +
    Author: Bob Weiner <rsw@cs.brown.edu>                                    +
    Anonymous FTP:                                                           +
      wilma.cs.brown.edu:pub/hyperbole/h*.tar.Z                              +
    Mailing lists:                                                           +
      hyperbole-announce -- Hyperbole release announcements only.            +
        Subscriptions:                                                       +
          To: hyperbole-request@cs.brown.edu                                 +
          Subject: Add <mailbox@domain.name> to hyperbole-announce.          +
      hyperbole -- Hyperbole discussion.                                     +
        Subscriptions:                                                       +
          To: hyperbole-request@cs.brown.edu                                 +
          Subject: Add <mailbox@domain.name> to hyperbole.                   +
        Submissions:                                                         +
          hyperbole@cs.brown.edu                                             +
        NOTE: Any member of the hyperbole mailing list is automatically a    +
          member of the hyperbole-announce mailing list.                     +
      NOTE: No .UUCP or ! addresses are allowed on these mailing lists.      +
                                                                             +
  * Ispell -- spell checker in C with interface for Emacs                    +
  
    Author: Geoff Kuenning <geoff@itcorp.com> (latest of many)
    Latest released version: 2.0.02
    Beta test version: 3.0 (9 patches)
    Anonymous FTP:
      archive.cis.ohio-state.edu:/pub/gnu/ispell/* (version 2.0.02)
      ftp.cs.ucla.edu:/pub/ispell/* (version 3.0, patches, dictionaries)
    NOTE: Do not send mail to Geoff asking him to send you the latest
      version of Ispell.  He does not have free e-mail.
  
  * Epoch -- enhanced GNU Emacs with better X interface
  
    Latest released version: 3.2
    Beta test version: 4.0 beta patchlevel 0                                 !
    Anonymous FTP:
      cs.uiuc.edu:pub/epoch-files/epoch/epoch-4.0b0.tar.Z                    !
      cs.uiuc.edu:pub/epoch-files/epoch/epoch-3.2{.tar.Z,-patch-{1,2.tar.Z}}
    Newsgroup and mailing lists:                                             !
      Epoch:                                                                 !
        gnu.emacs.epoch
        epoch-request@cs.uiuc.edu (for subscriptions)
        epoch@cs.uiuc.edu (for submissions)                                  +
      Epoch-Design:                                                          +
        epoch-design-request@cs.uiuc.edu (for subscriptions)                 +
        epoch-design@cs.uiuc.edu (for submissions)                           +
  
  * Demacs -- GNU Emacs altered to work under MS-DOS on 386 and 486 machines
  
    Authors: Manabu Higashida <manabu@sigmath.osaka-u.ac.jp>
	     HIRANO Satoshi <hirano@tkl.iis.u-tokyo.ac.jp>
    Latest released version: 1.2.0
    Anonymous FTP:
      utsun.s.u-tokyo.ac.jp:GNU/demacs/* (nearest to U.S.A.)
      ftp.sigmath.osaka-u.ac.jp:pub/Msdos/Demacs/*
      wnoc-fuk.wide.ad.jp:pub/msdos/Demacs/*
      ftp.3com.com:pub/gnu/msdos/demacs/*                                    +
      mindseye.berkeley.edu:pub/kanji/demacs/*                               +
      ftp.hawaii.edu:pub/editors/demacs.tar.Z                                +
      ftp.math.ksu.edu:pub/pc/demacs/*                                       +
      wsmr-simtel20.army.mil:pd1:<msdos.demacs>*                             +
      ftp.uni-koeln.de: (PLEASE USE ONLY OUTSIDE WORKING HOURS!)             +
        msdos/gnuprogs/dem120e.zip (executables, lisp-code, doc)
        msdos/gnuprogs/dem120s.zip (sources, diffs)
      ftp.lysator.liu.se:pub/msdos/gnu/emacs/?????????????
      mizar.docs.uu.se:pub/gnu/demacs/*                                      +
      iamsun.unibe.ch:PC/demacs/*                                            +
      flop.informatik.tu-muenchen.de:outgoing/demacs.tar                     +
      ftp.funet.fi:pub/gnu/emacs/demacs/*                                    +
      garbo.uwasa.fi:pc/editor/dem120{e,s}.zip                               +
      ftp.win.tue.nl:pub/gnu/demacs/*                                        +
      ugle.unit.no:pub/gnu/Demacs/*                                          +
      {Does anyone know which sites have the Kanji version?}                 +
    Via e-mail:                                                              +
      From garbo.uwasa.fi:                                                   +
        To: mailserv@garbo.uwasa.fi                                          +
        Subject: garbo-request                                               +
        Body: send pc/editor/dem120e.zip                                     +
              send pc/editor/dem120s.zip                                     +
              quit                                                           +
    Downloading:
      EXEC-PC (Milwaukee, WI) 414-789-4210 (2400 bps)
        in the Mahoney MS-DOS file area in its Editors/wordprocessors
	library (F), named GNUEMACS.ZIP
      Channel 1 (Cambridge, MA) 617-345-8873 (9600 bps)
        in the New Uploads file area, named GNUEMACS.ZIP
    NOTE: Use the -d option of [pk]unzip for all .zip archives.  Some sites
      have Demacs lharc'ed.  {Can anyone tell me FTP sites for programs to
      extract lharc and zip format files?  Or even better, give me a pointer
      to another FAQ that answers these questions.}
    Mailing list:                                                            +
      NOTE: There is no mailing list for Demacs.  However, there is a list   +
        for DJGPP, which is the environment that Demacs runs in.  Many       +
        Demacs problems are actually issues with DJGPP.                      +
      DJGPP:                                                                 +
        Subscriptions:                                                       +
          To: listserv@sun.soe.clarkson.edu                                  +
          body: add <your-address> djgpp                                     +
          or put "help" in the body.                                         +
          If this fails, mail to djgpp-request@sun.soe.clarkson.edu.         +
        Submissions:                                                         +
          djgpp@sun.soe.clarkson.edu                                         +
  
  * Freemacs -- a small Emacs for MS-DOS
  
    Author: Russ Nelson <nelson@sun.soe.clarkson.edu>                        +
    Latest released version: 1.6a
    Anonymous FTP:
      simtel20.army.mil:PD:<MSDOS.FREEMACS>*
      grape.ecs.clarkson.edu:pub/msdos/freemacs/*
    Via e-mail:
      To: archive-server@sun.soe.clarkson.edu
      body: help
    Via snail mail:
      address: Russell Nelson, 11 Grant St., Potsdam, NY 13676
      Send $15 copying fee, and specify preferred floppy disk format:
        5.25", 360K, or 3.50", 720K
    Mailing lists: 
      Subscriptions:
        To: listserv@sun.soe.clarkson.edu
        body: add <your-address> <name-of-list>
        or put "help" in the body.
      List distribution addresses:
	freemacs-announce@sun.soe.clarkson.edu
	freemacs-help@sun.soe.clarkson.edu
	freemacs-workers@sun.soe.clarkson.edu (send bug reports here)
  
  * Patch -- program to apply "diffs" for updating files
  
    Author: Larry Wall <lwall@netlabs.com>
    Latest version: 2.0 patchlevel 12u5
      (This is the version that supports the new "unified" diff format.)
    Anonymous FTP:
      prep.ai.mit.edu:pub/gnu/patch-2.0.12u4.tar.Z
  
22: What is the real legal meaning of the GNU copyleft?
  
  RMS writes:
  
    The legal meaning of the GNU copyleft is less important than the spirit,
    which is that Emacs is a free software project and that work pertaining
    to Emacs should also be free software.  "Free" means that all users have
    the freedom to study, share, change and improve Emacs.  To make sure
    everyone has this freedom, pass along source code when you distribute
    any version of Emacs or a related program, and give the recipients the
    same freedom that you enjoyed.
  
    If you still want to find out about the legal meaning of the copyleft,
    please ask yourself if this means you are not paying attention to the
    spirit.
  
23: What are appropriate messages for gnu.emacs.help, gnu.emacs.bug,
 comp.emacs, etc.?
  
  The file etc/MAILINGLISTS discusses the purpose of each GNU
  mailing-list.  (See question 20 on how to get a copy.)  For
  those which are gatewayed with newsgroups, it lists both the newsgroup
  name and the mailing list address.
  
  comp.emacs is for discussion of Emacs programs in general.  This
  includes GNU Emacs along with various other implementations like JOVE,
  MicroEmacs, Freemacs, MG, Unipress, CCA, Epsilon, etc.
  
  Many people post GNU Emacs questions to comp.emacs because they don't
  receive any of the gnu.* newsgroups.  Arguments have been made both for
  and against posting GNU-Emacs-specific material to comp.emacs.  You have
  to decide for yourself.
  
  Messages advocating "non-free" software are considered unacceptable on any
  of the gnu.* newsgroups except for gnu.misc.discuss, which was created to
  hold the extensive flame-wars on the subject.  "non-free" software
  includes any software for which the end user can't get source code.  Be
  careful to remove the gnu.* groups from the "Newsgroups:" line when
  posting a followup that recommends such software.
  
  The correct place to report GNU Emacs bugs is by e-mail to
  bug-gnu-emacs@prep.ai.mit.edu.  Anything sent here also appears in the
  newsgroup gnu.emacs.bug, but please use e-mail instead of news to submit
  the bug report.  This way a reliable return address is available so you
  can be contacted for further details.
  
  RMS explains:                                                              !
  
    Sending bug reports to help-gnu-emacs (which has the effect of posting
    on gnu.emacs.help) is undesirable because it takes the time of an
    unnecessarily large group of people, most of whom are just users and
    have no idea how to fix these problem.  bug-gnu-emacs reaches a much
    smaller group of people who are more likely to know what to do and have
    expressed a wish to receive more messages about Emacs than the others.
  
  However, RMS says there are circumstances when it is okay to post to       +
  gnu.emacs.help:                                                            +
                                                                             +
    If you have reported a bug and you don't hear about a possible fix, then +
    after a suitable delay (such as a week) it is okay to post on            +
    gnu.emacs.help asking if anyone can help you.                            +
  
  If you are unsure whether you have a bug, RMS describes how to tell:       !
  
    ... if Emacs crashes, that is a bug.  If Emacs gets compilation errors
    while building, that is a bug.  If Emacs crashes while building, that is
    a bug.  If Lisp code does not do what the documentation says it does,
    that is a bug.
  
24: How do I unsubscribe to this mailing list?
  
  If you are receiving a GNU mailing list named "XXX", you might be able
  to unsubscribe to it by sending a request to the address
  "XXX-request@prep.ai.mit.edu".  However, this will not work if you are
  not listed on the main mailing list, but instead recieve the mail from a
  distribution point.  In that case, you will have to track down at which
  distribution point you are listed.  Inspecting the "Received:" headers
  on the mail messages may help, along with liberal use of the "EXPN" or
  "VRFY" sendmail commands through "telnet <site-address> smtp".  Ask your
  postmaster for help.
  
25: What is the LPF and why should I join it?
  
  The LPF opposes the expanding danger of software patents and
  look-and-feel copyrights.  Write to league@prep.ai.mit.edu for more
  information.  You can get papers describing the LPF's views via
  anonymous FTP (prep.ai.mit.edu:/pub/lpf/*) or via anonymous UUCP
  (osu-cis!~/lpf/*).
  
26: What is the current address of the FSF?
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  Snail mail address:
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    Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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    675 Massachusetts Avenue
    Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
  
  Phone number:
    (617) 876-3296
  
  E-mail addresses:
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    gnu@prep.ai.mit.edu
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27: What is the current address of the LPF?
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  Snail mail address:
    League for Programming Freedom
    1 Kendall Square, Number 143
    Post Office Box 9171
    Cambridge, MA 02139, USA
  
  Phone number:
    (617) 243-4061 { or 243-4091, I'm not sure ... }
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    {Will someone please tell me which of the above numbers is correct?}
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  E-mail address:
    league@prep.ai.mit.edu
  
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28: Where can I get other up-to-date GNU stuff?
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  The most up-to-date official GNU stuff is normally kept on
  prep.ai.mit.edu and is available for anonymous FTP.  See the files
  etc/DISTRIB and etc/FTP for more information.  (To get copies of these
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  files, see question 20.)
  
  For Europeans, the site nic.funet.fi duplicates the directory /pub/gnu
  from prep.ai.mit.edu.
  
29: Where can I get the latest version of this document (the FAQ list)?
  
  The GNU Emacs FAQ is available in several ways:
  
  1. Via USENET.  If you can read news, the FAQ should be available in your  +
     news spool, in both the "gnu.emacs.help" and "comp.emacs" newsgroups.
     Every news reader of which I know will allow you to read any news
     article that is still in the news spool, even if you have read the
     article before.  You may need to read the instructions for your news
     reader to discover how to do this.  In "rn", this command will do this
     for you at the "article selection level":
  
       ?GNU Emacs FAQ?rc:m
  
     In GNUS, you should type "C-u G" from the *Subject* buffer or "C-u SPC"
     from the *Newsgroup* buffer to view all articles in a newsgroup.
  
     The FAQ articles' message IDs are:
  
       <GNU-Emacs-FAQ-0.92Feb23210646@bigbird.bu.edu>                        !
       <GNU-Emacs-FAQ-1.92Feb23210646@bigbird.bu.edu>                        !
       <GNU-Emacs-FAQ-2.92Feb23210646@bigbird.bu.edu>                        !
       <GNU-Emacs-FAQ-3.92Feb23210646@bigbird.bu.edu>                        +
  
     If you are viewing this in the GNUS `*Article*' buffer, you can move
     point within one of the above message IDs and type "r" to fetch the
     referenced article into the `*Article*' buffer.  Type "o" in the
     `*Article*' buffer to restore the previous contents of the `*Article*'
     buffer.  If you are not viewing this in the GNUS `*Article*' buffer,
     use M-x gnus-Article-refer-article instead of "r".  GNUS must be
     running and you must display the `*Article*' buffer to see the results.
  
     If the FAQ articles have expired and been deleted from your news spool,
     it might (or might not) do some good to complain to your news
     administrator, because the most recent FAQ should not expire before
     April 15, 1992.                                                         !
  
  2. Via anonymous FTP.  You can fetch the FAQ articles via anonymous FTP    +
     (pit-manager.mit.edu:pub/usenet/news.answers/GNU-Emacs-FAQ/part?).      !
  
  3. Via e-mail.  You can send the following magical incantation in the body +
     of a message to mail-server@pit-manager.mit.edu:
  
       send usenet/news.answers/GNU-Emacs-FAQ/part0                          !
       send usenet/news.answers/GNU-Emacs-FAQ/part1                          !
       send usenet/news.answers/GNU-Emacs-FAQ/part2                          +
       send usenet/news.answers/GNU-Emacs-FAQ/part3                          +
                                                                             +
  4. Via WAIS.  The GNU Emacs FAQ is available via WAIS indexed on a         +
     per-question basis from the "faq" database on bigbird.bu.edu on the     +
     non-standard IP port number of 2210.  This is probably the best way to  +
     find out if there is something in the FAQ related to your question.  I  +
     use this myself to answer questions I see posted on gnu.emacs.help.     !
                                                                             !
     The articles of the GNU Emacs FAQ are also available from the "usenet"  !
     database on pit-manager.mit.edu (on the standard IP port: 210), along   !
     with a lot of other FAQ articles.  However, these are all indexed at    !
     the whole article level instead of at the question level.  This is a    !
     better place to look if you want to fetch the entire FAQ.               !
                                                                             !
  5. In the GNU Emacs distribution.  Since GNU Emacs 18.56, the latest       !
     available version of the FAQ at the time of release has been part of
     the GNU Emacs distribution as file etc/FAQ.  18.58 is the latest        !
     version, and it was released in February 1992.                          !



GNU Emacs and Various Computing Environments

30: Where does the name "Emacs" come from?
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  EMACS originally was an acronym for Editor MACroS.  The first Emacs was
  a set of macros written by Richard Stallman and Guy Steele for the
  editor TECO (Text Editor and COrrector (originally Tape Editor and
  COrrector)) on a PDP-10.  (Amusing fact: many people have told me that
  TECO code looks a lot like line noise.  See alt.lang.teco if you are
  interested.)
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31: What is the latest version of GNU Emacs?
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  GNU Emacs 18.58 is the current version.  Fixes from 18.57 include better   !
  mail address parsing, an X visual bell speedup, a call-process             !
  enhancement, a regexp matching change, the ability to apply a numeric      !
  argument to a self-inserting digit, getting X resource values from the     !
  RESOURCE_MANAGER property, more reliable shell mode job control, and a     !
  change to copy-keymap.  Also, support has been added for many new system   !
  types.                                                                     !
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  The June 1991 GNU's Bulletin says this about the status of Emacs:          +
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    GNU Emacs 18.57 is the current version.  The undo facility has been
    completely rewritten and now holds unlimited data temporarily, and a
    user-specified amount for the long term.
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    Berkeley is distributing GNU Emacs with the 4.3 BSD distribution, and
    numerous companies distribute it also.
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    Emacs 18 maintenance continues for simple bug fixes.
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  To visit a file with information about what has changed in recent          !
  versions, type "C-h n".                                                    !
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32: When will GNU Emacs 19 be available?
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  Good question, I don't know.  For that matter, neither do the developers.
  It will undoubtedly be available sometime in the 1990s.  :-)  People are
  actually using alpha-test version of Emacs 19, which is a good sign.  Work
  has begun on features for Emacs 20.
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  RMS writes:
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    Work is progressing steadily on 19 and it the to-do list is getting
    smaller.  But I don't want to make the mistake of predicting when it
    will be ready.
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33: What will be different about GNU Emacs 19?
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  From the June 1991 GNU's Bulletin:
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    Version 19 approaches release, counting among its new features: before
    and after change hooks, source-level debugging of Emacs Lisp programs, X
    selection processing (including clipboard selections), scrollbars,
    support for European character sets, floating point numbers, per-buffer
    mouse commands, X resource manager interfacing, mouse-tracking,
    Lisp-level binding of function keys, multiple X windows (`screens' to
    Emacs), a new input system---all input now arrives in the form of Lisp
    objects---and buffer allocation, which uses a new mechanism capable of
    returning storage to the system when a buffer is killed.
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    Thanks go to Alan Carroll and the people who worked on Epoch for
    generating initial feedback to a multi-windowed Emacs.  Emacs 19
    supports two styles of multiple windows, one with a separate screen for
    the minibuffer, and another with a minibuffer attached to each screen.
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    Features being considered for later releases of Emacs include:
    associating property lists with regions of text in a buffer; multiple
    fonts, color, and pixmaps defined by those properties; different
    visibility conditions for the regions, and for various windows showing
    one buffer; hooks to be run if point or mouse moves outside a certain
    range; incrementally saving undo history in a file; static menu bars;
    and better pop-up menus.
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  Mention of these two items disappeared in the January 1991 GNU's bulletin:
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  * Incremental syntax analysis for various programming languages (Leif).
  * A more sophisticated emacsclient/server model, which would provide
    network transparent Emacs widget functionality.
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34: Is there an Emacs that has better mouse and X window support?
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  Emacs 18 has some limited X Window System support, but there are
  problems.  Emacs 19 will have amazing mouse and window support.  Right
  now, there is a modified version of Emacs 18.55 called "Epoch" which has
  greatly improved mouse and window support.  To obtain Epoch, see
  question 21.
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  There are numerous Emacs Lisp packages that have been written to extend
  Emacs 18's mouse handling capabilities.  Some of these packages also have
  patches to the C code to provide enhanced capabilities.  Look up "mouse"
  in the Lisp Code Directory (see question 17).
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  NOTE: Epoch only works with the X Window System; it does not work on
  ordinary terminals.
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35: Where can I get the "unofficial HP GNU Emacs"?
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  The unofficial HP GNU Emacs is available via anonymous FTP
  (me10.lbl.gov:pub/interex/HUGE/HUGE.{README.HP,tar.Z.??},
  ee.utah.edu:HUGE/*, PLEASE FTP DURING NON-WORK HOURS!!!) and takes about
  35 megabytes of disk space to build.  It is useful for non-HP machines,
  but some of the added features will only work under HP-UX.
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  You will need to get patches to work with HP-UX 8.0 or on 700 series
  machines via e-mail from Darryl Okahata <darrylo@sr.hp.com>.
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36: Where can I get Emacs for my PC?
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  ** Demacs
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  For 386 or 486 PCs, there is a version of GNU Emacs called Demacs.  To get
  Demacs see question 21.
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  From the announcement message:
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    Demacs is almost a full set of GNU Emacs but does not support some
    features: asynchronous process, locking a file, etc.
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    Demacs provides following DOS specific features:
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      * File type: text or binary file translation.
      * "8bit clean" display mode.
      * 8086 software interrupt call by int86 lisp function.
      * Machine specific features such as function key support.
      * File name completion with drive name.
      * Child process (suspend-emacs, call-process).
      * Enhanced dired mode which can work without 'ls.exe'.
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    To our regret `shell-mode' does not work, but `compile' command works
    properly.
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  Demacs was developed using an MS-DOS version of gcc called djgpp by D. J.
  Delorie <dj@ctron.com> which can compile and run large programs under
  MS-DOS, but not under MS Windows.  Demacs was derived from Nemacs rather
  than straight from GNU Emacs.
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  There are a variety of other Emacses for MS-DOS including among them the
  following.
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  ** Freemacs
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  Russ Nelson <nelson@sun.soe.clarkson.edu>, the author, describes
  Freemacs:
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    * Freemacs is free, and it was designed from the start to be
      programmable.
    * Freemacs is the only IBM-PC editor that tries to be like GNU Emacs.
    * Freemacs can only edit files less than 64K in length.
    * Freemacs doesn't have undo.
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  Carl Witty <cwitty@cs.stanford.edu> describes Freemacs:
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    Better is Freemacs, which follows the tradition of ITS and GNU Emacs by
    having an full, turing-complete extension language which is incompatible
    with everything else.  In fact, it's even closer to ITS Emacs than GNU
    Emacs is, because Mint (Freemacs' extension language) is absolutely
    illegible without weeks of study, much like TECO.
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  To get Freemacs see question 21.
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  ** MicroEmacs
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  MicroEmacs is a descendant of Microemacs {originally by Dave Conroy?}.  It +
  is programmable in a BASIC-like language.  Many of the keybindings are     +
  different from GNU Emacs.  It is rumored that MicroEmacs can not correctly +
  edit files larger than memory.  The author is Daniel Lawrence              +
  <dan@mdbs.uucp, dan@midas.mgmt.purdue.edu, nwd@j.cc.purdue.edu>.  The      -
  latest version is 3.10 and it is available via anonymous FTP
  (midas.mgmt.purdue.edu (non-working hours only), durer.cme.nist.gov,
  wuarchive.wustl.edu:/mirrors/msdos/memacs/*).  Version 3.11 is in beta
  test.
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  ** JOVE
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  Another Emacs for small machines is JOVE (Jonathan's Own Version of
  Emacs).  The latest official version is 4.14.  There appears to be a newer
  version.  People rumored to be working on JOVE include Mark Moraes
  <moraes@cs.toronto.edu> and Bill Marsh <bmarsh@cod.nosc.mil>.  It is
  available via anonymous FTP (cs.rochester.edu:/pub/jove.tar.4.14.Z,
  cs.toronto.edu:/pub/moraes/jove4.14.3.tar.Z, ftp.uu.net:????).             +
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  ** MG
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  MG is another descendant of Microemacs.  MG used to stand for
  MicroGNUEmacs, but now just stands for MG.  The look-and-feel of MG is     +
  intended to be close to that of GNU Emacs.  It is rumored that MG can not  +
  correctly edit files larger than memory.  The current version is rumored   +
  to be 2.  There is a version 3 in beta which works on the Amiga.  It is
  also available via anonymous FTP (ftp.white.toronto.edu:pub/mg/*,
  wuarchive.wustl.edu: /mirrors/unix-c/editors/mg*, procyon.cis.ksu.edu
  (source and executable)).
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37: Where can I get Emacs for my Atari ST?
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  Anonymous FTP:
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    cs.uni-sb.de:/pub/atari/emacs/????????
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38: Where can I get Emacs for my Amiga?
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  All of the files are lharc-ed.
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  Anonymous FTP:
    oes.orst.edu:/pub/almanac/comp/amiga/software/gnuemacs-1.10/*
  
  Via e-mail:
    To: almanac@oes.orst.edu:
    body:
      mode uuencode
      send computer amiga software gnuemacs <file>
    <file> is replaced by one of the following:
      Required: d1.lzh d2.lzh
      Recommended: d3_info.lzh d3_infolisp.lzh
      Optional: d3_autoloaded.lzh d3_entertainmentetc.lzh
	d3_entertainmentlisp.lzh d4_src.lzh d5_languagelisp.lzh
	d5_viclone.lzh d6_gnulibsrc.lzh d6_mailpackage.lzh
	d6_mathpackage.lzh d6_misc.lzh d6_textformat.lzh
    The `d#' at the beginning of each file is its disk number, which is
    referred to by the documentation.
  
39: Where can I get Emacs for my Apple computer?
  
  The FSF is a participant in a boycott of Apple because of Apple's "look
  and feel" copyright suits.  See the file etc/APPLE for more details.
  Because of this boycott, the FSF doesn't include support in GNU software
  for Apple computers such as the Macintosh.
  
  Please don't help people port or develop software for Apple computers.
  
40: Where can I get Emacs with NeWS support?
  
  Chris Maio's NeWS support package for GNU Emacs is available via
  anonymous FTP (columbia.edu:pub/ps-emacs.tar.Z,                            -
  archive.cis.ohio-state.edu:pub/gnu/emacs/ps-emacs.tar.Z) and via e-mail    !
  (body: send NeWS emacs-support, To: archive-server@columbia.edu).          +
  
41: How do I get Emacs running on VMS under DECwindows?
  
  Hal R. Brand <BRAND@addvax.llnl.gov> is said to have a VMS save set with a
  ready-to-run VMS version of Emacs 18.55 for X Windows.  It is available
  via anonymous FTP (addvax.llnl.gov).  It is possible that the VMS versions +
  of Emacs at other sites have X support compiled in.  See etc/FTP for       +
  locations.                                                                 +
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  Johan Vromans <jv@mh.nl> writes:
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    Getting Emacs to run on VMS with DECwindows requires a number of changes
    to the sources. Fortunately this has been done already.  Joshua Marantz
    <josh@viewlogic.com> did most of the work for Emacs 18.52, and the mods
    were ported to 18.55 by Johan Vromans <jv@mh.nl>. Also included is the
    handling of DEC's LK201 keyboard.  You need to apply the changes to a
    fresh Emacs 18.55 distribution on a Unix system, and then you can copy
    the sources to VMS to perform the compile/link/build.
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    The set of changes have been posted a number of times three times the
    last 12 months, so they should be widely available.
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42: How do I use emacstool under SunView?
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  First read the man page for emacstool (etc/emacstool.1).  The file         !
  etc/SUN-SUPPORT includes further information.                              +
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43: How do I make Emacs display 8-bit characters?
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  There is a patch called the `8-bit ctl-arrow patch' that allows Emacs to
  display characters with codes from 128 to 255.  {It appears to be by
  Kenneth Cline <cline@proof.ergo.cs.cmu.edu>.}
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  Anonymous FTP:
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    cs.purdue.edu:pub/ygz/cemacs.tar.Z:cemacs/8bit-patch-18.57
    sics.se:archive/emacs-18.55-8bit-diff (new version not available)
    laas.laas.fr:pub/emacs/patch-8bit-18.5{5,7}
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  Via e-mail:                                                                +
    To: mail-server@sics.se
    body: send emacs-18.55-8bit-diff
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  Anders Edenbrandt <anderse@dna.lth.se> has produced a more comprehensive
  patch that allows for 8-bit input and output.
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  Anonymous FTP:
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    sics.se:archive/emacs-8bit-diff-lth
    gatekeeper.dec.com:pub/GNU/DS-emacs-18.57-8bit-diff-lth
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  The most comprehensive patches for 8-bit output are by Howard Gayle for    -
  Emacs 18.55.  These patches allow displaying any arbitrary string for a
  given 8-bit character (except TAB and C-j).  Also supported is defining    +
  the sorting order and the uppercase and lowercase translations.  It is     +
  reported that the 8-bit character support in Emacs 19 is largely based on  +
  these patches.  Thomas Bellman <Bellman@lysator.liu.se> has updated these  !
  patches for Emacs 18.57.                                                   !
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  Anonymous FTP:
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