NEWS 72.9 KB
Newer Older
1
GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.
2

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
3
Copyright (C) 2010-2012 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
4
See the end of the file for license conditions.
Dave Love's avatar
#  
Dave Love committed
5

6
Please send Emacs bug reports to bug-gnu-emacs@gnu.org.
7 8
If possible, use M-x report-emacs-bug.

9
This file is about changes in Emacs version 24.
10

11 12
See files NEWS.23, NEWS.22, NEWS.21, NEWS.20, NEWS.19, NEWS.18,
and NEWS.1-17 for changes in older Emacs versions.
13 14 15

You can narrow news to a specific version by calling `view-emacs-news'
with a prefix argument or by typing C-u C-h C-n.
16

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24
Temporary note:
+++ indicates that the appropriate manual has already been updated.
--- means no change in the manuals is called for.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so we will look at it and add it to the manual.


* Installation Changes in Emacs 24.2
25 26 27 28 29

** New configure option '--enable-gcc-warnings', intended for developers.
If building with GCC, this enables compile-time checks that warn about
possibly-questionable C code.  On a recent GNU system there should be
no warnings; on older and on non-GNU systems the generated warnings
Paul Eggert's avatar
Paul Eggert committed
30
may be useful.
31

32 33 34
** The configure option '--disable-maintainer-mode' has been removed,
as it was confusingly-named and rarely useful.

35 36 37
---
** Emacs uses libtinfo in preference to libncurses, if available.

38 39 40 41 42
---
** On FreeBSD and NetBSD, configure no longer adds /usr/local/lib and
/usr/pkg/lib to the linker search path.  You must add them yourself if
you want them.

43 44 45 46
---
** On Mac OS X, configure no longer automatically adds the Fink /sw
directories to the search path.  You must add them yourself if you want them.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
47 48 49 50 51
---
** The standalone scripts rcs-checkin and vcdiff have been removed
(from the bin and libexec directories, respectively).  The former is
no longer relevant, the latter is replaced by lisp (in vc-sccs.el).

52 53 54 55 56
** The configuration option '--enable-use-lisp-union-type' has been
renamed to '--enable-check-lisp-object-type', as the resulting
Lisp_Object type no longer uses a union to implement the compile time
check that this option enables.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
57 58

* Startup Changes in Emacs 24.2
59 60 61 62 63

** Emacs no longer searches for `leim-list.el' files beneath the standard
lisp/ directory.  There should not be any there anyway.  If you have
been adding them there, put them somewhere else, eg site-lisp.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
64 65 66

* Changes in Emacs 24.2

67 68 69
** New functions `system-users', `system-groups' return lists of the user
name, group names known to the system (where possible).

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
70 71 72
** If your Emacs was built from a bzr checkout, the new variable
`emacs-bzr-version' contains information about which bzr revision was used.

73 74 75
** ImageMagick support, if available, is automatically enabled.
It is no longer necessary to call `imagemagick-register-types'
explicitly to install ImageMagick image types; that function is called
76 77
automatically at startup, or when customizing a relevant imagemagick-
option.
78 79

*** Setting `imagemagick-types-inhibit' to t now disables the use of
80 81
ImageMagick to view images.  You must call imagemagick-register-types
afterwards if you do not use customize to change this.
82

83
*** The new variable `imagemagick-enabled-types' also affects which
84 85 86
ImageMagick types are treated as images.  The function
`imagemagick-filter-types' returns the list of types that will be
treated as images.
87

88 89
*** Images displayed via ImageMagick now support transparency and the
:background image spec property.
90

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
91 92 93
** Face underlining can now use a wave.
See the "Face Attributes" section of the Elisp manual.

94 95 96 97
** String values for `initial-buffer-choice' also apply to emacsclient
frames, if emacsclient is only told to open a new frame without
specifying any file to visit or expression to evaluate.

98 99 100 101
+++
** You can prevent the creation of lock files by setting `create-lockfiles'
to nil.  Use with caution, and only if you really need to.

102
+++
103
** Using "unibyte: t" in Lisp source files is obsolete.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
104
Use "coding: raw-text" instead.
105

106 107 108 109 110 111
** Mode line changes

*** New option `mode-line-default-help-echo' specifies the help text
(shown in a tooltip or in the echo area) for any part of the mode line
that does not have its own specialized help text.

112 113 114
*** You can now click mouse-3 in the coding system indicator to
invokes `set-buffer-file-coding-system'.

115 116 117 118
+++
** Setting `enable-remote-dir-locals' to non-nil allows directory
local variables on remote hosts.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
119 120

* Editing Changes in Emacs 24.2
121

122 123 124 125 126 127
** Search changes

*** Global `M-s _' starts a symbol (identifier) incremental search,
and `M-s _' in Isearch toggles symbol search mode.
`M-s c' in Isearch toggles search case-sensitivity.

128 129 130
** M-x move-to-column, if called interactively with no prefix arg, now
prompts for a column number.

131 132 133
** `mouse-avoidance-banish-position' can now be used to customize
`mouse-avoidance-mode' further.

134 135 136
** `C-M-f' and `C-M-b' will now move to the path name separator
character when doing minibuffer filename prompts.

137 138
** `goto-char' is now bound to `M-g c'.

139 140
** New input method `vietnamese-vni'.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
141 142

* Changes in Specialized Modes and Packages in Emacs 24.2
143

144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155
** CL's main entry is now (require 'cl-lib).
`cl-lib' is like the old `cl' except that it uses the namespace cleanly,
i.e. all its definitions have the "cl-" prefix.

If `cl' provided a feature under the name `foo', then `cl-lib' provides it
under the name `cl-foo' instead, with the exceptions of the few definitions
that had to use `foo*' to avoid conflicts with pre-existing Elisp entities,
which have not been renamed to `cl-foo*' but just `cl-foo'.

The old `cl' is now deprecated and is nothing more than a bunch of aliases that
provide the old non-prefixed names.

156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209
** A new mode for Python.
This provides several new features, including:
per-buffer shells, better indentation, Python 3 support, and improved
shell-interaction compatible with iPython (and virtually any other
text based shell).

*** Some user options have been replaced/renamed:
Old defcustom:                | New defcustom:
python-indent                 | python-indent-offset
python-guess-indent           | python-indent-guess-indent-offset
python-pdbtrack-do-tracking-p | python-pdbtrack-activate
python-use-skeletons          | python-skeleton-autoinsert

*** Some user options have been removed:

**** `python-indent-string-contents': Strings are never indented.

**** `python-honour-comment-indentation':
Comments are never considered as indentation markers themselves.

**** `python-continuation-offset': Indentation is automatically
calculated in a pep8 compliant way depending on the context.

**** `python-shell-prompt-alist', `python-shell-continuation-prompt-alist':
Have no direct mapping as the shell interaction is completely different.

**** `python-python-command', `python-jython-command':
Replaced by `python-shell-interpreter'.

**** `inferior-python-filter-regexp', `python-remove-cwd-from-path',
`python-pdbtrack-minor-mode-string', `python-source-modes':
No longer relevant.

*** Some commands have been replaced:
Old command               | New command
python-insert-class       | python-skeleton-class
python-insert-def         | python-skeleton-def
python-insert-for         | python-skeleton-for
python-insert-if          | python-skeleton-if
python-insert-try/except  | python-skeleton-try
python-insert-try/finally | python-skeleton-try
python-insert-while       | python-skeleton-while
python-find-function      | python-nav-jump-to-defun
python-next-statement     | python-nav-forward-sentence
python-previous-statement | python-nav-backward-sentence
python-send-buffer        | python-shell-send-buffer
python-send-defun         | python-shell-send-defun
python-send-region        | python-shell-send-region
python-send-region-and-go | Emulate with python-shell-send-region and
                            python-shell-switch-to-shell
python-send-string        | python-shell-send-string
python-switch-to-python   | python-shell-switch-to-shell
python-describe-symbol    | python-eldoc-at-point

210 211 212 213 214 215
** VHDL-mode
- Support for ghdl (free vhdl compiler).  Now default.
- Add/update support for VHDL-AMS packages.
- Update to VHDL'02 standard.
- Accept \r and \f as whitespace.

216 217 218 219 220 221 222 223 224 225 226
** Diff mode

Faces for changes now use the same diff color scheme as in modern VCSes
where deletions are displayed in red (new faces `diff-refine-removed'
and `smerge-refined-removed' and new definition of `diff-removed'),
insertions in green (new faces `diff-refine-added' and
`smerge-refined-added' and new definition of `diff-added').
The variable `diff-use-changed-face' defines whether to use
the face `diff-changed', or `diff-removed' and `diff-added'
to highlight changes in context diffs.

Juri Linkov's avatar
Juri Linkov committed
227 228 229
** Ediff now uses the same color scheme as Diff mode
on high color displays.

230 231 232 233 234
** `sh-script'
*** Pairing of parens/quotes uses electric-pair-mode instead of skeleton-pair.
*** `sh-electric-here-document-mode' now controls auto-insertion of here-docs.
*** `sh-use-smie' lets you choose a new indentation and navigation code.

235 236
** reStructuredText mode

237 238
*** Rebind nearly all keys making room for more keys and complying
better to usage in other modes.  Describe bindings with C-c C-h.
239

240 241
*** Major revision of indentation working very similar to other
modes.  TAB is your friend.
242

243 244
*** Major revision of filling working fine with most of
reStructuredText syntax.  Support auto-filling.
245 246 247

*** Major revision of comment handling.

248
*** Major revision of fontification working with `jit-lock-mode'.
249

250 251
*** Cover reStructuredText syntax more closely.  Improve
the experience for Sphinx users.
252

253
*** `rst-insert-list' inserts new list or continues existing lists.
254

255
*** Extend correct and improve customization.
256 257 258

*** Negative prefix argument always works for `rst-adjust'.

259
*** Reset window configuration after displaying TOC.
260

261
*** Package version in `rst-version'.
262

263 264
** New `derived-mode' filter for Ibuffer, bound to `/ M'.
`/ m' is now bound to filter by used-mode, which used to be bound to `/ M'.
265

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274
** Apropos

*** The faces used by Apropos are now directly customizable.
These faces are named `apropos-symbol', `apropos-keybinding', and so on;
see the `apropos' Custom group for details.

**** The old options whose values specified faces to use were removed
(i.e. `apropos-symbol-face', `apropos-keybinding-face', etc.).

275 276 277 278 279 280
** Buffer Menu
This package has been rewritten to use Tabulated List mode.

*** Option `Buffer-menu-buffer+size-width' is now obsolete.
Use `Buffer-menu-name-width' and `Buffer-menu-size-width' instead.

281 282
** Calendar

283 284
*** The calendars produced by cal-html include holidays.
Customize cal-html-holidays to change this.
285

286 287 288
** Customize

*** `custom-reset-button-menu' now defaults to t.
289

290 291 292 293
*** Non-option variables are never matched in `customize-apropos' and
`customize-apropos-options' (i.e. the prefix argument does nothing for
these commands now).

294
** erc will look up server/channel names via auth-source and use the
295
channel keys found, if any.
296

297 298 299 300 301 302
** FFAP

*** The option `ffap-url-unwrap-remote' can now be a list of strings,
specifying URL types which should be converted to remote file names at
the FFAP prompt.  The default is now '("ftp").

303 304 305 306 307 308 309
** Follow mode

*** The obsolete variable `follow-mode-off-hook' has been removed.

*** Follow mode no longer works by using advice.
The option `follow-intercept-processes' has been removed.

310 311
** The `server-auth-key' variable can be used to set a permanent
shared key for Emacs Server.
312 313 314 315

** In Perl mode, new option `perl-indent-parens-as-block' causes non-block
closing brackets to be aligned with the line of the opening bracket.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
316 317
** FIXME something happened to ses.el, 2012-04-17.

318 319
** which-function-mode now applies to all applicable major modes by default.

Michael Albinus's avatar
Michael Albinus committed
320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328
** Tramp

+++
*** The syntax has been extended in order to allow ad-hoc proxy
definitions.  See the manual for details.

+++
*** Remote processes are now supported also on remote Windows host.

329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358
** D-Bus

+++
*** New variables `dbus-compiled-version' and `dbus-runtime-version'.

+++
*** The D-Bus object manager interface is implemented.

+++
*** Variables of type :(u)int32 and :(u)int64 accept floating points,
if their value does not fit into Emacs's integer range.

+++
*** The function `dbus-call-method' works non-blocking now, it can be
interrupted by C-g.  `dbus-call-method-non-blocking' is obsolete.

+++
*** Signals can be sent also as unicast message.

+++
*** The argument list of `dbus-register-signal' has been extended,
according to the new match rule types of D-Bus.  See the manual for
details.

+++
*** `dbus-init-bus' supports private connections.

+++
*** There is a new function `dbus-setenv'.

359 360 361 362 363
+++
** notifications.el supports now version 1.2 of the Notifications API.
The function `notifications-get-capabilities' returns the supported
server properties.

364 365 366 367 368
** Package Menu

*** Newly-available packages are listed in the Package Menu as "new",
and sorted above the other "available" packages by default.

369 370
** Tabulated List and packages derived from it

371
*** New command `tabulated-list-sort', bound to `S', sorts the column
372 373
at point, or the Nth column if a numeric prefix argument is given.

374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385
** URL

*** Structs made by `url-generic-parse-url' have nil `attributes' slot.
Previously, this slot stored semicolon-separated attribute-value pairs
appended to some imap URLs, but this is not compatible with RFC 3986.
So now the `filename' slot stores the entire path and query components
and the `attributes' slot is always nil.

*** New function `url-encode-url' for encoding a URI string.
The `url-retrieve' function now uses this to encode its URL argument,
in case that is not properly encoded.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
386 387
** Obsolete packages:

388 389 390 391 392
*** assoc.el
In most cases, assoc+member+push+delq work just as well.
And in any case it's just a terrible package: ugly semantics, terrible
inefficiency, and not namespace-clean.

393 394
*** bruce.el

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
395 396
*** ledit.el

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
397
*** mailpost.el
398 399 400

*** mouse-sel.el

401 402
*** patcomp.el

403 404
*** cust-print.el

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
405 406 407 408

* New Modes and Packages in Emacs 24.2

* Incompatible Lisp Changes in Emacs 24.2
409 410 411 412 413 414 415

+++
** Docstrings starting with `*' no longer indicate user options.
Only variables defined using `defcustom' are considered user options.
The function `user-variable-p' is now an obsolete alias for
`custom-variable-p'.

416 417 418
** `face-spec-set' no longer sets frame-specific attributes when the
third argument is a frame (that usage was obsolete since Emacs 22.2).

419 420 421 422 423
+++
** The arguments of `dbus-register-signal' are no longer just strings,
but keywords or keyword-string pairs.  The old argument list will
still be supported for Emacs 24.x.

424 425 426 427 428
** The following obsolete variables and varaliases have been removed:

*** `facemenu-unlisted-faces'
*** `rmail-decode-mime-charset'

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
429 430

* Lisp changes in Emacs 24.2
431

432 433 434 435 436
** `defun' also accepts a (declare DECLS) form, like `defmacro'.
The interpretation of the DECLS is determined by `defun-declarations-alist'.

** `macro-declaration-function' is obsolete, use `macro-declarations-alist'.

437 438 439 440
** New function `set-temporary-overlay-map'.

** New macros `setq-local' and `defvar-local'.

441
** New error type and new function `user-error'.  Doesn't trigger the debugger.
442

443 444 445
** The functions get-lru-window, get-mru-window and get-largest-window
now accept a third argument to avoid chosing the selected window.

446 447 448 449 450 451 452
** Completion

*** New function `completion-table-with-quoting' to handle completion
in the presence of quoting, such as file completion in shell buffers.

*** New function `completion-table-subvert' to use an existing completion
table, but with a different prefix.
453 454 455 456 457 458

** Time

*** `current-time-string' no longer requires that its argument's year
must be in the range 1000..9999.  It now works with any year supported
by the underlying C implementation.
459 460

** `automount-dir-prefix' is obsolete.
461
** `buffer-has-markers-at' is obsolete.
462 463 464 465 466 467 468 469

* Changes in Emacs 24.2 on non-free operating systems

** New configure.bat options on MS-Windows:

*** --without-libxml2 omits support for libxml2, even if its presence
is detected.

470 471 472 473
** When invoked with the -nw switch to run on the Windows text-mode terminal,
Emacs now supports mouse highlight, help-echo (in the echo area), and
mouse-autoselect-window.

474

475
* Installation Changes in Emacs 24.1
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
476

477 478 479 480
** Emacs can be compiled with Gtk+ 3.0 if you pass --with-x-toolkit=gtk3
to configure.  Note that other libraries used by Emacs, RSVG and GConf,
also depend on Gtk+.  You can disable them with --without-rsvg and
--without-gconf.
481

482 483 484 485
** Emacs can be compiled with GnuTLS support.
This happens by default if a suitably recent version of the library is
found at build time.  To prevent this, use the configure option
`--without-gnutls'.  See below for GnuTLS features.
486

487 488 489 490
** Emacs can be compiled with SELinux support.
This happens by default if a suitably recent version of the library is
found at build time.  To prevent this, use the configure option
`--without-selinux'.  See below for SELinux features.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
491

492 493 494 495
** Emacs can be compiled with ImageMagick support.
This happens by default if a suitably recent version of the library is
found at build time.  To prevent this, use the configure option
`--without-imagemagick'.  See below for ImageMagick features.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
496
This feature is not available for the Nextstep or MS ports.
497

498 499 500 501 502
** Emacs can be compiled with libxml2 support.
This happens by default if a suitably recent version of the library is
found at build time.  To prevent this, use the configure option
`--without-xml2'.  See below for libxml2 features.

503 504 505 506
** By default, the installed Info and man pages are compressed.
You can disable this by configuring --without-compress-info.

** New configure option --with-wide-int.
Paul Eggert's avatar
Paul Eggert committed
507
With it, Emacs integers typically have 62 bits, even on 32-bit machines.
508 509
On 32-bit hosts, this raises the limit on buffer sizes from about 512 MiB
to about 2 GiB.
Paul Eggert's avatar
Paul Eggert committed
510

511
** New configure options: --with-mmdf, --with-mail-unlink, --with-mailhost.
512 513 514
These provide no new functionality, they just remove the need to edit
lib-src/Makefile by hand in order to use the associated features.

515
** New configure option --enable-use-lisp-union-type.
516 517
This is only useful for Emacs developers to debug certain types of bugs.
This is not a new feature; only the configure flag is new.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
518 519 520 521 522 523 524

** The standalone programs digest-doc and sorted-doc are removed.
Emacs now uses Lisp commands `doc-file-to-man' and `doc-file-to-info'.

** The standalone program `fakemail' is removed.
If you need it, feedmail.el provides a superset of the functionality.

525

526
* Startup Changes in Emacs 24.1
527

528
** The --unibyte, --multibyte, --no-multibyte, and --no-unibyte
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
529 530
command line arguments, and the EMACS_UNIBYTE environment variable, no
longer have any effect.  (They were declared obsolete in Emacs 23.)
531

532
** New command line option `--no-site-lisp' removes site-lisp directories
533 534
from load-path.  -Q now implies this.  This option does not affect the
EMACSLOADPATH environment variable (and hence has no effect for
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
535
Nextstep builds).
536

537

538
* Changes in Emacs 24.1
539

540
** Completion
541

542 543 544
*** Many packages now use the `completion-at-point' command,
rather than implementing separate completion commands.

545
*** `completion-at-point' now handles tags and semantic completion.
546

547 548
*** Completion in a non-minibuffer now tries to detect the end of completion
and pops down the *Completions* buffer accordingly.
549 550 551 552

*** New option `completion-cycle-threshold' allows completion cycling.

*** New option `completion-category-overrides' for overriding the
553
default completion style in certain circumstances.
554

555
*** New completion style `substring'.
556 557 558 559

*** Completion of buffer names uses `substring' completion by default.

*** The option `widget-complete-field' has been removed.
560

561
** Mail changes
562

563 564 565 566 567 568
*** The first time you try sending mail, Emacs asks for a mail method.
This is implemented by a new default for `send-mail-function', which
is `sendmail-query-once'.  This offers to use the smtpmail package, or
to use the old defaults relying on external mail facilities
(`sendmail-send-it' on GNU/Linux and other Unix-like systems, and
`mailclient-send-it' on Windows).
569

570 571 572
*** Typing C-c m in the buffer made by M-x report-emacs-bug transfers
the report to your desktop's preferred mail client, if there is one.
This uses either the "xdg-email" utility, or Mac OS's "open" command.
573

574 575
*** See Changes in Specialized Modes and Packages for SMTPmail changes
and Mail mode changes
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
576

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
577
** Emacs server and client changes
578

579
*** New option `server-port' specifies the port for TCP Emacs servers.
580

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
581
*** New emacsclient argument -q/--quiet suppresses some status messages.
582

583 584
*** New emacsclient argument --frame-parameters specifies the frame
parameters of any newly-created graphical frame.
585 586 587 588

*** If emacsclient shuts down due to Emacs signaling an error,
its exit status is 1.

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
589 590 591 592
*** New emacsclient argument --parent-id ID.
This opens a client frame in parent X window ID, via XEmbed, similar
to the --parent-id argument to Emacs.

593 594 595
** Internationalization changes

*** Emacs now supports display and editing of bidirectional text.
596 597
Right-to-left (RTL) scripts, such as Arabic, Farsi, and Hebrew, are
displayed in the correct visual order as expected by users of those
598 599 600
scripts.  The display reordering is a "full bidirectionality" class
implementation of the Unicode Bidirectional Algorithm (UBA).  Buffers
with no RTL text should look exactly the same as before.
601

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
602
**** New buffer-local variable `bidi-display-reordering'.
603
To disable display reordering in a buffer, change this to nil.
604

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
605 606
**** New buffer-local variable `bidi-paragraph-direction'.
If nil (the default), Emacs determines the base direction of each
607 608 609
paragraph from its text, as specified by the UBA.  Setting the value
to `right-to-left' or `left-to-right' forces a base direction on each
paragraph.
610

611 612
Paragraphs with right-to-left base direction are displayed starting at
the right window edge.
613

614 615 616 617 618
*** Enhanced support for characters with no glyphs in available fonts,
or, on text terminals, characters that cannot be encoded by the
terminal coding system.  The new option `glyphless-char-display-control'
specifies how to display them: as a hexadecimal code in a box, a thin
1-pixel space, an empty box, etc.
619

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
620 621
*** New input methods for Farsi and Bulgarian
(farsi-isiri-9147, farsi-transliterate-banan, bulgarian-alt-phonetic).
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
622

623 624 625
*** `nobreak-char-display' now also highlights Unicode hyphen chars
(U+2010 and U+2011).

626
*** New Hebrew translation of the Emacs Tutorial.
627 628 629
Type `C-u C-h t' to choose it in case your language setup doesn't
automatically select it.

630 631 632
** An Emacs Lisp package manager is now included.
This is a convenient way to download and install additional packages,
from a package repository at http://elpa.gnu.org.
633

634 635
*** M-x list-packages shows a list of packages, which can be
selected for installation.
636

637
*** New command `describe-package', bound to `C-h P'.
638

639 640 641
*** By default, all installed packages are loaded automatically when
Emacs starts up.  To disable this, set `package-enable-at-startup' to
nil.  To specify the packages to load, customize `package-load-list'.
Joakim Verona's avatar
Joakim Verona committed
642

643 644
** Custom theme changes

645 646
*** New command `M-x customize-themes', which provides a convenient
interface for enabling and disabling Custom themes.
647

648
*** New option `custom-theme-load-path' is the load path for themes.
649 650 651 652 653 654
Emacs no longer looks for Custom themes in `load-path'.  The default
value of `custom-theme-load-path' says to look for themes in
`custom-theme-directory', followed by a subdirectory of
`data-directory' named "themes/", which contains a small selection of
built-in Custom themes.

655 656 657 658
*** New option `custom-safe-themes' records known-safe theme files.
If a theme is not in this list, Emacs queries before loading it, and
offers to save the theme to `custom-safe-themes' automatically.  By
default, all themes included in Emacs are treated as safe.
659

660
** Improved GTK integration
661

662
*** GTK scroll-bars are now placed on the right by default.
663 664
The function `set-scroll-bar-mode' can change this.

665
*** GTK tool bars can have just text, just images or images and text.
666 667 668 669
Customize `tool-bar-style' to choose the style.  On a Gnome desktop,
the default is taken from desktop settings.

*** GTK tool bars can be placed on any edge of the frame.
670 671 672
The frame-parameter tool-bar-position controls this.  It takes the
values top, left, right or bottom.  The Options => Show/Hide menu has
entries for this.
673

674 675
*** The default colors for selected text (the `region' face) are taken
from the GTK theme when Emacs is built with GTK.
676

677 678
*** Emacs uses GTK tooltips by default if built with GTK.
You can disable this by changing `x-gtk-use-system-tooltips' to nil.
679

680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692
** Graphical interface changes

*** On graphical displays, the mode-line no longer ends in dashes.
Also, the first dash (which does not indicate anything) is just
displayed as a space.

*** `menu-bar-select-buffer-function' lets you choose another operation
instead of `switch-to-buffer' when selecting an item in the Buffers menu.

*** Lucid menus and dialogs can display antialiased fonts if Emacs is
built with Xft.  These fonts can be set via X resources, for example:
Emacs.pane.menubar.font: Courier-12

693
** Exiting changes
694

695
*** Emacs now calls `kill-emacs' if it receives SIGTERM or SIGHUP,
696 697
or if it receives a SIGINT signal in batch mode.

698 699 700
*** `kill-emacs-hook' is now also run in batch mode.
Third-party code which adds to `kill-emacs-hook' should check if they
do the right thing in batch mode.
701

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
702
** Scrolling changes
703

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
704
*** New scrolling commands `scroll-up-command' and `scroll-down-command'
Juanma Barranquero's avatar
Juanma Barranquero committed
705
(bound to C-v/[next] and M-v/[prior]) do not signal errors at top/bottom
706
of buffer at first key-press (instead they move to top/bottom of buffer)
707
when `scroll-error-top-bottom' is non-nil.
708 709 710

*** New option `scroll-error-top-bottom' (see above).

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
711
*** New scrolling commands `scroll-up-line' and `scroll-down-line'
712
scroll a line instead of full screen.
713

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
714
*** New property `scroll-command' should be set on a command's symbol to
Esa Peuha's avatar
Esa Peuha committed
715
define it as a scroll command affected by `scroll-preserve-screen-position'.
716

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
717
*** If you customize `scroll-conservatively' to a value greater than 100,
718 719 720 721
Emacs will never recenter point in the window when it scrolls due to
cursor motion commands or commands that move point (e.f., `M-g M-g').
Previously, you needed to use `most-positive-fixnum' as the value of
`scroll-conservatively' to achieve the same effect.
722

723
*** "Aggressive" scrolling now honors the scroll margins.
724 725 726 727 728
If you customize `scroll-up-aggressively' or
`scroll-down-aggressively' and move point off the window, Emacs now
scrolls the window so as to avoid positioning point inside the scroll
margin.

729 730
** Basic SELinux support has been added.
This requires Emacs to be linked with libselinux at build time.
731

732 733 734 735
*** Emacs preserves the SELinux file context when backing up.
Also, the function `copy-file' has an extra optional argument for
preserving SELinux context, and the return value of `backup-buffer'
now includes the SELinux context.
736

737
*** New functions `file-selinux-context' and `set-file-selinux-context'
738
get and set the SELinux context of a file.
739

740
** Trash changes
741

742 743
*** `delete-by-moving-to-trash' now only affects commands that specify
trashing.  This avoids inadvertently trashing temporary files.
744

745 746
*** Calling `delete-file' or `delete-directory' with a prefix argument
now forces true deletion, regardless of `delete-by-moving-to-trash'.
747

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
748
** File- and directory-local variable changes
749

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
750 751 752 753
*** You can stop directory local vars from applying to subdirectories.
Add an element (subdirs . nil) to the alist portion of any variables
settings to indicate that the section should not apply to
subdirectories.
754

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
755 756 757 758 759
*** Directory local variables can apply to some file-less buffers.
Affected modes include dired, vc-dir, and log-edit.  For example,
adding "(diff-mode . ((mode . whitespace)))" to .dir-locals.el will
turn on `whitespace-mode' for *vc-diff* buffers.  Modes should call
`hack-dir-local-variables-non-file-buffer' to support this.
760

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
761 762
*** Using "mode: MINOR-MODE" to enable a minor mode is deprecated.
Instead, use "eval: (minor-mode 1)".
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
763

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
764 765
*** The variable `inhibit-first-line-modes-regexps' has been renamed
to `inhibit-local-variables-regexps'.  As the name suggests, it now
766 767 768
applies to ALL file local variables, not just -*- lines.  The
associated `inhibit-first-line-modes-suffixes' has been renamed in the
corresponding way.
769

770 771
** Window changes

772 773 774
*** The `quit-window' command now restores the last buffer displayed
in the quitted window.

775 776 777 778
*** Resizing an Emacs frame now preserves proportional window sizes,
modulo restrictions like window minimum sizes and fixed-size windows.

*** The behavior of `display-buffer' is now customizable in detail.
779

780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789
**** New option `display-buffer-base-action' specifies a list of
user-determined display "actions" (functions and optional arguments
for choosing the displaying window).

This takes precedence over the default display action, which is
specified by `display-buffer-fallback-action'.

**** New option `display-buffer-alist' maps buffer name regexps to
display actions, taking precedence over `display-buffer-base-action'.

790 791 792 793
*** New option `window-combination-limit'.
The new option `window-combination-limit' allows to return the space
obtained for resizing or creating a window more reliably to the window
from which such space was obtained.
794

795 796 797 798 799
*** New option `window-combination-resize'.
The new option `window-combination-resize' allows to split a window that
otherwise cannot be split because it's too small by stealing space from
other windows in the same combination.  Subsequent resizing or deletion
of the window will resize all windows in the same combination as well.
800

801 802 803 804
*** New option `frame-auto-hide-function' lets you choose between
iconifying or deleting a frame when burying a buffer in a dedicated
frame, or quitting a window showing a buffer in a frame of its own.

805
*** New commands `maximize-window' and `minimize-window'.
Paul Eggert's avatar
Paul Eggert committed
806
These maximize and minimize the size of a window within its frame.
807 808 809 810 811

*** New commands `switch-to-prev-buffer' and `switch-to-next-buffer'.
These functions allow to navigate through the live buffers that have
been shown in a specific window.

812
** Minibuffer changes
813

814
*** The inactive minibuffer has its own major mode `minibuffer-inactive-mode'.
815 816
This is handy for minibuffer-only frames, and is also used for the feature
where mouse-1 pops up *Messages*"', which can now easily be changed.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
817

818
*** Minibuffers set `truncate-lines' to nil.
Glenn Morris's avatar
NEWS  
Glenn Morris committed
819
If you want to change the value to something else, you could use
820 821 822 823 824
for example `minibuffer-setup-hook'.

** `auto-mode-case-fold' is now enabled by default.

** `backup-by-copying-when-mismatch' now defaults to t.
Glenn Morris's avatar
NEWS  
Glenn Morris committed
825

826 827 828 829 830 831 832 833 834
** New basic faces `error', `warning', `success'.
These are used to highlight text indicating failure, caution or
successful operation.

** New option `list-colors-sort' defines the color sort order
for `list-colors-display'.

** The variable `focus-follows-mouse' now always defaults to nil.

835

836
* Editing Changes in Emacs 24.1
837

838
** Search changes
839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847

*** C-y in Isearch is now bound to `isearch-yank-kill', instead of
`isearch-yank-line'.

*** M-y in Isearch is now bound to `isearch-yank-pop', instead of
`isearch-yank-kill'.

*** M-s C-e in Isearch is now bound to `isearch-yank-line'.

848
** New commands `count-words-region' and `count-words'.
849

850 851 852 853 854
*** M-= is bound to `count-words-region', not `count-lines-region'.
The `count-words-region' command, when called interactively, reports
the number of lines, words, and characters in the region.  It is a
superset of the old `count-lines-region', which is now an obsolete
alias for it.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
855

856
** The command `just-one-space' (M-SPC), if given a negative argument,
857 858
also deletes newlines around point.

859
** Deletion changes
860

861
*** New option `delete-active-region'.
862
If non-nil, [delete] and DEL delete the region if it is active and no
863
prefix argument is given.  If set to `kill', those commands kill
864
instead.
865

866
*** New command `delete-forward-char', bound to [delete].
867 868
This is meant for interactive use, and obeys `delete-active-region'.
The command `delete-char' does not obey `delete-active-region'.
869

870 871
*** `delete-backward-char' is now a Lisp function.
Apart from obeying `delete-active-region', its behavior is unchanged.
872 873
However, the byte compiler now warns if it is called from Lisp; Lisp
callers should use delete-char with a negative argument instead.
874

875 876
*** The option `mouse-region-delete-keys' has been deleted.

877 878
** Selection changes.

879 880 881 882
The default handling of clipboard and primary selections has been
changed to conform with modern X applications.  In short, most
commands for killing and yanking text now use the clipboard, while
mouse commands use the primary selection.
883 884 885 886 887 888

In the following, we provide a list of these changes, followed by a
list of steps to get the old behavior back if you prefer that.

*** `select-active-regions' now defaults to t.
Merely selecting text (e.g. with drag-mouse-1) no longer puts it in
889
the kill ring.  The selected text is put in the primary selection, if
890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897
the system possesses a separate primary selection facility (e.g. X).

**** `select-active-regions' also accepts a new value, `only'.
This means to only set the primary selection for temporarily active
regions (usually made by mouse-dragging or shift-selection);
"ordinary" active regions, such as those made with C-SPC followed by
point motion, do not alter the primary selection.

898 899
**** `mouse-drag-copy-region' now defaults to nil.

900 901 902
*** mouse-2 is now bound to `mouse-yank-primary'.
This pastes from the primary selection, ignoring the kill-ring.
Previously, mouse-2 was bound to `mouse-yank-at-click'.
903

904
*** `x-select-enable-clipboard' now defaults to t on all platforms.
905

906 907 908 909 910
*** `x-select-enable-primary' now defaults to nil.
Thus, commands that kill text or copy it to the kill-ring (such as
M-w, C-w, and C-k) also use the clipboard---not the primary selection.

**** The "Copy", "Cut", and "Paste" items in the "Edit" menu are now
911
exactly equivalent to M-w, C-w, and C-y respectively.
912 913 914 915 916 917

**** Note that on MS-Windows, `x-select-enable-clipboard' was already
non-nil by default, as Windows does not support the primary selection
between applications.

*** To return to the previous behavior, do the following:
918

919
**** Change `select-active-regions' to nil.
920 921 922 923
**** Change `mouse-drag-copy-region' to t.
**** Change `x-select-enable-primary' to t (on X only).
**** Change `x-select-enable-clipboard' to nil.
**** Bind `mouse-yank-at-click' to mouse-2.
924

925
*** Support for X cut buffers has been removed.
926

927 928
*** X clipboard managers are now supported.
To inhibit this, change `x-select-enable-clipboard-manager' to nil.
929

930 931 932
** New command `C-x r N' (`rectangle-number-lines') numbers the lines
in the current rectangle.  With a prefix argument, this prompts for a
number to count from and for a format string.
933

934
** `redisplay-dont-pause' now defaults to t.
935 936 937 938 939
This makes Emacs feel more responsive to editing commands that arrive
at high rate, e.g. if you lean on some key, because stopping redisplay
in the middle (when this variable is nil) forces more expensive
updates later on, and Emacs appears to be unable to keep up.

940 941 942 943 944 945
** The behavior of <TAB> for active regions in Text mode has changed.
In Text and related modes, typing <TAB> (`indent-for-tab-command')
when the region is active causes Emacs to indent all the lines in the
region, aligning them with the line previous to the first line in the
region (or with the left margin if there is no previous line).

946 947 948 949 950 951
** When `occur' is called with a prefix argument, matching strings are
collected into the `*Occur*' buffer without line numbers.  If there
are parenthesized subexpressions in the specified regexp, `occur'
reads replacement text that may contain \\& and \\N whose convention
follows `replace-match'.

952

953
* Changes in Specialized Modes and Packages in Emacs 24.1
954

Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
955
** Archive Mode has basic support for browsing and updating 7z archives.
956

957
** BibTeX mode
958

959
*** BibTeX mode now supports biblatex.
960 961 962 963
Use the variable `bibtex-dialect' to select different BibTeX dialects.
`bibtex-entry-field-alist' is now an obsolete alias for
`bibtex-BibTeX-entry-alist'.

964 965
*** New command `bibtex-search-entries', bound to C-c C-a.

966
*** New `bibtex-entry-format' option `sort-fields', disabled by default.
967

968 969
*** New variable `bibtex-search-entry-globally'.

970
** Browse-url
971

972
*** New option `browse-url-mailto-function' specifies how to handle "mailto:"s.
973

974 975 976
*** The default browser used by the package is now the "xdg-open" program,
on platforms that support it.  This calls your desktop's preferred browser.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
977 978
** Calendar, Diary, and Appt

979
*** Diary entries can contain non-printing "comments".
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
980 981
See the variable `diary-comment-start'.

982 983 984
*** Appointments can specify their individual warning times.
See the variable `appt-warning-time-regexp'.

985 986 987 988
*** The function specified by `appt-disp-window-function' may be passed
lists of arguments if multiple appointments are due at similar times.
If you are using a custom function for this, you should update it.

989 990
*** New function `diary-hebrew-birthday'.

991 992 993
*** Elements of `calendar-day-abbrev-array' and `calendar-month-abbrev-array'
may no longer be nil, but must all be strings.

994 995 996
*** The obsolete (since Emacs 22.1) method of enabling the appt
package by adding `appt-make-list' to `diary-hook' has been removed.
Use `appt-activate' instead.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004

*** Some appt variables (obsolete since Emacs 22.1) have been removed:
appt-issue-message (use the function appt-activate)
appt-visible/appt-msg-window (use the variable appt-display-format)

*** Some diary function aliases (obsolete since Emacs 22.1) have been removed:
view-diary-entries, list-diary-entries, show-all-diary-entries

Alan Mackenzie's avatar
Alan Mackenzie committed
1005
** CC Mode
1006

Alan Mackenzie's avatar
Alan Mackenzie committed
1007
*** New feature to "guess" the style in an existing buffer.
1008
The main entry point is M-x c-guess.
Chong Yidong's avatar
Chong Yidong committed
1009

Alan Mackenzie's avatar
Alan Mackenzie committed
1010 1011
*** Java Mode now supports Java 5.0 (Tiger) and 6 (Mustang).

1012
*** `c-beginning-of-defun' and `c-end-of-defun' now respect nested scopes.
Alan Mackenzie's avatar
Alan Mackenzie committed
1013 1014 1015
Thus C-M-a will, by default, go to the beginning of the immediate function,
not the top level.

1016
*** "Macros with semicolons" can be registered for correct indentation.
Alan Mackenzie's avatar
Alan Mackenzie committed
1017 1018 1019
Where such a macro ends a line (no semicolon) the next statement is no longer
parsed as a statement continuation.