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\input texinfo
@c %**start of header
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@setfilename ../../info/org
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@settitle The Org Manual
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@set VERSION 7.01
@set DATE July 2010

@c Use proper quote and backtick for code sections in PDF output
@c Cf. Texinfo manual 14.2
@set txicodequoteundirected
@set txicodequotebacktick
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@c Version and Contact Info
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@set MAINTAINERSITE @uref{http://orgmode.org,maintainers webpage}
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@set AUTHOR Carsten Dominik
@set MAINTAINER Carsten Dominik
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@set MAINTAINEREMAIL @email{carsten at orgmode dot org}
@set MAINTAINERCONTACT @uref{mailto:carsten at orgmode dot org,contact the maintainer}
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@c %**end of header
@finalout

@c Macro definitions
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@iftex
@c @hyphenation{time-stamp time-stamps time-stamp-ing time-stamp-ed}
@end iftex
@macro Ie {}
I.e.,
@end macro
@macro ie {}
i.e.,
@end macro
@macro Eg {}
E.g.,
@end macro
@macro eg {}
e.g.,
@end macro
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@c Subheadings inside a table.
@macro tsubheading{text}
@ifinfo
@subsubheading \text\
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
@item @b{\text\}
@end ifnotinfo
@end macro

@copying
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This manual is for Org version @value{VERSION}.
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Copyright @copyright{} 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010
Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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@quotation
Permission is granted to copy, distribute and/or modify this document
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under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1.3 or
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any later version published by the Free Software Foundation; with no
Invariant Sections, with the Front-Cover texts being ``A GNU Manual,''
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and with the Back-Cover Texts as in (a) below.  A copy of the license
is included in the section entitled ``GNU Free Documentation License.''
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(a) The FSF's Back-Cover Text is: ``You have the freedom to copy and
modify this GNU manual.  Buying copies from the FSF supports it in
developing GNU and promoting software freedom.''
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This document is part of a collection distributed under the GNU Free
Documentation License.  If you want to distribute this document
separately from the collection, you can do so by adding a copy of the
license to the document, as described in section 6 of the license.
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@end quotation
@end copying

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@dircategory Emacs
@direntry
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* Org Mode: (org).      Outline-based notes management and organizer
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@end direntry

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@titlepage
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@title The Org Manual
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@subtitle Release @value{VERSION}
@author by Carsten Dominik
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with contributions by David O'Toole, Bastien Guerry, Philip Rooke, Dan Davison, Eric Schulte, and Thomas Dye
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@c The following two commands start the copyright page.
@page
@vskip 0pt plus 1filll
@insertcopying
@end titlepage

@c Output the table of contents at the beginning.
@contents

@ifnottex
@node Top, Introduction, (dir), (dir)
@top Org Mode Manual

@insertcopying
@end ifnottex

@menu
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* Introduction::                Getting started
* Document Structure::          A tree works like your brain
* Tables::                      Pure magic for quick formatting
* Hyperlinks::                  Notes in context
* TODO Items::                  Every tree branch can be a TODO item
* Tags::                        Tagging headlines and matching sets of tags
* Properties and Columns::      Storing information about an entry
* Dates and Times::             Making items useful for planning
* Capture - Refile - Archive::  The ins and outs for projects
* Agenda Views::                Collecting information into views
* Markup::                      Prepare text for rich export
* Exporting::                   Sharing and publishing of notes
* Publishing::                  Create a web site of linked Org files
* Working With Source Code::    Export, evaluate, and tangle code blocks
* Miscellaneous::               All the rest which did not fit elsewhere
* Hacking::                     How to hack your way around
* MobileOrg::                   Viewing and capture on a mobile device
* History and Acknowledgments::  How Org came into being
* Main Index::                  An index of Org's concepts and features
* Key Index::                   Key bindings and where they are described
* Variable Index::              Variables mentioned in the manual
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@detailmenu
 --- The Detailed Node Listing ---

Introduction

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* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual
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Document structure

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* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
* Blocks::                      Folding blocks
* Footnotes::                   How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org
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Tables

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* Built-in table editor::       Simple tables
* Column width and alignment::  Overrule the automatic settings
* Column groups::               Grouping to trigger vertical lines
* Orgtbl mode::                 The table editor as minor mode
* The spreadsheet::             The table editor has spreadsheet capabilities
* Org-Plot::                    Plotting from org tables
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The spreadsheet

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* References::                  How to refer to another field or range
* Formula syntax for Calc::     Using Calc to compute stuff
* Formula syntax for Lisp::     Writing formulas in Emacs Lisp
* Field formulas::              Formulas valid for a single field
* Column formulas::             Formulas valid for an entire column
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* Editing and debugging formulas::  Fixing formulas
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* Updating the table::          Recomputing all dependent fields
* Advanced features::           Field names, parameters and automatic recalc
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Hyperlinks

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* Link format::                 How links in Org are formatted
* Internal links::              Links to other places in the current file
* External links::              URL-like links to the world
* Handling links::              Creating, inserting and following
* Using links outside Org::     Linking from my C source code?
* Link abbreviations::          Shortcuts for writing complex links
* Search options::              Linking to a specific location
* Custom searches::             When the default search is not enough
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Internal links

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* Radio targets::               Make targets trigger links in plain text
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TODO items
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* TODO basics::                 Marking and displaying TODO entries
* TODO extensions::             Workflow and assignments
* Progress logging::            Dates and notes for progress
* Priorities::                  Some things are more important than others
* Breaking down tasks::         Splitting a task into manageable pieces
* Checkboxes::                  Tick-off lists
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Extended use of TODO keywords

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* Workflow states::             From TODO to DONE in steps
* TODO types::                  I do this, Fred does the rest
* Multiple sets in one file::   Mixing it all, and still finding your way
* Fast access to TODO states::  Single letter selection of a state
* Per-file keywords::           Different files, different requirements
* Faces for TODO keywords::     Highlighting states
* TODO dependencies::           When one task needs to wait for others
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Progress logging
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* Closing items::               When was this entry marked DONE?
* Tracking TODO state changes::  When did the status change?
* Tracking your habits::        How consistent have you been?
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Tags

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* Tag inheritance::             Tags use the tree structure of the outline
* Setting tags::                How to assign tags to a headline
* Tag searches::                Searching for combinations of tags
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Properties and columns
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* Property syntax::             How properties are spelled out
* Special properties::          Access to other Org-mode features
* Property searches::           Matching property values
* Property inheritance::        Passing values down the tree
* Column view::                 Tabular viewing and editing
* Property API::                Properties for Lisp programmers
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Column view
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* Defining columns::            The COLUMNS format property
* Using column view::           How to create and use column view
* Capturing column view::       A dynamic block for column view
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Defining columns
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* Scope of column definitions::  Where defined, where valid?
* Column attributes::           Appearance and content of a column
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Dates and times
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* Timestamps::                  Assigning a time to a tree entry
* Creating timestamps::         Commands which insert timestamps
* Deadlines and scheduling::    Planning your work
* Clocking work time::          Tracking how long you spend on a task
* Resolving idle time::         Resolving time if you've been idle
* Effort estimates::            Planning work effort in advance
* Relative timer::              Notes with a running timer
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Creating timestamps

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* The date/time prompt::        How Org-mode helps you entering date and time
* Custom time format::          Making dates look different
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Deadlines and scheduling
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* Inserting deadline/schedule::  Planning items
* Repeated tasks::              Items that show up again and again
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Capture - Refile - Archive
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* Capture::                     Capturing new stuff
* Attachments::                 Add files to tasks
* RSS Feeds::                   Getting input from RSS feeds
* Protocols::                   External (e.g. Browser) access to Emacs and Org
* Refiling notes::              Moving a tree from one place to another
* Archiving::                   What to do with finished projects
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Capture

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* Setting up capture::          Where notes will be stored
* Using capture::               Commands to invoke and terminate capture
* Capture templates::           Define the outline of different note types
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Capture templates
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* Template elements::           What is needed for a complete template entry
* Template expansion::          Filling in information about time and context
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Archiving

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* Moving subtrees::             Moving a tree to an archive file
* Internal archiving::          Switch off a tree but keep it in the file
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Agenda views
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* Agenda files::                Files being searched for agenda information
* Agenda dispatcher::           Keyboard access to agenda views
* Built-in agenda views::       What is available out of the box?
* Presentation and sorting::    How agenda items are prepared for display
* Agenda commands::             Remote editing of Org trees
* Custom agenda views::         Defining special searches and views
* Exporting Agenda Views::      Writing a view to a file
* Agenda column view::          Using column view for collected entries
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The built-in agenda views

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* Weekly/daily agenda::         The calendar page with current tasks
* Global TODO list::            All unfinished action items
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* Matching tags and properties::  Structured information with fine-tuned search
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* Timeline::                    Time-sorted view for single file
* Search view::                 Find entries by searching for text
* Stuck projects::              Find projects you need to review
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Presentation and sorting

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* Categories::                  Not all tasks are equal
* Time-of-day specifications::  How the agenda knows the time
* Sorting of agenda items::     The order of things
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Custom agenda views

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* Storing searches::            Type once, use often
* Block agenda::                All the stuff you need in a single buffer
* Setting Options::             Changing the rules
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Markup for rich export

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* Structural markup elements::  The basic structure as seen by the exporter
* Images and tables::           Tables and Images will be included
* Literal examples::            Source code examples with special formatting
* Include files::               Include additional files into a document
* Index entries::               Making an index
* Macro replacement::           Use macros to create complex output
* Embedded LaTeX::              LaTeX can be freely used inside Org documents
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Structural markup elements

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* Document title::              Where the title is taken from
* Headings and sections::       The document structure as seen by the exporter
* Table of contents::           The if and where of the table of contents
* Initial text::                Text before the first heading?
* Lists::                       Lists
* Paragraphs::                  Paragraphs
* Footnote markup::             Footnotes
* Emphasis and monospace::      Bold, italic, etc.
* Horizontal rules::            Make a line
* Comment lines::               What will *not* be exported
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Embedded La@TeX{}
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* Special symbols::             Greek letters and other symbols
* Subscripts and superscripts::  Simple syntax for raising/lowering text
* LaTeX fragments::             Complex formulas made easy
* Previewing LaTeX fragments::  What will this snippet look like?
* CDLaTeX mode::                Speed up entering of formulas
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Exporting

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* Selective export::            Using tags to select and exclude trees
* Export options::              Per-file export settings
* The export dispatcher::       How to access exporter commands
* ASCII/Latin-1/UTF-8 export::  Exporting to flat files with encoding
* HTML export::                 Exporting to HTML
* LaTeX and PDF export::        Exporting to La@TeX{}, and processing to PDF
* DocBook export::              Exporting to DocBook
* TaskJuggler export::          Exporting to TaskJuggler
* Freemind export::             Exporting to Freemind mind maps
* XOXO export::                 Exporting to XOXO
* iCalendar export::            Exporting in iCalendar format
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HTML export

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* HTML Export commands::        How to invoke HTML export
* Quoting HTML tags::           Using direct HTML in Org-mode
* Links in HTML export::        How links will be interpreted and formatted
* Tables in HTML export::       How to modify the formatting of tables
* Images in HTML export::       How to insert figures into HTML output
* Text areas in HTML export::   An alternative way to show an example
* CSS support::                 Changing the appearance of the output
* JavaScript support::          Info and Folding in a web browser
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La@TeX{} and PDF export
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* LaTeX/PDF export commands::   Which key invokes which commands
* Header and sectioning::       Setting up the export file structure
* Quoting LaTeX code::          Incorporating literal La@TeX{} code
* Tables in LaTeX export::      Options for exporting tables to La@TeX{}
* Images in LaTeX export::      How to insert figures into La@TeX{} output
* Beamer class export::         Turning the file into a presentation
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DocBook export

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* DocBook export commands::     How to invoke DocBook export
* Quoting DocBook code::        Incorporating DocBook code in Org files
* Recursive sections::          Recursive sections in DocBook
* Tables in DocBook export::    Tables are exported as HTML tables
* Images in DocBook export::    How to insert figures into DocBook output
* Special characters::          How to handle special characters
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Publishing

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* Configuration::               Defining projects
* Uploading files::             How to get files up on the server
* Sample configuration::        Example projects
* Triggering publication::      Publication commands
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Configuration

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* Project alist::               The central configuration variable
* Sources and destinations::    From here to there
* Selecting files::             What files are part of the project?
* Publishing action::           Setting the function doing the publishing
* Publishing options::          Tweaking HTML export
* Publishing links::            Which links keep working after publishing?
* Sitemap::                     Generating a list of all pages
* Generating an index::         An index that reaches across pages
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Sample configuration

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* Simple example::              One-component publishing
* Complex example::             A multi-component publishing example
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Working with source code

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* Structure of code blocks::    Code block syntax described
* Editing source code::         Language major-mode editing
* Exporting code blocks::       Export contents and/or results
* Extracting source code::      Create pure source code files
* Evaluating code blocks::      Place results of evaluation in the Org-mode buffer
* Library of Babel::            Use and contribute to a library of useful code blocks
* Languages::                   List of supported code block languages
* Header arguments::            Configure code block functionality
* Results of evaluation::       How evaluation results are handled
* Noweb reference syntax::      Literate programming in Org-mode
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* Key bindings and useful functions::  Work quickly with code blocks
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* Batch execution::             Call functions from the command line
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Header arguments

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* Using header arguments::      Different ways to set header arguments
* Specific header arguments::   List of header arguments
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Using header arguments

* System-wide header arguments::  Set global default values
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* Language-specific header arguments::  Set default values by language
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* Buffer-wide header arguments::  Set default values for a specific buffer
* Header arguments in Org-mode properties::  Set default values for a buffer or heading
* Code block specific header arguments::  The most common way to set values

Specific header arguments

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* var::                         Pass arguments to code blocks
* results::                     Specify the type of results and how they will be collected and handled
* file::                        Specify a path for file output
* dir::                         Specify the default directory for code block execution
* exports::                     Export code and/or results
* tangle::                      Toggle tangling and specify file name
* no-expand::                   Turn off variable assignment and noweb expansion during tangling
* session::                     Preserve the state of code evaluation
* noweb::                       Toggle expansion of noweb references
* cache::                       Avoid re-evaluating unchanged code blocks
* hlines::                      Handle horizontal lines in tables
* colnames::                    Handle column names in tables
* rownames::                    Handle row names in tables
* shebang::                     Make tangled files executable
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Miscellaneous

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* Completion::                  M-TAB knows what you need
* Speed keys::                  Electric commands at the beginning of a headline
* Code evaluation security::    Org mode files evaluate inline code
* Customization::               Adapting Org to your taste
* In-buffer settings::          Overview of the #+KEYWORDS
* The very busy C-c C-c key::   When in doubt, press C-c C-c
* Clean view::                  Getting rid of leading stars in the outline
* TTY keys::                    Using Org on a tty
* Interaction::                 Other Emacs packages
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Interaction with other packages

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* Cooperation::                 Packages Org cooperates with
* Conflicts::                   Packages that lead to conflicts
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Hacking
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* Hooks::                       Who to reach into Org's internals
* Add-on packages::             Available extensions
* Adding hyperlink types::      New custom link types
* Context-sensitive commands::  How to add functionality to such commands
* Tables in arbitrary syntax::  Orgtbl for La@TeX{} and other programs
* Dynamic blocks::              Automatically filled blocks
* Special agenda views::        Customized views
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* Extracting agenda information::  Postprocessing of agenda information
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* Using the property API::      Writing programs that use entry properties
* Using the mapping API::       Mapping over all or selected entries
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Tables and lists in arbitrary syntax
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* Radio tables::                Sending and receiving radio tables
* A LaTeX example::             Step by step, almost a tutorial
* Translator functions::        Copy and modify
* Radio lists::                 Doing the same for lists
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MobileOrg

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* Setting up the staging area::  Where to interact with the mobile device
* Pushing to MobileOrg::        Uploading Org files and agendas
* Pulling from MobileOrg::      Integrating captured and flagged items
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@end detailmenu
@end menu

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@node Introduction, Document Structure, Top, Top
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@chapter Introduction
@cindex introduction

@menu
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* Summary::                     Brief summary of what Org does
* Installation::                How to install a downloaded version of Org
* Activation::                  How to activate Org for certain buffers
* Feedback::                    Bug reports, ideas, patches etc.
* Conventions::                 Type-setting conventions in the manual
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@end menu

@node Summary, Installation, Introduction, Introduction
@section Summary
@cindex summary

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Org is a mode for keeping notes, maintaining TODO lists, and doing
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project planning with a fast and effective plain-text system.

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Org develops organizational tasks around NOTES files that contain
lists or information about projects as plain text.  Org is
implemented on top of Outline mode, which makes it possible to keep the
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content of large files well structured.  Visibility cycling and
structure editing help to work with the tree.  Tables are easily created
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with a built-in table editor.  Org supports TODO items, deadlines,
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timestamps, and scheduling.  It dynamically compiles entries into an
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agenda that utilizes and smoothly integrates much of the Emacs calendar
and diary.  Plain text URL-like links connect to websites, emails,
Usenet messages, BBDB entries, and any files related to the projects.
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For printing and sharing of notes, an Org file can be exported as a
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structured ASCII file, as HTML, or (TODO and agenda items only) as an
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iCalendar file.  It can also serve as a publishing tool for a set of
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linked web pages.
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As a project planning environment, Org works by adding metadata to outline
nodes.  Based on this data, specific entries can be extracted in queries and
create dynamic @i{agenda views}.

Org mode contains the Org Babel environment which allows to work with
embedded source code block in a file, to facilitate code evaluation,
documentation, and tangling.

Org's automatic, context-sensitive table editor with spreadsheet
capabilities can be integrated into any major mode by activating the
minor Orgtbl mode.  Using a translation step, it can be used to maintain
tables in arbitrary file types, for example in La@TeX{}.  The structure
editing and list creation capabilities can be used outside Org with
the minor Orgstruct mode.
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Org keeps simple things simple.  When first fired up, it should
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feel like a straightforward, easy to use outliner.  Complexity is not
imposed, but a large amount of functionality is available when you need
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it.  Org is a toolbox and can be used in different ways and for different
ends, for example:
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@example
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@r{@bullet{} an outline extension with visibility cycling and structure editing}
@r{@bullet{} an ASCII system and table editor for taking structured notes}
@r{@bullet{} a TODO list editor}
@r{@bullet{} a full agenda and planner with deadlines and work scheduling}
@pindex GTD, Getting Things Done
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@r{@bullet{} an environment in which to implement David Allen's GTD system}
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@r{@bullet{} a simple hypertext system, with HTML and La@TeX{} export}
@r{@bullet{} a publishing tool to create a set of interlinked webpages}
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@r{@bullet{} an environment for literate programming}
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@end example


@cindex FAQ
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There is a website for Org which provides links to the newest
version of Org, as well as additional information, frequently asked
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questions (FAQ), links to tutorials, etc@.  This page is located at
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@uref{http://orgmode.org}.
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@page


@node Installation, Activation, Summary, Introduction
@section Installation
@cindex installation
@cindex XEmacs

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@b{Important:} @i{If you are using a version of Org that is part of the Emacs
distribution or an XEmacs package, please skip this section and go directly
to @ref{Activation}.}
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If you have downloaded Org from the Web, either as a distribution @file{.zip}
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or @file{.tar} file, or as a Git archive, you must take the following steps
to install it: go into the unpacked Org distribution directory and edit the
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top section of the file @file{Makefile}.  You must set the name of the Emacs
binary (likely either @file{emacs} or @file{xemacs}), and the paths to the
directories where local Lisp and Info files are kept.  If you don't have
access to the system-wide directories, you can simply run Org directly from
the distribution directory by adding the @file{lisp} subdirectory to the
Emacs load path.  To do this, add the following line to @file{.emacs}:
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@example
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(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/lisp" load-path))
@end example

@noindent
If you plan to use code from the @file{contrib} subdirectory, do a similar
step for this directory:

@example
(setq load-path (cons "~/path/to/orgdir/contrib/lisp" load-path))
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@end example

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@sp 2
@cartouche
XEmacs users now need to install the file @file{noutline.el} from
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the @file{xemacs} sub-directory of the Org distribution.  Use the
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command:
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@example
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     make install-noutline
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@end example
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@end cartouche
@sp 2
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@noindent Now byte-compile the Lisp files with the shell command:
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@example
make
@end example

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@noindent If you are running Org from the distribution directory, this is
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all.  If you want to install Org into the system directories, use (as
administrator)
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@example
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make install
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@end example

Installing Info files is system dependent, because of differences in the
@file{install-info} program.  In Debian it copies the info files into the
correct directory and modifies the info directory file.  In many other
systems, the files need to be copied to the correct directory separately, and
@file{install-info} then only modifies the directory file.  Check your system
documentation to find out which of the following commands you need:

@example
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make install-info
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make install-info-debian
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@end example

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Then add the following line to @file{.emacs}.  It is needed so that
Emacs can autoload functions that are located in files not immediately loaded
when Org-mode starts.
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@lisp
(require 'org-install)
@end lisp

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Do not forget to activate Org as described in the following section.
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@page
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@node Activation, Feedback, Installation, Introduction
@section Activation
@cindex activation
@cindex autoload
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@cindex global key bindings
@cindex key bindings, global
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Add the following lines to your @file{.emacs} file.  The last three lines
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define @emph{global} keys for the commands @command{org-store-link},
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@command{org-agenda}, and @command{org-iswitchb}---please choose suitable
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keys yourself.
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@lisp
;; The following lines are always needed.  Choose your own keys.
(add-to-list 'auto-mode-alist '("\\.org\\'" . org-mode))
(global-set-key "\C-cl" 'org-store-link)
(global-set-key "\C-ca" 'org-agenda)
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(global-set-key "\C-cb" 'org-iswitchb)
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@end lisp

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Furthermore, you must activate @code{font-lock-mode} in Org
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buffers, because significant functionality depends on font-locking being
active.  You can do this with either one of the following two lines
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(XEmacs users must use the second option):
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@lisp
(global-font-lock-mode 1)                     ; for all buffers
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(add-hook 'org-mode-hook 'turn-on-font-lock)  ; Org buffers only
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@end lisp

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@cindex Org-mode, turning on
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With this setup, all files with extension @samp{.org} will be put
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into Org-mode.  As an alternative, make the first line of a file look
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like this:

@example
MY PROJECTS    -*- mode: org; -*-
@end example

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@vindex org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file
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@noindent which will select Org-mode for this buffer no matter what
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the file's name is.  See also the variable
@code{org-insert-mode-line-in-empty-file}.

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Many commands in Org work on the region if the region is @i{active}.  To make
use of this, you need to have @code{transient-mark-mode}
(@code{zmacs-regions} in XEmacs) turned on.  In Emacs 23 this is the default,
in Emacs 22 you need to do this yourself with
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@lisp
(transient-mark-mode 1)
@end lisp
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@noindent If you do not like @code{transient-mark-mode}, you can create an
active region by using the mouse to select a region, or pressing
@kbd{C-@key{SPC}} twice before moving the cursor.
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@node Feedback, Conventions, Activation, Introduction
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@section Feedback
@cindex feedback
@cindex bug reports
@cindex maintainer
@cindex author

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If you find problems with Org, or if you have questions, remarks, or ideas
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about it, please mail to the Org mailing list @email{emacs-orgmode@@gnu.org}.
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If you are not a member of the mailing list, your mail will be passed to the
list after a moderator has approved it.
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For bug reports, please provide as much information as possible, including
the version information of Emacs (@kbd{M-x emacs-version @key{RET}}) and Org
(@kbd{M-x org-version @key{RET}}), as well as the Org related setup in
@file{.emacs}.  The easiest way to do this is to use the command
@example
@kbd{M-x org-submit-bug-report}
@end example
@noindent which will put all this information into an Emacs mail buffer so
that you only need to add your description.  If you re not sending the Email
from within Emacs, please copy and paste the content into your Email program.

If an error occurs, a backtrace can be very useful (see below on how to
create one).  Often a small example file helps, along with clear information
about:
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@enumerate
@item What exactly did you do?
@item What did you expect to happen?
@item What happened instead?
@end enumerate
@noindent Thank you for helping to improve this mode.

@subsubheading How to create a useful backtrace

@cindex backtrace of an error
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If working with Org produces an error with a message you don't
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understand, you may have hit a bug.  The best way to report this is by
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providing, in addition to what was mentioned above, a @emph{backtrace}.
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This is information from the built-in debugger about where and how the
error occurred.  Here is how to produce a useful backtrace:

@enumerate
@item
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Reload uncompiled versions of all Org-mode Lisp files.  The backtrace
contains much more information if it is produced with uncompiled code.
To do this, use
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@example
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C-u M-x org-reload RET
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@end example
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@noindent
or select @code{Org -> Refresh/Reload -> Reload Org uncompiled} from the
menu.
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@item
Go to the @code{Options} menu and select @code{Enter Debugger on Error}
(XEmacs has this option in the @code{Troubleshooting} sub-menu).
@item
Do whatever you have to do to hit the error.  Don't forget to
document the steps you take.
@item
When you hit the error, a @file{*Backtrace*} buffer will appear on the
screen.  Save this buffer to a file (for example using @kbd{C-x C-w}) and
attach it to your bug report.
@end enumerate

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@node Conventions,  , Feedback, Introduction
@section Typesetting conventions used in this manual

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Org uses three types of keywords: TODO keywords, tags, and property
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names.  In this manual we use the following conventions:

@table @code
@item TODO
@itemx WAITING
TODO keywords are written with all capitals, even if they are
user-defined.
@item boss
@itemx ARCHIVE
User-defined tags are written in lowercase; built-in tags with special
meaning are written with all capitals.
@item Release
@itemx PRIORITY
User-defined properties are capitalized; built-in properties with
special meaning are written with all capitals.
@end table

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@node Document Structure, Tables, Introduction, Top
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@chapter Document structure
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@cindex document structure
@cindex structure of document

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Org is based on Outline mode and provides flexible commands to
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edit the structure of the document.

@menu
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* Outlines::                    Org is based on Outline mode
* Headlines::                   How to typeset Org tree headlines
* Visibility cycling::          Show and hide, much simplified
* Motion::                      Jumping to other headlines
* Structure editing::           Changing sequence and level of headlines
* Sparse trees::                Matches embedded in context
* Plain lists::                 Additional structure within an entry
* Drawers::                     Tucking stuff away
* Blocks::                      Folding blocks
* Footnotes::                   How footnotes are defined in Org's syntax
* Orgstruct mode::              Structure editing outside Org
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@end menu

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@node Outlines, Headlines, Document Structure, Document Structure
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@section Outlines
@cindex outlines
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@cindex Outline mode
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Org is implemented on top of Outline mode.  Outlines allow a
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document to be organized in a hierarchical structure, which (at least
for me) is the best representation of notes and thoughts.  An overview
of this structure is achieved by folding (hiding) large parts of the
document to show only the general document structure and the parts
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currently being worked on.  Org greatly simplifies the use of
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outlines by compressing the entire show/hide functionality into a single
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command, @command{org-cycle}, which is bound to the @key{TAB} key.
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@node Headlines, Visibility cycling, Outlines, Document Structure
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@section Headlines
@cindex headlines
@cindex outline tree
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@vindex org-special-ctrl-a/e
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@vindex org-special-ctrl-k
@vindex org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree
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Headlines define the structure of an outline tree.  The headlines in Org
start with one or more stars, on the left margin@footnote{See the variables
@code{org-special-ctrl-a/e}, @code{org-special-ctrl-k}, and
@code{org-ctrl-k-protect-subtree} to configure special behavior of @kbd{C-a},
@kbd{C-e}, and @kbd{C-k} in headlines.}.  For example:
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@example
* Top level headline
** Second level
*** 3rd level
    some text
*** 3rd level
    more text

* Another top level headline
@end example

@noindent Some people find the many stars too noisy and would prefer an
outline that has whitespace followed by a single star as headline
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starters.  @ref{Clean view}, describes a setup to realize this.
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@vindex org-cycle-separator-lines
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An empty line after the end of a subtree is considered part of it and
will be hidden when the subtree is folded.  However, if you leave at
least two empty lines, one empty line will remain visible after folding
the subtree, in order to structure the collapsed view.  See the
variable @code{org-cycle-separator-lines} to modify this behavior.

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@node Visibility cycling, Motion, Headlines, Document Structure
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@section Visibility cycling
@cindex cycling, visibility
@cindex visibility cycling
@cindex trees, visibility
@cindex show hidden text
@cindex hide text

Outlines make it possible to hide parts of the text in the buffer.
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Org uses just two commands, bound to @key{TAB} and
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@kbd{S-@key{TAB}} to change the visibility in the buffer.

@cindex subtree visibility states
@cindex subtree cycling
@cindex folded, subtree visibility state
@cindex children, subtree visibility state
@cindex subtree, subtree visibility state
@table @kbd
@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB}
@emph{Subtree cycling}: Rotate current subtree among the states

@example
,-> FOLDED -> CHILDREN -> SUBTREE --.
'-----------------------------------'
@end example

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@vindex org-cycle-emulate-tab
@vindex org-cycle-global-at-bob
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The cursor must be on a headline for this to work@footnote{see, however,
the option @code{org-cycle-emulate-tab}.}.  When the cursor is at the
beginning of the buffer and the first line is not a headline, then
@key{TAB} actually runs global cycling (see below)@footnote{see the
option @code{org-cycle-global-at-bob}.}.  Also when called with a prefix
argument (@kbd{C-u @key{TAB}}), global cycling is invoked.

@cindex global visibility states
@cindex global cycling
@cindex overview, global visibility state
@cindex contents, global visibility state
@cindex show all, global visibility state
@kindex S-@key{TAB}
@item S-@key{TAB}
@itemx C-u @key{TAB}
@emph{Global cycling}: Rotate the entire buffer among the states

@example
,-> OVERVIEW -> CONTENTS -> SHOW ALL --.
'--------------------------------------'
@end example

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When @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} is called with a numeric prefix argument N, the
CONTENTS view up to headlines of level N will be shown.  Note that inside
tables, @kbd{S-@key{TAB}} jumps to the previous field.
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@cindex show all, command
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@kindex C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}
@item C-u C-u C-u @key{TAB}
Show all, including drawers.
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@kindex C-c C-r
@item C-c C-r
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Reveal context around point, showing the current entry, the following heading
and the hierarchy above.  Useful for working near a location that has been
exposed by a sparse tree command (@pxref{Sparse trees}) or an agenda command
(@pxref{Agenda commands}).  With a prefix argument show, on each
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level, all sibling headings.  With double prefix arg, also show the entire
subtree of the parent.
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@kindex C-c C-k
@item C-c C-k
Expose all the headings of the subtree, CONTENT view for just one subtree.
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@kindex C-c C-x b
@item C-c C-x b
Show the current subtree in an indirect buffer@footnote{The indirect
buffer
@ifinfo
(@pxref{Indirect Buffers,,,emacs,GNU Emacs Manual})
@end ifinfo
@ifnotinfo
(see the Emacs manual for more information about indirect buffers)
@end ifnotinfo
will contain the entire buffer, but will be narrowed to the current
tree.  Editing the indirect buffer will also change the original buffer,
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but without affecting visibility in that buffer.}.  With a numeric
prefix argument N, go up to level N and then take that tree.  If N is
negative then go up that many levels.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix, do not remove
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the previously used indirect buffer.
@end table

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@vindex org-startup-folded
@cindex @code{overview}, STARTUP keyword
@cindex @code{content}, STARTUP keyword
@cindex @code{showall}, STARTUP keyword
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@cindex @code{showeverything}, STARTUP keyword
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When Emacs first visits an Org file, the global state is set to
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OVERVIEW, i.e. only the top level headlines are visible.  This can be
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configured through the variable @code{org-startup-folded}, or on a
per-file basis by adding one of the following lines anywhere in the
buffer:

@example
#+STARTUP: overview
#+STARTUP: content
#+STARTUP: showall
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#+STARTUP: showeverything
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@end example

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@cindex property, VISIBILITY
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@noindent
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Furthermore, any entries with a @samp{VISIBILITY} property (@pxref{Properties
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and Columns}) will get their visibility adapted accordingly.  Allowed values
for this property are @code{folded}, @code{children}, @code{content}, and
@code{all}.
@table @kbd
@kindex C-u C-u @key{TAB}
@item C-u C-u @key{TAB}
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Switch back to the startup visibility of the buffer, i.e. whatever is
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requested by startup options and @samp{VISIBILITY} properties in individual
entries.
@end table

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@node Motion, Structure editing, Visibility cycling, Document Structure
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@section Motion
@cindex motion, between headlines
@cindex jumping, to headlines
@cindex headline navigation
The following commands jump to other headlines in the buffer.

@table @kbd
@kindex C-c C-n
@item C-c C-n
Next heading.
@kindex C-c C-p
@item C-c C-p
Previous heading.
@kindex C-c C-f
@item C-c C-f
Next heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-b
@item C-c C-b
Previous heading same level.
@kindex C-c C-u
@item C-c C-u
Backward to higher level heading.
@kindex C-c C-j
@item C-c C-j
Jump to a different place without changing the current outline
visibility.  Shows the document structure in a temporary buffer, where
you can use the following keys to find your destination:
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@vindex org-goto-auto-isearch
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@example
@key{TAB}         @r{Cycle visibility.}
@key{down} / @key{up}   @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
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@key{RET}         @r{Select this location.}
@kbd{/}           @r{Do a Sparse-tree search}
@r{The following keys work if you turn off @code{org-goto-auto-isearch}}
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n / p        @r{Next/previous visible headline.}
f / b        @r{Next/previous headline same level.}
u            @r{One level up.}
0-9          @r{Digit argument.}
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q            @r{Quit}
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@end example
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@vindex org-goto-interface
@noindent
See also the variable @code{org-goto-interface}.
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@end table

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@node Structure editing, Sparse trees, Motion, Document Structure
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@section Structure editing
@cindex structure editing
@cindex headline, promotion and demotion
@cindex promotion, of subtrees
@cindex demotion, of subtrees
@cindex subtree, cut and paste
@cindex pasting, of subtrees
@cindex cutting, of subtrees
@cindex copying, of subtrees
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@cindex sorting, of subtrees
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@cindex subtrees, cut and paste

@table @kbd
@kindex M-@key{RET}
@item M-@key{RET}
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@vindex org-M-RET-may-split-line
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Insert new heading with same level as current.  If the cursor is in a
plain list item, a new item is created (@pxref{Plain lists}).  To force
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creation of a new headline, use a prefix argument, or first press @key{RET}
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to get to the beginning of the next line.  When this command is used in
the middle of a line, the line is split and the rest of the line becomes
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the new headline@footnote{If you do not want the line to be split,
customize the variable @code{org-M-RET-may-split-line}.}.  If the
command is used at the beginning of a headline, the new headline is
created before the current line.  If at the beginning of any other line,
the content of that line is made the new heading.  If the command is
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used at the end of a folded subtree (i.e. behind the ellipses at the end
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of a headline), then a headline like the current one will be inserted
after the end of the subtree.
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@kindex C-@key{RET}
@item C-@key{RET}
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Just like @kbd{M-@key{RET}}, except when adding a new heading below the
current heading, the new heading is placed after the body instead of before
it.  This command works from anywhere in the entry.
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@kindex M-S-@key{RET}
@item M-S-@key{RET}
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@vindex org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.  See also the
variable @code{org-treat-insert-todo-heading-as-state-change}.
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@kindex C-S-@key{RET}
@item C-S-@key{RET}
Insert new TODO entry with same level as current heading.  Like
@kbd{C-@key{RET}}, the new headline will be inserted after the current
subtree.
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@kindex @key{TAB}
@item @key{TAB} @r{in new, empty entry}
In a new entry with no text yet, the first @key{TAB} demotes the entry to
become a child of the previous one.  The next @key{TAB} makes it a parent,
and so on, all the way to top level.  Yet another @key{TAB}, and you are back
to the initial level.
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@kindex M-@key{left}
@item M-@key{left}
Promote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-@key{right}
@item M-@key{right}
Demote current heading by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{left}
@item M-S-@key{left}
Promote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{right}
@item M-S-@key{right}
Demote the current subtree by one level.
@kindex M-S-@key{up}
@item M-S-@key{up}
Move subtree up (swap with previous subtree of same
level).
@kindex M-S-@key{down}
@item M-S-@key{down}
Move subtree down (swap with next subtree of same level).
@kindex C-c C-x C-w
@item C-c C-x C-w
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Kill subtree, i.e. remove it from buffer but save in kill ring.
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With a numeric prefix argument N, kill N sequential subtrees.
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@kindex C-c C-x M-w
@item C-c C-x M-w
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Copy subtree to kill ring.  With a numeric prefix argument N, copy the N
sequential subtrees.
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@kindex C-c C-x C-y
@item C-c C-x C-y
Yank subtree from kill ring.  This does modify the level of the subtree to
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make sure the tree fits in nicely at the yank position.  The yank level can
also be specified with a numeric prefix argument, or by yanking after a
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headline marker like @samp{****}.
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@kindex C-y
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@item C-y
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@vindex org-yank-adjusted-subtrees
@vindex org-yank-folded-subtrees
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Depending on the variables @code{org-yank-adjusted-subtrees} and
@code{org-yank-folded-subtrees}, Org's internal @code{yank} command will
paste subtrees folded and in a clever way, using the same command as @kbd{C-c
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C-x C-y}.  With the default settings, no level adjustment will take place,
but the yanked tree will be folded unless doing so would swallow text
previously visible.  Any prefix argument to this command will force a normal
@code{yank} to be executed, with the prefix passed along.  A good way to
force a normal yank is @kbd{C-u C-y}.  If you use @code{yank-pop} after a
yank, it will yank previous kill items plainly, without adjustment and
folding.
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@kindex C-c C-x c
@item C-c C-x c
Clone a subtree by making a number of sibling copies of it.  You will be
prompted for the number of copies to make, and you can also specify if any
timestamps in the entry should be shifted.  This can be useful, for example,
to create a number of tasks related to a series of lectures to prepare.  For
more details, see the docstring of the command
@code{org-clone-subtree-with-time-shift}.
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@kindex C-c C-w
@item C-c C-w
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Refile entry or region to a different location.  @xref{Refiling notes}.
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@kindex C-c ^
@item C-c ^
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Sort same-level entries.  When there is an active region, all entries in the
region will be sorted.  Otherwise the children of the current headline are
sorted.  The command prompts for the sorting method, which can be
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alphabetically, numerically, by time (first timestamp with active preferred,
creation time, scheduled time, deadline time), by priority, by TODO keyword
(in the sequence the keywords have been defined in the setup) or by the value
of a property.  Reverse sorting is possible as well.  You can also supply
your own function to extract the sorting key.  With a @kbd{C-u} prefix,
sorting will be case-sensitive.  With two @kbd{C-u C-u} prefixes, duplicate
entries will also be removed.