glossary.texi 57.5 KB
Newer Older
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1
@c This is part of the Emacs manual.
2
@c Copyright (C) 1985-1987, 1993-1995, 1997, 2001-2014 Free Software
3
@c Foundation, Inc.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
4
@c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions.
5
@node Glossary
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
6
@unnumbered Glossary
7
@cindex glossary
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
8 9

@table @asis
10
@anchor{Glossary---Abbrev}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
11
@item Abbrev
12
An abbrev is a text string that expands into a different text string
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
13 14 15 16 17
when present in the buffer.  For example, you might define a few letters
as an abbrev for a long phrase that you want to insert frequently.
@xref{Abbrevs}.

@item Aborting
18
Aborting means getting out of a recursive edit (q.v.).  The
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
19 20 21
commands @kbd{C-]} and @kbd{M-x top-level} are used for this.
@xref{Quitting}.

22
@item Active Region
23
Setting the mark (q.v.@:) at a position in the text also activates it.
24 25
When the mark is active, we call the region an active region.
@xref{Mark}.
26

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
27
@item Alt
28
Alt is the name of a modifier bit that a keyboard input character may
29 30
have.  To make a character Alt, type it while holding down the @key{Alt}
key.  Such characters are given names that start with @kbd{@key{Alt}-}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
31
(usually written @kbd{A-} for short).  (Note that many terminals have a
32
key labeled @key{Alt} that is really a @key{META} key.)  @xref{User
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
33 34 35
Input, Alt}.

@item Argument
36
@xref{Glossary---Numeric Argument}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
37 38

@item @acronym{ASCII} character
39 40
An @acronym{ASCII} character is either an @acronym{ASCII} control
character or an @acronym{ASCII} printing character.  @xref{User Input}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
41 42 43 44 45 46

@item @acronym{ASCII} control character
An @acronym{ASCII} control character is the Control version of an upper-case
letter, or the Control version of one of the characters @samp{@@[\]^_?}.

@item @acronym{ASCII} printing character
47 48
@acronym{ASCII} letters, digits, space, and the following punctuation
characters: @samp{!@@#$%^&*()_-+=|\~`@{@}[]:;"'<>,.?/}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
49 50

@item Auto Fill Mode
51
Auto Fill mode is a minor mode (q.v.@:) in which text that you insert is
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
52 53 54 55
automatically broken into lines of a given maximum width.
@xref{Filling}.

@item Auto Saving
56 57 58 59
Auto saving is the practice of periodically saving the contents of an
Emacs buffer in a specially-named file, so that the information will
be preserved if the buffer is lost due to a system error or user error.
@xref{Auto Save}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
60 61

@item Autoloading
62
Emacs can automatically load Lisp libraries when a Lisp program requests a
63
function from those libraries.  This is called `autoloading'.
64
@xref{Lisp Libraries}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
65 66 67

@item Backtrace
A backtrace is a trace of a series of function calls showing how a
68
program arrived at a certain point.  It is used mainly for finding and
69
correcting bugs (q.v.).  Emacs can display a backtrace when it signals
70
an error or when you type @kbd{C-g} (@pxref{Glossary---Quitting}).
71
@xref{Checklist}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82

@item Backup File
A backup file records the contents that a file had before the current
editing session.  Emacs makes backup files automatically to help you
track down or cancel changes you later regret making.  @xref{Backup}.

@item Balancing Parentheses
Emacs can balance parentheses (or other matching delimiters) either
manually or automatically.  You do manual balancing with the commands
to move over parenthetical groupings (@pxref{Moving by Parens}).
Automatic balancing works by blinking or highlighting the delimiter
83 84
that matches the one you just inserted, or inserting the matching
delimiter for you (@pxref{Matching,,Matching Parens}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
85

86
@anchor{Glossary---Balanced Expression}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
87 88 89
@item Balanced Expressions
A balanced expression is a syntactically recognizable expression, such
as a symbol, number, string constant, block, or parenthesized expression
90
in C@.  @xref{Expressions,Balanced Expressions}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
91 92

@item Balloon Help
93
@xref{Glossary---Tooltips}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
94 95 96

@item Base Buffer
A base buffer is a buffer whose text is shared by an indirect buffer
97
(q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
98

99 100 101 102 103 104
@item Bidirectional Text
Some human languages, such as English, are written from left to right.
Others, such as Arabic, are written from right to left.  Emacs
supports both of these forms, as well as any mixture of them---this
is `bidirectional text'.  @xref{Bidirectional Editing}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
105
@item Bind
106
To bind a key sequence means to give it a binding (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
107 108
@xref{Rebinding}.

109
@anchor{Glossary---Binding}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
110 111
@item Binding
A key sequence gets its meaning in Emacs by having a binding, which is a
112
command (q.v.), a Lisp function that is run when you type that
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
113 114
sequence.  @xref{Commands,Binding}.  Customization often involves
rebinding a character to a different command function.  The bindings of
115
all key sequences are recorded in the keymaps (q.v.).  @xref{Keymaps}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
116 117 118

@item Blank Lines
Blank lines are lines that contain only whitespace.  Emacs has several
119
commands for operating on the blank lines in the buffer.  @xref{Blank Lines}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
120 121 122 123

@item Bookmark
Bookmarks are akin to registers (q.v.@:) in that they record positions
in buffers to which you can return later.  Unlike registers, bookmarks
124
persist between Emacs sessions.  @xref{Bookmarks}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
125 126 127 128 129

@item Border
A border is a thin space along the edge of the frame, used just for
spacing, not for displaying anything.  An Emacs frame has an ordinary
external border, outside of everything including the menu bar, plus an
130 131 132
internal border that surrounds the text windows, their scroll bars
and fringes, and separates them from the menu bar and tool bar.  You
can customize both borders with options and resources (@pxref{Borders
133
X}).  Borders are not the same as fringes (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
134 135 136

@item Buffer
The buffer is the basic editing unit; one buffer corresponds to one text
137 138
being edited.  You normally have several buffers, but at any time you are
editing only one, the `current buffer', though several can be visible
139
when you are using multiple windows or frames (q.v.).  Most buffers
140
are visiting (q.v.@:) some file.  @xref{Buffers}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
141 142

@item Buffer Selection History
143
Emacs keeps a buffer selection history that records how recently each
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153
Emacs buffer has been selected.  This is used for choosing a buffer to
select.  @xref{Buffers}.

@item Bug
A bug is an incorrect or unreasonable behavior of a program, or
inaccurate or confusing documentation.  Emacs developers treat bug
reports, both in Emacs code and its documentation, very seriously and
ask you to report any bugs you find.  @xref{Bugs}.

@item Button Down Event
154 155
A button down event is the kind of input event (q.v.@:) generated
right away when you press down on a mouse button.  @xref{Mouse Buttons}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
156 157

@item By Default
158
@xref{Glossary---Default}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
159 160

@item Byte Compilation
161
@xref{Glossary---Compilation}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
162

163
@anchor{Glossary---C-}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
164 165 166 167 168 169
@item @kbd{C-}
@kbd{C-} in the name of a character is an abbreviation for Control.
@xref{User Input,C-}.

@item @kbd{C-M-}
@kbd{C-M-} in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
170 171 172
Control-Meta.  If your terminal lacks a real @key{META} key, you type
a Control-Meta character by typing @key{ESC} and then typing the
corresponding Control character.  @xref{User Input,C-M-}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
173 174 175

@item Case Conversion
Case conversion means changing text from upper case to lower case or
176
vice versa.  @xref{Case}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
177 178

@item Character
179 180 181
Characters form the contents of an Emacs buffer.  Also, key sequences
(q.v.@:) are usually made up of characters (though they may include
other input events as well).  @xref{User Input}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
182 183 184 185 186 187

@item Character Set
Emacs supports a number of character sets, each of which represents a
particular alphabet or script.  @xref{International}.

@item Character Terminal
188
@xref{Glossary---Text Terminal}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
189 190

@item Click Event
191 192 193
A click event is the kind of input event (q.v.@:) generated when you
press a mouse button and release it without moving the mouse.
@xref{Mouse Buttons}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
194

195
@item Client
196
@xref{Glossary---Server}.
197

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
198 199
@item Clipboard
A clipboard is a buffer provided by the window system for transferring
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
200
text between applications.  On the X Window System, the clipboard is
201
provided in addition to the primary selection (q.v.); on MS-Windows and Mac,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212
the clipboard is used @emph{instead} of the primary selection.
@xref{Clipboard}.

@item Coding System
A coding system is an encoding for representing text characters in a
file or in a stream of information.  Emacs has the ability to convert
text to or from a variety of coding systems when reading or writing it.
@xref{Coding Systems}.

@item Command
A command is a Lisp function specially defined to be able to serve as a
213
key binding in Emacs.  When you type a key sequence (q.v.), its
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
214 215 216 217
binding (q.v.@:) is looked up in the relevant keymaps (q.v.@:) to find
the command to run.  @xref{Commands}.

@item Command History
218
@xref{Glossary---Minibuffer History}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
219 220

@item Command Name
221
A command name is the name of a Lisp symbol that is a command
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
222 223 224 225 226
(@pxref{Commands}).  You can invoke any command by its name using
@kbd{M-x} (@pxref{M-x,M-x,Running Commands by Name}).

@item Comment
A comment is text in a program which is intended only for humans reading
227
the program, and which is specially marked so that it will be ignored
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235
when the program is loaded or compiled.  Emacs offers special commands
for creating, aligning and killing comments.  @xref{Comments}.

@item Common Lisp
Common Lisp is a dialect of Lisp (q.v.@:) much larger and more powerful
than Emacs Lisp.  Emacs provides a subset of Common Lisp in the CL
package.  @xref{Top, Common Lisp, Overview, cl, Common Lisp Extensions}.

236
@anchor{Glossary---Compilation}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244
@item Compilation
Compilation is the process of creating an executable program from source
code.  Emacs has commands for compiling files of Emacs Lisp code
(@pxref{Byte Compilation,,, elisp, the Emacs Lisp
Reference Manual}) and programs in C and other languages
(@pxref{Compilation}).

@item Complete Key
245
A complete key is a key sequence that fully specifies one action to be
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
246 247
performed by Emacs.  For example, @kbd{X} and @kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-x m}
are complete keys.  Complete keys derive their meanings from being bound
248
(q.v.@:) to commands (q.v.).  Thus, @kbd{X} is conventionally bound to
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
249 250 251 252 253
a command to insert @samp{X} in the buffer; @kbd{C-x m} is
conventionally bound to a command to begin composing a mail message.
@xref{Keys}.

@item Completion
254
Completion is what Emacs does when it automatically expands an
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
255 256 257
abbreviation for a name into the entire name.  Completion is done for
minibuffer (q.v.@:) arguments when the set of possible valid inputs
is known; for example, on command names, buffer names, and
258
file names.  Completion usually occurs when @key{TAB}, @key{SPC} or
259
@key{RET} is typed.  @xref{Completion}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
260

261
@anchor{Glossary---Continuation Line}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
262 263
@item Continuation Line
When a line of text is longer than the width of the window, it
264
normally (but see @ref{Glossary---Truncation}) takes up more than one
265
screen line when displayed.  We say that the text line is continued, and all
266 267
screen lines used for it after the first are called continuation
lines.  @xref{Continuation Lines}.  A related Emacs feature is
268
`filling' (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
269 270 271

@item Control Character
A control character is a character that you type by holding down the
272 273
@key{Ctrl} key.  Some control characters also have their own keys, so
that you can type them without using @key{Ctrl}.  For example,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286
@key{RET}, @key{TAB}, @key{ESC} and @key{DEL} are all control
characters.  @xref{User Input}.

@item Copyleft
A copyleft is a notice giving the public legal permission to
redistribute and modify a program or other work of art, but requiring
modified versions to carry similar permission.  Copyright is normally
used to keep users divided and helpless; with copyleft we turn that
around to empower users and encourage them to cooperate.

The particular form of copyleft used by the GNU project is called the
GNU General Public License.  @xref{Copying}.

287 288
@item @key{Ctrl}
The @key{Ctrl} or ``control'' key is what you hold down
289
in order to enter a control character (q.v.).  @xref{Glossary---C-}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310

@item Current Buffer
The current buffer in Emacs is the Emacs buffer on which most editing
commands operate.  You can select any Emacs buffer as the current one.
@xref{Buffers}.

@item Current Line
The current line is the line that point is on (@pxref{Point}).

@item Current Paragraph
The current paragraph is the paragraph that point is in.  If point is
between two paragraphs, the current paragraph is the one that follows
point.  @xref{Paragraphs}.

@item Current Defun
The current defun is the defun (q.v.@:) that point is in.  If point is
between defuns, the current defun is the one that follows point.
@xref{Defuns}.

@item Cursor
The cursor is the rectangle on the screen which indicates the position
311
(called point; q.v.@:) at which insertion and deletion takes place.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
312 313
The cursor is on or under the character that follows point.  Often
people speak of `the cursor' when, strictly speaking, they mean
314
`point'.  @xref{Point,Cursor}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
315 316

@item Customization
317 318 319 320
Customization is making minor changes in the way Emacs works, to
reflect your preferences or needs.  It is often done by setting
variables (@pxref{Variables}) or faces (@pxref{Face Customization}),
or by rebinding key sequences (@pxref{Keymaps}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
321 322 323

@cindex cut and paste
@item Cut and Paste
324
@xref{Glossary---Killing}, and @ref{Glossary---Yanking}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
325

326
@anchor{Glossary---Daemon}
327
@item Daemon
328
A daemon is a standard term for a system-level process that runs in the
329 330 331 332 333
background.  Daemons are often started when the system first starts up.
When Emacs runs in daemon-mode, it runs in the background and does not
open a display.  You can then connect to it with the
@command{emacsclient} program.  @xref{Emacs Server}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
334 335 336 337 338 339
@item Default Argument
The default for an argument is the value that will be assumed if you
do not specify one.  When the minibuffer is used to read an argument,
the default argument is used if you just type @key{RET}.
@xref{Minibuffer}.

340
@anchor{Glossary---Default}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
341
@item Default
342 343
A default is the value that is used for a certain purpose when
you do not explicitly specify a value to use.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
344 345 346 347

@item Default Directory
When you specify a file name that does not start with @samp{/} or @samp{~},
it is interpreted relative to the current buffer's default directory.
348
(On MS systems, file names that start with a drive letter
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358
@samp{@var{x}:} are treated as absolute, not relative.)
@xref{Minibuffer File,Default Directory}.

@item Defun
A defun is a major definition at the top level in a program.  The name
`defun' comes from Lisp, where most such definitions use the construct
@code{defun}.  @xref{Defuns}.

@item @key{DEL}
@key{DEL} is a character that runs the command to delete one character
359 360
of text before the cursor.  It is typically either the @key{Delete}
key or the @key{Backspace} key, whichever one is easy to type.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
361 362 363 364
@xref{Erasing,DEL}.

@item Deletion
Deletion means erasing text without copying it into the kill ring
365
(q.v.).  The alternative is killing (q.v.).  @xref{Killing,Deletion}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
366

367
@anchor{Glossary---Deletion of Files}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
368 369
@item Deletion of Files
Deleting a file means erasing it from the file system.
370 371
(Note that some systems use the concept of a ``trash can'', or ``recycle
bin'', to allow you to ``undelete'' files.)
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
372 373 374
@xref{Misc File Ops,Misc File Ops,Miscellaneous File Operations}.

@item Deletion of Messages
375 376 377 378
Deleting a message (in Rmail, and other mail clients) means flagging
it to be eliminated from your mail file.  Until you expunge (q.v.@:)
the Rmail file, you can still undelete the messages you have deleted.
@xref{Rmail Deletion}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
379 380 381

@item Deletion of Windows
Deleting a window means eliminating it from the screen.  Other windows
382 383 384
expand to use up the space.  The text that was in the window is not
lost, and you can create a new window with the same dimensions as the
old if you wish.  @xref{Windows}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
385 386 387

@item Directory
File directories are named collections in the file system, within which
388
you can place individual files or subdirectories.  They are sometimes
389
referred to as ``folders''.  @xref{Directories}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
390

391
@anchor{Glossary---Directory Local Variable}
392 393 394 395 396
@item Directory Local Variable
A directory local variable is a local variable (q.v.@:) that applies
to all the files within a certain directory.  @xref{Directory
Variables}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
397 398
@item Dired
Dired is the Emacs facility that displays the contents of a file
399
directory and allows you to ``edit the directory'', performing
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407
operations on the files in the directory.  @xref{Dired}.

@item Disabled Command
A disabled command is one that you may not run without special
confirmation.  The usual reason for disabling a command is that it is
confusing for beginning users.  @xref{Disabling}.

@item Down Event
408
Short for `button down event' (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
409 410

@item Drag Event
411 412 413
A drag event is the kind of input event (q.v.@:) generated when you
press a mouse button, move the mouse, and then release the button.
@xref{Mouse Buttons}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
414 415 416

@item Dribble File
A dribble file is a file into which Emacs writes all the characters that
417
you type on the keyboard.  Dribble files can be used to make a record
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
418 419 420
for debugging Emacs bugs.  Emacs does not make a dribble file unless you
tell it to.  @xref{Bugs}.

421 422 423
@c TODO?  Not really appropriate for the user manual I think.
@c Dynamic Binding

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
424 425 426 427
@item Echo Area
The echo area is the bottom line of the screen, used for echoing the
arguments to commands, for asking questions, and showing brief messages
(including error messages).  The messages are stored in the buffer
428
@file{*Messages*} so you can review them later.  @xref{Echo Area}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437

@item Echoing
Echoing is acknowledging the receipt of input events by displaying
them (in the echo area).  Emacs never echoes single-character key
sequences; longer key sequences echo only if you pause while typing
them.

@item Electric
We say that a character is electric if it is normally self-inserting
438
(q.v.), but the current major mode (q.v.@:) redefines it to do something
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
439
else as well.  For example, some programming language major modes define
440
particular delimiter characters to reindent the line, or insert one or
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
441 442
more newlines in addition to self-insertion.

443
@anchor{Glossary---End Of Line}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
444 445 446
@item End Of Line
End of line is a character or a sequence of characters that indicate
the end of a text line.  On GNU and Unix systems, this is a newline
447
(q.v.), but other systems have other conventions.  @xref{Coding
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458
Systems,end-of-line}.  Emacs can recognize several end-of-line
conventions in files and convert between them.

@item Environment Variable
An environment variable is one of a collection of variables stored by
the operating system, each one having a name and a value.  Emacs can
access environment variables set by its parent shell, and it can set
variables in the environment it passes to programs it invokes.
@xref{Environment}.

@item EOL
459
@xref{Glossary---End Of Line}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
460 461 462 463 464

@item Error
An error occurs when an Emacs command cannot execute in the current
circumstances.  When an error occurs, execution of the command stops
(unless the command has been programmed to do otherwise) and Emacs
465
reports the error by displaying an error message (q.v.).
466 467 468
@c Not helpful?
@c Type-ahead is discarded.  Then Emacs is ready to read another
@c editing command.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
469 470

@item Error Message
471 472 473 474
An error message is output displayed by Emacs when you ask it to do
something impossible (such as, killing text forward when point is at
the end of the buffer), or when a command malfunctions in some way.
Such messages appear in the echo area, accompanied by a beep.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
475 476 477 478 479 480 481 482 483

@item @key{ESC}
@key{ESC} is a character used as a prefix for typing Meta characters on
keyboards lacking a @key{META} key.  Unlike the @key{META} key (which,
like the @key{SHIFT} key, is held down while another character is
typed), you press the @key{ESC} key as you would press a letter key, and
it applies to the next character you type.

@item Expression
484
@xref{Glossary---Balanced Expression}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
485 486

@item Expunging
487 488 489
Expunging an Rmail, Gnus newsgroup, or Dired buffer is an operation
that truly discards the messages or files you have previously flagged
for deletion.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498

@item Face
A face is a style of displaying characters.  It specifies attributes
such as font family and size, foreground and background colors,
underline and strike-through, background stipple, etc.  Emacs provides
features to associate specific faces with portions of buffer text, in
order to display that text as specified by the face attributes.
@xref{Faces}.

499 500
@item File Local Variable
A file local variable is a local variable (q.v.@:) specified in a
501
given file.  @xref{File Variables}, and @ref{Glossary---Directory
502
Local Variable}.
503

504
@anchor{Glossary---File Locking}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
505 506 507 508 509
@item File Locking
Emacs uses file locking to notice when two different users
start to edit one file at the same time.  @xref{Interlocking}.

@item File Name
510
@c This is fairly tautological...
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
511 512 513 514 515 516
A file name is a name that refers to a file.  File names may be relative
or absolute; the meaning of a relative file name depends on the current
directory, but an absolute file name refers to the same file regardless
of which directory is current.  On GNU and Unix systems, an absolute
file name starts with a slash (the root directory) or with @samp{~/} or
@samp{~@var{user}/} (a home directory).  On MS-Windows/MS-DOS, an
517
absolute file name can also start with a drive letter and a colon, e.g.,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
518 519 520
@samp{@var{d}:}.

Some people use the term ``pathname'' for file names, but we do not;
521
we use the word ``path'' only in the term ``search path'' (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536

@item File-Name Component
A file-name component names a file directly within a particular
directory.  On GNU and Unix systems, a file name is a sequence of
file-name components, separated by slashes.  For example, @file{foo/bar}
is a file name containing two components, @samp{foo} and @samp{bar}; it
refers to the file named @samp{bar} in the directory named @samp{foo} in
the current directory.  MS-DOS/MS-Windows file names can also use
backslashes to separate components, as in @file{foo\bar}.

@item Fill Prefix
The fill prefix is a string that should be expected at the beginning
of each line when filling is done.  It is not regarded as part of the
text to be filled.  @xref{Filling}.

537
@anchor{Glossary---Filling}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
538
@item Filling
539 540 541
Filling text means adjusting the position of line-breaks to shift text
between consecutive lines, so that all the lines are approximately the
same length.  @xref{Filling}.  Some other editors call this feature
542
``line wrapping''.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
543

544
@anchor{Glossary---Font Lock}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
545
@item Font Lock
546
Font Lock is a mode that highlights parts of buffer text in different
547 548
faces, according to the syntax.  Some other editors refer to this as
``syntax highlighting''.  For example, all comments (q.v.@:)
549
might be colored red.  @xref{Font Lock}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557

@item Fontset
A fontset is a named collection of fonts.  A fontset specification lists
character sets and which font to use to display each of them.  Fontsets
make it easy to change several fonts at once by specifying the name of a
fontset, rather than changing each font separately.  @xref{Fontsets}.

@item Formfeed Character
558
@xref{Glossary---Page}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
559 560 561 562

@item Frame
A frame is a rectangular cluster of Emacs windows.  Emacs starts out
with one frame, but you can create more.  You can subdivide each frame
563 564
into Emacs windows (q.v.).  When you are using a window system
(q.v.), more than one frame can be visible at the same time.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
565 566 567
@xref{Frames}.  Some other editors use the term ``window'' for this,
but in Emacs a window means something else.

568 569 570
@item Free Software
Free software is software that gives you the freedom to share, study
and modify it.  Emacs is free software, part of the GNU project
571
(q.v.), and distributed under a copyleft (q.v.@:) license called the
572 573
GNU General Public License.  @xref{Copying}.

574
@anchor{Glossary---Free Software Foundation}
575 576
@item Free Software Foundation
The Free Software Foundation (FSF) is a charitable foundation
577
dedicated to promoting the development of free software (q.v.).
578 579
For more information, see @uref{http://fsf.org/, the FSF website}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
580
@item Fringe
581
On a graphical display (q.v.), there's a narrow portion of the frame
582
(q.v.@:) between the text area and the window's border.  These
583
``fringes'' are used to display symbols that provide information about
584 585 586 587
the buffer text (@pxref{Fringes}).  Emacs displays the fringe using a
special face (q.v.@:) called @code{fringe}.  @xref{Faces,fringe}.

@item FSF
588
@xref{Glossary---Free Software Foundation}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
589 590

@item FTP
591
FTP is an acronym for File Transfer Protocol.  This is one standard
592
method for retrieving remote files (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
593 594 595 596 597 598 599

@item Function Key
A function key is a key on the keyboard that sends input but does not
correspond to any character.  @xref{Function Keys}.

@item Global
Global means ``independent of the current environment; in effect
600
throughout Emacs''.  It is the opposite of local (q.v.).  Particular
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609
examples of the use of `global' appear below.

@item Global Abbrev
A global definition of an abbrev (q.v.@:) is effective in all major
modes that do not have local (q.v.@:) definitions for the same abbrev.
@xref{Abbrevs}.

@item Global Keymap
The global keymap (q.v.@:) contains key bindings that are in effect
610
everywhere, except when overridden by local key bindings in a major
611
mode's local keymap (q.v.).  @xref{Keymaps}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
612 613 614 615

@item Global Mark Ring
The global mark ring records the series of buffers you have recently
set a mark (q.v.@:) in.  In many cases you can use this to backtrack
616
through buffers you have been editing, or in which you have found
617
tags (@pxref{Glossary---Tags Table}).  @xref{Global Mark Ring}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
618

619
@anchor{Glossary---Global Substitution}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628
@item Global Substitution
Global substitution means replacing each occurrence of one string by
another string throughout a large amount of text.  @xref{Replace}.

@item Global Variable
The global value of a variable (q.v.@:) takes effect in all buffers
that do not have their own local (q.v.@:) values for the variable.
@xref{Variables}.

629
@item GNU
630
GNU is a recursive acronym for GNU's Not Unix, and it refers to a
631
Unix-compatible operating system which is free software (q.v.).
632 633
@xref{Manifesto}.  GNU is normally used with Linux as the kernel since
Linux works better than the GNU kernel.  For more information, see
634 635
@uref{http://www.gnu.org/, the GNU website}.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645
@item Graphic Character
Graphic characters are those assigned pictorial images rather than
just names.  All the non-Meta (q.v.@:) characters except for the
Control (q.v.@:) characters are graphic characters.  These include
letters, digits, punctuation, and spaces; they do not include
@key{RET} or @key{ESC}.  In Emacs, typing a graphic character inserts
that character (in ordinary editing modes).  @xref{Inserting Text}.

@item Graphical Display
A graphical display is one that can display images and multiple fonts.
646
Usually it also has a window system (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
647 648 649 650 651 652

@item Highlighting
Highlighting text means displaying it with a different foreground and/or
background color to make it stand out from the rest of the text in the
buffer.

653 654
Emacs uses highlighting in several ways.  It highlights the region
whenever it is active (@pxref{Mark}).  Incremental search also
655
highlights matches (@pxref{Incremental Search}).  @xref{Glossary---Font Lock}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
656 657

@item Hardcopy
658 659
Hardcopy means printed output.  Emacs has various commands for
printing the contents of Emacs buffers.  @xref{Printing}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
660 661 662

@item @key{HELP}
@key{HELP} is the Emacs name for @kbd{C-h} or @key{F1}.  You can type
663
@key{HELP} at any time to ask what options you have, or to ask what a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
664 665 666
command does.  @xref{Help}.

@item Help Echo
667 668
Help echo is a short message displayed in the echo area (q.v.@:) when
the mouse pointer is located on portions of display that require some
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
669
explanations.  Emacs displays help echo for menu items, parts of the
670
mode line, tool-bar buttons, etc.  On graphical displays, the messages
671
can be displayed as tooltips (q.v.).  @xref{Tooltips}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
672

673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680
@item Home Directory
Your home directory contains your personal files.  On a multi-user GNU
or Unix system, each user has his or her own home directory.  When you
start a new login session, your home directory is the default
directory in which to start.  A standard shorthand for your home
directory is @samp{~}.  Similarly, @samp{~@var{user}} represents the
home directory of some other user.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
681 682 683 684 685 686 687
@item Hook
A hook is a list of functions to be called on specific occasions, such
as saving a buffer in a file, major mode activation, etc.  By
customizing the various hooks, you can modify Emacs's behavior without
changing any of its code.  @xref{Hooks}.

@item Hyper
688
Hyper is the name of a modifier bit that a keyboard input character may
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
689
have.  To make a character Hyper, type it while holding down the
690
@key{Hyper} key.  Such characters are given names that start with
691
@kbd{Hyper-} (usually written @kbd{H-} for short).  @xref{User Input}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
692 693

@item Iff
694
``Iff'' means ``if and only if''.  This terminology comes from
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
695 696 697 698 699
mathematics.  Try to avoid using this term in documentation, since
many are unfamiliar with it and mistake it for a typo.

@item Inbox
An inbox is a file in which mail is delivered by the operating system.
700
Rmail transfers mail from inboxes to Rmail files in which the
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
701 702 703
mail is then stored permanently or until explicitly deleted.
@xref{Rmail Inbox}.

704
@anchor{Glossary---Incremental Search}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
705
@item Incremental Search
706 707 708
Emacs provides an incremental search facility, whereby Emacs begins
searching for a string as soon as you type the first character.
As you type more characters, it refines the search.  @xref{Incremental Search}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718

@item Indentation
Indentation means blank space at the beginning of a line.  Most
programming languages have conventions for using indentation to
illuminate the structure of the program, and Emacs has special
commands to adjust indentation.
@xref{Indentation}.

@item Indirect Buffer
An indirect buffer is a buffer that shares the text of another buffer,
719
called its base buffer (q.v.).  @xref{Indirect Buffers}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732

@item Info
Info is the hypertext format used by the GNU project for writing
documentation.

@item Input Event
An input event represents, within Emacs, one action taken by the user on
the terminal.  Input events include typing characters, typing function
keys, pressing or releasing mouse buttons, and switching between Emacs
frames.  @xref{User Input}.

@item Input Method
An input method is a system for entering non-@acronym{ASCII} text characters by
733
typing sequences of @acronym{ASCII} characters (q.v.).  @xref{Input Methods}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
734 735

@item Insertion
736
Insertion means adding text into the buffer, either from the keyboard
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
737 738 739
or from some other place in Emacs.

@item Interlocking
740
@xref{Glossary---File Locking}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
741 742

@item Isearch
743
@xref{Glossary---Incremental Search}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
744 745

@item Justification
746 747
Justification means adding extra spaces within lines of text in order
to adjust the position of the text edges.  @xref{Fill Commands}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
748

749
@item Key Binding
750
@xref{Glossary---Binding}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
751 752 753 754

@item Keyboard Macro
Keyboard macros are a way of defining new Emacs commands from
sequences of existing ones, with no need to write a Lisp program.
755 756
You can use a macro to record a sequence of commands, then
play them back as many times as you like.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
757 758 759 760
@xref{Keyboard Macros}.

@cindex keyboard shortcuts
@item Keyboard Shortcut
761
A keyboard shortcut is a key sequence (q.v.@:) that invokes a
762
command.  What some programs call ``assigning a keyboard shortcut'',
763
Emacs calls ``binding a key sequence''.  @xref{Glossary---Binding}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
764 765 766 767

@item Key Sequence
A key sequence (key, for short) is a sequence of input events (q.v.@:)
that are meaningful as a single unit.  If the key sequence is enough to
768 769
specify one action, it is a complete key (q.v.); if it is not enough,
it is a prefix key (q.v.).  @xref{Keys}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782

@item Keymap
The keymap is the data structure that records the bindings (q.v.@:) of
key sequences to the commands that they run.  For example, the global
keymap binds the character @kbd{C-n} to the command function
@code{next-line}.  @xref{Keymaps}.

@item Keyboard Translation Table
The keyboard translation table is an array that translates the character
codes that come from the terminal into the character codes that make up
key sequences.

@item Kill Ring
783
The kill ring is where all text you have killed (@pxref{Glossary---Killing})
784
recently is saved.  You can reinsert any of the killed text still in
785
the ring; this is called yanking (q.v.).  @xref{Yanking}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
786

787
@anchor{Glossary---Killing}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
788 789
@item Killing
Killing means erasing text and saving it on the kill ring so it can be
790
yanked (q.v.@:) later.  Some other systems call this ``cutting''.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
791
Most Emacs commands that erase text perform killing, as opposed to
792
deletion (q.v.).  @xref{Killing}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800

@item Killing a Job
Killing a job (such as, an invocation of Emacs) means making it cease
to exist.  Any data within it, if not saved in a file, is lost.
@xref{Exiting}.

@item Language Environment
Your choice of language environment specifies defaults for the input
801
method (q.v.@:) and coding system (q.v.).  @xref{Language
802 803
Environments}.  These defaults are relevant if you edit
non-@acronym{ASCII} text (@pxref{International}).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
804

805 806 807
@c TODO?  Not really appropriate for the user manual I think.
@c Lexical Binding

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
808
@item Line Wrapping
809
@xref{Glossary---Filling}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
810 811 812

@item Lisp
Lisp is a programming language.  Most of Emacs is written in a dialect
813
of Lisp, called Emacs Lisp, which is extended with special features that
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 823 824 825 826 827
make it especially suitable for text editing tasks.

@item List
A list is, approximately, a text string beginning with an open
parenthesis and ending with the matching close parenthesis.  In C mode
and other non-Lisp modes, groupings surrounded by other kinds of matched
delimiters appropriate to the language, such as braces, are also
considered lists.  Emacs has special commands for many operations on
lists.  @xref{Moving by Parens}.

@item Local
Local means ``in effect only in a particular context''; the relevant
kind of context is a particular function execution, a particular
buffer, or a particular major mode.  It is the opposite of `global'
828
(q.v.).  Specific uses of `local' in Emacs terminology appear below.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844

@item Local Abbrev
A local abbrev definition is effective only if a particular major mode
is selected.  In that major mode, it overrides any global definition
for the same abbrev.  @xref{Abbrevs}.

@item Local Keymap
A local keymap is used in a particular major mode; the key bindings
(q.v.@:) in the current local keymap override global bindings of the
same key sequences.  @xref{Keymaps}.

@item Local Variable
A local value of a variable (q.v.@:) applies to only one buffer.
@xref{Locals}.

@item @kbd{M-}
845
@kbd{M-} in the name of a character is an abbreviation for @key{Meta},
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
846 847 848 849 850
one of the modifier keys that can accompany any character.
@xref{User Input,M-}.

@item @kbd{M-C-}
@kbd{M-C-} in the name of a character is an abbreviation for
851
Control-Meta; it means the same thing as `@kbd{C-M-}' (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
852 853

@item @kbd{M-x}
854
@kbd{M-x} is the key sequence that is used to call an Emacs command by
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
855 856 857
name.  This is how you run commands that are not bound to key sequences.
@xref{M-x,M-x,Running Commands by Name}.

858
@anchor{Glossary---Mail}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
859 860 861 862
@item Mail
Mail means messages sent from one user to another through the computer
system, to be read at the recipient's convenience.  Emacs has commands for
composing and sending mail, and for reading and editing the mail you have
863 864
received.  @xref{Sending Mail}.  @xref{Rmail}, for one way to read
mail with Emacs.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875

@item Mail Composition Method
A mail composition method is a program runnable within Emacs for editing
and sending a mail message.  Emacs lets you select from several
alternative mail composition methods.  @xref{Mail Methods}.

@item Major Mode
The Emacs major modes are a mutually exclusive set of options, each of
which configures Emacs for editing a certain sort of text.  Ideally,
each programming language has its own major mode.  @xref{Major Modes}.

876
@c FIXME: Mention margins for filling?
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
877 878 879 880 881 882
@item Margin
The space between the usable part of a window (including the
fringe) and the window edge.

@item Mark
The mark points to a position in the text.  It specifies one end of the
883
region (q.v.), point being the other end.  Many commands operate on
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
884 885 886 887 888
all the text from point to the mark.  Each buffer has its own mark.
@xref{Mark}.

@item Mark Ring
The mark ring is used to hold several recent previous locations of the
889
mark, in case you want to move back to them.  Each buffer has its
890
own mark ring; in addition, there is a single global mark ring (q.v.).
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
891 892 893
@xref{Mark Ring}.

@item Menu Bar
894
The menu bar is a line at the top of an Emacs frame.  It contains
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
895 896 897 898
words you can click on with the mouse to bring up menus, or you can use
a keyboard interface to navigate it.  @xref{Menu Bars}.

@item Message
899
@xref{Glossary---Mail}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
900 901 902

@item Meta
Meta is the name of a modifier bit which you can use in a command
903
character.  To enter a meta character, you hold down the @key{Meta}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
904 905
key while typing the character.  We refer to such characters with
names that start with @kbd{Meta-} (usually written @kbd{M-} for
906
short).  For example, @kbd{M-<} is typed by holding down @key{Meta}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
907 908 909 910
and at the same time typing @kbd{<} (which itself is done, on most
terminals, by holding down @key{SHIFT} and typing @kbd{,}).
@xref{User Input,Meta}.

911 912
On some terminals, the @key{Meta} key is actually labeled @key{Alt}
or @key{Edit}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
913 914 915 916 917 918

@item Meta Character
A Meta character is one whose character code includes the Meta bit.

@item Minibuffer
The minibuffer is the window that appears when necessary inside the
919
echo area (q.v.), used for reading arguments to commands.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
920 921
@xref{Minibuffer}.

922
@anchor{Glossary---Minibuffer History}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
923 924 925 926 927 928
@item Minibuffer History
The minibuffer history records the text you have specified in the past
for minibuffer arguments, so you can conveniently use the same text
again.  @xref{Minibuffer History}.

@item Minor Mode
929
A minor mode is an optional feature of Emacs, which can be switched on
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
930
or off independently of all other features.  Each minor mode has a
931 932
command to turn it on or off.  Some minor modes are global (q.v.),
and some are local (q.v.).  @xref{Minor Modes}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940

@item Minor Mode Keymap
A minor mode keymap is a keymap that belongs to a minor mode and is
active when that mode is enabled.  Minor mode keymaps take precedence
over the buffer's local keymap, just as the local keymap takes
precedence over the global keymap.  @xref{Keymaps}.

@item Mode Line
941
The mode line is the line at the bottom of each window (q.v.), giving
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
942 943 944 945 946
status information on the buffer displayed in that window.  @xref{Mode
Line}.

@item Modified Buffer
A buffer (q.v.@:) is modified if its text has been changed since the
947
last time the buffer was saved (or since it was created, if it
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955
has never been saved).  @xref{Saving}.

@item Moving Text
Moving text means erasing it from one place and inserting it in
another.  The usual way to move text is by killing (q.v.@:) it and then
yanking (q.v.@:) it.  @xref{Killing}.

@item MULE
956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964
@cindex MULE
Prior to Emacs 23, @acronym{MULE} was the name of a software package
which provided a @dfn{MULtilingual Enhancement} to Emacs, by adding
support for multiple character sets (q.v.).  @acronym{MULE} was later
integrated into Emacs, and much of it was replaced when Emacs gained
internal Unicode support in version 23.

Some parts of Emacs that deal with character set support still use the
@acronym{MULE} name.  @xref{International}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
965 966 967 968 969 970 971 972

@item Multibyte Character
A multibyte character is a character that takes up several bytes in a
buffer.  Emacs uses multibyte characters to represent non-@acronym{ASCII} text,
since the number of non-@acronym{ASCII} characters is much more than 256.
@xref{International Chars, International Characters}.

@item Named Mark
973
A named mark is a register (q.v.), in its role of recording a
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
974 975 976 977 978
location in text so that you can move point to that location.
@xref{Registers}.

@item Narrowing
Narrowing means creating a restriction (q.v.@:) that limits editing in
979 980
the current buffer to only a part of the text.  Text outside that part
is inaccessible for editing (or viewing) until the boundaries are
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
981 982 983 984 985
widened again, but it is still there, and saving the file saves it
all.  @xref{Narrowing}.

@item Newline
Control-J characters in the buffer terminate lines of text and are
986
therefore also called newlines.  @xref{Glossary---End Of Line}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
987 988 989 990

@cindex nil
@cindex t
@item @code{nil}
991 992
@code{nil} is a value usually interpreted as a logical ``false''.  Its
opposite is @code{t}, interpreted as ``true''.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
993

994
@anchor{Glossary---Numeric Argument}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002
@item Numeric Argument
A numeric argument is a number, specified before a command, to change
the effect of the command.  Often the numeric argument serves as a
repeat count.  @xref{Arguments}.

@item Overwrite Mode
Overwrite mode is a minor mode.  When it is enabled, ordinary text
characters replace the existing text after point rather than pushing
1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008
it to one side.  @xref{Minor Modes}.

@item Package
A package is a collection of Lisp code that you download and
automatically install from within Emacs.  Packages provide a
convenient way to add new features.  @xref{Packages}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1009

1010
@anchor{Glossary---Page}
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1011 1012
@item Page
A page is a unit of text, delimited by formfeed characters (@acronym{ASCII}
1013
control-L, code 014) at the beginning of a line.  Some Emacs
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024
commands are provided for moving over and operating on pages.
@xref{Pages}.

@item Paragraph
Paragraphs are the medium-size unit of human-language text.  There are
special Emacs commands for moving over and operating on paragraphs.
@xref{Paragraphs}.

@item Parsing
We say that certain Emacs commands parse words or expressions in the
text being edited.  Really, all they know how to do is find the other
1025
end of a word or expression.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033

@item Point
Point is the place in the buffer at which insertion and deletion
occur.  Point is considered to be between two characters, not at one
character.  The terminal's cursor (q.v.@:) indicates the location of
point.  @xref{Point}.

@item Prefix Argument
1034
@xref{Glossary---Numeric Argument}.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041

@item Prefix Key
A prefix key is a key sequence (q.v.@:) whose sole function is to
introduce a set of longer key sequences.  @kbd{C-x} is an example of
prefix key; any two-character sequence starting with @kbd{C-x} is
therefore a legitimate key sequence.  @xref{Keys}.

1042 1043
@c I don't think this kind of thing needs to be here.
@ignore
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1044 1045 1046 1047
@item Primary Rmail File
Your primary Rmail file is the file named @samp{RMAIL} in your home
directory.  That's where Rmail stores your incoming mail, unless you
specify a different file name.  @xref{Rmail}.
1048
@end ignore
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1049 1050

@item Primary Selection
1051
The primary selection is one particular X selection (q.v.); it is the