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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2003-05-21
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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You can narrow news to the specific version by calling
`view-emacs-news' with a prefix argument or by typing C-u C-h C-n.
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Temporary note:
 +++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
 --- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so we will look at it and add it to the manual.

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.4

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** A Bulgarian translation of the Emacs Tutorial is available.

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** You can build Emacs with Gtk+ widgets by specifying `--with-x-toolkit=gtk'
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when you run configure.  This requires Gtk+ 2.0 or newer.  This port
provides a way to display multilingual text in menus (with some caveats).
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** Emacs can now be built without sound support.

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** The `emacsserver' program has been removed, replaced with elisp code.

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** Emacs now supports new configure options `--program-prefix',
`--program-suffix' and `--program-transform-name' that affect the names of
installed programs.

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** By default, Emacs now uses a setgid helper program to update game
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scores.  The directory ${localstatedir}/games/emacs is the normal
place for game scores to be stored.  This may be controlled by the
configure option `--with-game-dir'.  The specific user that Emacs uses
to own the game scores is controlled by `--with-game-user'.  If access
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to a game user is not available, then scores will be stored separately
in each user's home directory.
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** Leim is now part of the Emacs distribution.
You no longer need to download a separate tarball in order to build
Emacs with Leim.

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** The Emacs Lisp Reference Manual is now part of the distribution.

The ELisp reference manual in Info format is built as part of the
Emacs build procedure and installed together with the Emacs User
Manual.  A menu item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy
accessible (Help->More Manuals->Emacs Lisp Reference).

** The Introduction to Programming in Emacs Lisp manual is now part of
the distribution.

This manual is now part of the standard distribution and is installed,
together with the Emacs User Manual, into the Info directory.  A menu
item was added to the menu bar that makes it easy accessible
(Help->More Manuals->Introduction to Emacs Lisp).

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** Support for Cygwin was added.

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** Support for FreeBSD/Alpha has been added.

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** Support for GNU/Linux systems on S390 machines was added.

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** Support for MacOS X was added.
See the files mac/README and mac/INSTALL for build instructions.

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** Support for GNU/Linux systems on X86-64 machines was added.
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** A French translation of the `Emacs Survival Guide' is available.

** A French translation of the Emacs Tutorial is available.
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** Building with -DENABLE_CHECKING does not automatically build with union
types any more.  Add -DUSE_LISP_UNION_TYPE if you want union types.
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* Changes in Emacs 21.4

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** The IELM prompt is now, by default, read-only.  This can be
controlled with the new user option `ielm-prompt-read-only'.

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** You can now use next-error (C-x `) and previous-error to advance to
the next/previous matching line found by M-x occur.

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** Telnet will now prompt you for a port number with C-u M-x telnet.

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** New command line option -Q.

This is like using -q --no-site-file, but in addition it also disables
the menu-bar, the tool-bar, the scroll-bars, tool tips, the blinking
cursor, and the fancy startup screen.

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** C-h v and C-h f commands now include a hyperlink to the C source for
variables and functions defined in C (if the C source is available).

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** When used interactively, `format-write-file' now asks for confirmation
before overwriting an existing file, unless a prefix argument is
supplied.  This behavior is analogous to `write-file'.

** You can now use Auto Revert mode to `tail' a file.
If point is at the end of a file buffer before reverting, Auto Revert
mode keeps it at the end after reverting.  Similarly if point is
displayed at the end of a file buffer in any window, it will stay at
the end of the buffer in that window.  This allows to tail a file:
just put point at the end of the buffer and it will stay there.  This
rule applies to file buffers.  For non-file buffers, the behavior may
be mode dependent.

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** Auto Revert mode is now more careful to avoid excessive reverts and
other potential problems when deciding which non-file buffers to
revert.  This matters especially if Global Auto Revert mode is enabled
and `global-auto-revert-non-file-buffers' is non-nil.  Auto Revert
mode will only revert a non-file buffer if the buffer has a non-nil
`revert-buffer-function' and a non-nil `buffer-stale-function', which
decides whether the buffer should be reverted.  Currently, this means
that auto reverting works for Dired buffers (although this may not
work properly on all operating systems) and for the Buffer Menu.

** If the new user option `auto-revert-check-vc-info' is non-nil, Auto
Revert mode reliably updates version control info (such as the version
control number in the mode line), in all version controlled buffers in
which it is active.  If the option is nil, the default, then this info
only gets updated whenever the buffer gets reverted.

** New command `Buffer-menu-toggle-files-only' toggles display of file
buffers only in the Buffer Menu.  It is bound to `T' in Buffer Menu

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** M-x compile has become more robust and reliable

Quite a few more kinds of messages are recognized.  Messages that are
recognized as warnings or informational come in orange or green, instead of
red.  Informational messages are by default skipped with `next-error'
(controlled by `compilation-skip-threshold').

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Location data is collected on the fly as the *compilation* buffer changes.
This means you could modify messages to make them point to different files.
This also means you can not go to locations of messages you may have deleted.

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The variable `compilation-error-regexp-alist' has now become customizable.  If
you had added your own regexps to this, you'll probably need to include a
leading `^', otherwise they'll match anywhere on a line.  There is now also a
`compilation-mode-font-lock-keywords' and it nicely handles all the checks
that configure outputs and -o options so you see at a glance where you are.
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The new file etc/compilation.txt gives examples of each type of message.

** M-x grep has been adapted to new compile

Hits are fontified in green, and hits in binary files in orange.  Grep buffers
can be saved and will again be loaded with the new `grep-mode'.

** M-x diff uses diff-mode instead of compilation-mode.

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** M-x compare-windows now can automatically skip non-matching text to
resync points in both windows.

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** New command `strokes-global-set-stroke-string'.
This is like `strokes-global-set-stroke', but it allows you to bind
the stroke directly to a string to insert.  This is convenient for
using strokes as an input method.

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** The saveplace.el package now filters out unreadable files.
When you exit Emacs, the saved positions in visited files no longer
include files that aren't readable, e.g. files that don't exist.
Customize the new option `save-place-forget-unreadable-files' to nil
to get the old behavior.  The new options `save-place-save-skipped'
and `save-place-skip-check-regexp' allow further fine-tuning of this

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** You can have several Emacs servers on the same machine.

	% emacs --eval '(setq server-name "foo")' -f server-start &
	% emacs --eval '(setq server-name "bar")' -f server-start &
	% emacsclient -s foo file1
	% emacsclient -s bar file2

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** On window systems, lines which are exactly as wide as the window
(not counting the final newline character) are no longer broken into
two lines on the display (with just the newline on the second line).
Instead, the newline now "overflows" into the right fringe, and the
cursor will be displayed in the fringe when positioned on that newline.

The new user option 'overflow-newline-into-fringe' may be set to nil to
revert to the old behaviour of continuing such lines.

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** The buffer boundaries (i.e. first and last line in the buffer) may
now be marked with angle bitmaps in the fringes.  In addition, up and
down arrow bitmaps may be shown at the top and bottom of the left or
right fringe if the window can be scrolled in either direction.
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This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
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`indicate-buffer-boundaries' to a non-nil value.  The default value of
this variable is found in `default-indicate-buffer-boundaries'.

If value is `left' or `right', both angle and arrow bitmaps are
displayed in the left or right fringe, resp.  Any other non-nil value
causes the bitmap on the top line to be displayed in the left fringe,
and the bitmap on the bottom line in the right fringe.

If value is a cons (ANGLES . ARROWS), the car specifies the position
of the angle bitmaps, and the cdr specifies the position of the arrow
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For example, (t .  right) places the top angle bitmap in left fringe,
the bottom angle bitmap in right fringe, and both arrow bitmaps in
right fringe.  To show just the angle bitmaps in the left fringe, but
no arrow bitmaps, use (left . nil).

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** New command `display-local-help' displays any local help at point
in the echo area.  It is bound to `C-h .'.  It normally displays the
same string that would be displayed on mouse-over using the
`help-echo' property, but, in certain cases, it can display a more
keyboard oriented alternative.

** New user option `help-at-pt-display-when-idle' allows to
automatically show the help provided by `display-local-help' on
point-over, after suitable idle time.  The amount of idle time is
determined by the user option `help-at-pt-timer-delay' and defaults
to one second.  This feature is turned off by default.

** New commands `scan-buf-next-region' and `scan-buf-previous-region'
move to the start of the next (previous, respectively) region with
non-nil help-echo property and display any help found there in the
echo area, using `display-local-help'.

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** Help mode now only makes hyperlinks for faces when the face name is
preceded or followed by the word `face'.  It no longer makes
hyperlinks for variables without variable documentation, unless
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preceded by one of the words `variable' or `option'.  It now makes
hyperlinks to Info anchors (or nodes) if the anchor (or node) name is
enclosed in single quotes and preceded by `info anchor' or `Info
anchor' (in addition to earlier `info node' and `Info node').
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** The max size of buffers and integers has been doubled.
On 32bit machines, it is now 256M (i.e. 268435455).

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** The -f option, used from the command line to call a function,
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now reads arguments for the function interactively if it is
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an interactively callable function.

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** sql changes.

*** The variable `sql-product' controls the highlightng of different
SQL dialects.  This variable can be set globally via Customize, on a
buffer-specific basis via local variable settings, or for the current
session using the new SQL->Product submenu.  (This menu replaces the
SQL->Highlighting submenu.)

The following values are supported:

    ansi	ANSI Standard (default)
    db2		DB2
    informix    Informix
    ingres      Ingres
    interbase	Interbase
    linter	Linter
    ms		Microsoft
    mysql	MySQL
    oracle	Oracle
    postgres	Postgres
    solid       Solid
    sqlite      SQLite
    sybase      Sybase

The current product name will be shown on the mode line following the
SQL mode indicator.

The technique of setting `sql-mode-font-lock-defaults' directly in
your .emacs will no longer establish the default highlighting -- Use
`sql-product' to accomplish this.

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ANSI keywords are always highlighted.

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*** The function `sql-add-product-keywords' can be used to add
font-lock rules to the product specific rules.  For example, to have
all identifiers ending in "_t" under MS SQLServer treated as a type,
you would use the following line in your .emacs file:

  (sql-add-product-keywords 'ms
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             '(("\\<\\w+_t\\>" . font-lock-type-face)))
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*** Oracle support includes keyword highlighting for Oracle 9i.  Most
SQL and PL/SQL keywords are implemented.  SQL*Plus commands are
highlighted in `font-lock-doc-face'.

*** Microsoft SQLServer support has been significantly improved.
Keyword highlighting for SqlServer 2000 is implemented.
sql-interactive-mode defaults to use osql, rather than isql, because
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osql flushes its error stream more frequently.  Thus error messages
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are displayed when they occur rather than when the session is

If the username and password are not provided to `sql-ms', osql is
called with the -E command line argument to use the operating system
credentials to authenticate the user.

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*** Postgres support is enhanced.
Keyword highlighting of Postgres 7.3 is implemented.  Prompting for
the username and the pgsql `-U' option is added.

*** MySQL support is enhanced.
Keyword higlighting of MySql 4.0 is implemented.

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*** Imenu support has been enhanced to locate tables, views, indexes,
packages, procedures, functions, triggers, sequences, rules, and

*** Added SQL->Start SQLi Session menu entry which calls the
appropriate sql-interactive-mode wrapper for the current setting of

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** M-x view-file and commands that use it now avoid interfering
with special modes such as Tar mode.

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** Enhancements to apropos commands:

*** The apropos commands will now accept a list of words to match.
When more than one word is specified, at least two of those words must
be present for an item to match.  Regular expression matching is still

*** The new option `apropos-sort-by-scores' causes the matching items
to be sorted according to their score.  The score for an item is a
number calculated to indicate how well the item matches the words or
regular expression that you entered to the apropos command.  The best
match is listed first, and the calculated score is shown for each
matching item.

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** The old bindings C-M-delete and C-M-backspace have been deleted,
since there are situations where one or the other will shut down
the operating system or your X server.

** New minor mode, Visible mode, toggles invisibility in the current buffer.
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When enabled, it makes all invisible text visible.  When disabled, it
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restores the previous value of `buffer-invisibility-spec'.
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** New command `kill-whole-line' kills an entire line at once.
By default, it is bound to C-S-<backspace>.

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** Dired mode:

*** New faces dired-header, dired-mark, dired-marked, dired-flagged,
dired-ignored, dired-directory, dired-symlink, dired-warning
introduced for Dired mode instead of font-lock faces.

*** New Dired command `dired-compare-directories' to mark files with
different file attributes in two dired buffers.

*** In Dired's ! command (dired-do-shell-command), `*' and `?' now
control substitution of the file names only when they are surrounded
by whitespace.  This means you can now use them as shell wildcards
too.  If you want to use just plain `*' as a wildcard, type `*""'; the
doublequotes make no difference in the shell, but they prevent
special treatment in `dired-do-shell-command'.

*** Dired's v command now runs external viewers to view certain
types of files.  The variable `dired-view-command-alist' controls
what external viewers to use and when.

*** In Dired, the w command now copies the current line's file name
into the kill ring.

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** Info mode:
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*** Info now hides node names in menus and cross references by default.
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If you prefer the old behavior, you can set the new user option
`Info-hide-note-references' to nil.

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*** The new command `info-apropos' searches the indices of the known
Info files on your system for a string, and builds a menu of the
possible matches.

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*** Images in Info pages are supported.
Info pages show embedded images, in Emacs frames with image support.
Info documentation that includes images, processed with makeinfo
version 4.7 or newer, compiles to Info pages with embedded images.

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*** The default value for `Info-scroll-prefer-subnodes' is now nil.

*** Info-index offers completion.

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** Support for the SQLite interpreter has been added to sql.el by calling

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** BibTeX mode:
*** New `bibtex-entry-format' option `required-fields', enabled by default.
*** bibtex-maintain-sorted-entries can take values `plain',
`crossref', and `entry-class' which control the sorting scheme used
for BibTeX entries. `bibtex-sort-entry-class' controls the sorting
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scheme `entry-class'. TAB completion for reference keys and
automatic detection of duplicates does not require anymore that
bibtex-maintain-sorted-entries is non-nil.

*** If the new variable bibtex-parse-keys-fast is non-nil,
use fast but simplified algorithm for parsing BibTeX keys.

*** If the new variable bibtex-autoadd-commas is non-nil,
automatically add missing commas at end of BibTeX fields.

*** The new variable bibtex-autofill-types contains a list of entry
types for which fields are filled automatically (if possible).

*** The new command bibtex-complete completes word fragment before
point according to context (bound to M-tab).

*** The new commands bibtex-find-entry and bibtex-find-crossref
locate entries and crossref'd entries.

*** In BibTeX mode the command fill-paragraph (bound to M-q) fills
individual fields of a BibTeX entry.
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** When display margins are present in a window, the fringes are now
displayed between the margins and the buffer's text area, rather than
at the edges of the window.

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** A window may now have individual fringe and scroll-bar settings,
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in addition to the individual display margin settings.

Such individual settings are now preserved when windows are split
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horizontally or vertically, a saved window configuration is restored,
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or when the frame is resized.

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** New functions frame-current-scroll-bars and window-current-scroll-bars.

These functions return the current locations of the vertical and
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horizontal scroll bars in a frame or window.
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** Emacs now supports drag and drop for X.  Dropping a file on a window
   opens it, dropping text inserts the text.  Dropping a file on a dired
   buffer copies or moves the file to that directory.

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** Under X, mouse-wheel-mode is turned on by default.

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** The X resource useXIM can be used to turn off use of XIM, which may
speed up Emacs with slow networking to the X server.

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If the configure option `--without-xim' was used to turn off use of
XIM by default, the X resource useXIM can be used to turn it on.

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** `undo-only' does an undo which does not redo any previous undo.
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** `uniquify-strip-common-suffix' tells uniquify to prefer
`file|dir1' and `file|dir2' to `file|dir1/subdir' and `file|dir2/subdir'.

** If the user visits a file larger than `large-file-warning-threshold',
Emacs will prompt her for confirmation.

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** A UTF-7 coding system is available in the library `utf-7'.

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** GUD mode has its own tool bar for controlling execution of the inferior
and other common debugger commands.

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** recentf changes.

The recent file list is now automatically cleanup when recentf mode is
enabled.  The new option `recentf-auto-cleanup' controls when to do
automatic cleanup.

With the more advanced option: `recentf-filename-handler', you can
specify a function that transforms filenames handled by recentf.  For
example, if set to `file-truename', the same file will not be in the
recent list with different symbolic links.

To follow naming convention, `recentf-keep-non-readable-files-flag'
and `recentf-menu-append-commands-flag' respectively replace the
misnamed options `recentf-keep-non-readable-files-p' and
`recentf-menu-append-commands-p'.  The old names remain available as
aliases, but have been marked obsolete.

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** The default for the paper size (variable ps-paper-type) is taken
from the locale.
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** Init file changes

You can now put the init files .emacs and .emacs_SHELL under
~/.emacs.d or directly under ~.  Emacs will find them in either place.

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** partial-completion-mode now does partial completion on directory names.

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** skeleton.el now supports using - to mark the skeleton-point without
   interregion interaction.  @ has reverted to only setting
   skeleton-positions and no longer sets skeleton-point.  Skeletons
   which used @ to mark skeleton-point independent of _ should now use -
   instead.  The updated skeleton-insert docstring explains these new
   features along with other details of skeleton construction.

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** MH-E changes.

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Upgraded to MH-E version 7.3. There have been major changes since
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version 5.0.2; see MH-E-NEWS for details.

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** The `emacsclient' command understands the options `--eval' and
`--display' which tell Emacs respectively to evaluate the given elisp
expression and to use the given display when visiting files.

** User option `server-mode' can be used to start a server process.

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** The mode line position information now comes before the major mode.
When the file is maintained under version control, that information
appears between the position information and the major mode.
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** C-x s (save-some-buffers) now offers an option `d' to diff a buffer
against its file, so you can see what changes you would be saving.

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** You can now customize the use of window fringes.  To control this
for all frames, use M-x fringe-mode or the Show/Hide submenu of the
top-level Options menu, or customize the `fringe-mode' variable.  To
control this for a specific frame, use the command M-x
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** There is a new user option `mail-default-directory' that allows you
to specify the value of `default-directory' for mail buffers.  This
directory is used for auto-save files of mail buffers.  It defaults to

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** When you are root, and you visit a file whose modes specify
read-only, the Emacs buffer is now read-only too.  Type C-x C-q if you
want to make the buffer writable.  (As root, you will in fact be able
to alter the file.)

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** The new command `revert-buffer-with-coding-system' (C-x RET r)
revisits the current file using a coding system that you specify.

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** The new command `recode-file-name' changes the encoding of the name
of a file.

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** `ps-print' can now print characters from the mule-unicode charsets.
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Printing text with characters from the mule-unicode-* sets works with
ps-print, provided that you have installed the appropriate BDF fonts.
See the file INSTALL for URLs where you can find these fonts.

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** The new options `buffers-menu-show-directories' and
`buffers-menu-show-status' let you control how buffers are displayed
in the menu dropped down when you click "Buffers" from the menu bar.

`buffers-menu-show-directories' controls whether the menu displays
leading directories as part of the file name visited by the buffer.
If its value is `unless-uniquify', the default, directories will be
shown unless uniquify-buffer-name-style' is non-nil.  The value of nil
and t turn the display of directories off and on, respectively.

`buffers-menu-show-status' controls whether the Buffers menu includes
the modified and read-only status of the buffers.  By default it is
t, and the status is shown.

Setting these variables directly does not take effect until next time
the Buffers menu is regenerated.

** The commands M-x customize-face and M-x customize-face-other-window
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now look at the character after point.  If a face or faces are
specified for that character, the commands by default customize those

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** New language environments: French, Ukrainian, Tajik,
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Bulgarian, Belarusian, Ukrainian, UTF-8, Windows-1255, Welsh, Latin-6,
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Latin-7, Lithuanian, Latvian, Swedish, Slovenian, Croatian, Georgian,
Italian, Russian, Malayalam, Tamil, Russian, Chinese-EUC-TW.  (Set up
automatically according to the locale.)
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** Indian support has been updated.
The in-is13194 coding system is now Unicode-based.  CDAC fonts are
assumed.  There is a framework for supporting various
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Indian scripts, but currently only Devanagari, Malayalam and Tamil are
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** New input methods: latin-alt-postfix, latin-postfix, latin-prefix,
ukrainian-computer, belarusian, bulgarian-bds, russian-computer,
vietnamese-telex, lithuanian-numeric, lithuanian-keyboard,
latvian-keyboard, welsh, georgian, rfc1345, ucs, sgml,
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bulgarian-phonetic, dutch, slovenian, croatian, malayalam-inscript,
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** A new coding system `euc-tw' has been added for traditional Chinese
in CNS encoding; it accepts both Big 5 and CNS as input; on saving,
Big 5 is then converted to CNS.

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** Many new coding systems are available by loading the `code-pages'
library.  These include complete versions of most of those in
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codepage.el, based on Unicode mappings.  `codepage-setup' is now
obsolete and is used only in the MS-DOS port of Emacs.  windows-1252
and windows-1251 are preloaded since the former is so common and the
latter is used by GNU locales.
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** The utf-8/16 coding systems have been enhanced.
By default, untranslatable utf-8 sequences (mostly representing CJK
characters) are simply composed into single quasi-characters.  User
option `utf-translate-cjk' arranges to translate many utf-8 CJK
character sequences into real Emacs characters in a similar way to the
Mule-UCS system.  This uses significant space, so is not the default.
You can augment/amend the CJK translation via hash tables
`ucs-mule-cjk-to-unicode' and `ucs-unicode-to-mule-cjk'.  The utf-8
coding system now also encodes characters from most of Emacs's
one-dimensional internal charsets, specifically the ISO-8859 ones.
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The utf-16 coding system is affected similarly.
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** iso-10646-1 (`Unicode') fonts can be used to display any range of
characters encodable by the utf-8 coding system.  Just specify the
fontset appropriately.
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** New command `ucs-insert' inserts a character specified by its
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** Limited support for character `unification' has been added.
Emacs now knows how to translate between different representations of
the same characters in various Emacs charsets according to standard
Unicode mappings.  This applies mainly to characters in the ISO 8859
sets plus some other 8-bit sets, but can be extended.  For instance,
translation works amongst the Emacs ...-iso8859-... charsets and the
mule-unicode-... ones.

By default this translation will happen automatically on encoding.
Self-inserting characters are translated to make the input conformant
with the encoding of the buffer in which it's being used, where
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You can force a more complete unification with the user option
unify-8859-on-decoding-mode.  That maps all the Latin-N character sets
into Unicode characters (from the latin-iso8859-1 and
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mule-unicode-0100-24ff charsets) on decoding.  Note that this mode
will often effectively clobber data with an iso-2022 encoding.
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** There is support for decoding Greek and Cyrillic characters into
either Unicode (the mule-unicode charsets) or the iso-8859 charsets,
when possible.  The latter are more space-efficient.  This is
controlled by user option utf-fragment-on-decoding.
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** The new command `set-file-name-coding-system' (C-x RET F) sets
coding system for encoding and decoding file names.  A new menu item
(Options->Mule->Set Coding Systems->For File Name) invokes this

** The scrollbar under LessTif or Motif has a smoother drag-scrolling.
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On the other hand, the size of the thumb does not represent the actual
amount of text shown any more (only a crude approximation of it).

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** The pop up menus for Lucid now stay up if you do a fast click and can
be navigated with the arrow keys (like Gtk+ and W32).

** Dialogs for Lucid/Athena and Lesstif/Motif pops down when pressing ESC.

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** The file selection dialog for Gtk+, W32 and Motif/Lesstif can be
disabled by customizing the variable `use-file-dialog'.

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** Emacs can produce an underscore-like (horizontal bar) cursor.
The underscore cursor is set by putting `(cursor-type . hbar)' in
default-frame-alist.  It supports variable heights, like the `bar'
cursor does.

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** On X, MS Windows, and Mac OS, the blinking cursor's "off" state is
now controlled by the variable `blink-cursor-alist'.

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** Filesets are collections of files.  You can define a fileset in
various ways, such as based on a directory tree or based on
program files that include other program files.

Once you have defined a fileset, you can perform various operations on
all the files in it, such as visiting them or searching and replacing
in them.

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** PO translation files are decoded according to their MIME headers
when Emacs visits them.

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** The game `mpuz' is enhanced.

`mpuz' now allows the 2nd factor not to have two identical digits.  By
default, all trivial operations involving whole lines are performed
automatically.  The game uses faces for better visual feedback.

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** The new variable `x-select-request-type' controls how Emacs
requests X selection.  The default value is nil, which means that
Emacs requests X selection with types COMPOUND_TEXT and UTF8_STRING,
and use the more appropriately result.

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** The parameters of automatic hscrolling can now be customized.
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The variable `hscroll-margin' determines how many columns away from
the window edge point is allowed to get before automatic hscrolling
will horizontally scroll the window.  The default value is 5.

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The variable `hscroll-step' determines how many columns automatic
hscrolling will scroll the window when point gets too close to the
window edge.  If its value is zero, the default, Emacs scrolls the
window so as to center point.  If its value is an integer, it says how
many columns to scroll.  If the value is a floating-point number, it
gives the fraction of the window's width to scroll the window.

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The variable `automatic-hscrolling' was renamed to
`auto-hscroll-mode'.  The old name is still available as an alias.

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** TeX modes:
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*** C-c C-c prompts for a command to run, and tries to offer a good default.
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*** The user option `tex-start-options-string' has been replaced
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by two new user options: `tex-start-options', which should hold
command-line options to feed to TeX, and `tex-start-commands' which should hold
TeX commands to use at startup.
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*** verbatim environments are now highlighted in courier by font-lock
and super/sub-scripts are made into super/sub-scripts.

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*** New major mode doctex-mode for *.dtx files.

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** New display feature: focus follows the mouse from one Emacs window
to another, even within a frame.  If you set the variable
mouse-autoselect-window to non-nil value, moving the mouse to a
different Emacs window will select that window (minibuffer window can
be selected only when it is active).  The default is nil, so that this
feature is not enabled.
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** On X, when the window manager requires that you click on a frame to
select it (give it focus), the selected window and cursor position
normally changes according to the mouse click position.  If you set
the variable x-mouse-click-focus-ignore-position to t, the selected
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window and cursor position do not change when you click on a frame
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to give it focus.

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** The new command `describe-char' (C-u C-x =) pops up a buffer with
description various information about a character, including its
encodings and syntax, its text properties, overlays, and widgets at
point.  You can get more information about some of them, by clicking
on mouse-sensitive areas or moving there and pressing RET.
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** The new command `multi-occur' is just like `occur', except it can
search multiple buffers.  There is also a new command
`multi-occur-by-filename-regexp' which allows you to specify the
buffers to search by their filename.  Internally, Occur mode has been
rewritten, and now uses font-lock, among other changes.

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** Emacs normally highlights mouse sensitive text whenever the mouse
is over the text.  By setting the new variable `mouse-highlight', you
can optionally enable mouse highlighting only after you move the
mouse, so that highlighting disappears when you press a key.  You can
also disable mouse highlighting.

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** font-lock: in modes like C and Lisp where the fontification assumes that
an open-paren in column 0 is always outside of any string or comment,
font-lock now highlights any such open-paren-in-column-zero in bold-red
if it is inside a string or a comment, to indicate that it can cause
trouble with fontification and/or indentation.

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** There's a new face `minibuffer-prompt'.
Emacs adds this face to the list of text properties stored in the
variable `minibuffer-prompt-properties', which is used to display the
prompt string.

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** The new face `mode-line-inactive' is used to display the mode line
of non-selected windows.  The `mode-line' face is now used to display
the mode line of the currently selected window.

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The new variable `mode-line-in-non-selected-windows' controls whether
the `mode-line-inactive' face is used.

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** A menu item "Show/Hide" was added to the top-level menu "Options".
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This menu allows you to turn various display features on and off (such
as the fringes, the tool bar, the speedbar, and the menu bar itself).
You can also move the vertical scroll bar to either side here or turn
it off completely.  There is also a menu-item to toggle displaying of
current date and time, current line and column number in the
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** Speedbar has moved from the "Tools" top level menu to "Show/Hide".

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** Emacs can now indicate in the mode-line the presence of new e-mail
in a directory or in a file.  See the documentation of the user option
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** LDAP support now defaults to ldapsearch from OpenLDAP version 2.

** You can now disable pc-selection-mode after enabling it.
M-x pc-selection-mode behaves like a proper minor mode, and with no
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argument it toggles the mode.

Turning off PC-Selection mode restores the global key bindings
that were replaced by turning on the mode.

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** Emacs now displays a splash screen by default even if command-line
arguments were given.  The new command-line option --no-splash
disables the splash screen; see also the variable
`inhibit-startup-message' (which is also aliased as

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** Changes in support of colors on character terminals

*** The new command-line option --color=MODE lets you specify a standard
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mode for a tty color support.  It is meant to be used on character
terminals whose capabilities are not set correctly in the terminal
database, or with terminal emulators which support colors, but don't
set the TERM environment variable to a name of a color-capable
terminal.  "emacs --color" uses the same color commands as GNU `ls'
when invoked with "ls --color", so if your terminal can support colors
in "ls --color", it will support "emacs --color" as well.  See the
user manual for the possible values of the MODE parameter.

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*** Emacs now supports several character terminals which provide more
than 8 colors.  For example, for `xterm', 16-color, 88-color, and
256-color modes are supported.  Emacs automatically notes at startup
the extended number of colors, and defines the appropriate entries for
all of these colors.

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*** Emacs now uses the full range of available colors for the default
faces when running on a color terminal, including 16-, 88-, and
256-color xterms.  This means that when you run "emacs -nw" on an
88-color or 256-color xterm, you will see essentially the same face
colors as on X.

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*** There's a new support for colors on `rxvt' terminal emulator.

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** Emacs can now be invoked in full-screen mode on a windowed display.

When Emacs is invoked on a window system, the new command-line options
`--fullwidth', `--fullheight', and `--fullscreen' produce a frame
whose width, height, or both width and height take up the entire
screen size.  (For now, this does not work with some window managers.)

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** Emacs now tries to set up buffer coding systems for HTML/XML files
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** The new command `comint-insert-previous-argument' in comint-derived
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modes (shell-mode etc) inserts arguments from previous command lines,
like bash's `ESC .' binding.  It is bound by default to `C-c .', but
otherwise behaves quite similarly to the bash version.

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** Changes in C-h bindings:

C-h e displays the *Messages* buffer.

C-h followed by a control character is used for displaying files
    that do not change:

C-h C-f displays the FAQ.
C-h C-e displays the PROBLEMS file.

The info-search bindings on C-h C-f, C-h C-k and C-h C-i
have been moved to C-h F, C-h K and C-h S.

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C-h c, C-h k, C-h w, and C-h f now handle remapped interactive commands.

- C-h c and C-h k report the actual command (after possible remapping)
  run by the key sequence.

- C-h w and C-h f on a command which has been remapped now report the
  command it is remapped to, and the keys which can be used to run
  that command.

For example, if C-k is bound to kill-line, and kill-line is remapped
to new-kill-line, these commands now report:
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- C-h c and C-h k C-k reports:
  C-k runs the command new-kill-line

- C-h w and C-h f kill-line reports:
  kill-line is remapped to new-kill-line which is on C-k, <deleteline>

- C-h w and C-h f new-kill-line reports:
  new-kill-line is on C-k

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** C-w in incremental search now grabs either a character or a word,
making the decision in a heuristic way.  This new job is done by the
command `isearch-yank-word-or-char'.  To restore the old behavior,
bind C-w to `isearch-yank-word' in `isearch-mode-map'.

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** Yanking text now discards certain text properties that can
be inconvenient when you did not expect them.  The variable
`yank-excluded-properties' specifies which ones.  Insertion
of register contents and rectangles also discards these properties.

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** Occur, Info, and comint-derived modes now support using
M-x font-lock-mode to toggle fontification.  The variable
`Info-fontify' is no longer applicable; to disable fontification,
remove `turn-on-font-lock' from `Info-mode-hook'.

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** M-x grep now tries to avoid appending `/dev/null' to the command line
by using GNU grep `-H' option instead.  M-x grep will automatically
detect whether this is possible or not the first time it is invoked.
When `-H' is used, the grep command line supplied by the user is passed
unchanged to the system to execute, which allows more complicated
command lines to be used than was possible before.

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** The face-customization widget has been reworked to be less confusing.
In particular, when you enable a face attribute using the corresponding
check-box, there's no longer a redundant `*' option in value selection
for that attribute; the values you can choose are only those which make
sense for the attribute.  When an attribute is de-selected by unchecking
its check-box, then the (now ignored, but still present temporarily in
case you re-select the attribute) value is hidden.

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** When you set or reset a variable's value in a Customize buffer,
the previous value becomes the "backup value" of the variable.
You can go back to that backup value by selecting "Use Backup Value"
under the "[State]" button.

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** The new customization type `float' specifies numbers with floating
point (no integers are allowed).

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** In GUD mode, when talking to GDB, C-x C-a C-j "jumps" the program
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counter to the specified source line (the one where point is).

** GUD mode improvements for jdb:
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*** Search for source files using jdb classpath and class
    information. Fast startup since there is no need to scan all
    source files up front. There is also no need to create and maintain
    lists of source directories to scan. Look at `gud-jdb-use-classpath'
    and `gud-jdb-classpath' customization variables documentation.

*** Supports the standard breakpoint (gud-break, gud-clear)
    set/clear operations from java source files under the classpath, stack
    traversal (gud-up, gud-down), and run until current stack finish

*** Supports new jdb (Java 1.2 and later) in addition to oldjdb
    (Java 1.1 jdb).

*** The previous method of searching for source files has been
    preserved in case someone still wants/needs to use it.
    Set gud-jdb-use-classpath to nil.

  Added Customization Variables

*** gud-jdb-command-name.  What command line to use to invoke jdb.

*** gud-jdb-use-classpath. Allows selection of java source file searching
    method: set to t for new method, nil to scan gud-jdb-directories for
    java sources (previous method).

*** gud-jdb-directories. List of directories to scan and search for java
    classes using the original gud-jdb method (if gud-jdb-use-classpath
    is nil).

  Minor Improvements

*** Do not allow debugger output history variable to grow without bounds.

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** hide-ifdef-mode now uses overlays rather than selective-display
to hide its text.  This should be mostly transparent but slightly
changes the behavior of motion commands like C-e and C-p.
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** Unquoted `$' in file names do not signal an error any more when
the corresponding environment variable does not exist.
Instead, the `$ENVVAR' text is left as is, so that `$$' quoting
is only rarely needed.

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** JIT-lock changes
*** jit-lock can now be delayed with `jit-lock-defer-time'.
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If this variable is non-nil, its value should be the amount of Emacs
idle time in seconds to wait before starting fontification.  For
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example, if you set `jit-lock-defer-time' to 0.25, fontification will
only happen after 0.25s of idle time.
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*** contextual refontification is now separate from stealth fontification.

jit-lock-defer-contextually is renamed jit-lock-contextually and
jit-lock-context-time determines the delay after which contextual
refontification takes place.

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** Marking commands extend the region when invoked multiple times.  If
you hit M-C-SPC (mark-sexp), M-@ (mark-word), M-h (mark-paragraph), or
C-M-h (mark-defun) repeatedly, the marked region will now be extended
each time, so you can mark the next two sexps with M-C-SPC M-C-SPC,
for example.  This feature also works for mark-end-of-sentence, if you
bind that to a key.
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** Some commands do something special in Transient Mark mode when the
mark is active--for instance, they limit their operation to the
region.  Even if you don't normally use Transient Mark mode, you might
want to get this behavior from a particular command.  There are two
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ways you can enable Transient Mark mode and activate the mark, for one
command only.

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One method is to type C-SPC C-SPC; this enables Transient Mark mode
and sets the mark at point.  The other method is to type C-u C-x C-x.
This enables Transient Mark mode temporarily but does not alter the
mark or the region.

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After these commands, Transient Mark mode remains enabled until you
deactivate the mark.  That typically happens when you type a command
that alters the buffer, but you can also deactivate the mark by typing

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** A prefix argument is no longer required to repeat a jump to a
previous mark, i.e. C-u C-SPC C-SPC C-SPC ... will cycle through the
mark ring.  Use C-u C-u C-SPC to set the mark immediately after a jump.

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** In the *Occur* buffer, `o' switches to it in another window, and
C-o displays the current line's occurrence in another window without
switching to it.

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** When you specify a frame size with --geometry, the size applies to
all frames you create.  A position specified with --geometry only
affects the initial frame.

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** M-h (mark-paragraph) now accepts a prefix arg.
With positive arg, M-h marks the current and the following paragraphs;
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if the arg is negative, it marks the current and the preceding
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** The variables dired-free-space-program and dired-free-space-args
have been renamed to directory-free-space-program and
directory-free-space-args, and they now apply whenever Emacs puts a
directory listing into a buffer.

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** mouse-wheels can now scroll a specific fraction of the window
(rather than a fixed number of lines) and the scrolling is `progressive'.

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** Unexpected yanking of text due to accidental clicking on the mouse
wheel button (typically mouse-2) during wheel scrolling is now avoided.
This behaviour can be customized via the mouse-wheel-click-event and
mouse-wheel-inhibit-click-time variables.

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** The keyboard-coding-system is now automatically set based on your
current locale settings if you are not using a window system.  This
may mean that the META key doesn't work but generates non-ASCII
characters instead, depending on how the terminal (or terminal
emulator) works.  Use `set-keyboard-coding-system' (or customize
keyboard-coding-system) if you prefer META to work (the old default)
or if the locale doesn't describe the character set actually generated
by the keyboard.  See Info node `Single-Byte Character Support'.
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** Emacs now reads the standard abbrevs file ~/.abbrev_defs
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automatically at startup, if it exists.  When Emacs offers to save
modified buffers, it saves the abbrevs too if they have changed.  It
can do this either silently or asking for confirmation first,
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according to the value of `save-abbrevs'.

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** Display of hollow cursors now obeys the buffer-local value (if any)
of `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' in the buffer that the cursor
appears in.
Gerd Moellmann's avatar
Gerd Moellmann committed

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** The variable `cursor-in-non-selected-windows' can now be set to any
of the recognized cursor types.
Juanma Barranquero's avatar
Juanma Barranquero committed

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** The variable `auto-save-file-name-transforms' now has a third element that
controls whether or not the function `make-auto-save-file-name' will
attempt to construct a unique auto-save name (e.g. for remote files).

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** Diary sexp entries can have custom marking in the calendar.
Diary sexp functions which only apply to certain days (such as
Andreas Schwab's avatar
Andreas Schwab committed
`diary-block' or `diary-cyclic') now take an optional parameter MARK,
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which is the name of a face or a single-character string indicating
how to highlight the day in the calendar display.  Specifying a
single-character string as @var{mark} places the character next to the
day in the calendar.  Specifying a face highlights the day with that
face.  This lets you have different colors or markings for vacations,
appointments, paydays or anything else using a sexp.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
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** The new function `calendar-goto-day-of-year' (g D) prompts for a
year and day number, and moves to that date. Negative day numbers
count backward from the end of the year.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
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** The function `simple-diary-display' now by default sets a header line.
This can be controlled through the variables `diary-header-line-flag'
and `diary-header-line-format'.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
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** The procedure for activating appointment reminders has changed: use
the new function `appt-activate'. The new variable
`appt-display-format' controls how reminders are displayed, replacing
appt-issue-message, appt-visible, and appt-msg-window.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
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** The new functions `diary-from-outlook', `diary-from-outlook-gnus',
and `diary-from-outlook-rmail' can be used to import diary entries
from Outlook-format appointments in mail messages.  The variable
`diary-outlook-formats' can be customized to recognize additional

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** VC Changes

André Spiegel's avatar
André Spiegel committed
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*** The key C-x C-q no longer checks files in or out, it only changes
the read-only state of the buffer (toggle-read-only).  We made this
change because we held a poll and found that many users were unhappy
with the previous behavior.  If you do prefer this behavior, you
can bind `vc-toggle-read-only' to C-x C-q in your .emacs:

    (global-set-key "\C-x\C-q" 'vc-toggle-read-only)

The function `vc-toggle-read-only' will continue to exist.

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*** There is a new user option `vc-cvs-global-switches' that allows
you to specify switches that are passed to any CVS command invoked
by VC.  These switches are used as "global options" for CVS, which
means they are inserted before the command name.  For example, this
allows you to specify a compression level using the "-z#" option for

Stefan Monnier's avatar
Stefan Monnier committed
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*** New backends for Subversion and Meta-CVS.

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** EDiff changes.

Michael Kifer's avatar
Michael Kifer committed
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***  When comparing directories.
Typing D brings up a buffer that lists the differences between the contents of
directories. Now it is possible to use this buffer to copy the missing files
from one directory to another.

Michael Kifer's avatar
Michael Kifer committed
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*** When comparing files or buffers.
Typing the = key now offers to perform the word-by-word comparison of the
currently highlighted regions in an inferior Ediff session. If you answer 'n'
then it reverts to the old behavior and asks the user to select regions for

*** The new command `ediff-backup' compares a file with its most recent
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backup using `ediff'.  If you specify the name of a backup file,
`ediff-backup' compares it with the file of which it is a backup.

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** Etags changes.

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*** New regular expressions features

**** New syntax for regular expressions, multi-line regular expressions.
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The syntax --ignore-case-regexp=/regex/ is now undocumented and retained
only for backward compatibility.  The new equivalent syntax is
--regex=/regex/i.  More generally, it is --regex=/TAGREGEX/TAGNAME/MODS,
where `/TAGNAME' is optional, as usual, and MODS is a string of 0 or
more characters among `i' (ignore case), `m' (multi-line) and `s'
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(single-line).  The `m' and `s' modifiers behave as in Perl regular
expressions: `m' allows regexps to match more than one line, while `s'
(which implies `m') means that `.' matches newlines.  The ability to
span newlines allows writing of much more powerful regular expressions
and rapid prototyping for tagging new languages.

Francesco Potortì's avatar
Francesco Potortì committed
**** Regular expressions can use char escape sequences as in Gcc.
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The escaped character sequence \a, \b, \d, \e, \f, \n, \r, \t, \v,
respectively, stand for the ASCII characters BEL, BS, DEL, ESC, FF, NL,

Francesco Potortì's avatar
Francesco Potortì committed
**** Regular expressions can be bound to a given language.
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The syntax --regex={LANGUAGE}REGEX means that REGEX is used to make tags
only for files of language LANGUAGE, and ignored otherwise.  This is
particularly useful when storing regexps in a file.

Francesco Potortì's avatar
Francesco Potortì committed
**** Regular expressions can be read from a file.
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The --regex=@regexfile option means read the regexps from a file, one
per line.  Lines beginning with space or tab are ignored.

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*** New language parsing features

Francesco Potortì's avatar
Francesco Potortì committed
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**** The `::' qualifier triggers C++ parsing in C file.
Previously, only the `template' and `class' keywords had this effect.

**** In Perl, packages are tags.
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Subroutine tags are named from their package.  You can jump to sub tags
as you did before, by the sub name, or additionally by looking for

Francesco Potortì's avatar
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**** New language PHP.
Tags are functions, classes and defines.
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If the --members option is specified to etags, tags are vars also.

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**** New language HTML.
Title and h1, h2, h3 are tagged.  Also, tags are generated when name= is
used inside an anchor and whenever id= is used.

**** New default keywords for TeX.
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The new keywords are def, newcommand, renewcommand, newenvironment and

Francesco Potortì's avatar
Francesco Potortì committed
**** In Makefiles, constants are tagged.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
If you want the old behavior instead, thus avoiding to increase the
Francesco Potortì's avatar
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size of the tags file, use the --no-globals option.

**** In Prolog, etags creates tags for rules in addition to predicates.
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*** Honour #line directives.
When Etags parses an input file that contains C preprocessor's #line
directives, it creates tags using the file name and line number
specified in those directives.  This is useful when dealing with code
created from Cweb source files.  When Etags tags the generated file, it
writes tags pointing to the source file.

Francesco Potortì's avatar
Francesco Potortì committed
*** New option --parse-stdin=FILE.
This option is mostly useful when calling etags from programs.  It can
Francesco Potortì's avatar
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be used (only once) in place of a file name on the command line.  Etags
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will read from standard input and mark the produced tags as belonging to
the file FILE.

Martin Stjernholm's avatar
Martin Stjernholm committed
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** CC Mode changes.

*** Font lock support.
CC Mode now provides font lock support for all its languages.  This
supersedes the font lock patterns that have been in the core font lock
package for C, C++, Java and Objective-C.  Like indentation, font
locking is done in a uniform way across all languages (except the new
AWK mode - see below).  That means that the new font locking will be
different from the old patterns in various details for most languages.

The main goal of the font locking in CC Mode is accuracy, to provide a
dependable aid in recognizing the various constructs.  Some, like
strings and comments, are easy to recognize while others like
declarations and types can be very tricky.  CC Mode can go to great
lengths to recognize declarations and casts correctly, especially when
the types aren't recognized by standard patterns.  This is a fairly
demanding analysis which can be slow on older hardware, and it can
therefore be disabled by choosing a lower decoration level with the
variable font-lock-maximum-decoration.

Note that the most demanding font lock level has been tuned with lazy
fontification in mind, i.e.  there should be a support mode that waits
with the fontification until the text is actually shown
(e.g. Just-in-time Lock mode, which is the default, or Lazy Lock
mode).  Fontifying a file with several thousand lines in one go can
take the better part of a minute.

**** The (c|c++|objc|java|idl|pike)-font-lock-extra-types variables
are now used by CC Mode to recognize identifiers that are certain to
be types.  (They are also used in cases that aren't related to font
locking.)  At the maximum decoration level, types are often recognized
properly anyway, so these variables should be fairly restrictive and
not contain patterns for uncertain types.

**** Support for documentation comments.
There is a "plugin" system to fontify documentation comments like
Javadoc and the markup within them.  It's independent of the host
language, so it's possible to e.g. turn on Javadoc font locking in C
buffers.  See the variable c-doc-comment-style for details.

Currently two kinds of doc comment styles are recognized: Suns Javadoc
and Autodoc which is used in Pike.  This is by no means a complete
list of the most common tools; if your doc comment extractor of choice
is missing then please drop a note to

**** Better handling of C++ templates.
As a side effect of the more accurate font locking, C++ templates are
now handled much better.  The angle brackets that delimit them are
given parenthesis syntax so that they can be navigated like other

This also improves indentation of templates, although there still is
work to be done in that area.  E.g. it's required that multiline
template clauses are written in full and then refontified to be
recognized, and the indentation of nested templates is a bit odd and
not as configurable as it ought to be.

**** Improved handling of Objective-C and CORBA IDL.
Especially the support for Objective-C and IDL has gotten an overhaul.
The special "@" declarations in Objective-C are handled correctly.
All the keywords used in CORBA IDL, PSDL, and CIDL are recognized and
handled correctly, also wrt indentation.

*** Support for the AWK language.
Support for the AWK language has been introduced.  The implementation is
based around GNU AWK version 3.1, but it should work pretty well with
any AWK.  As yet, not all features of CC Mode have been adapted for AWK.
Here is a summary:

**** Indentation Engine
The CC Mode indentation engine fully supports AWK mode.

AWK mode handles code formatted in the conventional AWK fashion: `{'s
which start actions, user-defined functions, or compound statements are
placed on the same line as the associated construct; the matching `}'s
are normally placed under the start of the respective pattern, function
definition, or structured statement.

The predefined indentation functions haven't yet been adapted for AWK
mode, though some of them may work serendipitously.  There shouldn't be
any problems writing custom indentation functions for AWK mode.

The command C-c C-q (c-indent-defun) hasn't yet been adapted for AWK,
though in practice it works properly nearly all the time.  Should it
fail, explicitly set the region around the function (using C-u C-SPC:
C-M-h probably won't work either) then do C-M-\ (indent-region).

**** Font Locking
There is a single level of font locking in AWK mode, rather than the
three distinct levels the other modes have.  There are several
idiosyncrasies in AWK mode's font-locking due to the peculiarities of
the AWK language itself.

**** Comment Commands
M-; (indent-for-comment) works fine.  None of the other CC Mode
comment formatting commands have yet been adapted for AWK mode.

**** Movement Commands
Most of the movement commands work in AWK mode.  The most important
exceptions are M-a (c-beginning-of-statement) and M-e
(c-end-of-statement) which haven't yet been adapted.

The notion of "defun" has been augmented to include AWK pattern-action
pairs.  C-M-a (c-awk-beginning-of-defun) and C-M-e (c-awk-end-of-defun)
recognise these pattern-action pairs, as well as user defined

**** Auto-newline Insertion and Clean-ups
Auto-newline insertion hasn't yet been adapted for AWK.  Some of
the clean-ups can actually convert good AWK code into syntactically
invalid code.  These features are best disabled in AWK buffers.

*** New syntactic symbols in IDL mode.
The top level constructs "module" and "composition" (from CIDL) are
now handled like "namespace" in C++: They are given syntactic symbols
module-open, module-close, inmodule, composition-open,
composition-close, and incomposition.

*** New functions to do hungry delete without enabling hungry delete mode.
The functions c-hungry-backspace and c-hungry-delete-forward can be
bound to keys to get this feature without toggling a mode.
Contributed by Kevin Ryde.

*** Better control over require-final-newline.
The variable that controls how to handle a final newline when the
buffer is saved, require-final-newline, is now customizable on a
per-mode basis through c-require-final-newline.  The default is to set
it to t only in languages that mandate a final newline in source files
(C, C++ and Objective-C).