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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2000-09-17
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

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** Support for LynxOS has been added.

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** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.

** There are new configure options associated with the support for
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images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in `configure'
to list them.
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** There is a new configure option `--without-xim' that instructs
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Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.
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** There is a new configure option `--disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
support 64-bit executables.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.
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* Changes in Emacs 21.1

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* When your terminal can't display characters from some of the ISO
8859 character sets but can display Latin-1, you can display
more-or-less mnemonic sequences of ASCII/Latin-1 characters instead of
empty boxes (under a window system) or question marks (not under a
window system).  Customize the option `latin1-display' to turn this
on.

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** The new user-option `find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' can be
set to suppress warnings ``X and Y are the same file'' when visiting a
file that is already visited under a different name.

** The Strokes package has been updated.  If your Emacs has XPM
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support, you can use it for pictographic editing.  In Strokes mode,
use C-mouse-2 to compose a complex stoke and insert it into the
buffer.  You can encode or decode a strokes buffer with new commands
M-x strokes-encode-buffer and M-x strokes-decode-buffer.  There is a
new command M-x strokes-list-strokes.

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** New command M-x describe-character-set reads a character set name
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and displayes information about that.

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** When an error is signaled during the loading of the user's init
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file, Emacs now pops up the *Messages* buffer.

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** Polish and German translations of Emacs' reference card have been
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added.  They are named `pl-refcard.tex' and `de-refcard.tex'.
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Postscript files are included.

** A reference card for Dired has been added.  Its name is
`dired-ref.tex'.

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** The new variable `auto-mode-interpreter-regexp' contains a regular
expression matching interpreters, for file mode determination.

This regular expression is matched against the first line of a file to
determine the file's mode in `set-auto-mode' when Emacs can't deduce a
mode from the file's name.  If it matches, the file is assumed to be
interpreted by the interpreter matched by the second group of the
regular expression.  The mode is then determined as the mode
associated with that interpreter in `interpreter-mode-alist'.

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** C-down-mouse-3 is bound differently.  Now if the menu bar is not
displayed it pops up a menu containing the items which would be on the
menu bar.  If the menu bar is displayed, it pops up the major mode
menu or the Edit menu if there is no major mode menu.

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** Variable `load-path' is no longer customizable because it contains
a version-dependent component.

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** The <delete> function key is now bound to `delete-char' by default.
Note that this takes effect only on window systems.  On TTYs, Emacs
will receive ASCII 127 when the DEL key is pressed.  This
character is still bound as before.

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** Item Save Options on the Options menu allows saving options set
using that menu.

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** New function executable-make-buffer-file-executable-if-script-p is
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suitable as an after-save-hook as an alternative to `executable-chmod'.
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** The most preferred coding-system is now used to save a buffer if
buffer-file-coding-system is `undecided' and it is safe for the buffer
contents.  (The most preferred is set by set-language-environment or
by M-x prefer-coding-system.)  Thus if you visit an ASCII file and
insert a non-ASCII character from your current language environment,
the file will be saved silently with the appropriate coding.
Previously you would be prompted for a safe coding system.

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** New variable `inhibit-iso-escape-detection' determines if Emacs'
coding system detection algorithm should pay attention to ISO2022's
escape sequences.  If this variable is non-nil, the algorithm ignores
such escape sequences.  The default value is nil, and it is
recommended not to change it except for the special case that you
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always want to read any escape code verbatim.  If you just want to
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read a specific file without decoding escape codes, use C-x RET c
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(`universal-coding-system-argument').  For instance, C-x RET c latin-1
RET C-x C-f filename RET.
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** Variable `default-korean-keyboard' is initialized properly from the
environment variable `HANGUL_KEYBOARD_TYPE'.

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** C-u C-x = provides detailed information about the character at
point in a pop-up window.

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** New command M-x list-charset-chars reads a character set name and
displays all characters in that character set.

** M-x set-terminal-coding-system (C-x RET t) now allows CCL-based
coding systems such as cpXXX and cyrillic-koi8.

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** M-; now calls comment-dwim which tries to do something clever based
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on the context.  M-x kill-comment is now an alias to comment-kill,
defined on newcomment.el.
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** The function `getenv' is now callable interactively.

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** The many obsolete language `setup-...-environment' commands have
been removed -- use `set-language-environment'.

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** New user options `display-time-mail-face' and
`display-time-use-mail-icon' control the appearance of mode-line mail
indicator used by the display-time package.  On a suitable display the
indicator can be an icon and is mouse-sensitive.

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** Emacs' auto-save list files are now by default stored in a
sub-directory `.emacs.d/auto-save-list/' of the user's home directory.
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(On MS-DOS, this subdirectory's name is `_emacs.d/auto-save.list/'.)
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You can customize `auto-save-list-prefix' to change this location.

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** On window-systems, additional space can be put between text lines
on the display using several methods

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- By setting frame parameter `line-spacing' to PIXELS.  PIXELS must be
a positive integer, and specifies that PIXELS number of pixels should
be put below text lines on the affected frame or frames.

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- By setting X resource `lineSpacing', class `LineSpacing'.  This is
equivalent ot specifying the frame parameter.

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- By specifying `--line-spacing=N' or `-lsp N' on the command line.
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- By setting buffer-local variable `line-spacing'.  The meaning is
the same, but applies to the a particular buffer only.

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** The new command `clone-indirect-buffer' can be used to create
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an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current buffer.  The
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command `clone-indirect-buffer-other-window', bound to C-x 4 c,
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does the same but displays the indirect buffer in another window.
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** New user options `backup-directory-alist' and
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`make-backup-file-name-function' control the placement of backups,
typically in a single directory or in an invisible sub-directory.
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** New commands iso-iso2sgml and iso-sgml2iso convert between Latin-1
characters and the corresponding SGML (HTML) entities.

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** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set `load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs' byte
compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

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** New X resources recognized
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*** The X resource `synchronous', class `Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.

Example:

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  emacs.synchronous: true
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*** The X resource `visualClass, class `VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form `CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are

  TrueColor
  PseudoColor
  DirectColor
  StaticColor
  GrayScale
  StaticGray

Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
`pseudocolor', `Pseudocolor' and `PseudoColor' all have the same
meaning.

The program `xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
`visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default
visual.

Example:

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  emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8
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*** The X resource `privateColormap', class `PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are `true' or `on'.

Example:

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  emacs.privateColormap: true
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** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

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** User-option `show-cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to
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display the cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is
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shown, if non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.  This option can
be customized.
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** The variable `echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.

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** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

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** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), `user-init-file' is set
to the source name (.emacs.el), if that exists, after loading it.

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** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
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the property `:help HELP' is now displayed under X, on MS-Windows, and
MS-DOS, either in the echo area or with tooltips.  Many standard menus
displayed by Emacs now have help strings.

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** Highlighting of mouse-sensitive regions is now supported in the
MS-DOS version of Emacs.
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** New user option `read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to
read mail from the menu etc.

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** Hexl contains a new command `hexl-insert-hex-string' which inserts
a string of hexadecimal numbers read from the mini-buffer.

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** Changes in Texinfo mode.

** A couple of new key bindings have been added for inserting Texinfo
macros

  Key binding	Macro
  -------------------------
  C-c C-c C-s	@strong
  C-c C-c C-e	@emph
  C-c C-c u	@url
  C-c C-c q     @quotation
  C-c C-c m	@email

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** Changes in Outline mode.

There is now support for Imenu to index headings.  A new command
`outline-headers-as-kill' copies the visible headings in the region to
the kill ring, e.g. to produce a table of contents.

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** Changes to Emacs Server 

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*** The new option `server-kill-new-buffers' specifies what to do
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with buffers when done with them.  If non-nil, the default, buffers
are killed, unless they were already present before visiting them with
Emacs Server.  If nil, `server-temp-file-regexp' specifies which
buffers to kill, as before.

Please note that only buffers are killed that still have a client,
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i.e. buffers visited with `emacsclient --no-wait' are never killed in
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this way.

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** Changes to Show Paren mode.

*** Overlays used by Show Paren mode now use a priority property.
The new user option show-paren-priority specifies the priority to
use.  Default is 1000.

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** New command M-x check-parens can be used to find unbalanced paren
groups and strings in buffers in Lisp mode (or other modes).

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** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either
M-x clone-buffer, C-u m <entry> RET or C-u g <entry> RET.
M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and several other special
buffers.
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** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, simply put (mwheel-install) in your
.emacs file.

The variables `mwheel-follow-mouse' and `mwheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

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** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing
`directory-abbrev-alist'.

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** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces `scroll-bar', `border', `cursor' and `mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters `scroll-bar-foreground' and
`scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
`scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter `border-color'
sets the background color of face `border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters `cursor-color' and face `cursor', and frame
parameter `mouse-color' and face `mouse'.

Changing frame parameter `font' sets font-related attributes of the
`default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
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`foreground-color' or `background-color' sets the colors of the
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`default' face and vice versa.

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** New face `menu'.

The face `menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.
Setting the font of LessTif/Motif menus is currently not supported;
attempts to set the font are ignored in this case.

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** New frame parameter `screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter `screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is `screenGamma', class
`ScreenGamma'.

** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** New default font is Courier 12pt.

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** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  When the window is selected, the cursor is solid;
otherwise, it is hollow.
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** Bitmap areas to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.  You
can change its appearance by modifying the face `modeline'.

** LessTif support.

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Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see <http://www.lesstif.org>).
You will need a version 0.88.1 or later.
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** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scrollbars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scrollbar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring
Emacs.

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
image configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Toggle buttons and radio buttons in menus.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
widgets for radio and toggle buttons in menus.  When configured for
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

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** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face `trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the
whitespace.

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** Busy-cursor.

Emacs can optionally display a busy-cursor under X.  You can turn the
display on or off by customizing group `cursor'.

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** Blinking cursor

M-x blink-cursor-mode toggles a blinking cursor under X and on
terminals having terminal capabilities `vi', `vs', and `ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group `cursor'.

** New font-lock support mode `jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to `lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function `jit-lock-mode' for more
details.

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

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*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

	emacs.pane.menubar.margin: 5

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The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the
LessTif/Motif one.
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*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, as in
LessTif and Motif.
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** Hscrolling in C code.

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Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
`automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be
customized.
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** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level changes.
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Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is displayed.
To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
for specific modes (with copyright assignments).
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** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

Different parts of the mode line under X have been made
mouse-sensitive.  Moving the mouse to a mouse-sensitive part in the mode
line changes the appearance of the mouse pointer to an arrow, and help
about available mouse actions is displayed either in the echo area, or
in the tooltip window if you have enabled one.

Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line switches between two
buffers.

- Mouse-2 on the buffer-name switches to the next buffer, and
M-mouse-2 switches to the previous buffer in the buffer list.

- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name displays a buffer menu.

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- Mouse-2 on the read-only or modified status in the mode line (`%' or
`*') toggles the status.
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- Mouse-3 on the mode name display a minor-mode menu.

** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
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from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is
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non-nil.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
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attributes such as `overline', `strike-through', and `box' are ignored
on terminals.
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** Sound support

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Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
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driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
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supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
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** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

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** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
`x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

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** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi).

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in `default-indicate-empty-lines'.

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** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-up-aggessively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.
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When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-down-aggessively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.
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** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

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There is a new command M-x replace-rectangle.

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** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

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** M-x query-replace recognizes a new command `e' (or `E') that lets
you edit the replacement string.
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** The new command mail-abbrev-complete-alias, bound to `M-TAB', lets
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you complete mail aliases in the text, analogous to
lisp-complete-symbol.

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** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

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If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs now resizes the minibuffer window unless
it is on a frame of its own.  You can control the maximum minibuffer
window size by setting the following variable:
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- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.  If nil, don't resize.

Default is 0.25.

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** The command `Info-search' now uses a search history.

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** Changes to hideshow.el

Hideshow is now at version 5.x.  It uses a new algorithms for block
selection and traversal and includes more isearch support.

*** Generalized block selection and traversal

A block is now recognized by three things: its start and end regexps
(both strings), and a match-data selector (an integer) specifying
which sub-expression in the start regexp serves as the place where a
`forward-sexp'-like function can operate.  Hideshow always adjusts
point to this sub-expression before calling `hs-forward-sexp-func'
(which for most modes evaluates to `forward-sexp').

If the match-data selector is not specified, it defaults to zero,
i.e., the entire start regexp is valid, w/ no prefix.  This is
backwards compatible with previous versions of hideshow.  Please see
the docstring for variable `hs-special-modes-alist' for details.

*** Isearch support for updating mode line

During incremental search, if Hideshow minor mode is active, hidden
blocks are temporarily shown.  The variable `hs-headline' records the
line at the beginning of the opened block (preceding the hidden
portion of the buffer), and the mode line is refreshed.  When a block
is re-hidden, the variable is set to nil.

To show `hs-headline' in the mode line, you may wish to include
something like this in your .emacs.

	(add-hook 'hs-minor-mode-hook
	  (lambda ()
	    (add-to-list 'mode-line-format 'hs-headline)))

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** Changes to Change Log mode and Add-Log functions

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If you invoke `add-change-log-entry' from a backup file, it makes an
entry appropriate for the file's parent.  This is useful for making
log entries by comparing a version with deleted functions.

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New command M-x change-log-merge merges another log into the current
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buffer.

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New command M-x change-log-redate fixes any old-style date entries in
a log file.
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Change Log mode now adds a file's version number to change log entries
if user-option `change-log-version-info-enabled' is non-nil.

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Unless the file is under version control the search for a file's
version number is performed based on regular expressions from
`change-log-version-number-regexp-list' which can be cutomized.
Version numbers are only found in the first 10 percent of a file.
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** Changes in Font Lock

*** The new function `font-lock-remove-keywords' can be used to remove
font-lock keywords from the current buffer or from a specific major
mode.

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** Comint (subshell) changes

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By default, comint no longer uses the variable `comint-prompt-regexp' to
distiguish prompts from user-input.  Instead, it notices which parts of
the text were output by the process, and which entered by the user, and
attaches `field' properties to allow emacs commands to use this information.
Common movement commands, notably beginning-of-line, respect field
boundaries in a fairly natural manner.
To disable this feature, and use the old behavior, set the variable
`comint-use-prompt-regexp-instead-of-fields' to a non-nil value.

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Comint now includes new features to send commands to running processes
and redirect the output to a designated buffer or buffers.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command reads a command and
buffer name from the mini-buffer.  The command is sent to the current
buffer's process, and its output is inserted into the specified buffer.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command-to-process acts like
M-x comint-redirect-send-command but additionally reads the name of
the buffer whose process should be used from the mini-buffer.

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Packages based on comint.el like shell-mode, and scheme-interaction-mode
now highlight user input and program prompts, and support choosing
previous input with mouse-2.  To control these feature, see the
user-options `comint-highlight-input' and `comint-highlight-prompt'.
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** Changes to Rmail mode

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*** The new user-option rmail-rmail-user-mail-address-regexp can be
set to fine tune the identification of of the correspondent when
receiving new mail.  If it matches the address of the sender, the
recipient is taken as correspondent of a mail.  If nil, the default,
`user-login-name' and `user-mail-address' are used to exclude yourself
as correspondent.

Usually you don't have to set this variable, except if you collect
mails sent by you under different user names.  Then it should be a
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regexp matching your mail addresses.
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*** The new user-option rmail-confirm-expunge controls whether and how
to ask for confirmation before expunging deleted messages from an
Rmail file.  You can choose between no confirmation, confirmation
with y-or-n-p, or confirmation with yes-or-no-p.  Default is to ask
for confirmation with yes-or-no-p.

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*** RET is now bound in the Rmail summary to rmail-summary-goto-msg,
like `j'.

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*** There is a new user option `rmail-digest-end-regexps' that
specifies the regular expressions to detect the line that ends a
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digest message.
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*** The new user option `rmail-automatic-folder-directives' specifies
in which folder to put messages automatically.

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** Changes to TeX mode

The default mode has been changed from `plain-tex-mode' to
`latex-mode'.

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** Changes to RefTeX mode

*** RefTeX has new support for index generation.  Index entries can be
    created with `C-c <', with completion available on index keys.
    Pressing `C-c /' indexes the word at the cursor with a default
    macro.  `C-c >' compiles all index entries into an alphabetically
    sorted *Index* buffer which looks like the final index.  Entries
    can be edited from that buffer.

*** Label and citation key selection now allow to select several
    items and reference them together (use `m' to mark items, `a' or
    `A' to use all marked entries).

*** reftex.el has been split into a number of smaller files to reduce
    memory use when only a part of RefTeX is being used.

*** a new command `reftex-view-crossref-from-bibtex' (bound to `C-c &'
    in BibTeX-mode) can be called in a BibTeX database buffer in order
    to show locations in LaTeX documents where a particular entry has
    been cited.

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** Emacs Lisp mode now allows multiple levels of outline headings.
The level of a heading is determined from the number of leading
semicolons in a heading line.  Toplevel forms starting with a `('
in column 1 are always made leaves.

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** The M-x time-stamp command (most commonly used on write-file-hooks)
has the following new features:

*** The patterns for finding the time stamp and for updating a pattern
may match text spanning multiple lines.  For example, some people like
to have the filename and date on separate lines.  The new variable
time-stamp-inserts-lines controls the matching for multi-line patterns.

*** More than one time stamp can be updated in the same file.  This
feature is useful if you need separate time stamps in a program source
file to both include in formatted documentation and insert in the
compiled binary.  The same time-stamp will be written at each matching
pattern.  The variable time-stamp-count enables this new feature; it
defaults to 1.

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** Partial Completion mode now completes environment variables in
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file names.

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** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  To use them, use the Lisp package `tooltip' which you
can access via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

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** Customize changes

*** Customize now supports comments about customized items.  Use the
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`State' menu to add comments.  Note that customization comments will
cause the customizations to fail in earlier versions of Emacs.
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*** The new option `custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the
default).

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*** The keyword :set-after in defcustom allows to specify dependencies
between custom options.  Example:

  (defcustom default-input-method nil
    "*Default input method for multilingual text (a string).
  This is the input method activated automatically by the command
  `toggle-input-method' (\\[toggle-input-method])."
    :group 'mule
    :type '(choice (const nil) string)
    :set-after '(current-language-environment))

This specifies that default-input-method should be set after
current-language-environment even if default-input-method appears
first in a custom-set-variables statement.

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** New features in evaluation commands

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*** The commands to evaluate Lisp expressions, such as C-M-x in Lisp
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modes, C-j in Lisp Interaction mode, and M-:, now bind the variables
print-level, print-length, and debug-on-error based on the
customizable variables eval-expression-print-level,
eval-expression-print-length, and eval-expression-debug-on-error.

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*** The function `eval-defun' (M-C-x) now loads Edebug and instruments
code when called with a prefix argument.

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** Ispell changes

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*** The command `ispell' now spell-checks a region if
transient-mark-mode is on, and the mark is active.  Otherwise it
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spell-checks the current buffer.

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*** Support for synchronous subprocesses - DOS/Windoze - has been
added.

*** An "alignment error" bug was fixed when a manual spelling
correction is made and re-checked.

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*** An Italian and a Portuguese dictionary definition has been added.
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*** Region skipping performance has been vastly improved in some
cases.

*** Spell checking HTML buffers has been improved and isn't so strict
on syntax errors.

*** The buffer-local words are now always placed on a new line at the
end of the buffer.

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** Dired changes

*** New variable `dired-recursive-deletes' determines if the delete
command will delete non-empty directories recursively.  The default
is, delete only empty directories.

*** New variable `dired-recursive-copies' determines if the copy
command will copy directories recursively.  The default is, do not
copy directories recursively.

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*** In command `dired-do-shell-command' (usually bound to `!') a `?'
in the shell command has a special meaning similar to `*', but with
the difference that the command will be run on each file individually.

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*** The new command `dired-find-alternate-file' (usually bound to `a')
replaces the Dired buffer with the buffer for an alternate file or
directory.

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*** The new command `dired-show-file-type' (usually bound to `w') shows
a message in the echo area describing what type of file the point is on.
This command invokes the external program `file' do its work, and so
will only work on systems with that program, and will be only as
accurate or inaccurate as it is.

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*** Dired now properly handles undo changes of adding/removing `-R'
from ls switches.

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** The variable mail-specify-envelope-from controls whether to
use the -f option when sending mail.

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** CC mode changes.

Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback.  Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this
release.

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*** c-style-variables-are-local-p now defaults to t.
This is an incompatible change that has been made to make the behavior
of the style system wrt global variable settings less confusing for
non-advanced users.  If you know what this variable does you might
want to set it to nil in your .emacs, otherwise you probably don't
have to bother.

Defaulting c-style-variables-are-local-p to t avoids the confusing
situation that occurs when a user sets some style variables globally
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and edits both a Java and a non-Java file in the same Emacs session.
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If the style variables aren't buffer local in this case, loading of
the second file will cause the default style (either "gnu" or "java"
by default) to override the global settings made by the user.

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*** New initialization procedure for the style system.
When the initial style for a buffer is determined by CC Mode (from the
variable c-default-style), the global values of style variables now
take precedence over the values specified by the chosen style.  This
is different than the old behavior: previously, the style-specific
settings would override the global settings.  This change makes it
possible to do simple configuration in the intuitive way with
Customize or with setq lines in one's .emacs file.

By default, the global value of every style variable is the new
special symbol set-from-style, which causes the value to be taken from
the style system.  This means that in effect, only an explicit setting
of a style variable will cause the "overriding" behavior described
above.

Also note that global settings override style-specific settings *only*
when the initial style of a buffer is chosen by a CC Mode major mode
function.  When a style is chosen in other ways --- for example, by a
call like (c-set-style "gnu") in a hook, or via M-x c-set-style ---
then the style-specific values take precedence over any global style
values.  In Lisp terms, global values override style-specific values
only when the new second argument to c-set-style is non-nil; see the
function documentation for more info.

The purpose of these changes is to make it easier for users,
especially novice users, to do simple customizations with Customize or
with setq in their .emacs files.  On the other hand, the new system is
intended to be compatible with advanced users' customizations as well,
such as those that choose styles in hooks or whatnot.  This new system
is believed to be almost entirely compatible with current
configurations, in spite of the changed precedence between style and
global variable settings when a buffer's default style is set.

(Thanks to Eric Eide for clarifying this explanation a bit.)

**** c-offsets-alist is now a customizable variable.
This became possible as a result of the new initialization behavior.

This variable is treated slightly differently from the other style
variables; instead of using the symbol set-from-style, it will be
completed with the syntactic symbols it doesn't already contain when
the style is first initialized.  This means it now defaults to the
empty list to make all syntactic elements get their values from the
style system.

**** Compatibility variable to restore the old behavior.
In case your configuration doesn't work with this change, you can set
c-old-style-variable-behavior to non-nil to get the old behavior back
as far as possible.

*** Improvements to line breaking and text filling.
CC Mode now handles this more intelligently and seamlessly wrt the
surrounding code, especially inside comments.  For details see the new
chapter about this in the manual.

**** New variable to recognize comment line prefix decorations.
The variable c-comment-prefix-regexp has been added to properly
recognize the line prefix in both block and line comments.  It's
primarily used to initialize the various paragraph recognition and
adaptive filling variables that the text handling functions uses.

**** New variable c-block-comment-prefix.
This is a generalization of the now obsolete variable
c-comment-continuation-stars to handle arbitrary strings.

**** CC Mode now uses adaptive fill mode.
This to make it adapt better to the paragraph style inside comments.

It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages inside CC
Mode, notably Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt mode (http://wonderworks.com/).
A new convenience function c-setup-filladapt sets up Filladapt for use
inside CC Mode.

Note though that the 2.12 version of Filladapt lacks a feature that
causes it to work suboptimally when c-comment-prefix-regexp can match
the empty string (which it commonly does).  A patch for that is
available from the CC Mode web site (http://www.python.org/emacs/
cc-mode/).

**** It's now possible to selectively turn off auto filling.
The variable c-ignore-auto-fill is used to ignore auto fill mode in
specific contexts, e.g. in preprocessor directives and in string
literals.

**** New context sensitive line break function c-context-line-break.
It works like newline-and-indent in normal code, and adapts the line
prefix according to the comment style when used inside comments.  If
you're normally using newline-and-indent, you might want to switch to
this function.

*** Fixes to IDL mode.
It now does a better job in recognizing only the constructs relevant
to IDL.  E.g. it no longer matches "class" as the beginning of a
struct block, but it does match the CORBA 2.3 "valuetype" keyword.
Thanks to Eric Eide.

*** Improvements to the Whitesmith style.
It now keeps the style consistently on all levels and both when
opening braces hangs and when they don't.

**** New lineup function c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block.

*** New lineup functions c-lineup-template-args and c-indent-multi-line-block.
See their docstrings for details.  c-lineup-template-args does a
better job of tracking the brackets used as parens in C++ templates,
and is used by default to line up continued template arguments.

*** c-lineup-comment now preserves alignment with a comment on the
previous line.  It used to instead preserve comments that started in
the column specified by comment-column.

*** c-lineup-C-comments handles "free form" text comments.
In comments with a long delimiter line at the start, the indentation
is kept unchanged for lines that start with an empty comment line
prefix.  This is intended for the type of large block comments that
contain documentation with its own formatting.  In these you normally
don't want CC Mode to change the indentation.

*** The `c' syntactic symbol is now relative to the comment start
instead of the previous line, to make integers usable as lineup
arguments.

*** All lineup functions have gotten docstrings.

*** More preprocessor directive movement functions.
c-down-conditional does the reverse of c-up-conditional.
c-up-conditional-with-else and c-down-conditional-with-else are
variants of these that also stops at "#else" lines (suggested by Don
Provan).

*** Minor improvements to many movement functions in tricky situations.

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** Makefile mode changes

*** The mode now uses the abbrev table `makefile-mode-abbrev-table'.

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*** Conditionals and include statements are now highlighted when
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Fontlock mode is active.

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** Isearch changes

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*** Isearch now puts a call to `isearch-resume' in the command history,
so that searches can be resumed.

*** In Isearch mode, M-C-s and M-C-r are now bound like C-s and C-r,
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respectively, i.e. you can repeat a regexp isearch with the same keys
that started the search.

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*** In Isearch mode, mouse-2 in the echo area now yanks the current
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selection into the search string rather than giving an error.

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*** There is a new lazy highlighting feature in incremental search.

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Lazy highlighting is switched on/off by customizing variable
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`isearch-lazy-highlight'.  When active, all matches for the current
search string are highlighted.  The current match is highlighted as
before using face `isearch' or `region'.  All other matches are
highlighted using face `isearch-lazy-highlight-face' which defaults to
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`secondary-selection'.
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The extra highlighting makes it easier to anticipate where the cursor
will end up each time you press C-s or C-r to repeat a pending search.
Highlighting of these additional matches happens in a deferred fashion
using "idle timers," so the cycles needed do not rob isearch of its
usual snappy response.

If `isearch-lazy-highlight-cleanup' is set to t, highlights for
matches are automatically cleared when you end the search.  If it is
set to nil, you can remove the highlights manually with `M-x
isearch-lazy-highlight-cleanup'.

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** Changes in sort.el

The function sort-numeric-fields interprets numbers starting with `0'
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as octal and numbers starting with `0x' or `0X' as hexadecimal.  The
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new user-option sort-numeric-base can be used to specify a default
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numeric base.
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** Changes to Ange-ftp

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*** Ange-ftp allows you to specify of a port number in remote file
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names cleanly.  It is appended to the host name, separated by a hash
sign, e.g. `/foo@bar.org#666:mumble'.  (This syntax comes from EFS.)

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*** If the new user-option `ange-ftp-try-passive-mode' is set, passive
ftp mode will be used if the ftp client supports that.

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*** Ange-ftp handles the output of the w32-style clients which
output ^M at the end of lines.

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** Shell script mode changes.

Shell script mode (sh-script) can now indent scripts for shells
derived from sh and rc.  The indentation style is customizeable, and
sh-script can attempt to "learn" the current buffer's style.

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** Etags changes.

*** In DOS, etags looks for file.cgz if it cannot find file.c.

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possible to bind a regexp to a language, by prepending the regexp with
{lang}, where lang is one of the languages that `etags --help' prints out.
This feature is useful especially for regex files, where each line contains
a regular expression.  The manual contains details.
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*** In C and derived languages, etags creates tags for function
declarations when given the --declarations option.

*** In C++, tags are created for "operator".  The tags have the form
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"operator+", without spaces between the keyword and the operator.
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*** New language Ada: tags are functions, procedures, packages, tasks, and
types.

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*** In Fortran, `procedure' is not tagged.
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*** In Java, tags are created for "interface".

*** In Lisp, "(defstruct (foo", "(defun (operator" and similar constructs
are now tagged.

*** In Perl, the --globals option tags global variables.  my and local
variables are tagged.

*** New language Python: def and class at the beginning of a line are tags.

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*** .ss files are Scheme files, .pdb is Postscript with C syntax, .psw is
for PSWrap.
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** Changes in etags.el

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*** The new user-option tags-case-fold-search can be used to make
tags operations case-sensitive or case-insensitive.  The default
is to use the same setting as case-fold-search.

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*** You can display additional output with M-x tags-apropos by setting
the new variable tags-apropos-additional-actions.

If non-nil, the variable's value should be a list of triples (TITLE
FUNCTION TO-SEARCH).  For each triple, M-x tags-apropos processes
TO-SEARCH and lists tags from it.  TO-SEARCH should be an alist,
obarray, or symbol.  If it is a symbol, the symbol's value is used.

TITLE is a string to use to label the list of tags from TO-SEARCH.

FUNCTION is a function to call when an entry is selected in the Tags
List buffer.  It is called with one argument, the selected symbol.

A useful example value for this variable might be something like:

  '(("Emacs Lisp" Info-goto-emacs-command-node obarray)
    ("Common Lisp" common-lisp-hyperspec common-lisp-hyperspec-obarray)
    ("SCWM" scwm-documentation scwm-obarray))

*** The face tags-tag-face can be used to customize the appearance
of tags in the output of M-x tags-apropos.

*** Setting tags-apropos-verbose to a non-nil value displays the
names of tags files in the *Tags List* buffer.

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** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.

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** New language environments `Polish', `Latin-8' and `Latin-9'.
Latin-8 and Latin-9 correspond respectively to the ISO character sets
8859-14 (Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign).
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GNU Intlfonts doesn't support these yet; there are basic 8859-14 and
8859-15 fonts at <URL:http://czyborra.com/charsets/> and recent X
releases have 8859-15.  There are new Latin-8 and Latin-9 prefix
(only) and Polish slash input methods in Leim.
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** Fortran mode has a new command `fortran-strip-sequence-nos' to
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remove text past column 72.  The syntax class of `\' in Fortran is now
appropriate for C-style escape sequences in strings.

** SGML mode's default `sgml-validate-command' is now `nsgmls'.

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** A new command `view-emacs-problems' (C-h P) displays the PROBLEMS file.

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** The Dabbrev package has a new user-option `dabbrev-ignored-regexps'
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containing a list of regular expressions.  Buffers matching a regular
expression from that list, are not checked.

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** Emacs can now figure out modification times of remote files.
When you do C-x C-f /user@host:/path/file RET and edit the file,
and someone else modifies the file, you will be prompted to revert
the buffer, just like for the local files.

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** The buffer menu (C-x C-b) no longer lists the *Buffer List* buffer.

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** When invoked with a prefix argument, the command `list-abbrevs' now
displays local abbrevs, only.

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** VC Changes

VC has been overhauled internally.  It is now modular, making it
easier to plug-in arbitrary version control backends.  (See Lisp
Changes for details on the new structure.)  As a result, the mechanism
to enable and disable support for particular version systems has
changed: everything is now controlled by the new variable
`vc-handled-backends'.  Its value is a list of atoms that identify
version systems; the default is '(RCS CVS SCCS).  When finding a file,
each of the backends in that list is tried in order to see whether the
file is registered in that backend.

When registering a new file, VC first tries each of the listed
backends to see if any of them considers itself "responsible" for the
directory of the file (e.g. because a corresponding subdirectory for
master files exists).  If none of the backends is responsible, then
the first backend in the list that could register the file is chosen.
As a consequence, the variable `vc-default-back-end' is now obsolete.

The old variable `vc-master-templates' is also obsolete, although VC
still supports it for backward compatibility.  To define templates for
RCS or SCCS, you should rather use the new variables
vc-{rcs,sccs}-master-templates.  (There is no such feature under CVS
where it doesn't make sense.)

The variables `vc-ignore-vc-files' and `vc-handle-cvs' are also
obsolete now, you must set `vc-handled-backends' to nil or exclude
`CVS' from the list, respectively, to achieve their effect now.

*** General Changes

The variable `vc-checkout-carefully' is obsolete: the corresponding
checks are always done now.

VC Dired buffers are now kept up-to-date during all version control 
operations.

*** Changes for CVS

There is a new user option, `vc-cvs-stay-local'.  If it is `t' (the
default), then VC avoids network queries for files registered in
remote repositories.  The state of such files is then only determined
by heuristics and past information.  `vc-cvs-stay-local' can also be a
regexp to match against repository hostnames; only files from hosts
that match it are treated locally.  If the variable is nil, then VC
queries the repository just as often as it does for local files.

If `vc-cvs-stay-local' is on, and there have been changes in the
repository, VC notifies you about it when you actually try to commit.
If you want to check for updates from the repository without trying to
commit, you can either use C-u C-x v m to perform an update on the
current file, or you can use C-x v r RET to get an update for an
entire directory tree.

The new user option `vc-cvs-use-edit' indicates whether VC should call
"cvs edit" to make files writeable; it defaults to `t'.  (This option
is only meaningful if the CVSREAD variable is set, or if files are
"watched" by other developers.)

*** Lisp Changes in VC

VC has been restructured internally to make it modular.  You can now
add support for arbitrary version control backends by writing a
library that provides a certain set of backend-specific functions, and
then telling VC to use that library.  For example, to add support for
a version system named FOO, you write a library named vc-foo.el, which
provides a number of functions vc-foo-... (see commentary at the end
of vc.el for a detailed list of them).  To make VC use that library,
you need to put it somewhere into Emacs' load path and add the atom
`FOO' to the list `vc-handled-backends'.

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** New modes and packages

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*** The new package timeclock.el is a mode is for keeping track of time
intervals.  You can use it for whatever purpose you like, but the
typical scenario is to keep track of how much time you spend working
on certain projects.

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*** The new package hi-lock.el, text matching interactively entered
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regexp's can be highlighted.  For example,
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  M-x highlight-regexp RET clearly RET RET
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will highlight all occurrences of `clearly' using a yellow background
face.  New occurrences of `clearly' will be highlighted as they are
typed.  `M-x unhighlight-regexp RET' will remove the highlighting.
Any existing face can be used for highlighting and a set of
appropriate faces is provided.  The regexps can be written into the
current buffer in a form that will be recognized the next time the
corresponding file is read.

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*** The new package zone.el plays games with Emacs' display when
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Emacs is idle.

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*** The new package xml.el provides a simple but generic XML
parser. It doesn't parse the DTDs however.

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*** The comment operations are now provided by the newcomment.el
package which allows different styles of comment-region and should
be more robust while offering the same functionality.

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*** The Ebrowse package implements a C++ class browser and tags
facilities tailored for use with C++.  It is documented in a
separate Texinfo file.

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*** The PCL-CVS package available by either running M-x cvs-examine or
by visiting a CVS administrative directory (with a prefix argument)
provides an alternative interface to VC-dired for CVS.  It comes with
`log-view-mode' to view RCS and SCCS logs and `log-edit-mode' used to
enter checkin log messages.
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*** The new package called `woman' allows to browse Unix man pages
without invoking external programs.

The command `M-x woman' formats manual pages entirely in Emacs Lisp
and then displays them, like `M-x manual-entry' does.  Unlike
`manual-entry', `woman' does not invoke any external programs, so it
is useful on systems such as MS-DOS/MS-Windows where the `man' and
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Groff or `troff' commands are not readily available.
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The command `M-x woman-find-file' asks for the file name of a man
page, then formats and displays it like `M-x woman' does.

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*** The new command M-x re-builder offers a convenient interface for
authoring regular expressions with immediate visual feedback.

The buffer from which the command was called becomes the target for
the regexp editor popping up in a separate window.  Matching text in
the target buffer is immediately color marked during the editing.
Each sub-expression of the regexp will show up in a different face so
even complex regexps can be edited and verified on target data in a
single step.

On displays not supporting faces the matches instead blink like
matching parens to make them stand out.  On such a setup you will
probably also want to use the sub-expression mode when the regexp
contains such to get feedback about their respective limits.

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*** glasses-mode is a minor mode that makes
unreadableIdentifiersLikeThis readable.  It works as glasses, without
actually modifying content of a buffer.

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*** The package ebnf2ps translates an EBNF to a syntactic chart in
PostScript.

Currently accepts ad-hoc EBNF, ISO EBNF and Bison/Yacc.

The ad-hoc default EBNF syntax has the following elements:

    ;		comment (until end of line)
    A		non-terminal
    "C"		terminal
    ?C?		special
    $A		default non-terminal
    $"C"	default terminal
    $?C?	default special
    A = B.	production (A is the header and B the body)
    C D		sequence (C occurs before D)
    C | D	alternative (C or D occurs)
    A - B	exception (A excluding B, B without any non-terminal)
    n * A	repetition (A repeats n (integer) times)
    (C)		group (expression C is grouped together)
    [C]		optional (C may or not occurs)
    C+		one or more occurrences of C
    {C}+	one or more occurrences of C
    {C}*	zero or more occurrences of C
    {C}		zero or more occurrences of C
    C / D	equivalent to: C {D C}*
    {C || D}+	equivalent to: C {D C}*
    {C || D}*	equivalent to: [C {D C}*]
    {C || D}	equivalent to: [C {D C}*]

Please, see ebnf2ps documentation for EBNF syntax and how to use it.