help.el 19.3 KB
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;;; help.el --- help commands for Emacs

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;; Copyright (C) 1985, 1986, 1993, 1994 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Maintainer: FSF
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;; Keywords: help, internal
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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

;; GNU Emacs is free software; you can redistribute it and/or modify
;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation; either version 2, or (at your option)
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;; any later version.

;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
;; along with GNU Emacs; see the file COPYING.  If not, write to
;; the Free Software Foundation, 675 Mass Ave, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

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;;; Commentary:

;; This code implements GNU Emac's on-line help system, the one invoked by
;;`M-x help-for-help'.

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;;; Code:

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;; Get the macro make-help-screen when this is compiled,
;; or run interpreted, but not when the compiled code is loaded.
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(eval-when-compile (require 'help-macro))
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(defvar help-map (make-sparse-keymap)
  "Keymap for characters following the Help key.")

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(defvar help-mode-map (make-sparse-keymap)
  "Keymap for help mode.")

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(define-key global-map (char-to-string help-char) 'help-command)
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(fset 'help-command help-map)

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(define-key help-map (char-to-string help-char) 'help-for-help)
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(define-key help-map "?" 'help-for-help)

(define-key help-map "\C-c" 'describe-copying)
(define-key help-map "\C-d" 'describe-distribution)
(define-key help-map "\C-w" 'describe-no-warranty)
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(define-key help-map "\C-p" 'describe-project)
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(define-key help-map "a" 'command-apropos)

(define-key help-map "b" 'describe-bindings)

(define-key help-map "c" 'describe-key-briefly)
(define-key help-map "k" 'describe-key)

(define-key help-map "d" 'describe-function)
(define-key help-map "f" 'describe-function)

(define-key help-map "i" 'info)
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(define-key help-map "\C-f" 'Info-goto-emacs-command-node)
(define-key help-map "\C-k" 'Info-goto-emacs-key-command-node)
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(define-key help-map "l" 'view-lossage)

(define-key help-map "m" 'describe-mode)

(define-key help-map "\C-n" 'view-emacs-news)
(define-key help-map "n" 'view-emacs-news)

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(define-key help-map "p" 'finder-by-keyword)
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(autoload 'finder-by-keyword "finder"
  "Find packages matching a given keyword." t)
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(define-key help-map "s" 'describe-syntax)

(define-key help-map "t" 'help-with-tutorial)

(define-key help-map "w" 'where-is)

(define-key help-map "v" 'describe-variable)

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(define-key help-map "q" 'help-quit)

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(defun help-mode ()
  "Major mode for viewing help text.
Entry to this mode runs the normal hook `help-mode-hook'.
Commands:
\\{help-mode-map}"
  (interactive)
  (kill-all-local-variables)
  (use-local-map help-mode-map)
  (setq mode-name "Help")
  (setq major-mode 'help-mode)
  (run-hooks 'help-mode-hook))

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(defun help-quit ()
  (interactive)
  nil)

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(defun help-with-tutorial ()
  "Select the Emacs learn-by-doing tutorial."
  (interactive)
  (let ((file (expand-file-name "~/TUTORIAL")))
    (delete-other-windows)
    (if (get-file-buffer file)
	(switch-to-buffer (get-file-buffer file))
      (switch-to-buffer (create-file-buffer file))
      (setq buffer-file-name file)
      (setq default-directory (expand-file-name "~/"))
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      (setq buffer-auto-save-file-name nil)
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      (insert-file-contents (expand-file-name "TUTORIAL" data-directory))
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      (goto-char (point-min))
      (search-forward "\n<<")
      (beginning-of-line)
      (delete-region (point) (progn (end-of-line) (point)))
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      (let ((n (- (window-height (selected-window))
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		  (count-lines (point-min) (point))
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		  6)))
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	(if (< n 12)
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	    (newline n)
	  ;; Some people get confused by the large gap.
	  (newline (/ n 2))
	  (insert "[Middle of page left blank for didactic purposes.  "
		  "Text continues below]")
	  (newline (- n (/ n 2)))))
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      (goto-char (point-min))
      (set-buffer-modified-p nil))))

(defun describe-key-briefly (key)
  "Print the name of the function KEY invokes.  KEY is a string."
  (interactive "kDescribe key briefly: ")
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  ;; If this key seq ends with a down event, discard the
  ;; following click or drag event.  Otherwise that would
  ;; erase the message.
  (let ((type (aref key (1- (length key)))))
    (if (listp type) (setq type (car type)))
    (and (symbolp type)
	 (memq 'down (event-modifiers type))
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	 (read-event)))
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  (let ((defn (key-binding key)))
    (if (or (null defn) (integerp defn))
        (message "%s is undefined" (key-description key))
      (message "%s runs the command %s"
	       (key-description key)
	       (if (symbolp defn) defn (prin1-to-string defn))))))

(defun print-help-return-message (&optional function)
  "Display or return message saying how to restore windows after help command.
Computes a message and applies the optional argument FUNCTION to it.
If FUNCTION is nil, applies `message' to it, thus printing it."
  (and (not (get-buffer-window standard-output))
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       (let ((first-message
	      (cond ((or (member (buffer-name standard-output)
				 special-display-buffer-names)
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			 (assoc (buffer-name standard-output)
				special-display-buffer-names)
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			 (let (found
			       (tail special-display-regexps)
			       (name (buffer-name standard-output)))
			   (while (and tail (not found))
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			     (if (or (and (consp (car tail))
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					  (string-match (car (car tail)) name))
				     (and (stringp (car tail))
					  (string-match (car tail) name)))
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				 (setq found t))
			     (setq tail (cdr tail)))
			   found))
		     ;; If the help output buffer is a special display buffer,
		     ;; don't say anything about how to get rid of it.
		     ;; First of all, the user will do that with the window
		     ;; manager, not with Emacs.
		     ;; Secondly, the buffer has not been displayed yet,
		     ;; so we don't know whether its frame will be selected.
		     ;; Even the message about scrolling the help
		     ;; might be wrong, but it seems worth showing it anyway.
		     nil)
		    ((not (one-window-p t))
		     "Type \\[switch-to-buffer-other-window] RET to restore the other window.")
		    (pop-up-windows
		     "Type \\[delete-other-windows] to remove help window.")
		    (t
		     "Type \\[switch-to-buffer] RET to remove help window."))))
	 (funcall (or function 'message)
		  (concat
		   (if first-message
		       (substitute-command-keys first-message)
		     "")
		   (if first-message "  " "")
		   (substitute-command-keys
		    "\\[scroll-other-window] to scroll the help."))))))
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(defun describe-key (key)
  "Display documentation of the function invoked by KEY.  KEY is a string."
  (interactive "kDescribe key: ")
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  ;; If this key seq ends with a down event, discard the
  ;; following click or drag event.  Otherwise that would
  ;; erase the message.
  (let ((type (aref key (1- (length key)))))
    (if (listp type) (setq type (car type)))
    (and (symbolp type)
	 (memq 'down (event-modifiers type))
	 (read-event)))
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  (let ((defn (key-binding key)))
    (if (or (null defn) (integerp defn))
        (message "%s is undefined" (key-description key))
      (with-output-to-temp-buffer "*Help*"
	(prin1 defn)
	(princ ":\n")
	(if (documentation defn)
	    (princ (documentation defn))
	  (princ "not documented"))
	(print-help-return-message)))))

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(defun describe-mode ()
  "Display documentation of current major mode and minor modes.
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For this to work correctly for a minor mode, the mode's indicator variable
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\(listed in `minor-mode-alist') must also be a function whose documentation
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describes the minor mode."
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  (interactive)
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  (with-output-to-temp-buffer "*Help*"
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    (let ((minor-modes minor-mode-alist)
	  (locals (buffer-local-variables)))
      (while minor-modes
	(let* ((minor-mode (car (car minor-modes)))
	       (indicator (car (cdr (car minor-modes))))
	       (local-binding (assq minor-mode locals)))
	  ;; Document a minor mode if it is listed in minor-mode-alist,
	  ;; bound locally in this buffer, non-nil, and has a function
	  ;; definition.
	  (if (and local-binding
		   (cdr local-binding)
		   (fboundp minor-mode))
	      (let ((pretty-minor-mode minor-mode))
		(if (string-match "-mode$" (symbol-name minor-mode))
		    (setq pretty-minor-mode
			  (capitalize
			   (substring (symbol-name minor-mode)
				      0 (match-beginning 0)))))
		(while (and indicator (symbolp indicator))
		  (setq indicator (symbol-value indicator)))
		(princ (format "%s minor mode (indicator%s):\n"
			       pretty-minor-mode indicator))
		(princ (documentation minor-mode))
		(princ "\n\n"))))
	(setq minor-modes (cdr minor-modes))))
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    (princ mode-name)
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    (princ " mode:\n")
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    (princ (documentation major-mode))
    (print-help-return-message)))

;; So keyboard macro definitions are documented correctly
(fset 'defining-kbd-macro (symbol-function 'start-kbd-macro))

(defun describe-distribution ()
  "Display info on how to obtain the latest version of GNU Emacs."
  (interactive)
  (find-file-read-only
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   (expand-file-name "DISTRIB" data-directory)))
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(defun describe-copying ()
  "Display info on how you may redistribute copies of GNU Emacs."
  (interactive)
  (find-file-read-only
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   (expand-file-name "COPYING" data-directory))
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  (goto-char (point-min)))

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(defun describe-project ()
  "Display info on the GNU project."
  (interactive)
  (find-file-read-only
   (expand-file-name "GNU" data-directory))
  (goto-char (point-min)))

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(defun describe-no-warranty ()
  "Display info on all the kinds of warranty Emacs does NOT have."
  (interactive)
  (describe-copying)
  (let (case-fold-search)
    (search-forward "NO WARRANTY")
    (recenter 0)))

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(defun describe-prefix-bindings ()
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  "Describe the bindings of the prefix used to reach this command.
The prefix described consists of all but the last event
of the key sequence that ran this command."
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  (interactive)
  (let* ((key (this-command-keys))
	 (prefix (make-vector (1- (length key)) nil))
	 i)
    (setq i 0)
    (while (< i (length prefix))
      (aset prefix i (aref key i))
      (setq i (1+ i)))
    (describe-bindings prefix)))
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;; Make C-h after a prefix, when not specifically bound, 
;; run describe-prefix-bindings.
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(setq prefix-help-command 'describe-prefix-bindings)

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(defun view-emacs-news ()
  "Display info on recent changes to Emacs."
  (interactive)
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  (find-file-read-only (expand-file-name "NEWS" data-directory)))
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(defun view-lossage ()
  "Display last 100 input keystrokes."
  (interactive)
  (with-output-to-temp-buffer "*Help*"
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    (princ (mapconcat (function (lambda (key)
				  (if (or (integerp key)
					  (symbolp key)
					  (listp key))
				      (single-key-description key)
				    (prin1-to-string key nil))))
		      (recent-keys)
		      " "))
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    (save-excursion
      (set-buffer standard-output)
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (while (progn (move-to-column 50) (not (eobp)))
	(search-forward " " nil t)
	(insert "\n")))
    (print-help-return-message)))

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(defalias 'help 'help-for-help)
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(make-help-screen help-for-help
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  "a b c f C-f i k C-k l m n p s t v w C-c C-d C-n C-w, or ? for more help:"
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  "You have typed \\[help-command], the help character.  Type a Help option:
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\(Use \\<help-map>\\[scroll-up] or \\[scroll-down] to scroll through this text.
Type \\<help-map>\\[help-quit] to exit the Help command.)
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a  command-apropos.  Give a substring, and see a list of commands
	(functions interactively callable) that contain
	that substring.  See also the  apropos  command.
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b  describe-bindings.  Display table of all key bindings.
c  describe-key-briefly.  Type a command key sequence;
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	it prints the function name that sequence runs.
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f  describe-function.  Type a function name and get documentation of it.
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C-f Info-goto-emacs-command-node.  Type a function name;
	it takes you to the Info node for that command.
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i  info. The  info  documentation reader.
k  describe-key.  Type a command key sequence;
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	it displays the full documentation.
C-k Info-goto-emacs-key-command-node.  Type a command key sequence;
	it takes you to the Info node for the command bound to that key.
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l  view-lossage.  Shows last 100 characters you typed.
m  describe-mode.  Print documentation of current major mode,
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	which describes the commands peculiar to it.
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n  view-emacs-news.  Shows emacs news file.
p  finder-by-keyword. Find packages matching a given topic keyword.
s  describe-syntax.  Display contents of syntax table, plus explanations
t  help-with-tutorial.  Select the Emacs learn-by-doing tutorial.
v  describe-variable.  Type name of a variable;
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	it displays the variable's documentation and value.
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w  where-is.  Type command name; it prints which keystrokes
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	invoke that command.
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C-c print Emacs copying permission (General Public License).
C-d print Emacs ordering information.
C-n print news of recent Emacs changes.
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C-p print information about the GNU project.
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C-w print information on absence of warranty for GNU Emacs."
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  help-map)
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;; Return a function which is called by the list containing point.
;; If that gives no function, return a function whose name is around point.
;; If that doesn't give a function, return nil.
(defun function-called-at-point ()
  (or (condition-case ()
	  (save-excursion
	    (save-restriction
	      (narrow-to-region (max (point-min) (- (point) 1000)) (point-max))
	      (backward-up-list 1)
	      (forward-char 1)
	      (let (obj)
		(setq obj (read (current-buffer)))
		(and (symbolp obj) (fboundp obj) obj))))
	(error nil))
      (condition-case ()
	  (save-excursion
	    (forward-sexp -1)
	    (skip-chars-forward "'")
	    (let ((obj (read (current-buffer))))
	      (and (symbolp obj) (fboundp obj) obj)))
	(error nil))))

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(defun describe-function-find-file (function)
  (let ((files load-history)
	file functions)
    (while files
      (if (memq function (cdr (car files)))
	  (setq file (car (car files)) files nil))
      (setq files (cdr files)))
    file))

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(defun describe-function (function)
  "Display the full documentation of FUNCTION (a symbol)."
  (interactive
   (let ((fn (function-called-at-point))
	 (enable-recursive-minibuffers t)	     
	 val)
     (setq val (completing-read (if fn
				    (format "Describe function (default %s): " fn)
				  "Describe function: ")
				obarray 'fboundp t))
     (list (if (equal val "")
	       fn (intern val)))))
  (with-output-to-temp-buffer "*Help*"
    (prin1 function)
    (princ ": ")
    (let* ((def (symbol-function function))
	   (beg (if (commandp def) "an interactive " "a ")))
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      (princ (cond ((or (stringp def)
			(vectorp def))
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		    "a keyboard macro")
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		   ((subrp def)
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		    (concat beg "built-in function"))
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		   ((byte-code-function-p def)
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		    (concat beg "compiled Lisp function"))
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		   ((symbolp def)
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		    (format "alias for `%s'" def))
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		   ((eq (car-safe def) 'lambda)
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		    (concat beg "Lisp function"))
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		   ((eq (car-safe def) 'macro)
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		    "a Lisp macro")
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		   ((eq (car-safe def) 'mocklisp)
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		    "a mocklisp function")
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		   ((eq (car-safe def) 'autoload)
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		    (format "%s autoloaded Lisp %s"
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			    (if (commandp def) "an interactive" "an")
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			    (if (nth 4 def) "macro" "function")
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;;; Including the file name made this line too long.
;;;			    (nth 1 def)
			    ))
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		   (t "")))
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      (let ((file (describe-function-find-file function)))
	(if file
	    (progn
	      (princ " in `")
	      (princ file)
	      (princ ".el'"))))
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      (princ ".")
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      (terpri)
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      (let ((arglist (cond ((byte-code-function-p def)
			    (car (append def nil)))
			   ((eq (car-safe def) 'lambda)
			    (nth 1 def))
			   (t t))))
	(if (listp arglist)
	    (progn
	      (princ (cons function
			   (mapcar (lambda (arg)
				     (if (memq arg '(&optional &rest))
					 arg
				       (intern (upcase (symbol-name arg)))))
				   arglist)))
	      (terpri))))
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      (if (documentation function)
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	  (progn (terpri)
		 (princ (documentation function)))
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	(princ "not documented"))
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      )
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    (print-help-return-message)
    ;; Return the text we displayed.
    (save-excursion (set-buffer standard-output) (buffer-string))))

(defun variable-at-point ()
  (condition-case ()
      (save-excursion
	(forward-sexp -1)
	(skip-chars-forward "'")
	(let ((obj (read (current-buffer))))
	  (and (symbolp obj) (boundp obj) obj)))
    (error nil)))

(defun describe-variable (variable)
  "Display the full documentation of VARIABLE (a symbol).
Returns the documentation as a string, also."
  (interactive 
   (let ((v (variable-at-point))
	 (enable-recursive-minibuffers t)
	 val)
     (setq val (completing-read (if v
				    (format "Describe variable (default %s): " v)
				  "Describe variable: ")
				obarray 'boundp t))
     (list (if (equal val "")
	       v (intern val)))))
  (with-output-to-temp-buffer "*Help*"
    (prin1 variable)
    (princ "'s value is ")
    (if (not (boundp variable))
        (princ "void.")
      (prin1 (symbol-value variable)))
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    (terpri)
    (let ((locals (buffer-local-variables))
	  is-local)
      (while locals
	(if (or (eq variable (car locals))
		(eq variable (car-safe (car locals))))
	    (setq is-local t locals nil))
	(setq locals (cdr locals)))
      (if is-local
	  (princ (format "Local in buffer %s\n" (buffer-name)))))
    (terpri)
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    (princ "Documentation:")
    (terpri)
    (let ((doc (documentation-property variable 'variable-documentation)))
      (if doc
	  (princ (substitute-command-keys doc))
	(princ "not documented as a variable.")))
    (print-help-return-message)
    ;; Return the text we displayed.
    (save-excursion (set-buffer standard-output) (buffer-string))))

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(defun where-is (definition)
  "Print message listing key sequences that invoke specified command.
Argument is a command definition, usually a symbol with a function definition."
  (interactive
   (let ((fn (function-called-at-point))
	 (enable-recursive-minibuffers t)	     
	 val)
     (setq val (completing-read (if fn
				    (format "Where is command (default %s): " fn)
				  "Where is command: ")
				obarray 'fboundp t))
     (list (if (equal val "")
	       fn (intern val)))))
  (let* ((keys (where-is-internal definition overriding-local-map nil nil))
	 (keys1 (mapconcat 'key-description keys ", ")))
    (if (> (length keys1) 0)
	(message "%s is on %s" definition keys1)
      (message "%s is not on any key" definition)))
  nil)

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(defun command-apropos (string)
  "Like apropos but lists only symbols that are names of commands
\(interactively callable functions).  Argument REGEXP is a regular expression
that is matched against command symbol names.  Returns list of symbols and
documentation found."
  (interactive "sCommand apropos (regexp): ")
  (let ((message
	 (let ((standard-output (get-buffer-create "*Help*")))
	   (print-help-return-message 'identity))))
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    (if (apropos string t 'commandp t)
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	(and message (message message)))))
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(defun locate-library (library &optional nosuffix)
  "Show the full path name of Emacs library LIBRARY.
This command searches the directories in `load-path' like `M-x load-library'
to find the file that `M-x load-library RET LIBRARY RET' would load.
Optional second arg NOSUFFIX non-nil means don't add suffixes `.elc' or `.el'
to the specified name LIBRARY (a la calling `load' instead of `load-library')."
  (interactive "sLocate library: ")
  (catch 'answer
    (mapcar
     '(lambda (dir)
	(mapcar
	 '(lambda (suf)
	    (let ((try (expand-file-name (concat library suf) dir)))
	      (and (file-readable-p try)
		   (null (file-directory-p try))
		   (progn
		     (message "Library is file %s" try)
		     (throw 'answer try)))))
	 (if nosuffix '("") '(".elc" ".el" ""))))
     load-path)
    (message "No library %s in search path" library)
    nil))
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;;; help.el ends here