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;;; cc-cmds.el --- user level commands for CC Mode
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;; Copyright (C) 1985, 1987, 1992, 1993, 1994, 1995, 1996, 1997, 1998,
;;   1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006  Free Software
;;   Foundation, Inc.
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;; Authors:    1998- Martin Stjernholm
;;             1992-1999 Barry A. Warsaw
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;;             1987 Dave Detlefs and Stewart Clamen
;;             1985 Richard M. Stallman
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;; Maintainer: bug-cc-mode@gnu.org
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;; Created:    22-Apr-1997 (split from cc-mode.el)
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;; Version:    See cc-mode.el
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;; Keywords:   c languages oop

;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
;; any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with this program; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
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;; the Free Software Foundation, Inc., 51 Franklin Street, Fifth Floor,
;; Boston, MA 02110-1301, USA.
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;;; Commentary:

;;; Code:

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(eval-when-compile
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  (let ((load-path
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	 (if (and (boundp 'byte-compile-dest-file)
		  (stringp byte-compile-dest-file))
	     (cons (file-name-directory byte-compile-dest-file) load-path)
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	   load-path)))
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    (load "cc-bytecomp" nil t)))
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(cc-require 'cc-defs)
(cc-require 'cc-vars)
(cc-require 'cc-engine)

;; Silence the compiler.
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(cc-bytecomp-defun delete-forward-p)	; XEmacs
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(cc-bytecomp-defvar filladapt-mode)	; c-fill-paragraph contains a kludge
					; which looks at this.
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(cc-bytecomp-defun c-forward-subword)
(cc-bytecomp-defun c-backward-subword)
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(defvar c-fix-backslashes t)

(defun c-indent-line (&optional syntax quiet ignore-point-pos)
  "Indent the current line according to the syntactic context,
if `c-syntactic-indentation' is non-nil.  Optional SYNTAX is the
syntactic information for the current line.  Be silent about syntactic
errors if the optional argument QUIET is non-nil, even if
`c-report-syntactic-errors' is non-nil.  Normally the position of
point is used to decide where the old indentation is on a lines that
is otherwise empty \(ignoring any line continuation backslash), but
that's not done if IGNORE-POINT-POS is non-nil.  Returns the amount of
indentation change \(in columns)."
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  (let ((line-cont-backslash (save-excursion
			       (end-of-line)
			       (eq (char-before) ?\\)))
	(c-fix-backslashes c-fix-backslashes)
	bs-col
	shift-amt)
    (when (and (not ignore-point-pos)
	       (save-excursion
		 (beginning-of-line)
		 (looking-at (if line-cont-backslash
				 "\\(\\s *\\)\\\\$"
			       "\\(\\s *\\)$")))
	       (<= (point) (match-end 1)))
      ;; Delete all whitespace after point if there's only whitespace
      ;; on the line, so that any code that does back-to-indentation
      ;; or similar gets the current column in this case.  If this
      ;; removes a line continuation backslash it'll be restored
      ;; at the end.
      (unless c-auto-align-backslashes
	;; Should try to keep the backslash alignment
	;; in this case.
	(save-excursion
	  (goto-char (match-end 0))
	  (setq bs-col (1- (current-column)))))
      (delete-region (point) (match-end 0))
      (setq c-fix-backslashes t))
    (if c-syntactic-indentation
	(setq c-parsing-error
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	      (or (let ((c-parsing-error nil)
			(c-syntactic-context
			 (or syntax
			     (and (boundp 'c-syntactic-context)
				  c-syntactic-context))))
		    (c-save-buffer-state (indent)
		      (unless c-syntactic-context
			(setq c-syntactic-context (c-guess-basic-syntax)))
		      (setq indent (c-get-syntactic-indentation
				    c-syntactic-context))
		      (and (not (c-echo-parsing-error quiet))
			   c-echo-syntactic-information-p
			   (message "syntax: %s, indent: %d"
				    c-syntactic-context indent))
		      (setq shift-amt (- indent (current-indentation))))
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		    (c-shift-line-indentation shift-amt)
		    (run-hooks 'c-special-indent-hook)
		    c-parsing-error)
		  c-parsing-error))
      (let ((indent 0))
	(save-excursion
	  (while (and (= (forward-line -1) 0)
		      (if (looking-at "\\s *\\\\?$")
			  t
			(setq indent (current-indentation))
			nil))))
	(setq shift-amt (- indent (current-indentation)))
	(c-shift-line-indentation shift-amt)))
    (when (and c-fix-backslashes line-cont-backslash)
      (if bs-col
	  (save-excursion
	    (indent-to bs-col)
	    (insert ?\\))
	(when c-auto-align-backslashes
	  ;; Realign the line continuation backslash.
	  (c-backslash-region (point) (point) nil t))))
    shift-amt))

(defun c-newline-and-indent (&optional newline-arg)
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  "Insert a newline and indent the new line.
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This function fixes line continuation backslashes if inside a macro,
and takes care to set the indentation before calling
`indent-according-to-mode', so that lineup functions like
`c-lineup-dont-change' works better."
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  ;; TODO: Backslashes before eol in comments and literals aren't
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  ;; kept intact.
  (let ((c-macro-start (c-query-macro-start))
	;; Avoid calling c-backslash-region from c-indent-line if it's
	;; called during the newline call, which can happen due to
	;; c-electric-continued-statement, for example.  We also don't
	;; want any backslash alignment from indent-according-to-mode.
	(c-fix-backslashes nil)
	has-backslash insert-backslash
	start col)
    (save-excursion
      (beginning-of-line)
      (setq start (point))
      (while (and (looking-at "[ \t]*\\\\?$")
		  (= (forward-line -1) 0)))
      (setq col (current-indentation)))
    (when c-macro-start
      (if (and (eolp) (eq (char-before) ?\\))
	  (setq insert-backslash t
		has-backslash t)
	(setq has-backslash (eq (char-before (c-point 'eol)) ?\\))))
    (newline newline-arg)
    (indent-to col)
    (when c-macro-start
      (if insert-backslash
	  (progn
	    ;; The backslash stayed on the previous line.  Insert one
	    ;; before calling c-backslash-region, so that
	    ;; bs-col-after-end in it works better.  Fixup the
	    ;; backslashes on the newly inserted line.
	    (insert ?\\)
	    (backward-char)
	    (c-backslash-region (point) (point) nil t))
	;; The backslash moved to the new line, if there was any.  Let
	;; c-backslash-region fix a backslash on the previous line,
	;; and the one that might be on the new line.
	;; c-auto-align-backslashes is intentionally ignored here;
	;; maybe the moved backslash should be left alone if it's set,
	;; but we fix both lines on the grounds that the old backslash
	;; has been moved anyway and is now in a different context.
	(c-backslash-region start (if has-backslash (point) start) nil t)))
    (when c-syntactic-indentation
      ;; Reindent syntactically.  The indentation done above is not
      ;; wasted, since c-indent-line might look at the current
      ;; indentation.
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      (let ((c-syntactic-context (c-save-buffer-state nil
				   (c-guess-basic-syntax))))
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	;; We temporarily insert another line break, so that the
	;; lineup functions will see the line as empty.  That makes
	;; e.g. c-lineup-cpp-define more intuitive since it then
	;; proceeds to the preceding line in this case.
	(insert ?\n)
	(delete-horizontal-space)
	(setq start (- (point-max) (point)))
	(unwind-protect
	    (progn
	      (backward-char)
	      (indent-according-to-mode))
	  (goto-char (- (point-max) start))
	  (delete-char -1)))
      (when has-backslash
	;; Must align the backslash again after reindentation.  The
	;; c-backslash-region call above can't be optimized to ignore
	;; this line, since it then won't align correctly with the
	;; lines below if the first line in the macro is broken.
	(c-backslash-region (point) (point) nil t)))))

(defun c-show-syntactic-information (arg)
  "Show syntactic information for current line.
With universal argument, inserts the analysis as a comment on that line."
  (interactive "P")
  (let* ((c-parsing-error nil)
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	 (syntax (if (boundp 'c-syntactic-context)
		     ;; Use `c-syntactic-context' in the same way as
		     ;; `c-indent-line', to be consistent.
		     c-syntactic-context
		   (c-save-buffer-state nil
		     (c-guess-basic-syntax)))))
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    (if (not (consp arg))
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	(let (elem pos ols)
	  (message "Syntactic analysis: %s" syntax)
	  (unwind-protect
	      (progn
		(while syntax
		  (setq elem (pop syntax))
		  (when (setq pos (c-langelem-pos elem))
		    (push (c-put-overlay pos (1+ pos)
					 'face 'highlight)
			  ols))
		  (when (setq pos (c-langelem-2nd-pos elem))
		    (push (c-put-overlay pos (1+ pos)
					 'face 'secondary-selection)
			  ols)))
		(sit-for 10))
	    (while ols
	      (c-delete-overlay (pop ols)))))
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      (indent-for-comment)
      (insert-and-inherit (format "%s" syntax))
      ))
  (c-keep-region-active))

(defun c-syntactic-information-on-region (from to)
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  "Insert a comment with the syntactic analysis on every line in the region."
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  (interactive "*r")
  (save-excursion
    (save-restriction
      (narrow-to-region from to)
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (while (not (eobp))
	(c-show-syntactic-information '(0))
	(forward-line)))))


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(defun c-update-modeline ()
  (let ((fmt (format "/%s%s%s%s"
		     (if c-electric-flag "l" "")
		     (if (and c-electric-flag c-auto-newline)
			 "a" "")
		     (if c-hungry-delete-key "h" "")
		     (if (and
			  ;; cc-subword might not be loaded.
			  (boundp 'c-subword-mode)
			  (symbol-value 'c-subword-mode))
			 "w"
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		       "")))
	(bare-mode-name (if (string-match "\\(^[^/]*\\)/" mode-name)
			    (substring mode-name (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1))
			  mode-name)))
;;     (setq c-submode-indicators
;; 	  (if (> (length fmt) 1)
;; 	      fmt))
    (setq mode-name
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	  (if (> (length fmt) 1)
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	      (concat bare-mode-name fmt)
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	bare-mode-name))
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    (force-mode-line-update)))

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(defun c-toggle-syntactic-indentation (&optional arg)
  "Toggle syntactic indentation.
Optional numeric ARG, if supplied, turns on syntactic indentation when
positive, turns it off when negative, and just toggles it when zero or
left out.

When syntactic indentation is turned on (the default), the indentation
functions and the electric keys indent according to the syntactic
context keys, when applicable.

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When it's turned off, the electric keys don't reindent, the indentation
functions indents every new line to the same level as the previous
nonempty line, and \\[c-indent-command] adjusts the indentation in steps
specified by `c-basic-offset'.  The indentation style has no effect in
this mode, nor any of the indentation associated variables,
e.g. `c-special-indent-hook'.
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This command sets the variable `c-syntactic-indentation'."
  (interactive "P")
  (setq c-syntactic-indentation
	(c-calculate-state arg c-syntactic-indentation))
  (c-keep-region-active))

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(defun c-toggle-auto-newline (&optional arg)
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  "Toggle auto-newline feature.
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Optional numeric ARG, if supplied, turns on auto-newline when
positive, turns it off when negative, and just toggles it when zero or
left out.
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Turning on auto-newline automatically enables electric indentation.

When the auto-newline feature is enabled (indicated by \"/la\" on the
modeline after the mode name) newlines are automatically inserted
after special characters such as brace, comma, semi-colon, and colon."
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  (interactive "P")
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  (setq c-auto-newline
	(c-calculate-state arg (and c-auto-newline c-electric-flag)))
  (if c-auto-newline (setq c-electric-flag t))
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  (c-update-modeline)
  (c-keep-region-active))

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(defalias 'c-toggle-auto-state 'c-toggle-auto-newline)
(make-obsolete 'c-toggle-auto-state 'c-toggle-auto-newline)

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(defun c-toggle-hungry-state (&optional arg)
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  "Toggle hungry-delete-key feature.
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Optional numeric ARG, if supplied, turns on hungry-delete when
positive, turns it off when negative, and just toggles it when zero or
left out.
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When the hungry-delete-key feature is enabled (indicated by \"/h\" on
the modeline after the mode name) the delete key gobbles all preceding
whitespace in one fell swoop."
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  (interactive "P")
  (setq c-hungry-delete-key (c-calculate-state arg c-hungry-delete-key))
  (c-update-modeline)
  (c-keep-region-active))

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(defun c-toggle-auto-hungry-state (&optional arg)
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  "Toggle auto-newline and hungry-delete-key features.
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Optional numeric ARG, if supplied, turns on auto-newline and
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hungry-delete when positive, turns them off when negative, and just
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toggles them when zero or left out.
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See `c-toggle-auto-newline' and `c-toggle-hungry-state' for details."
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  (interactive "P")
  (setq c-auto-newline (c-calculate-state arg c-auto-newline))
  (setq c-hungry-delete-key (c-calculate-state arg c-hungry-delete-key))
  (c-update-modeline)
  (c-keep-region-active))

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(defun c-toggle-electric-state (&optional arg)
  "Toggle the electric indentation feature.
Optional numeric ARG, if supplied, turns on electric indentation when
positive, turns it off when negative, and just toggles it when zero or
left out."
  (interactive "P")
  (setq c-electric-flag (c-calculate-state arg c-electric-flag))
  (c-update-modeline)
  (c-keep-region-active))

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;; Electric keys

(defun c-electric-backspace (arg)
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  "Delete the preceding character or whitespace.
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If `c-hungry-delete-key' is non-nil (indicated by \"/h\" on the mode
line) then all preceding whitespace is consumed.  If however a prefix
argument is supplied, or `c-hungry-delete-key' is nil, or point is
inside a literal then the function in the variable
`c-backspace-function' is called."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (if (c-save-buffer-state ()
	(or (not c-hungry-delete-key)
	    arg
	    (c-in-literal)))
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      (funcall c-backspace-function (prefix-numeric-value arg))
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    (c-hungry-delete-backwards)))
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(defun c-hungry-delete-backwards ()
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  "Delete the preceding character or all preceding whitespace
back to the previous non-whitespace character.
See also \\[c-hungry-delete-forward]."
  (interactive)
  (let ((here (point)))
    (c-skip-ws-backward)
    (if (/= (point) here)
	(delete-region (point) here)
      (funcall c-backspace-function 1))))
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(defalias 'c-hungry-backspace 'c-hungry-delete-backwards)

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(defun c-electric-delete-forward (arg)
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  "Delete the following character or whitespace.
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If `c-hungry-delete-key' is non-nil (indicated by \"/h\" on the mode
line) then all following whitespace is consumed.  If however a prefix
argument is supplied, or `c-hungry-delete-key' is nil, or point is
inside a literal then the function in the variable `c-delete-function'
is called."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (if (c-save-buffer-state ()
	(or (not c-hungry-delete-key)
	    arg
	    (c-in-literal)))
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      (funcall c-delete-function (prefix-numeric-value arg))
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    (c-hungry-delete-forward)))

(defun c-hungry-delete-forward ()
  "Delete the following character or all following whitespace
up to the next non-whitespace character.
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See also \\[c-hungry-delete-backwards]."
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  (interactive)
  (let ((here (point)))
    (c-skip-ws-forward)
    (if (/= (point) here)
	(delete-region (point) here)
      (funcall c-delete-function 1))))
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;; This function is only used in XEmacs.
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(defun c-electric-delete (arg)
  "Deletes preceding or following character or whitespace.
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This function either deletes forward as `c-electric-delete-forward' or
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backward as `c-electric-backspace', depending on the configuration: If
the function `delete-forward-p' is defined and returns non-nil, it
deletes forward.  Otherwise it deletes backward.

Note: This is the way in XEmacs to choose the correct action for the
\[delete] key, whichever key that means.  Other flavors don't use this
function to control that."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (if (and (fboundp 'delete-forward-p)
	   (delete-forward-p))
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      (c-electric-delete-forward arg)
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    (c-electric-backspace arg)))

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;; This function is only used in XEmacs.
(defun c-hungry-delete ()
  "Delete a non-whitespace char, or all whitespace up to the next non-whitespace char.
The direction of deletion depends on the configuration: If the
function `delete-forward-p' is defined and returns non-nil, it deletes
forward using `c-hungry-delete-forward'.  Otherwise it deletes
backward using `c-hungry-backspace'.

Note: This is the way in XEmacs to choose the correct action for the
\[delete] key, whichever key that means.  Other flavors don't use this
function to control that."
  (interactive)
  (if (and (fboundp 'delete-forward-p)
	   (delete-forward-p))
      (c-hungry-delete-forward)
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    (c-hungry-delete-backwards)))
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(defun c-electric-pound (arg)
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  "Insert a \"#\".
If `c-electric-flag' is set, handle it specially according to the variable
`c-electric-pound-behavior'.  If a numeric ARG is supplied, or if point is
inside a literal or a macro, nothing special happens."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (if (c-save-buffer-state ()
	(or arg
	    (not c-electric-flag)
	    (not (memq 'alignleft c-electric-pound-behavior))
	    (save-excursion
	      (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	      (not (bolp)))
	    (save-excursion
	      (and (= (forward-line -1) 0)
		   (progn (end-of-line)
			  (eq (char-before) ?\\))))
	    (c-in-literal)))
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      ;; do nothing special
      (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
    ;; place the pound character at the left edge
    (let ((pos (- (point-max) (point)))
	  (bolp (bolp)))
      (beginning-of-line)
      (delete-horizontal-space)
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      (insert last-command-char)
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      (and (not bolp)
	   (goto-char (- (point-max) pos)))
      )))

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(defun c-point-syntax ()
  ;; Return the syntactic context of the construct at point.  (This is NOT
  ;; nec. the same as the s.c. of the line point is on).  N.B. This won't work
  ;; between the `#' of a cpp thing and what follows (see c-opt-cpp-prefix).
  (c-save-buffer-state (;; shut this up too
	(c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil)
	syntax)
    (c-tentative-buffer-changes
      ;; insert a newline to isolate the construct at point for syntactic
      ;; analysis.
      (insert-char ?\n 1)
      ;; In AWK (etc.) or in a macro, make sure this CR hasn't changed
      ;; the syntax.  (There might already be an escaped NL there.)
      (when (or (c-at-vsemi-p (1- (point)))
		(let ((pt (point)))
		  (save-excursion
		    (backward-char)
		    (and (c-beginning-of-macro)
			 (progn (c-end-of-macro)
				(< (point) pt))))))
	(backward-char)
	(insert-char ?\\ 1)
	(forward-char))
      (let ((c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros t)
	    (c-auto-newline-analysis t))
	;; Turn on syntactic macro analysis to help with auto
	;; newlines only.
	(setq syntax (c-guess-basic-syntax))
	nil))
    syntax))

(defun c-brace-newlines (syntax)
  ;; A brace stands at point.  SYNTAX is the syntactic context of this brace
  ;; (not necessarily the same as the S.C. of the line it is on).  Return
  ;; NEWLINES, the list containing some combination of the symbols `before'
  ;; and `after' saying where newlines should be inserted.
  (c-save-buffer-state
      ((syms
	;; This is the list of brace syntactic symbols that can hang.
	;; If any new ones are added to c-offsets-alist, they should be
	;; added here as well.
	'(class-open class-close defun-open defun-close
		     inline-open inline-close
		     brace-list-open brace-list-close
		     brace-list-intro brace-entry-open
		     block-open block-close
		     substatement-open statement-case-open
		     extern-lang-open extern-lang-close
		     namespace-open namespace-close
		     module-open module-close
		     composition-open composition-close
		     inexpr-class-open inexpr-class-close
		     ;; `statement-cont' is here for the case with a brace
		     ;; list opener inside a statement.  C.f. CASE B.2 in
		     ;; `c-guess-continued-construct'.
		     statement-cont))
       ;; shut this up too
       (c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil)
       symb-newlines)		     ; e.g. (substatement-open . (after))
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    (setq symb-newlines
	  ;; Do not try to insert newlines around a special
	  ;; (Pike-style) brace list.
	  (if (and c-special-brace-lists
		   (save-excursion
		     (c-safe (if (= (char-before) ?{)
				 (forward-char -1)
			       (c-forward-sexp -1))
			     (c-looking-at-special-brace-list))))
	      nil
	    ;; Seek the matching entry in c-hanging-braces-alist.
	    (or (c-lookup-lists
		 syms
		 ;; Substitute inexpr-class and class-open or
		 ;; class-close with inexpr-class-open or
		 ;; inexpr-class-close.
		 (if (assq 'inexpr-class syntax)
		     (cond ((assq 'class-open syntax)
			    '((inexpr-class-open)))
			   ((assq 'class-close syntax)
			    '((inexpr-class-close)))
			   (t syntax))
		   syntax)
		 c-hanging-braces-alist)
		'(ignore before after)))) ; Default, when not in c-h-b-l.

    ;; If syntax is a function symbol, then call it using the
    ;; defined semantics.
    (if (and (not (consp (cdr symb-newlines)))
	     (functionp (cdr symb-newlines)))
	(let ((c-syntactic-context syntax))
	  (funcall (cdr symb-newlines)
		   (car symb-newlines)
		   (point)))
      (cdr symb-newlines))))

(defun c-try-one-liner ()
  ;; Point is just after a newly inserted }.  If the non-whitespace
  ;; content of the braces is a single line of code, compact the whole
  ;; construct to a single line, if this line isn't too long.  The Right
  ;; Thing is done with comments.
  ;;
  ;; Point will be left after the }, regardless of whether the clean-up is
  ;; done.  Return NON-NIL if the clean-up happened, NIL if it didn't.

  (let ((here (point))
	(pos (- (point-max) (point)))
	mbeg1 mend1 mbeg4 mend4
	eol-col cmnt-pos cmnt-col cmnt-gap)

    (when
	(save-excursion
	  (save-restriction
	    ;; Avoid backtracking over a very large block.  The one we
	    ;; deal with here can never be more than three lines.
	    (narrow-to-region (save-excursion
				(forward-line -2)
				(point))
			      (point))
	    (and (c-safe (c-backward-sexp))
		 (progn
		   (forward-char)
		   (narrow-to-region (point) (1- here)) ; innards of {.}
		   (looking-at
		    (cc-eval-when-compile
		      (concat
		       "\\("		; (match-beginning 1)
		       "[ \t]*\\([\r\n][ \t]*\\)?" ; WS with opt. NL
		       "\\)"		; (match-end 1)
		       "[^ \t\r\n]+\\([ \t]+[^ \t\r\n]+\\)*" ; non-WS
		       "\\("		; (match-beginning 4)
		       "[ \t]*\\([\r\n][ \t]*\\)?" ; WS with opt. NL
		       "\\)\\'")))))))	; (match-end 4) at EOB.

      (if (c-tentative-buffer-changes
	    (setq mbeg1 (match-beginning 1) mend1 (match-end 1)
		  mbeg4 (match-beginning 4) mend4 (match-end 4))
	    (backward-char)		; back over the `}'
	    (save-excursion
	      (setq cmnt-pos (and (c-backward-single-comment)
				  (- (point) (- mend1 mbeg1)))))
	    (delete-region mbeg4 mend4)
	    (delete-region mbeg1 mend1)
	    (setq eol-col (save-excursion (end-of-line) (current-column)))

	    ;; Necessary to put the closing brace before any line
	    ;; oriented comment to keep it syntactically significant.
	    ;; This isn't necessary for block comments, but the result
	    ;; looks nicer anyway.
	    (when cmnt-pos
	      (delete-char 1)		; the `}' has blundered into a comment
	      (goto-char cmnt-pos)
	      (setq cmnt-col (1+ (current-column)))
	      (setq cmnt-pos (1+ cmnt-pos)) ; we're inserting a `}'
	      (c-skip-ws-backward)
	      (insert-char ?\} 1)	; reinsert the `}' before the comment.
	      (setq cmnt-gap (- cmnt-col (current-column)))
	      (when (zerop cmnt-gap)
		(insert-char ?\  1)	; Put a space before a bare comment.
		(setq cmnt-gap 1)))

	    (or (null c-max-one-liner-length)
		(zerop c-max-one-liner-length)
		(<= eol-col c-max-one-liner-length)
		;; Can we trim space before comment to make the line fit?
		(and cmnt-gap
		     (< (- eol-col cmnt-gap) c-max-one-liner-length)
		     (progn (goto-char cmnt-pos)
			    (backward-delete-char-untabify
			     (- eol-col c-max-one-liner-length))
			    t))))
	  (goto-char (- (point-max) pos))))))

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(defun c-electric-brace (arg)
  "Insert a brace.

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If `c-electric-flag' is non-nil, the brace is not inside a literal and a
numeric ARG hasn't been supplied, the command performs several electric
actions:
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\(a) If the auto-newline feature is turned on (indicated by \"/la\" on
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the mode line) newlines are inserted before and after the brace as
directed by the settings in `c-hanging-braces-alist'.

\(b) Any auto-newlines are indented.  The original line is also
reindented unless `c-syntactic-indentation' is nil.

\(c) If auto-newline is turned on, various newline cleanups based on the
settings of `c-cleanup-list' are done."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (let (safepos literal
	;; We want to inhibit blinking the paren since this would be
	;; most disruptive.  We'll blink it ourselves later on.
	(old-blink-paren blink-paren-function)
	blink-paren-function)

    (c-save-buffer-state ()
      (setq safepos (c-safe-position (point) (c-parse-state))
	    literal (c-in-literal safepos)))

    ;; Insert the brace.  Note that expand-abbrev might reindent
    ;; the line here if there's a preceding "else" or something.
    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))

    (when (and c-electric-flag (not literal) (not arg))
      (if (not (looking-at "[ \t]*\\\\?$"))
	  (if c-syntactic-indentation
	      (indent-according-to-mode))

	(let ( ;; shut this up too
	      (c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil)
	      newlines
	      ln-syntax br-syntax syntax) ; Syntactic context of the original line,
			; of the brace itself, of the line the brace ends up on.
	  (c-save-buffer-state ((c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros t)
				(c-auto-newline-analysis t))
	    (setq ln-syntax (c-guess-basic-syntax)))
	  (if c-syntactic-indentation
	      (c-indent-line ln-syntax))

	  (when c-auto-newline
	    (backward-char)
	    (setq br-syntax (c-point-syntax)
		  newlines (c-brace-newlines br-syntax))

	    ;; Insert the BEFORE newline, if wanted, and reindent the newline.
	    (if (and (memq 'before newlines)
		     (> (current-column) (current-indentation)))
		(if c-syntactic-indentation
		    ;; Only a plain newline for now - it's indented
		    ;; after the cleanups when the line has its final
		    ;; appearance.
		    (newline)
		  (c-newline-and-indent)))
	    (forward-char)

	    ;; `syntax' is the syntactic context of the line which ends up
	    ;; with the brace on it.
	    (setq syntax (if (memq 'before newlines) br-syntax ln-syntax))

	    ;; Do all appropriate clean ups
	    (let ((here (point))
		  (pos (- (point-max) (point)))
		  mbeg mend
		  )

	      ;; `}': clean up empty defun braces
	      (when (c-save-buffer-state ()
		      (and (memq 'empty-defun-braces c-cleanup-list)
			   (eq last-command-char ?\})
			   (c-intersect-lists '(defun-close class-close inline-close)
					      syntax)
			   (progn
			     (forward-char -1)
			     (c-skip-ws-backward)
			     (eq (char-before) ?\{))
			   ;; make sure matching open brace isn't in a comment
			   (not (c-in-literal))))
		(delete-region (point) (1- here))
		(setq here (- (point-max) pos)))
	      (goto-char here)

	      ;; `}': compact to a one-liner defun?
	      (save-match-data
		(when
		    (and (eq last-command-char ?\})
			 (memq 'one-liner-defun c-cleanup-list)
			 (c-intersect-lists '(defun-close) syntax)
			 (c-try-one-liner))
		  (setq here (- (point-max) pos))))

	      ;; `{': clean up brace-else-brace and brace-elseif-brace
	      (when (eq last-command-char ?\{)
		(cond
		 ((and (memq 'brace-else-brace c-cleanup-list)
		       (re-search-backward
			(concat "}"
				"\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
				"else"
				"\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
				"{"
				"\\=")
			nil t))
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		  (delete-region (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0))
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		  (insert-and-inherit "} else {"))
		 ((and (memq 'brace-elseif-brace c-cleanup-list)
		       (progn
			 (goto-char (1- here))
			 (setq mend (point))
			 (c-skip-ws-backward)
			 (setq mbeg (point))
			 (eq (char-before) ?\)))
		       (zerop (c-save-buffer-state nil (c-backward-token-2 1 t)))
		       (eq (char-after) ?\()
		      ; (progn
			; (setq tmp (point))
			 (re-search-backward
			  (concat "}"
				  "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
				  "else"
				  "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)+"
				  "if"
				  "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
				  "\\=")
			  nil t);)
		       ;(eq (match-end 0) tmp);
			 )
		  (delete-region mbeg mend)
		  (goto-char mbeg)
		  (insert ?\ ))))

	      (goto-char (- (point-max) pos))

	      ;; Indent the line after the cleanups since it might
	      ;; very well indent differently due to them, e.g. if
	      ;; c-indent-one-line-block is used together with the
	      ;; one-liner-defun cleanup.
	      (when c-syntactic-indentation
		(c-indent-line)))

	    ;; does a newline go after the brace?
	    (if (memq 'after newlines)
		(c-newline-and-indent))
	    ))))

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    ;; blink the paren
    (and (eq last-command-char ?\})
	 (not executing-kbd-macro)
	 old-blink-paren
	 (save-excursion
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	   (c-save-buffer-state nil
	     (c-backward-syntactic-ws safepos))
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	   (funcall old-blink-paren)))))
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(defun c-electric-slash (arg)
  "Insert a slash character.
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If the slash is inserted immediately after the comment prefix in a c-style
comment, the comment might get closed by removing whitespace and possibly
inserting a \"*\".  See the variable `c-cleanup-list'.

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Indent the line as a comment, if:

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  1. The slash is second of a \"//\" line oriented comment introducing
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     token and we are on a comment-only-line, or

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  2. The slash is part of a \"*/\" token that closes a block oriented
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     comment.

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If a numeric ARG is supplied, point is inside a literal, or
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`c-syntactic-indentation' is nil or `c-electric-flag' is nil, indentation
is inhibited."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (let ((literal (c-save-buffer-state () (c-in-literal)))
	indentp
	;; shut this up
	(c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil))

    ;; comment-close-slash cleanup?  This DOESN'T need `c-electric-flag' or
    ;; `c-syntactic-indentation' set.
    (when (and (not arg)
	       (eq literal 'c)
	       (memq 'comment-close-slash c-cleanup-list)
	       (eq last-command-char ?/)
	; (eq c-block-comment-ender "*/") ; C-style comments ALWAYS end in */
	       (save-excursion
		 (back-to-indentation)
		 (looking-at (concat c-current-comment-prefix "[ \t]*$"))))
      (end-of-line)
      (delete-horizontal-space)
      (or (eq (char-before) ?*) (insert-char ?* 1))) ; Do I need a t (retain sticky properties) here?

    (setq indentp (and (not arg)
		       c-syntactic-indentation
		       c-electric-flag
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		       (eq last-command-char ?/)
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		       (eq (char-before) (if literal ?* ?/))))
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    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
    (if indentp
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	(indent-according-to-mode))))
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(defun c-electric-star (arg)
  "Insert a star character.
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If `c-electric-flag' and `c-syntactic-indentation' are both non-nil, and
the star is the second character of a C style comment starter on a
comment-only-line, indent the line as a comment.  If a numeric ARG is
supplied, point is inside a literal, or `c-syntactic-indentation' is nil,
this indentation is inhibited."

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  (interactive "*P")
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  (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
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  ;; if we are in a literal, or if arg is given do not reindent the
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  ;; current line, unless this star introduces a comment-only line.
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  (if (c-save-buffer-state ()
	(and c-syntactic-indentation
	     c-electric-flag
	     (not arg)
	     (eq (c-in-literal) 'c)
	     (eq (char-before) ?*)
	     (save-excursion
	       (forward-char -1)
	       (skip-chars-backward "*")
	       (if (eq (char-before) ?/)
		   (forward-char -1))
	       (skip-chars-backward " \t")
	       (bolp))))
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      (let (c-echo-syntactic-information-p) ; shut this up
	(indent-according-to-mode))
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    ))

(defun c-electric-semi&comma (arg)
  "Insert a comma or semicolon.

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If `c-electric-flag' is non-nil, point isn't inside a literal and a
numeric ARG hasn't been supplied, the command performs several electric
actions:

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\(a) When the auto-newline feature is turned on (indicated by \"/la\" on
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the mode line) a newline might be inserted.  See the variable
`c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria' for how newline insertion is determined.
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\(b) Any auto-newlines are indented.  The original line is also
reindented unless `c-syntactic-indentation' is nil.

\(c) If auto-newline is turned on, a comma following a brace list or a
semicolon following a defun might be cleaned up, depending on the
settings of `c-cleanup-list'."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (let* (lim literal c-syntactic-context
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	 (here (point))
	 ;; shut this up
	 (c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil))
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    (c-save-buffer-state ()
      (setq lim (c-most-enclosing-brace (c-parse-state))
	    literal (c-in-literal lim)))

    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))

    (if (and c-electric-flag (not literal) (not arg))
	;; do all cleanups and newline insertions if c-auto-newline is on.
	(if (or (not c-auto-newline)
		(not (looking-at "[ \t]*\\\\?$")))
	    (if c-syntactic-indentation
		(c-indent-line))
	  ;; clean ups: list-close-comma or defun-close-semi
	  (let ((pos (- (point-max) (point))))
	    (if (c-save-buffer-state ()
		  (and (or (and
			    (eq last-command-char ?,)
			    (memq 'list-close-comma c-cleanup-list))
			   (and
			    (eq last-command-char ?\;)
			    (memq 'defun-close-semi c-cleanup-list)))
		       (progn
			 (forward-char -1)
			 (c-skip-ws-backward)
			 (eq (char-before) ?}))
		       ;; make sure matching open brace isn't in a comment
		       (not (c-in-literal lim))))
		(delete-region (point) here))
	    (goto-char (- (point-max) pos)))
	  ;; reindent line
	  (when c-syntactic-indentation
	    (setq c-syntactic-context (c-guess-basic-syntax))
	    (c-indent-line c-syntactic-context))
	  ;; check to see if a newline should be added
	  (let ((criteria c-hanging-semi&comma-criteria)
		answer add-newline-p)
	    (while criteria
	      (setq answer (funcall (car criteria)))
	      ;; only nil value means continue checking
	      (if (not answer)
		  (setq criteria (cdr criteria))
		(setq criteria nil)
		;; only 'stop specifically says do not add a newline
		(setq add-newline-p (not (eq answer 'stop)))
		))
	    (if add-newline-p
		(c-newline-and-indent))
	    )))))
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(defun c-electric-colon (arg)
  "Insert a colon.

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If `c-electric-flag' is non-nil, the colon is not inside a literal and a
numeric ARG hasn't been supplied, the command performs several electric
actions:

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\(a) If the auto-newline feature is turned on (indicated by \"/la\" on
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the mode line) newlines are inserted before and after the colon based on
the settings in `c-hanging-colons-alist'.
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\(b) Any auto-newlines are indented.  The original line is also
reindented unless `c-syntactic-indentation' is nil.

\(c) If auto-newline is turned on, whitespace between two colons will be
\"cleaned up\" leaving a scope operator, if this action is set in
`c-cleanup-list'."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (let* ((bod (c-point 'bod))
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	 (literal (c-save-buffer-state () (c-in-literal bod)))
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	 newlines is-scope-op
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	 ;; shut this up
	 (c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil))
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    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
    ;; Any electric action?
    (if (and c-electric-flag (not literal) (not arg))
	;; Unless we're at EOL, only re-indentation happens.
	(if (not (looking-at "[ \t]*\\\\?$"))
	    (if c-syntactic-indentation
		(indent-according-to-mode))

	  ;; scope-operator clean-up?
	  (let ((pos (- (point-max) (point)))
		(here (point)))
	    (if (c-save-buffer-state ()	; Why do we need this? [ACM, 2003-03-12]
		  (and c-auto-newline
		       (memq 'scope-operator c-cleanup-list)
		       (eq (char-before) ?:)
		       (progn
			 (forward-char -1)
			 (c-skip-ws-backward)
			 (eq (char-before) ?:))
		       (not (c-in-literal))
		       (not (eq (char-after (- (point) 2)) ?:))))
		(progn
		  (delete-region (point) (1- here))
		  (setq is-scope-op t)))
	    (goto-char (- (point-max) pos)))

	  ;; indent the current line if it's done syntactically.
	  (if c-syntactic-indentation
	      ;; Cannot use the same syntax analysis as we find below,
	      ;; since that's made with c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros
	      ;; always set to t.
	      (indent-according-to-mode))

	  ;; Calculate where, if anywhere, we want newlines.
	  (c-save-buffer-state
	      ((c-syntactic-indentation-in-macros t)
	       (c-auto-newline-analysis t)
	       ;; Turn on syntactic macro analysis to help with auto newlines
	       ;; only.
	       (syntax (c-guess-basic-syntax))
	       (elem syntax))
	    ;; Translate substatement-label to label for this operation.
	    (while elem
	      (if (eq (car (car elem)) 'substatement-label)
		  (setcar (car elem) 'label))
	      (setq elem (cdr elem)))
	    ;; some language elements can only be determined by checking
	    ;; the following line.  Lets first look for ones that can be
	    ;; found when looking on the line with the colon
	    (setq newlines
		  (and c-auto-newline
		       (or (c-lookup-lists '(case-label label access-label)
					   syntax c-hanging-colons-alist)
			   (c-lookup-lists '(member-init-intro inher-intro)
					   (progn
					     (insert ?\n)
					     (unwind-protect
						 (c-guess-basic-syntax)
					       (delete-char -1)))
					   c-hanging-colons-alist)))))
	  ;; does a newline go before the colon?  Watch out for already
	  ;; non-hung colons.  However, we don't unhang them because that
	  ;; would be a cleanup (and anti-social).
	  (if (and (memq 'before newlines)
		   (not is-scope-op)
		   (save-excursion
		     (skip-chars-backward ": \t")
		     (not (bolp))))
	      (let ((pos (- (point-max) (point))))
		(forward-char -1)
		(c-newline-and-indent)
		(goto-char (- (point-max) pos))))
	  ;; does a newline go after the colon?
	  (if (and (memq 'after (cdr-safe newlines))
		   (not is-scope-op))
	      (c-newline-and-indent))
	  ))))
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(defun c-electric-lt-gt (arg)
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  "Insert a \"<\" or \">\" character.
If the current language uses angle bracket parens (e.g. template
arguments in C++), try to find out if the inserted character is a
paren and give it paren syntax if appropriate.

If `c-electric-flag' and `c-syntactic-indentation' are both non-nil, the
line will be reindented if the inserted character is a paren or if it
finishes a C++ style stream operator in C++ mode.  Exceptions are when a
numeric argument is supplied, or the point is inside a literal."

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  (interactive "*P")
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  (let ((c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil)
	final-pos close-paren-inserted)

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    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))
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    (setq final-pos (point))

    (c-save-buffer-state (c-parse-and-markup-<>-arglists
			  c-restricted-<>-arglists
			  <-pos)

      (when c-recognize-<>-arglists
	(if (eq last-command-char ?<)
	    (when (and (progn
			 (backward-char)
			 (= (point)
			    (progn
			      (c-beginning-of-current-token)
			      (point))))
		       (progn
			 (c-backward-token-2)
			 (looking-at c-opt-<>-sexp-key)))
	      (c-mark-<-as-paren (1- final-pos)))

	  ;; It's a ">".  Check if there's an earlier "<" which either has
	  ;; open paren syntax already or that can be recognized as an arglist
	  ;; together with this ">".  Note that this won't work in cases like
	  ;; "template <x, a < b, y>" but they ought to be rare.

	  (save-restriction
	    ;; Narrow to avoid that `c-forward-<>-arglist' below searches past
	    ;; our position.
	    (narrow-to-region (point-min) final-pos)

	    (while (and
		    (progn
		      (goto-char final-pos)
		      (c-syntactic-skip-backward "^<;}" nil t)
		      (eq (char-before) ?<))
		    (progn
		      (backward-char)
		      ;; If the "<" already got open paren syntax we know we
		      ;; have the matching closer.  Handle it and exit the
		      ;; loop.
		      (if (looking-at "\\s\(")
			  (progn
			    (c-mark->-as-paren (1- final-pos))
			    (setq close-paren-inserted t)
			    nil)
			t))

		    (progn
		      (setq <-pos (point))
		      (c-backward-syntactic-ws)
		      (c-simple-skip-symbol-backward))
		    (or (looking-at c-opt-<>-sexp-key)
			(not (looking-at c-keywords-regexp)))

		    (let ((c-parse-and-markup-<>-arglists t)
			  c-restricted-<>-arglists
			  (containing-sexp
			   (c-most-enclosing-brace (c-parse-state))))
		      (when (and containing-sexp
				 (progn (goto-char containing-sexp)
					(eq (char-after) ?\())
				 (not (eq (get-text-property (point) 'c-type)
					  'c-decl-arg-start)))
			(setq c-restricted-<>-arglists t))
		      (goto-char <-pos)
		      (c-forward-<>-arglist nil))

		    ;; Loop here if the "<" we found above belongs to a nested
		    ;; angle bracket sexp.  When we start over we'll find the
		    ;; previous or surrounding sexp.
		    (if (< (point) final-pos)
			t
		      (setq close-paren-inserted t)
		      nil)))))))
    (goto-char final-pos)

    ;; Indent the line if appropriate.
    (when (and c-electric-flag c-syntactic-indentation)
      (backward-char)
      (when (prog1 (or (looking-at "\\s\(\\|\\s\)")
		       (and (c-major-mode-is 'c++-mode)
			    (progn
			      (c-beginning-of-current-token)
			      (looking-at "<<\\|>>"))
			    (= (match-end 0) final-pos)))
	      (goto-char final-pos))
	(indent-according-to-mode)))

    (when (and close-paren-inserted
	       (not executing-kbd-macro)
	       blink-paren-function)
      ;; Note: Most paren blink functions, such as the standard
      ;; `blink-matching-open', currently doesn't handle paren chars
      ;; marked with text properties very well.  Maybe we should avoid
      ;; this call for the time being?
      (funcall blink-paren-function))))
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(defun c-electric-paren (arg)
  "Insert a parenthesis.

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If `c-syntactic-indentation' and `c-electric-flag' are both non-nil, the
line is reindented unless a numeric ARG is supplied, or the parenthesis
is inserted inside a literal.
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Whitespace between a function name and the parenthesis may get added or
removed; see the variable `c-cleanup-list'.

Also, if `c-electric-flag' and `c-auto-newline' are both non-nil, some
newline cleanups are done if appropriate; see the variable `c-cleanup-list'."
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  (interactive "*P")
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  (let ((literal (c-save-buffer-state () (c-in-literal)))
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	;; shut this up
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	(c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil))
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    (self-insert-command (prefix-numeric-value arg))

    (if (and (not arg) (not literal))
	(let* (	;; We want to inhibit blinking the paren since this will
	       ;; be most disruptive.  We'll blink it ourselves
	       ;; afterwards.
	       (old-blink-paren blink-paren-function)
	       blink-paren-function)
	  (if (and c-syntactic-indentation c-electric-flag)
	      (indent-according-to-mode))

	  ;; If we're at EOL, check for new-line clean-ups.
	  (when (and c-electric-flag c-auto-newline
		     (looking-at "[ \t]*\\\\?$"))

	    ;; clean up brace-elseif-brace
	    (when
		(and (memq 'brace-elseif-brace c-cleanup-list)
		     (eq last-command-char ?\()
		     (re-search-backward
		      (concat "}"
			      "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
			      "else"
			      "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)+"
			      "if"
			      "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
			      "("
			      "\\=")
		      nil t)
		     (not  (c-save-buffer-state () (c-in-literal))))
	      (delete-region (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0))
	      (insert-and-inherit "} else if ("))

	    ;; clean up brace-catch-brace
	    (when
		(and (memq 'brace-catch-brace c-cleanup-list)
		     (eq last-command-char ?\()
		     (re-search-backward
		      (concat "}"
			      "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
			      "catch"
			      "\\([ \t\n]\\|\\\\\n\\)*"
			      "("
			      "\\=")
		      nil t)
		     (not  (c-save-buffer-state () (c-in-literal))))
	      (delete-region (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0))
	      (insert-and-inherit "} catch (")))

	  ;; Check for clean-ups at function calls.  These two DON'T need
	  ;; `c-electric-flag' or `c-syntactic-indentation' set.
	  ;; Point is currently just after the inserted paren.
	  (let (beg (end (1- (point))))
	    (cond

	     ;; space-before-funcall clean-up?
	     ((and (memq 'space-before-funcall c-cleanup-list)
		   (eq last-command-char ?\()
		   (save-excursion
		     (backward-char)
		     (skip-chars-backward " \t")
		     (setq beg (point))
		     (c-save-buffer-state () (c-on-identifier))))
	      (save-excursion
		(delete-region beg end)
		(goto-char beg)
		(insert ?\ )))

	     ;; compact-empty-funcall clean-up?
		  ((c-save-buffer-state ()
		     (and (memq 'compact-empty-funcall c-cleanup-list)
			  (eq last-command-char ?\))
			  (save-excursion
			    (c-safe (backward-char 2))
			    (when (looking-at "()")
			      (setq end (point))
			      (skip-chars-backward " \t")
			      (setq beg (point))
			      (c-on-identifier)))))
		   (delete-region beg end))))
	  (and (eq last-input-event ?\))
	       (not executing-kbd-macro)
	       old-blink-paren
	       (funcall old-blink-paren))))))
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(defun c-electric-continued-statement ()
  "Reindent the current line if appropriate.

This function is used to reindent the line after a keyword which
continues an earlier statement is typed, e.g. an \"else\" or the
\"while\" in a do-while block.

The line is reindented if there is nothing but whitespace before the
keyword on the line, the keyword is not inserted inside a literal, and
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`c-electric-flag' and `c-syntactic-indentation' are both non-nil."
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  (let (;; shut this up
	(c-echo-syntactic-information-p nil))
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    (when (c-save-buffer-state ()
	    (and c-electric-flag
		 c-syntactic-indentation
		 (not (eq last-command-char ?_))
		 (= (save-excursion
		      (skip-syntax-backward "w")
		      (point))
		    (c-point 'boi))
		 (not (c-in-literal (c-point 'bod)))))
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      ;; Have to temporarily insert a space so that
      ;; c-guess-basic-syntax recognizes the keyword.  Follow the
      ;; space with a nonspace to avoid messing up any whitespace
      ;; sensitive meddling that might be done, e.g. by
      ;; `c-backslash-region'.
      (insert-and-inherit " x")
      (unwind-protect
	  (indent-according-to-mode)
	(delete-char -2)))))
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(defun c-forward-into-nomenclature (&optional arg)
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  "Compatibility alias for `c-forward-subword'."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (require 'cc-subword)
  (c-forward-subword arg))
(make-obsolete 'c-forward-into-nomenclature 'c-forward-subword)
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(defun c-backward-into-nomenclature (&optional arg)
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  "Compatibility alias for `c-backward-subword'."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (require 'cc-subword)
  (c-backward-subword arg))
(make-obsolete 'c-backward-into-nomenclature 'c-backward-subword)
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(defun c-scope-operator ()
  "Insert a double colon scope operator at point.
No indentation or other \"electric\" behavior is performed."
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  (interactive "*")
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  (insert-and-inherit "::"))
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(defun c-beginning-of-defun (&optional arg)
  "Move backward to the beginning of a defun.
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Every top level declaration that contains a brace paren block is
considered to be a defun.

With a positive argument, move backward that many defuns.  A negative
argument -N means move forward to the Nth following beginning.  Return
t unless search stops due to beginning or end of buffer.
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Unlike the built-in `beginning-of-defun' this tries to be smarter
about finding the char with open-parenthesis syntax that starts the
defun."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (or arg (setq arg 1))

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  (if (< arg 0)
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      (when (c-end-of-defun (- arg))
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	(c-save-buffer-state nil (c-forward-syntactic-ws))
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	t)

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    (c-save-buffer-state (paren-state lim pos)
      (catch 'exit
	(while (> arg 0)
	  ;; Note: Partial code duplication in `c-end-of-defun' and
	  ;; `c-declaration-limits'.
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	  (setq paren-state (c-parse-state))
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	  (unless (c-safe
		    (goto-char (c-least-enclosing-brace paren-state))
		    ;; If we moved to the outermost enclosing paren
		    ;; then we can use c-safe-position to set the
		    ;; limit.  Can't do that otherwise since the
		    ;; earlier paren pair on paren-state might very
		    ;; well be part of the declaration we should go
		    ;; to.
		    (setq lim (c-safe-position (point) paren-state))
		    t)
	    ;; At top level.  Make sure we aren't inside a literal.
	    (setq pos (c-literal-limits
		       (c-safe-position (point) paren-state)))
	    (if pos (goto-char (car pos))))

	  (while (let ((start (point)))
		   (c-beginning-of-decl-1 lim)
		   (if (= (point) start)
		       ;; Didn't move.  Might be due to bob or unbalanced
		       ;; parens.  Try to continue if it's the latter.
		       (unless (c-safe (goto-char
					(c-down-list-backward (point))))
			 ;; Didn't work, so it's bob then.
			 (goto-char (point-min))
			 (throw 'exit nil)))

		   (save-excursion
		     ;; Check if the declaration contains a brace
		     ;; block.  If not, we try another one.
		     (setq pos (point))
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		     (not (and (c-syntactic-re-search-forward "[;{]" nil t t)
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			       (or (eq (char-before) ?{)
				   (and c-recognize-knr-p
					;; Might have stopped on the
					;; ';' in a K&R argdecl.  In
					;; that case the declaration
					;; should contain a block.
					(c-in-knr-argdecl pos)))))))
	    (setq lim nil))

	  ;; Check if `c-beginning-of-decl-1' put us after the block
	  ;; in a declaration that doesn't end there.  We're searching
	  ;; back and forth over the block here, which can be
	  ;; expensive.
	  (setq pos (point))
	  (if (and c-opt-block-decls-with-vars-key
		   (progn
		     (c-backward-syntactic-ws)
		     (eq (char-before) ?}))
		   (eq (car (c-beginning-of-decl-1))
		       'previous)
		   (save-excursion
		     (c-end-of-decl-1)
		     (> (point) pos)))
	      nil
	    (goto-char pos))

	  (setq pos (point))
	  ;; Try to be line oriented; position point at the closest
	  ;; preceding boi that isn't inside a comment, but if we hit
	  ;; the previous declaration then we use the current point
	  ;; instead.
	  (while (and (/= (point) (c-point 'boi))
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		      (c-backward-single-comment)))
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	  (if (/= (point) (c-point 'boi))
	      (goto-char pos))

	  (setq arg (1- arg)))))
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