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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  2001-03-15
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Copyright (C) 1999, 2000, 2001 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
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For older news, see the file ONEWS
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8

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

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See the INSTALL file for information on installing extra libraries and
fonts to take advantage of the new graphical features and extra
charsets in this release.

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** Support for GNU/Linux on IA64 machines has been added.

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** Support for LynxOS has been added.

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** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.

** There are new configure options associated with the support for
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images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option in `configure'
to list them.
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** There is a new configure option `--without-xim' that instructs
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Emacs to not use X Input Methods (XIM), if these are available.
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** There is a new configure option `--disable-largefile' to omit
Unix-98-style support for large files if that is available.

** You can build a 64-bit Emacs for SPARC/Solaris systems which
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support 64-bit executables and also on Irix 6.5.  This increases the
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maximum buffer size.  See etc/MACHINES for instructions.  Changes to
build on other 64-bit systems should be straightforward modulo any
necessary changes to unexec.
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** Note that the MS-Windows port does not yet implement various of the
new display features described below.

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** This version can be built for the Macintosh, but does not implement
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all of the new display features described below.  The port currently
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lacks unexec, asynchronous processes, and networking support.  See the
"Emacs and the Mac OS" appendix in the Emacs manual, for the
description of aspects specific to the Mac.
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47

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* Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes such as `overline', `strike-through', and `box' are ignored
on terminals.

The command-line options `-fg COLOR', `-bg COLOR', and `-rv' are now
supported on character terminals.

** New default font is Courier 12pt under X.

+++
** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or minibuffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs can resize the minibuffer window unless it
is on a frame of its own.  You can control resizing and the maximum
minibuffer window size by setting the following variables:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.

Default is 0.25.

- User option: resize-mini-windows

How to resize mini-windows.  If nil, don't resize.  If t, always
resize to fit the size of the text.  If `grow-only', let mini-windows
grow only, until they become empty, at which point they are shrunk
again.

Default is `grow-only'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with the LessTif toolkit (see
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<http://www.lesstif.org>).  You will need version 0.92.26, or later.
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** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is
non-nil.

** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scroll bars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scroll bar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring
Emacs.

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
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imake configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
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Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

+++
** Automatic Hscrolling

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically if
`automatic-hscrolling' is set (the default).  This setting can be
customized.

If a window is scrolled horizontally with set-window-hscroll, or
scroll-left/scroll-right (C-x <, C-x >), this serves as a lower bound
for automatic horizontal scrolling.  Automatic scrolling will scroll
the text more to the left if necessary, but won't scroll the text more
to the right than the column set with set-window-hscroll etc.

+++
** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
of how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level
changes.  Tool-bar global minor mode controls whether or not it is
displayed and is on by default.  The appearance of the bar is improved
if Emacs has been built with XPM image support.  Otherwise monochrome
icons will be used.

To make the tool bar more useful, we need contributions of extra icons
for specific modes (with copyright assignments).  Contributions would
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also be useful to touch up some of the PBM icons manually.
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+++
** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  The Lisp package `tooltip' implements them.  You can
turn them off via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

+++
** When using a windowing terminal, each Emacs window now has a cursor
of its own.  By default, when a window is selected, the cursor is
solid; otherwise, it is hollow.  The user-option
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`cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to display the
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cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is shown, if
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non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.
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** Fringes to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.
You can change its appearance by modifying the face `mode-line'.
In particular, setting the `:box' attribute to nil turns off the 3D
appearance of the mode line.  (The 3D appearance makes the mode line
occupy more space, and thus might cause the first or the last line of
the window to be partially obscured.)

The variable `mode-line-inverse-video', which was used in older
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versions of emacs to make the mode-line stand out, is now deprecated.
However, setting it to nil will cause the `mode-line' face to be
ignored, and mode-lines to be drawn using the default text face.
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+++
** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

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Different parts of the mode line have been made mouse-sensitive on all
systems which support the mouse.  Moving the mouse to a
mouse-sensitive part in the mode line changes the appearance of the
mouse pointer to an arrow, and help about available mouse actions is
displayed either in the echo area, or in the tooltip window if you
have enabled one.
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Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line switches between two
buffers.

- Mouse-2 on the buffer-name switches to the next buffer, and
M-mouse-2 switches to the previous buffer in the buffer list.

- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name displays a buffer menu.

- Mouse-2 on the read-only or modified status in the mode line (`%' or
`*') toggles the status.

- Mouse-3 on the mode name displays a minor-mode menu.

+++
** Hourglass pointer

Emacs can optionally display an hourglass pointer under X.  You can
turn the display on or off by customizing group `cursor'.

+++
** Blinking cursor

M-x blink-cursor-mode toggles a blinking cursor under X and on
terminals having terminal capabilities `vi', `vs', and `ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group `cursor'.

+++
** New font-lock support mode `jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to `lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function `jit-lock-mode' for more
details.

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

+++
** The default for user-option `next-line-add-newlines' has been
changed to nil, i.e. C-n will no longer add newlines at the end of a
buffer by default.

** The <home> and <end> keys now move to the beginning or end of the
current line, respectively.  C-<home> and C-<end> move to the
beginning and end of the buffer.

** Emacs now checks for recursive loads of Lisp files.  If the
recursion depth exceeds `recursive-load-depth-limit', an error is
signaled.

** When an error is signaled during the loading of the user's init
file, Emacs now pops up the *Messages* buffer.

+++
** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set `load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs' byte
compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

** Toggle buttons and radio buttons in menus.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
widgets for radio and toggle buttons in menus.  When configured for
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

** Item Save Options on the Options menu allows saving options set
using that menu.

+++
** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face `trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the
whitespace.

+++
** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

** The new user-option `confirm-kill-emacs' can be customized to
let Emacs ask for confirmation before exiting.

+++
** Highlighting of mouse-sensitive regions is now supported in the
MS-DOS version of Emacs.

** The header line in an Info buffer is now displayed as an emacs
header-line (which is like a mode-line, but at the top of the window),
so that it remains visible even when the buffer has been scrolled.
This behavior may be disabled by customizing the option
`Info-use-header-line'.

+++
** The recommended way of using Iswitchb is via the new global minor
mode `iswitchb-mode'.

+++
** Just loading the msb package doesn't switch on Msb mode anymore.
If you have `(require 'msb)' in your .emacs, please replace it with
`(msb-mode 1)'.

** Polish, Czech, German, and French translations of Emacs' reference card
have been added.  They are named `pl-refcard.tex', `cs-refcard.tex',
`de-refcard.tex' and `fr-refcard.tex'.  Postscript files are included.

** An `Emacs Survival Guide', etc/survival.tex, is available.

** A reference card for Dired has been added.  Its name is
`dired-ref.tex'.  A French translation is available in
`fr-drdref.tex'.

+++
** C-down-mouse-3 is bound differently.  Now if the menu bar is not
displayed it pops up a menu containing the items which would be on the
menu bar.  If the menu bar is displayed, it pops up the major mode
menu or the Edit menu if there is no major mode menu.

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** Variable `load-path' is no longer customizable throuh Customize.

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You can no longer use `M-x customize-variable' to customize `load-path'
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because it now contains a version-dependent component.  You can still
use `add-to-list' and `setq' to customize this variable in your
`~/.emacs' init file or to modify it from any Lisp program in general.
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** The new user-option `normal-erase-is-backspace' can be set to
determine the effect of the Delete and Backspace function keys.
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On window systems, the default value of this option is chosen
according to the keyboard used.  If the keyboard has both a Backspace
key and a Delete key, and both are mapped to their usual meanings, the
option's default value is set to t, so that Backspace can be used to
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delete backward, and Delete can be used to delete forward.  On
keyboards which either have only one key (usually labeled DEL), or two
keys DEL and BS which produce the same effect, the option's value is
set to nil, and these keys delete backward.
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If not running under a window system, setting this option accomplishes
a similar effect by mapping C-h, which is usually generated by the
Backspace key, to DEL, and by mapping DEL to C-d via
`keyboard-translate'.  The former functionality of C-h is available on
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the F1 key.  You should probably not use this setting on a text-only
terminal if you don't have both Backspace, Delete and F1 keys.
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Programmatically, you can call function normal-erase-is-backspace-mode
to toggle the behavior of the Delete and Backspace keys.
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+++
** C-u C-x = provides detailed information about the character at
point in a pop-up window.

+++
** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, use the `mouse-wheel-mode' command, or
customize the variable `mouse-wheel-mode'.

The variables `mouse-wheel-follow-mouse' and `mouse-wheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

+++
** Emacs' auto-save list files are now by default stored in a
sub-directory `.emacs.d/auto-save-list/' of the user's home directory.
(On MS-DOS, this subdirectory's name is `_emacs.d/auto-save.list/'.)
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You can customize `auto-save-list-file-prefix' to change this location.
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+++
** The function `getenv' is now callable interactively.

** The many obsolete language `setup-...-environment' commands have
been removed -- use `set-language-environment'.

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+++
** The environment variable `EMACSLOCKDIR' is no longer used on MS-Windows.
This environment variable was used when creating lock files.  Emacs on
MS-Windows does not use this variable anymore.  This change was made
before Emacs 21.1, but wasn't documented until now.

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** Flyspell mode has various new options.  See the `flyspell' Custom
group.

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** The user option `backward-delete-char-untabify-method' controls the
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behavior of `backward-delete-char-untabify'.  The following values
are recognized:

`untabify' -- turn a tab to many spaces, then delete one space;
`hungry'   -- delete all whitespace, both tabs and spaces;
`all'      -- delete all whitespace, including tabs, spaces and newlines;
nil        -- just delete one character.

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Default value is `untabify'.

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[This change was made in Emacs 20.3 but not mentioned then.]
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** In Cperl mode `cperl-invalid-face' should now be a normal face
symbol, not double-quoted.

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** Some packages are declared obsolete, to be removed in a future
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version.  They are:  auto-show, c-mode, hilit19, hscroll, ooutline,
rnews, rnewspost.  Their implementations have been moved to
lisp/obsolete.
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+++
** The new Custom option `keyboard-coding-system' specifies a coding
system for keyboard input.

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+++
** The new user-option `even-window-heights' can be set to nil
to prevent `display-buffer' from evening out window heights.

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+++
** The new command `msdos-set-mouse-buttons' forces Emacs to behave
as if the mouse had a specified number of buttons.  This comes handy
with mice that don't report their number of buttons correctly.  One
example is the wheeled mice, which report 3 buttons, but clicks on the
middle button are not passed to the MS-DOS version of Emacs.

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** The new command M-x delete-trailing-whitespace RET will delete the
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trailing whitespace within the current restriction.  You can also add
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this function to `write-file-hooks' or `local-write-file-hooks'.

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** When visiting a file with M-x find-file-literally, no newlines will
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be added to the end of the buffer even if `require-final-newline' is
non-nil.
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** auto-compression mode is no longer enabled just by loading jka-compr.el.
To control it, set `auto-compression-mode' via Custom or use the
`auto-compression-mode' command.

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** `browse-url-gnome-moz' is a new option for
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`browse-url-browser-function', invoking Mozilla in GNOME, and
`browse-url-kde' can be chosen for invoking the KDE browser.
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** The user-option `browse-url-new-window-p' has been renamed to
`browse-url-new-window-flag'.

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+++
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** The functions `keep-lines', `flush-lines' and `how-many' now
operate on the active region in Transient Mark mode.

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+++
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** `gnus-user-agent' is a new possibility for `mail-user-agent'.  It
is like `message-user-agent', but with all the Gnus paraphernalia.

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+++
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** Gnus changes.

The Gnus NEWS entries are short, but they reflect sweeping changes in
four areas: Article display treatment, MIME treatment,
internationalization and mail-fetching.

*** The mail-fetching functions have changed.  See the manual for the
many details.  In particular, all procmail fetching variables are gone.

If you used procmail like in

(setq nnmail-use-procmail t)
(setq nnmail-spool-file 'procmail)
(setq nnmail-procmail-directory "~/mail/incoming/")
(setq nnmail-procmail-suffix "\\.in")

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this now has changed to
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Gnus  
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(setq mail-sources
      '((directory :path "~/mail/incoming/"
		   :suffix ".in")))

More information is available in the info doc at Select Methods ->
Getting Mail -> Mail Sources

*** Gnus is now a MIME-capable reader.  This affects many parts of
Gnus, and adds a slew of new commands.  See the manual for details.
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Separate MIME packages like RMIME, mime-compose etc., will probably no
longer work; remove them and use the native facilities.

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The FLIM/SEMI package still works with Emacs 21, but if you want to
use the native facilities, you must remove any mailcap.el[c] that was
installed by FLIM/SEMI version 1.13 or earlier.
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*** Gnus has also been multilingualized.  This also affects too many
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parts of Gnus to summarize here, and adds many new variables.  There
are built-in facilities equivalent to those of gnus-mule.el, which is
now just a compatibility layer.
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Gnus  
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*** gnus-auto-select-first can now be a function to be
called to position point.

*** The user can now decide which extra headers should be included in
summary buffers and NOV files.

*** `gnus-article-display-hook' has been removed.  Instead, a number
of variables starting with `gnus-treat-' have been added.

*** The Gnus posting styles have been redone again and now work in a
subtly different manner.

*** New web-based backends have been added: nnslashdot, nnwarchive
and nnultimate.  nnweb has been revamped, again, to keep up with
ever-changing layouts.

*** Gnus can now read IMAP mail via nnimap.

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*** There is image support of various kinds and some sound support.
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+++
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** When your terminal can't display characters from some of the ISO
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8859 character sets but can display Latin-1, you can display
more-or-less mnemonic sequences of ASCII/Latin-1 characters instead of
empty boxes (under a window system) or question marks (not under a
window system).  Customize the option `latin1-display' to turn this
on.

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** The new user-option `find-file-suppress-same-file-warnings' can be
set to suppress warnings ``X and Y are the same file'' when visiting a
file that is already visited under a different name.

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** The new user-option `electric-help-shrink-window' can be set to
nil to prevent adjusting the help window size to the buffer size.

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** The Strokes package has been updated.  If your Emacs has XPM
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support, you can use it for pictographic editing.  In Strokes mode,
use C-mouse-2 to compose a complex stoke and insert it into the
buffer.  You can encode or decode a strokes buffer with new commands
M-x strokes-encode-buffer and M-x strokes-decode-buffer.  There is a
new command M-x strokes-list-strokes.

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+++
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** New command M-x describe-character-set reads a character set name
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and displays information about that.
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** The new variable `auto-mode-interpreter-regexp' contains a regular
expression matching interpreters, for file mode determination.

This regular expression is matched against the first line of a file to
determine the file's mode in `set-auto-mode' when Emacs can't deduce a
mode from the file's name.  If it matches, the file is assumed to be
interpreted by the interpreter matched by the second group of the
regular expression.  The mode is then determined as the mode
associated with that interpreter in `interpreter-mode-alist'.

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** New function executable-make-buffer-file-executable-if-script-p is
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suitable as an after-save-hook as an alternative to `executable-chmod'.
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** The most preferred coding-system is now used to save a buffer if
buffer-file-coding-system is `undecided' and it is safe for the buffer
contents.  (The most preferred is set by set-language-environment or
by M-x prefer-coding-system.)  Thus if you visit an ASCII file and
insert a non-ASCII character from your current language environment,
the file will be saved silently with the appropriate coding.
Previously you would be prompted for a safe coding system.

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** New variable `inhibit-iso-escape-detection' determines if Emacs'
coding system detection algorithm should pay attention to ISO2022's
escape sequences.  If this variable is non-nil, the algorithm ignores
such escape sequences.  The default value is nil, and it is
recommended not to change it except for the special case that you
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always want to read any escape code verbatim.  If you just want to
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read a specific file without decoding escape codes, use C-x RET c
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(`universal-coding-system-argument').  For instance, C-x RET c latin-1
RET C-x C-f filename RET.
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** Variable `default-korean-keyboard' is initialized properly from the
environment variable `HANGUL_KEYBOARD_TYPE'.

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** New command M-x list-charset-chars reads a character set name and
displays all characters in that character set.

** M-x set-terminal-coding-system (C-x RET t) now allows CCL-based
coding systems such as cpXXX and cyrillic-koi8.

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** M-; now calls comment-dwim which tries to do something clever based
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on the context.  M-x kill-comment is now an alias to comment-kill,
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defined in newcomment.el.  You can choose different styles of region
commenting with the variable `comment-style'.
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** New user options `display-time-mail-face' and
`display-time-use-mail-icon' control the appearance of mode-line mail
indicator used by the display-time package.  On a suitable display the
indicator can be an icon and is mouse-sensitive.

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** On window-systems, additional space can be put between text lines
on the display using several methods

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- By setting frame parameter `line-spacing' to PIXELS.  PIXELS must be
a positive integer, and specifies that PIXELS number of pixels should
be put below text lines on the affected frame or frames.

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- By setting X resource `lineSpacing', class `LineSpacing'.  This is
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equivalent to specifying the frame parameter.
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- By specifying `--line-spacing=N' or `-lsp N' on the command line.
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- By setting buffer-local variable `line-spacing'.  The meaning is
the same, but applies to the a particular buffer only.

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** The new command `clone-indirect-buffer' can be used to create
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an indirect buffer that is a twin copy of the current buffer.  The
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command `clone-indirect-buffer-other-window', bound to C-x 4 c,
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does the same but displays the indirect buffer in another window.
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** New user options `backup-directory-alist' and
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`make-backup-file-name-function' control the placement of backups,
typically in a single directory or in an invisible sub-directory.
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** New commands iso-iso2sgml and iso-sgml2iso convert between Latin-1
characters and the corresponding SGML (HTML) entities.

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** New X resources recognized
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*** The X resource `synchronous', class `Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.

Example:

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  emacs.synchronous: true
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*** The X resource `visualClass, class `VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form `CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are

  TrueColor
  PseudoColor
  DirectColor
  StaticColor
  GrayScale
  StaticGray

Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
`pseudocolor', `Pseudocolor' and `PseudoColor' all have the same
meaning.

The program `xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
`visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default
visual.

Example:

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  emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8
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*** The X resource `privateColormap', class `PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are `true' or `on'.

Example:

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  emacs.privateColormap: true
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** The variable `echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.

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** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), `user-init-file' is set
to the source name (.emacs.el), if that exists, after loading it.

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** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
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the property `:help HELP' is now displayed under X, on MS-Windows, and
MS-DOS, either in the echo area or with tooltips.  Many standard menus
displayed by Emacs now have help strings.

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** New user option `read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to
read mail from the menu etc.

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** Hexl contains a new command `hexl-insert-hex-string' which inserts
a string of hexadecimal numbers read from the mini-buffer.

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** Changes in Texinfo mode.

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*** A couple of new key bindings have been added for inserting Texinfo
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macros

  Key binding	Macro
  -------------------------
  C-c C-c C-s	@strong
  C-c C-c C-e	@emph
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  C-c C-c u	@uref
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  C-c C-c q     @quotation
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  C-c C-c m	@email
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  C-c C-o       @<block> ... @end <block>
  M-RET         @item

*** The " key now inserts either " or `` or '' depending on context.
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** Changes in Outline mode.

There is now support for Imenu to index headings.  A new command
`outline-headers-as-kill' copies the visible headings in the region to
the kill ring, e.g. to produce a table of contents.

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** Changes to Emacs Server
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*** The new option `server-kill-new-buffers' specifies what to do
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with buffers when done with them.  If non-nil, the default, buffers
are killed, unless they were already present before visiting them with
Emacs Server.  If nil, `server-temp-file-regexp' specifies which
buffers to kill, as before.

Please note that only buffers are killed that still have a client,
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i.e. buffers visited with `emacsclient --no-wait' are never killed in
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this way.

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** Both emacsclient and Emacs itself now accept command line options
of the form +LINE:COLUMN in addition to +LINE.

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** Changes to Show Paren mode.

*** Overlays used by Show Paren mode now use a priority property.
The new user option show-paren-priority specifies the priority to
use.  Default is 1000.

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** New command M-x check-parens can be used to find unbalanced paren
groups and strings in buffers in Lisp mode (or other modes).

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** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either
M-x clone-buffer, C-u m <entry> RET or C-u g <entry> RET.
M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and several other special
buffers.
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** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing
`directory-abbrev-alist'.

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** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces `scroll-bar', `border', `cursor' and `mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters `scroll-bar-foreground' and
`scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
`scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter `border-color'
sets the background color of face `border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters `cursor-color' and face `cursor', and frame
parameter `mouse-color' and face `mouse'.

Changing frame parameter `font' sets font-related attributes of the
`default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
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`foreground-color' or `background-color' sets the colors of the
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`default' face and vice versa.

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** New face `menu'.

The face `menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.

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** New frame parameter `screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter `screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is `screenGamma', class
`ScreenGamma'.

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

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*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

	emacs.pane.menubar.margin: 5

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The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the
LessTif/Motif one.
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*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, as in
LessTif and Motif.
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** Sound support

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Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and FreeBSD (Voxware
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driver and native BSD driver, a.k.a. Luigi's driver).  Currently
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supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio (*.au).
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** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

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** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
`x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

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** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi).

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in `default-indicate-empty-lines'.

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** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
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value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-up-aggressively' is a
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number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.
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When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
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value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-down-aggressively' is a
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number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
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fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.
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** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

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** The function `replace-rectangle' is an alias for `string-rectangle'.
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** The new command M-x string-insert-rectangle is like `string-rectangle',
but inserts text instead of replacing it.
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** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

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** M-x query-replace recognizes a new command `e' (or `E') that lets
you edit the replacement string.
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** The new command mail-abbrev-complete-alias, bound to `M-TAB', lets
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you complete mail aliases in the text, analogous to
lisp-complete-symbol.

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** The command `Info-search' now uses a search history.

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** Changes to hideshow.el

*** Generalized block selection and traversal

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A block is now recognized by its start and end regexps (both strings),
and an integer specifying which sub-expression in the start regexp
serves as the place where a `forward-sexp'-like function can operate.
See the documentation of variable `hs-special-modes-alist'.

*** During incremental search, if Hideshow minor mode is active,
hidden blocks are temporarily shown.  The variable `hs-headline' can
be used in the mode line format to show the line at the beginning of
the open block.

*** User option `hs-hide-all-non-comment-function' specifies a
function to be called at each top-level block beginning, instead of
the normal block-hiding function.

*** The command `hs-show-region' has been removed.

*** The key bindings have changed to fit the Emacs conventions,
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roughly imitating those of Outline minor mode.  Notably, the prefix
for all bindings is now `C-c @'.  For details, see the documentation
for `hs-minor-mode'.
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*** The variable `hs-show-hidden-short-form' has been removed, and
hideshow.el now always behaves as if this variable were set to t.

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** Changes to Change Log mode and Add-Log functions

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*** If you invoke `add-change-log-entry' from a backup file, it makes
an entry appropriate for the file's parent.  This is useful for making
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log entries by comparing a version with deleted functions.

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**** New command M-x change-log-merge merges another log into the
current buffer.
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*** New command M-x change-log-redate fixes any old-style date entries
in a log file.
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*** Change Log mode now adds a file's version number to change log
entries if user-option `change-log-version-info-enabled' is non-nil.
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Unless the file is under version control the search for a file's
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version number is performed based on regular expressions from
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`change-log-version-number-regexp-list' which can be customized.
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Version numbers are only found in the first 10 percent of a file.
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*** Change Log mode now defines its own faces for font-lock highlighting.
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** Changes to cmuscheme

*** The user-option `scheme-program-name' has been renamed
`cmuscheme-program-name' due to conflicts with xscheme.el.

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** Changes in Font Lock

*** The new function `font-lock-remove-keywords' can be used to remove
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font-lock keywords from the current buffer or from a specific major mode.
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*** Multi-line patterns are now supported.  Modes using this, should
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set font-lock-multiline to t in their font-lock-defaults.
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*** `font-lock-syntactic-face-function' allows major-modes to choose
the face used for each string/comment.
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*** A new standard face `font-lock-doc-face'.
Meant for Lisp docstrings, Javadoc comments and other "documentation in code".

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** Changes to Shell mode

*** The `shell' command now accepts an optional argument to specify the buffer
to use, which defaults to "*shell*".  When used interactively, a
non-default buffer may be specified by giving the `shell' command a
prefix argument (causing it to prompt for the buffer name).

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** Comint (subshell) changes

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These changes generally affect all modes derived from comint mode, which
include shell-mode, gdb-mode, scheme-interaction-mode, etc.

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*** Comint now by default interprets some carriage-control characters.
Comint now removes CRs from CR LF sequences, and treats single CRs and
BSs in the output in a way similar to a terminal (by deleting to the
beginning of the line, or deleting the previous character,
respectively).  This is achieved by adding `comint-carriage-motion' to
the `comint-output-filter-functions' hook by default.
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*** By default, comint no longer uses the variable `comint-prompt-regexp'
to distinguish prompts from user-input.  Instead, it notices which
parts of the text were output by the process, and which entered by the
user, and attaches `field' properties to allow emacs commands to use
this information.  Common movement commands, notably beginning-of-line,
respect field boundaries in a fairly natural manner.  To disable this
feature, and use the old behavior, customize the user option
`comint-use-prompt-regexp-instead-of-fields'.

*** Comint now includes new features to send commands to running processes
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and redirect the output to a designated buffer or buffers.

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*** The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command reads a command and
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buffer name from the mini-buffer.  The command is sent to the current
buffer's process, and its output is inserted into the specified buffer.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command-to-process acts like
M-x comint-redirect-send-command but additionally reads the name of
the buffer whose process should be used from the mini-buffer.

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*** Packages based on comint now highlight user input and program prompts,
and support choosing previous input with mouse-2.  To control these features,
see the user-options `comint-highlight-input' and `comint-highlight-prompt'.
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*** The new command `comint-write-output' (usually bound to `C-c C-s')
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saves the output from the most recent command to a file.  With a prefix
argument, it appends to the file.

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*** The command `comint-kill-output' has been renamed `comint-delete-output'
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(usually bound to `C-c C-o'); the old name is aliased to it for
compatibility.

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*** The new function `comint-add-to-input-history' adds commands to the input
ring (history).
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*** The new variable `comint-input-history-ignore' is a regexp for
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identifying history lines that should be ignored, like tcsh time-stamp
strings, starting with a `#'.  The default value of this variable is "^#".
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** Changes to Rmail mode

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*** The new user-option rmail-user-mail-address-regexp can be
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set to fine tune the identification of the correspondent when
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receiving new mail.  If it matches the address of the sender, the
recipient is taken as correspondent of a mail.  If nil, the default,
`user-login-name' and `user-mail-address' are used to exclude yourself
as correspondent.

Usually you don't have to set this variable, except if you collect
mails sent by you under different user names.  Then it should be a
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regexp matching your mail addresses.
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*** The new user-option rmail-confirm-expunge controls whether and how
to ask for confirmation before expunging deleted messages from an
Rmail file.  You can choose between no confirmation, confirmation
with y-or-n-p, or confirmation with yes-or-no-p.  Default is to ask
for confirmation with yes-or-no-p.

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*** RET is now bound in the Rmail summary to rmail-summary-goto-msg,
like `j'.

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*** There is a new user option `rmail-digest-end-regexps' that
specifies the regular expressions to detect the line that ends a
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digest message.
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*** The new user option `rmail-automatic-folder-directives' specifies
in which folder to put messages automatically.

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*** The new function `rmail-redecode-body' allows to fix a message
with non-ASCII characters if Emacs happens to decode it incorrectly
due to missing or malformed "charset=" header.

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** The new user-option `mail-envelope-from' can be used to specify
an envelope-from address different from user-mail-address.

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** Changes to TeX mode

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*** The default mode has been changed from `plain-tex-mode' to
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`latex-mode'.

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*** latex-mode now has a simple indentation algorithm.

*** M-f and M-p jump around \begin...\end pairs.

*** Added support for outline-minor-mode.
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** Changes to RefTeX mode

*** RefTeX has new support for index generation.  Index entries can be
    created with `C-c <', with completion available on index keys.
    Pressing `C-c /' indexes the word at the cursor with a default
    macro.  `C-c >' compiles all index entries into an alphabetically
    sorted *Index* buffer which looks like the final index.  Entries
    can be edited from that buffer.

*** Label and citation key selection now allow to select several
    items and reference them together (use `m' to mark items, `a' or
    `A' to use all marked entries).

*** reftex.el has been split into a number of smaller files to reduce
    memory use when only a part of RefTeX is being used.

*** a new command `reftex-view-crossref-from-bibtex' (bound to `C-c &'
    in BibTeX-mode) can be called in a BibTeX database buffer in order
    to show locations in LaTeX documents where a particular entry has
    been cited.

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** Emacs Lisp mode now allows multiple levels of outline headings.
The level of a heading is determined from the number of leading
semicolons in a heading line.  Toplevel forms starting with a `('
in column 1 are always made leaves.

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** The M-x time-stamp command (most commonly used on write-file-hooks)
has the following new features:

*** The patterns for finding the time stamp and for updating a pattern
may match text spanning multiple lines.  For example, some people like
to have the filename and date on separate lines.  The new variable
time-stamp-inserts-lines controls the matching for multi-line patterns.

*** More than one time stamp can be updated in the same file.  This
feature is useful if you need separate time stamps in a program source
file to both include in formatted documentation and insert in the
compiled binary.  The same time-stamp will be written at each matching
pattern.  The variable time-stamp-count enables this new feature; it
defaults to 1.

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** Partial Completion mode now completes environment variables in
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file names.

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+++
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** Customize changes

*** Customize now supports comments about customized items.  Use the
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`State' menu to add comments, or give a prefix argument to
M-x customize-set-variable or M-x customize-set-value.  Note that
customization comments will cause the customizations to fail in
earlier versions of Emacs.
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*** The new option `custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the
default).

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*** If Emacs was invoked with the `-q' or `--no-init-file' options, it
does not allow you to save customizations in your `~/.emacs' init
file.  This is because saving customizations from such a session would
wipe out all the other customizationss you might have on your init
file.

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** New features in evaluation commands

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*** The commands to evaluate Lisp expressions, such as C-M-x in Lisp
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modes, C-j in Lisp Interaction mode, and M-:, now bind the variables
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print-level, print-length, and debug-on-error based on the new
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customizable variables eval-expression-print-level,
eval-expression-print-length, and eval-expression-debug-on-error.

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The default values for the first two of these variables are 12 and 4
respectively, which means that `eval-expression' now prints at most
the first 12 members of a list and at most 4 nesting levels deep (if
the list is longer or deeper than that, an ellipsis `...'  is
printed).

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<RET> or <mouse-2> on the printed text toggles between an abbreviated
printed representation and an unabbreviated one.
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The default value of eval-expression-debug-on-error is t, so any error
during evaluation produces a backtrace.

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*** The function `eval-defun' (M-C-x) now loads Edebug and instruments
code when called with a prefix argument.

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** Ispell changes

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*** The command `ispell' now spell-checks a region if
transient-mark-mode is on, and the mark is active.  Otherwise it
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spell-checks the current buffer.

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*** Support for synchronous subprocesses - DOS/Windoze - has been
added.

*** An "alignment error" bug was fixed when a manual spelling
correction is made and re-checked.

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*** An Italian, Portuguese, and Slovak dictionary definition has been added.
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*** Region skipping performance has been vastly improved in some
cases.

*** Spell checking HTML buffers has been improved and isn't so strict
on syntax errors.

*** The buffer-local words are now always placed on a new line at the
end of the buffer.

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** Dired changes

*** New variable `dired-recursive-deletes' determines if the delete
command will delete non-empty directories recursively.  The default
is, delete only empty directories.

*** New variable `dired-recursive-copies' determines if the copy
command will copy directories recursively.  The default is, do not
copy directories recursively.

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*** In command `dired-do-shell-command' (usually bound to `!') a `?'
in the shell command has a special meaning similar to `*', but with
the difference that the command will be run on each file individually.

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*** The new command `dired-find-alternate-file' (usually bound to `a')
replaces the Dired buffer with the buffer for an alternate file or
directory.

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*** The new command `dired-show-file-type' (usually bound to `w') shows
a message in the echo area describing what type of file the point is on.
This command invokes the external program `file' do its work, and so
will only work on systems with that program, and will be only as
accurate or inaccurate as it is.

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*** Dired now properly handles undo changes of adding/removing `-R'
from ls switches.

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*** Dired commands that prompt for a destination file now allow the use
of the `M-n' command in the minibuffer to insert the source filename,
which the user can then edit.  This only works if there is a single
source file, not when operating on multiple marked files.

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** The variable mail-specify-envelope-from controls whether to
use the -f option when sending mail.

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** CC mode changes.

Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback.  Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this
release.

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