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GNU Emacs NEWS -- history of user-visible changes.  5 Jan 2000
Copyright (C) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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See the end for copying conditions.

Please send Emacs bug reports to
For older news, see the file ONEWS.

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* Installation Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** `movemail' defaults to supporting POP.  You can turn this off using
the --without-pop configure option, should that be necessary.

** There are new configure options associated with the support for
images and toolkit scrollbars.  Use the --help option to list them.
* Changes in Emacs 21.1

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** Emacs now refuses to load compiled Lisp files which weren't
compiled with Emacs.  Set `load-dangerous-libraries' to t to change
this behavior.

The reason for this change is an incompatible change in XEmacs' byte
compiler.  Files compiled with XEmacs can contain byte codes that let
Emacs dump core.

** New X resources recognized
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*** The X resource `synchronous', class `Synchronous', specifies
whether Emacs should run in synchronous mode.  Synchronous mode
is useful for debugging X problems.


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  emacs.synchronous: true
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*** The X resource `visualClass, class `VisualClass', specifies the
visual Emacs should use.  The resource's value should be a string of
the form `CLASS-DEPTH', where CLASS is the name of the visual class,
and DEPTH is the requested color depth as a decimal number.  Valid
visual class names are


Visual class names specified as X resource are case-insensitive, i.e.
`pseudocolor', `Pseudocolor' and `PseudoColor' all have the same

The program `xdpyinfo' can be used to list the visual classes
supported on your display, and which depths they have.  If
`visualClass' is not specified, Emacs uses the display's default


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  emacs.visualClass: TrueColor-8
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*** The X resource `privateColormap', class `PrivateColormap',
specifies that Emacs should use a private colormap if it is using the
default visual, and that visual is of class PseudoColor.  Recognized
resource values are `true' or `on'.


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  emacs.privateColormap: true
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** The menu bar configuration has changed.  The new configuration is
more CUA-compliant.  The most significant change is that Options is
now a separate menu-bar item, with Mule and Customize as its submenus.

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** User-option `show-cursor-in-non-selected-windows' controls how to
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display the cursor in non-selected windows.  If nil, no cursor is
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shown, if non-nil a hollow box cursor is shown.  This option can
be customized.
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** The variable `echo-keystrokes' may now have a floating point value.

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** C-x 5 1 runs the new command delete-other-frames which deletes
all frames except the selected one.

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** If your init file is compiled (.emacs.elc), `user-init-file' is set
to the source name (.emacs.el), if that exists, after loading it.

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** The help string specified for a menu-item whose definition contains
the property `:help HELP' is now displayed under X either in the echo
area or with tooltips.

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** New user option `read-mail-command' specifies a command to use to
read mail from the menu etc.

** Changes in Outline mode.

There is now support for Imenu to index headings.  A new command
`outline-headers-as-kill' copies the visible headings in the region to
the kill ring, e.g. to produce a table of contents.

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** New command M-x check-parens can be used to find unbalanced paren
groups and strings in buffers in Lisp mode (or other modes).

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** You can now easily create new *Info* buffers using either M-x clone-buffer
or C-u m <entry> RET.  M-x clone-buffer can also be used on *Help* and
several other special buffers.

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** Emacs can now support 'wheeled' mice (such as the MS IntelliMouse)
under XFree86.  To enable this, simply put (mwheel-install) in your
.emacs file.

The variables `mwheel-follow-mouse' and `mwheel-scroll-amount'
determine where and by how much buffers are scrolled.

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** Listing buffers with M-x list-buffers (C-x C-b) now shows
abbreviated file names.  Abbreviations can be customized by changing

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** Reading from the mini-buffer now reads from standard input if Emacs
is running in batch mode.  For example,

  (message "%s" (read t))

will read a Lisp expression from standard input and print the result
to standard output.

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** Faces and frame parameters.

There are four new faces `scroll-bar', `border', `cursor' and `mouse'.
Setting the frame parameters `scroll-bar-foreground' and
`scroll-bar-background' sets foreground and background color of face
`scroll-bar' and vice versa.  Setting frame parameter `border-color'
sets the background color of face `border' and vice versa.  Likewise
for frame parameters `cursor-color' and face `cursor', and frame
parameter `mouse-color' and face `mouse'.

Changing frame parameter `font' sets font-related attributes of the
`default' face and vice versa.  Setting frame parameters
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`foreground-color' or `background-color' sets the colors of the
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`default' face and vice versa.

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** New face `menu'.

The face `menu' can be used to change colors and font of Emacs' menus.
Setting the font of LessTif/Motif menus is currently not supported;
attempts to set the font are ignored in this case.

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** New frame parameter `screen-gamma' for gamma correction.

The new frame parameter `screen-gamma' specifies gamma-correction for
colors.  Its value may be nil, the default, in which case no gamma
correction occurs, or a number > 0, usually a float, that specifies
the screen gamma of a frame's display.

PC monitors usually have a screen gamma of 2.2.  smaller values result
in darker colors.  You might want to try a screen gamma of 1.5 for LCD
color displays.  The viewing gamma Emacs uses is 0.4545. (1/2.2).

The X resource name of this parameter is `screenGamma', class

** Emacs has a new redisplay engine.

The new redisplay handles characters of variable width and height.
Italic text can be used without redisplay problems.  Fonts containing
oversized characters, i.e. characters larger than the logical height
of a font can be used.  Images of various formats can be displayed in
the text.

** Emacs has a new face implementation.

The new faces no longer fundamentally use X font names to specify the
font.  Instead, each face has several independent attributes--family,
height, width, weight and slant--that it may or may not specify.
These attributes can be merged from various faces, and then together
specify a font.

Faces are supported on terminals that can display color or fonts.
These terminal capabilities are auto-detected.  Details can be found
under Lisp changes, below.

** New default font is Courier 12pt.

** When using a windowing terminal, Emacs window now has a cursor of
its own.  When the window is selected, the cursor is solid; otherwise,
it is hollow.

** Bitmap areas to the left and right of windows are used to display
truncation marks, continuation marks, overlay arrows and alike.  The
foreground, background, and stipple of these areas can be changed by
customizing face `fringe'.

** The mode line under X is now drawn with shadows by default.  You
can change its appearance by modifying the face `modeline'.

** LessTif support.

Emacs now runs with LessTif (see <>).  You will
need a version 0.88.1 or later.

** Toolkit scroll bars.

Emacs now uses toolkit scrollbars if available.  When configured for
LessTif/Motif, it will use that toolkit's scrollbar.  Otherwise, when
configured for Lucid and Athena widgets, it will use the Xaw3d scroll
bar if Xaw3d is available.  You can turn off the use of toolkit scroll
bars by specifying `--with-toolkit-scroll-bars=no' when configuring

When you encounter problems with the Xaw3d scroll bar, watch out how
Xaw3d is compiled on your system.  If the Makefile generated from
Xaw3d's Imakefile contains a `-DNARROWPROTO' compiler option, and your
Emacs system configuration file `s/your-system.h' does not contain a
define for NARROWPROTO, you might consider adding it.  Take
`s/freebsd.h' as an example.

Alternatively, if you don't have access to the Xaw3d source code, take
a look at your system's imake configuration file, for example in the
directory `/usr/X11R6/lib/X11/config' (paths are different on
different systems).  You will find files `*.cf' there.  If your
system's cf-file contains a line like `#define NeedWidePrototypes NO',
add a `#define NARROWPROTO' to your Emacs system configuration file.

The reason for this is that one Xaw3d function uses `double' or
`float' function parameters depending on the setting of NARROWPROTO.
This is not a problem when Imakefiles are used because each system's
image configuration file contains the necessary information.  Since
Emacs doesn't use imake, this has do be done manually.

** Toggle buttons and radio buttons in menus.

When compiled with LessTif (or Motif) support, Emacs uses toolkit
widgets for radio and toggle buttons in menus.  When configured for
Lucid, Emacs draws radio buttons and toggle buttons similar to Motif.

** Highlighting of trailing whitespace.

When `show-trailing-whitespace' is non-nil, Emacs displays trailing
whitespace in the face `trailing-whitespace'.  Trailing whitespace is
defined as spaces or tabs at the end of a line.  To avoid busy
highlighting when entering new text, trailing whitespace is not
displayed if point is at the end of the line containing the

** Busy-cursor.

Emacs can optionally display a busy-cursor under X.  You can turn the
display on or off by customizing group `cursor'.

** Blinking cursor

M-x blink-cursor-mode toggles a blinking cursor under X and on
terminals having terminal capabilities `vi', `vs', and `ve'.  Blinking
and related parameters like frequency and delay can be customized in
the group `cursor'.

** New font-lock support mode `jit-lock-mode'.

This support mode is roughly equivalent to `lazy-lock' but is
generally faster.  It supports stealth and deferred fontification.
See the documentation of the function `jit-lock-mode' for more

Font-lock uses jit-lock-mode as default support mode, so you don't
have to do anything to activate it.

** Tabs and variable-width text.

Tabs are now displayed with stretch properties; the width of a tab is
defined as a multiple of the normal character width of a frame, and is
independent of the fonts used in the text where the tab appears.
Thus, tabs can be used to line up text in different fonts.

** Enhancements of the Lucid menu bar

*** The Lucid menu bar now supports the resource "margin".

	emacs.pane.menubar.margin: 5

The default margin is 4 which makes the menu bar appear like the Motif

*** Arrows that indicate sub-menus are now drawn with shadows, like in

** Hscrolling in C code.

Horizontal scrolling now happens automatically.

** Tool bar support.

Emacs supports a tool bar at the top of a frame under X.  For details
how to define a tool bar, see the page describing Lisp-level changes.

** Mouse-sensitive mode line.

Different parts of the mode line under X have been made
mouse-sensitive.  Moving the mouse to a mouse-sensitive part in the mode
line changes the appearance of the mouse pointer to an arrow, and help
about available mouse actions is displayed either in the echo area, or
in the tooltip window if you have enabled one.

Currently, the following actions have been defined:

- Mouse-1 on the buffer name in the mode line switches between two

- Mouse-2 on the buffer-name switches to the next buffer, and
M-mouse-2 switches to the previous buffer in the buffer list.

- Mouse-3 on the buffer-name displays a buffer menu.

- Mouse-2 on the read-only status in the mode line (`%' or `*')
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toggles the read-only status.

- Mouse-3 on the mode name display a minor-mode menu.

** LessTif/Motif file selection dialog.

When Emacs is configured to use LessTif or Motif, reading a file name
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from a menu will pop up a file selection dialog if `use-dialog-box' is
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** Emacs can display faces on TTY frames.

Emacs automatically detects terminals that are able to display colors.
Faces with a weight greater than normal are displayed extra-bright, if
the terminal supports it.  Faces with a weight less than normal and
italic faces are displayed dimmed, if the terminal supports it.
Underlined faces are displayed underlined if possible.  Other face
attributes like overlines, strike-throught, box are ignored.

** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and the free BSDs
(Voxware driver and native BSD driver, aka as Luigi's driver).
Currently supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio
(*.au).  You must configure Emacs with the option `--with-sound=yes'
to enable sound support.

** A new variable, backup-by-copying-when-privileged-mismatch, gives
the highest file uid for which backup-by-copying-when-mismatch will be
forced on.  The assumption is that uids less than or equal to this
value are special uids (root, bin, daemon, etc.--not real system
users) and that files owned by these users should not change ownership,
even if your system policy allows users other than root to edit them.

The default is 200; set the variable to nil to disable the feature.

** A block cursor can be drawn as wide as the glyph under it under X.

As an example: if a block cursor is over a tab character, it will be
drawn as wide as that tab on the display.  To do this, set
`x-stretch-cursor' to a non-nil value.

** Empty display lines at the end of a buffer may be marked with a
bitmap (this is similar to the tilde displayed by vi).

This behavior is activated by setting the buffer-local variable
`indicate-empty-lines' to a non-nil value.  The default value of this
variable is found in `default-indicate-empty-lines'.

** There is a new "aggressive" scrolling method.

When scrolling up because point is above the window start, if the
value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-up-aggessively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
fraction of the window's height from the bottom of the window.

When scrolling down because point is below the window end, if the
value of the buffer-local variable `scroll-down-aggessively' is a
number, Emacs chooses a new window start so that point ends up that
fraction of the window's height from the top of the window.

** The rectangle commands now avoid inserting undesirable spaces,
notably at the end of lines.

All these functions have been rewritten to avoid inserting unwanted
spaces, and an optional prefix now allows them to behave the old way.

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There is a new command M-x replace-rectangle.

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** The new command M-x query-replace-regexp-eval acts like
query-replace-regexp, but takes a Lisp expression which is evaluated
after each match to get the replacement text.

** Emacs now resizes mini-windows if appropriate.

If a message is longer than one line, or mini-buffer contents are
longer than one line, Emacs now resizes the mini-window unless it is
on a frame of its own.  You can control the maximum mini-window size
by setting the following variable:

- User option: max-mini-window-height

Maximum height for resizing mini-windows.  If a float, it specifies a
fraction of the mini-window frame's height.  If an integer, it
specifies a number of lines.  If nil, don't resize.

Default is 0.25.

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** Changes to hideshow.el

Hideshow is now at version 5.x.  It uses a new algorithms for block
selection and traversal and includes more isearch support.

*** Generalized block selection and traversal

A block is now recognized by three things: its start and end regexps
(both strings), and a match-data selector (an integer) specifying
which sub-expression in the start regexp serves as the place where a
`forward-sexp'-like function can operate.  Hideshow always adjusts
point to this sub-expression before calling `hs-forward-sexp-func'
(which for most modes evaluates to `forward-sexp').

If the match-data selector is not specified, it defaults to zero,
i.e., the entire start regexp is valid, w/ no prefix.  This is
backwards compatible with previous versions of hideshow.  Please see
the docstring for variable `hs-special-modes-alist' for details.

*** Isearch support for updating mode line

During incremental search, if Hideshow minor mode is active, hidden
blocks are temporarily shown.  The variable `hs-headline' records the
line at the beginning of the opened block (preceding the hidden
portion of the buffer), and the mode line is refreshed.  When a block
is re-hidden, the variable is set to nil.

To show `hs-headline' in the mode line, you may wish to include
something like this in your .emacs.

	(add-hook 'hs-minor-mode-hook
	  (lambda ()
	    (add-to-list 'mode-line-format 'hs-headline)))

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** Changes to Change Log mode and Add-Log functions

If you invoke `add-change-log-entry' from a backup file, it makes an
entry appropriate for the file's parent.  This is useful for making
log entries by comparing a version with deleted functions.

New command M-x change-log-merge merges another log into the current
buffer, fixing old-style date formats if necessary.
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Change Log mode now adds a file's version number to change log entries
if user-option `change-log-version-info-enabled' is non-nil.

The search for a file's version number is performed based on regular
expressions from `change-log-version-number-regexp-list' which can be
cutomized.  Version numbers are only found in the first 10 percent of
a file.

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** Changes in Font Lock

*** The new function `font-lock-remove-keywords' can be used to remove
font-lock keywords from the current buffer or from a specific major

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** Comint (subshell) changes

Comint now includes new features to send commands to running processes
and redirect the output to a designated buffer or buffers.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command reads a command and
buffer name from the mini-buffer.  The command is sent to the current
buffer's process, and its output is inserted into the specified buffer.

The command M-x comint-redirect-send-command-to-process acts like
M-x comint-redirect-send-command but additionally reads the name of
the buffer whose process should be used from the mini-buffer.

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** Changes to Rmail mode

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*** RET is now bound in the Rmail summary to rmail-summary-goto-msg,
like `j'.

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*** There is a new user option `rmail-digest-end-regexps' that
specifies the regular expressions to detect the line that ends a
digest message.
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** Changes to TeX mode

The default mode has been changed from `plain-tex-mode' to

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** Changes to RefTeX mode

*** RefTeX has new support for index generation.  Index entries can be
    created with `C-c <', with completion available on index keys.
    Pressing `C-c /' indexes the word at the cursor with a default
    macro.  `C-c >' compiles all index entries into an alphabetically
    sorted *Index* buffer which looks like the final index.  Entries
    can be edited from that buffer.

*** Label and citation key selection now allow to select several
    items and reference them together (use `m' to mark items, `a' or
    `A' to use all marked entries).

*** reftex.el has been split into a number of smaller files to reduce
    memory use when only a part of RefTeX is being used.

*** a new command `reftex-view-crossref-from-bibtex' (bound to `C-c &'
    in BibTeX-mode) can be called in a BibTeX database buffer in order
    to show locations in LaTeX documents where a particular entry has
    been cited.

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** Emacs Lisp mode now allows multiple levels of outline headings.
The level of a heading is determined from the number of leading
semicolons in a heading line.  Toplevel forms starting with a `('
in column 1 are always made leaves.

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** The M-x time-stamp command (most commonly used on write-file-hooks)
has the following new features:

*** The patterns for finding the time stamp and for updating a pattern
may match text spanning multiple lines.  For example, some people like
to have the filename and date on separate lines.  The new variable
time-stamp-inserts-lines controls the matching for multi-line patterns.

*** More than one time stamp can be updated in the same file.  This
feature is useful if you need separate time stamps in a program source
file to both include in formatted documentation and insert in the
compiled binary.  The same time-stamp will be written at each matching
pattern.  The variable time-stamp-count enables this new feature; it
defaults to 1.

** Tooltips.

Tooltips are small X windows displaying a help string at the current
mouse position.  To use them, use the Lisp package `tooltip' which you
can access via the user option `tooltip-mode'.

Tooltips also provides support for GUD debugging.  If activated,
variable values can be displayed in tooltips by pointing at them with
the mouse in source buffers.  You can customize various aspects of the
tooltip display in the group `tooltip'.

** Customize changes

*** Customize now supports comments about customized items.  Use the
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`State' menu to add comments.  Note that customization comments will
cause the customizations to fail in earlier versions of Emacs.
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*** The new option `custom-buffer-done-function' says whether to kill
Custom buffers when you've done with them or just bury them (the

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*** The keyword :set-after in defcustom allows to specify dependencies
between custom options.  Example:

  (defcustom default-input-method nil
    "*Default input method for multilingual text (a string).
  This is the input method activated automatically by the command
  `toggle-input-method' (\\[toggle-input-method])."
    :group 'mule
    :type '(choice (const nil) string)
    :set-after '(current-language-environment))

This specifies that default-input-method should be set after
current-language-environment even if default-input-method appears
first in a custom-set-variables statement.

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** New features in evaluation commands

The commands to evaluate Lisp expressions, such as C-M-x in Lisp
modes, C-j in Lisp Interaction mode, and M-:, now bind the variables
print-level, print-length, and debug-on-error based on the
customizable variables eval-expression-print-level,
eval-expression-print-length, and eval-expression-debug-on-error.

** Dired changes

*** New variable `dired-recursive-deletes' determines if the delete
command will delete non-empty directories recursively.  The default
is, delete only empty directories.

*** New variable `dired-recursive-copies' determines if the copy
command will copy directories recursively.  The default is, do not
copy directories recursively.

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*** In command `dired-do-shell-command' (usually bound to `!') a `?'
in the shell command has a special meaning similar to `*', but with
the difference that the command will be run on each file individually.

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** The variable mail-specify-envelope-from controls whether to
use the -f option when sending mail.

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** CC mode changes.

Note: This release contains changes that might not be compatible with
current user setups (although it's believed that these
incompatibilities will only show in very uncommon circumstances).
However, since the impact is uncertain, these changes may be rolled
back depending on user feedback.  Therefore there's no forward
compatibility guarantee wrt the new features introduced in this

*** New initialization procedure for the style system.
When the initial style for a buffer is determined by CC Mode (from the
variable c-default-style), the global values of style variables now
take precedence over the values specified by the chosen style.  This
is different than the old behavior: previously, the style-specific
settings would override the global settings.  This change makes it
possible to do simple configuration in the intuitive way with
Customize or with setq lines in one's .emacs file.

By default, the global value of every style variable is the new
special symbol set-from-style, which causes the value to be taken from
the style system.  This means that in effect, only an explicit setting
of a style variable will cause the "overriding" behavior described

Also note that global settings override style-specific settings *only*
when the initial style of a buffer is chosen by a CC Mode major mode
function.  When a style is chosen in other ways --- for example, by a
call like (c-set-style "gnu") in a hook, or via M-x c-set-style ---
then the style-specific values take precedence over any global style
values.  In Lisp terms, global values override style-specific values
only when the new second argument to c-set-style is non-nil; see the
function documentation for more info.

The purpose of these changes is to make it easier for users,
especially novice users, to do simple customizations with Customize or
with setq in their .emacs files.  On the other hand, the new system is
intended to be compatible with advanced users' customizations as well,
such as those that choose styles in hooks or whatnot.  This new system
is believed to be almost entirely compatible with current
configurations, in spite of the changed precedence between style and
global variable settings when a buffer's default style is set.

(Thanks to Eric Eide for clarifying this explanation a bit.)

**** c-offsets-alist is now a customizable variable.
This became possible as a result of the new initialization behavior.

This variable is treated slightly differently from the other style
variables; instead of using the symbol set-from-style, it will be
completed with the syntactic symbols it doesn't already contain when
the style is first initialized.  This means it now defaults to the
empty list to make all syntactic elements get their values from the
style system.

**** Compatibility variable to restore the old behavior.
In case your configuration doesn't work with this change, you can set
c-old-style-variable-behavior to non-nil to get the old behavior back
as far as possible.

*** Improvements to line breaking and text filling.
CC Mode now handles this more intelligently and seamlessly wrt the
surrounding code, especially inside comments.  For details see the new
chapter about this in the manual.

**** New variable to recognize comment line prefix decorations.
The variable c-comment-prefix-regexp has been added to properly
recognize the line prefix in both block and line comments.  It's
primarily used to initialize the various paragraph recognition and
adaptive filling variables that the text handling functions uses.

**** New variable c-block-comment-prefix.
This is a generalization of the now obsolete variable
c-comment-continuation-stars to handle arbitrary strings.

**** CC Mode now uses adaptive fill mode.
This to make it adapt better to the paragraph style inside comments.

It's also possible to use other adaptive filling packages inside CC
Mode, notably Kyle E. Jones' Filladapt mode (
A new convenience function c-setup-filladapt sets up Filladapt for use
inside CC Mode.

Note though that the 2.12 version of Filladapt lacks a feature that
causes it to work suboptimally when c-comment-prefix-regexp can match
the empty string (which it commonly does).  A patch for that is
available from the CC Mode web site (

**** It's now possible to selectively turn off auto filling.
The variable c-ignore-auto-fill is used to ignore auto fill mode in
specific contexts, e.g. in preprocessor directives and in string

**** New context sensitive line break function c-context-line-break.
It works like newline-and-indent in normal code, and adapts the line
prefix according to the comment style when used inside comments.  If
you're normally using newline-and-indent, you might want to switch to
this function.

*** Fixes to IDL mode.
It now does a better job in recognizing only the constructs relevant
to IDL.  E.g. it no longer matches "class" as the beginning of a
struct block, but it does match the CORBA 2.3 "valuetype" keyword.
Thanks to Eric Eide.

*** Improvements to the Whitesmith style.
It now keeps the style consistently on all levels and both when
opening braces hangs and when they don't.

**** New lineup function c-lineup-whitesmith-in-block.

*** New lineup functions c-lineup-template-args and c-indent-multi-line-block.
See their docstrings for details.  c-lineup-template-args does a
better job of tracking the brackets used as parens in C++ templates,
and is used by default to line up continued template arguments.

*** c-lineup-comment now preserves alignment with a comment on the
previous line.  It used to instead preserve comments that started in
the column specified by comment-column.

*** c-lineup-C-comments handles "free form" text comments.
In comments with a long delimiter line at the start, the indentation
is kept unchanged for lines that start with an empty comment line
prefix.  This is intended for the type of large block comments that
contain documentation with its own formatting.  In these you normally
don't want CC Mode to change the indentation.

*** The `c' syntactic symbol is now relative to the comment start
instead of the previous line, to make integers usable as lineup

*** All lineup functions have gotten docstrings.

*** More preprocessor directive movement functions.
c-down-conditional does the reverse of c-up-conditional.
c-up-conditional-with-else and c-down-conditional-with-else are
variants of these that also stops at "#else" lines (suggested by Don

*** Minor improvements to many movement functions in tricky situations.

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** Isearch changes

*** In Isearch mode, mouse-2 in the echo area now yanks the current
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selection into the search string rather than giving an error.

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*** There is a new lazy highlighting feature in incremental search.

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Lazy highlighting is switched on/off by customizing variable
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`isearch-lazy-highlight'.  When active, all matches for the current
search string are highlighted.  The current match is highlighted as
before using face `isearch' or `region'.  All other matches are
highlighted using face `isearch-lazy-highlight-face' which defaults to

The extra highlighting makes it easier to anticipate where the cursor
will end up each time you press C-s or C-r to repeat a pending search.
Highlighting of these additional matches happens in a deferred fashion
using "idle timers," so the cycles needed do not rob isearch of its
usual snappy response.

If `isearch-lazy-highlight-cleanup' is set to t, highlights for
matches are automatically cleared when you end the search.  If it is
set to nil, you can remove the highlights manually with `M-x

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** Changes in sort.el

The function sort-numeric-fields interprets numbers starting with `0'
as octal and numbers starting with `0x' or `0X' as hexadecimal.  The
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new user-option sort-numberic-base can be used to specify a default
numeric base.
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** Changes to Ange-ftp

*** Ange-ftp allows you to specify of a port number in remote file
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names cleanly.  It is appended to the host name, separated by a hash
sign, e.g. `/'.  (This syntax comes from EFS.)

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*** If the new user-option `ange-ftp-try-passive-mode' is set, passive
ftp mode will be used if the ftp client supports that.

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** Shell script mode changes.

Shell script mode (sh-script) can now indent scripts for shells
derived from sh and rc.  The indentation style is customizeable, and
sh-script can attempt to "learn" the current buffer's style.

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** Etags changes.

*** In DOS, etags looks for file.cgz if it cannot find file.c.

*** New option --ignore-case-regex is an alternative to --regex.  It is now
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possible to bind a regexp to a language, by prepending the regexp with
{lang}, where lang is one of the languages that `etags --help' prints out.
This feature is useful especially for regex files, where each line contains
a regular expression.  The manual contains details.

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*** In C and derived languages, etags creates tags for function
declarations when given the --declarations option.

*** In C++, tags are created for "operator".  The tags have the form
"operator+", without spaces between the keyword and the operator.
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*** New language Ada: tags are functions, procedures, packages, tasks, and

*** In Fortran, procedure is no more tagged.

*** In Java, tags are created for "interface".

*** In Lisp, "(defstruct (foo", "(defun (operator" and similar constructs
are now tagged.

*** In Perl, the --globals option tags global variables.  my and local
variables are tagged.

*** New language Python: def and class at the beginning of a line are tags.

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*** .ss files are Scheme files, .pdb is Postscript with C syntax, .psw is
for PSWrap.
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** Changes in etags.el

*** You can display additional output with M-x tags-apropos by setting
the new variable tags-apropos-additional-actions.

If non-nil, the variable's value should be a list of triples (TITLE
FUNCTION TO-SEARCH).  For each triple, M-x tags-apropos processes
TO-SEARCH and lists tags from it.  TO-SEARCH should be an alist,
obarray, or symbol.  If it is a symbol, the symbol's value is used.

TITLE is a string to use to label the list of tags from TO-SEARCH.

FUNCTION is a function to call when an entry is selected in the Tags
List buffer.  It is called with one argument, the selected symbol.

A useful example value for this variable might be something like:

  '(("Emacs Lisp" Info-goto-emacs-command-node obarray)
    ("Common Lisp" common-lisp-hyperspec common-lisp-hyperspec-obarray)
    ("SCWM" scwm-documentation scwm-obarray))

*** The face tags-tag-face can be used to customize the appearance
of tags in the output of M-x tags-apropos.

*** Setting tags-apropos-verbose to a non-nil value displays the
names of tags files in the *Tags List* buffer.

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** Emacs now attempts to determine the initial language environment
and preferred and locale coding systems systematically from the
LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG environment variables during startup.

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** New language environments `Latin-8' and `Latin-9'.
These correspond respectively to the ISO character sets 8859-14
(Celtic) and 8859-15 (updated Latin-1, with the Euro sign).  There is
currently no specific input method support for them.

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** Fortran mode has a new command `fortran-strip-sqeuence-nos' to
remove text past column 72.  The syntax class of `\' in Fortran is now
appropriate for C-style escape sequences in strings.

** SGML mode's default `sgml-validate-command' is now `nsgmls'.

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** A new command `view-emacs-problems' (C-h P) displays the PROBLEMS file.

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** New modes and packages

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*** The new command M-x re-builder offers a convenient interface for
authoring regular expressions with immediate visual feedback.

The buffer from which the command was called becomes the target for
the regexp editor popping up in a separate window.  Matching text in
the target buffer is immediately color marked during the editing.
Each sub-expression of the regexp will show up in a different face so
even complex regexps can be edited and verified on target data in a
single step.

On displays not supporting faces the matches instead blink like
matching parens to make them stand out.  On such a setup you will
probably also want to use the sub-expression mode when the regexp
contains such to get feedback about their respective limits.

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*** glasses-mode is a minor mode that makes
unreadableIdentifiersLikeThis readable.  It works as glasses, without
actually modifying content of a buffer.

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*** The package ebnf2ps translates an EBNF to a syntactic chart in

Currently accepts ad-hoc EBNF, ISO EBNF and Bison/Yacc.

The ad-hoc default EBNF syntax has the following elements:

    ;		comment (until end of line)
    A		non-terminal
    "C"		terminal
    ?C?		special
    $A		default non-terminal
    $"C"	default terminal
    $?C?	default special
    A = B.	production (A is the header and B the body)
    C D		sequence (C occurs before D)
    C | D	alternative (C or D occurs)
    A - B	exception (A excluding B, B without any non-terminal)
    n * A	repetition (A repeats n (integer) times)
    (C)		group (expression C is grouped together)
    [C]		optional (C may or not occurs)
    C+		one or more occurrences of C
    {C}+	one or more occurrences of C
    {C}*	zero or more occurrences of C
    {C}		zero or more occurrences of C
    C / D	equivalent to: C {D C}*
    {C || D}+	equivalent to: C {D C}*
    {C || D}*	equivalent to: [C {D C}*]
    {C || D}	equivalent to: [C {D C}*]

Please, see ebnf2ps documentation for EBNF syntax and how to use it.

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*** The package align.el will align columns within a region, using M-x
align.  Its mode-specific rules, based on regular expressions,
determine where the columns should be split.  In C and C++, for
example, it will align variable names in declaration lists, or the
equal signs of assignments.

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*** `paragraph-indent-minor-mode' is a new minor mode supporting
paragraphs in the same style as `paragraph-indent-text-mode'.

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*** bs.el is a new package for buffer selection similar to
list-buffers or electric-buffer-list.  Use M-x bs-show to display a
buffer menu with this package.  You can use M-x bs-customize to
customize the package.

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*** calculator.el is a small calculator package that is intended to
replace desktop calculators such as xcalc and calc.exe.  Actually, it
is not too small - it has more features than most desktop calculators,
and can be customized easily to get many more functions.  It should
not be confused with "calc" which is a much bigger mathematical tool
which answers different needs.

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*** The minor modes cwarn-mode and global-cwarn-mode highlights
suspicious C and C++ constructions.  Currently, assignments inside
expressions, semicolon following `if', `for' and `while' (except, of
course, after a `do .. while' statement), and C++ functions with
reference parameters are recognized.  The modes require font-lock mode
to be enabled.

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*** smerge-mode.el provides `smerge-mode', a simple minor-mode for files
containing diff3-style conflict markers, such as generated by RCS.

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*** 5x5.el is a simple puzzle game.

*** hl-line.el provides a minor mode to highlight the current line.

*** ansi-color.el translates ANSI terminal escapes into text-properties.

*** delphi.el provides a major mode for editing the Delphi (Object
Pascal) language.

*** quickurl.el provides a simple method of inserting a URL based on
the text at point.

*** sql.el provides an interface to SQL data bases.

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*** fortune.el uses the fortune program to create mail/news signatures.

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*** whitespace.el ???

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*** PostScript mode (ps-mode) is a new major mode for editing PostScript
files. It offers: interaction with a PostScript interpreter, including
(very basic) error handling; fontification, easily customizable for
interpreter messages; auto-indentation; insertion of EPSF templates and
often used code snippets; viewing of BoundingBox; commenting out /
uncommenting regions; conversion of 8bit characters to PostScript octal
codes. All functionality is accessible through a menu.

*** delim-col helps to prettify columns in a text region or rectangle.

Here is an example of columns:

horse	apple	bus
dog	pineapple	car	EXTRA
porcupine	strawberry	airplane

Doing the following settings:

   (setq delimit-columns-str-before "[ ")
   (setq delimit-columns-str-after " ]")
   (setq delimit-columns-str-separator ", ")
   (setq delimit-columns-separator "\t")

Selecting the lines above and typing:

   M-x delimit-columns-region

It results:

[ horse    , apple     , bus     ,       ]
[ dog      , pineapple , car     , EXTRA ]
[ porcupine, strawberry, airplane,       ]

delim-col has the following options:

   delimit-columns-str-before		Specify a string to be inserted
					before all columns.

   delimit-columns-str-separator	Specify a string to be inserted
					between each column.

   delimit-columns-str-after		Specify a string to be inserted
					after all columns.

   delimit-columns-separator		Specify a regexp which separates
					each column.

delim-col has the following commands:

   delimit-columns-region	Prettify all columns in a text region.
   delimit-columns-rectangle	Prettify all columns in a text rectangle.

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*** The package recentf.el maintains a menu for visiting files that
were operated on recently.  When enabled, a new "Open Recent" submenu
is displayed in the "Files" menu.

The recent files list is automatically saved across Emacs sessions.

To enable/disable recentf use M-x recentf-mode.

To enable recentf at Emacs startup use
M-x customize-variable RET recentf-mode RET.

To change the number of recent files displayed and others options use
M-x customize-group RET recentf RET.

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*** elide-head.el provides a mechanism for eliding boilerplate header

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*** footnote.el provides `footnote-mode', a minor mode supporting use
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of footnotes.  It is intended for use with Message mode, but isn't
specific to Message mode.

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*** diff-mode.el provides `diff-mode', a major mode for
viewing/editing context diffs (patches).  It is selected for files
with extension `.diff', `.diffs', `.patch' and `.rej'.

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*** EUDC, the Emacs Unified Directory Client, provides a common user
interface to access directory servers using different directory
protocols.  It has a separate manual.

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*** autoconf.el provides a major mode for editing files
for Autoconf, selected automatically.

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*** windmove.el

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** Withdrawn packages

*** mldrag.el has been removed.  mouse.el provides the same
functionality with aliases for the mldrag functions.
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*** eval-reg.el has been obsoleted by changes to edebug.el and removed.

*** ph.el has been obsoleted by EUDC and removed.
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* Lisp changes in Emacs 21.1 (see following page for display-related features)

Note that +++ before an item means the Lisp manual has been updated.
--- means that I have decided it does not need to be in the Lisp manual.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so I will know I still need to look at it -- rms.

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** The new function `string-to-syntax' can be used to translate syntax
specificationa in string form as accepted my `modify-syntax-entry' to
the cons-cell form that is used for the values of the `syntax-table'
text property, and in `font-lock-syntactic-keywords'.


  (string-to-syntax "()")
    => (4 . 41)

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** Emacs' reader supports CL read syntax for integers in bases
other than 10.

*** `#BINTEGER' or `#bINTEGER' reads INTEGER in binary (radix 2).
INTEGER optionally contains a sign.

    => 15
    => -15

*** `#OINTEGER' or `#oINTEGER' reads INTEGER in octal (radix 8).

    => 438

*** `#XINTEGER' or `#xINTEGER' reads INTEGER in hexadecimal (radix 16).

    => 48815

*** `#RADIXrINTEGER' reads INTEGER in radix RADIX, 2 <= RADIX <= 36.

    => -7
    => 267

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** The function documentation-property now evaluates the value of
the given property to obtain a a string if it doesn't refer to etc/DOC
and isn't a string.

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** The last argument of `define-key-after' defaults to t for convenience.

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** The new function `replace-regexp-in-string' replaces all matches
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for a regexp in a string.

** `mouse-position' now runs the abnormal hook

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** The function string-to-number now returns a float for numbers
that don't fit into a Lisp integer.

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** The variable keyword-symbols-constants-flag has been removed.
Keywords are now always considered constants.

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** The new function `delete-and-extract-region' deletes text and
returns it.

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** The function `clear-this-command-keys' now also clears the vector
returned by function `recent-keys'.

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** Variables `beginning-of-defun-function' and `end-of-defun-function'
can be used to define handlers for the functions that find defuns.
Major modes can define these locally instead of rebinding M-C-a
etc. if the normal conventions for defuns are not appropriate for the
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** easy-mmode-define-minor-mode now takes an additional BODY argument
and is renamed `define-minor-mode'.

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** If an abbrev has a hook function which is a symbol, and that symbol
has a non-nil `no-self-insert' property, the return value of the hook
function specifies whether an expansion has been done or not.  If it
returns nil, abbrev-expand also returns nil, meaning "no expansion has
been performed."

When abbrev expansion is done by typing a self-inserting character,
and the abbrev has a hook with the `no-self-insert' property, and the
hook function returns non-nil meaning expansion has been done,
then the self-inserting character is not inserted.

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** The function `intern-soft' now accepts a symbol as first argument.
In this case, that exact symbol is looked up in the specified obarray,
and the function's value is nil if it is not found.

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** The new macro `with-syntax-table' can be used to evaluate forms
with the syntax table of the current buffer temporarily set to a
specified table.

  (with-syntax-table TABLE &rest BODY)

Evaluate BODY with syntax table of current buffer set to a copy of
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TABLE.  The current syntax table is saved, BODY is evaluated, and the
saved table is restored, even in case of an abnormal exit.  Value is
what BODY returns.
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** Regular expressions now support intervals \{n,m\} as well as
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Perl's shy-groups \(?:...\) and non-greedy *? +? and ?? operators.
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** The optional argument BUFFER of function file-local-copy has been
removed since it wasn't used by anything.

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** The file name argument of function `file-locked-p' is now required
instead of being optional.

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** The new built-in error `text-read-only' is signaled when trying to
modify read-only text.

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** New functions and variables for locales.

The new variable `locale-coding-system' specifies how to encode and
decode strings passed to low-level message functions like strerror and
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time functions like strftime.  The new variables
`system-messages-locale' and `system-time-locale' give the system
locales to be used when invoking these two types of functions.
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The new function `set-locale-environment' sets the language
environment, preferred coding system, and locale coding system from
the system locale as specified by the LC_ALL, LC_CTYPE, and LANG
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environment variables.  Normally, it is invoked during startup and need
not be invoked thereafter.  It uses the new variables
`locale-language-names', `locale-charset-language-names', and
`locale-preferred-coding-systems' to make its decisions.

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** syntax tables now understand nested comments.
To declare a comment syntax as allowing nesting, just add an `n'
modifier to either of the characters of the comment end and the comment
start sequences.

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** The function `pixmap-spec-p' has been renamed `bitmap-spec-p'
because `bitmap' is more in line with the usual X terminology.

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** New function `propertize'

The new function `propertize' can be used to conveniently construct
strings with text properties.

- Function: propertize STRING &rest PROPERTIES

Value is a copy of STRING with text properties assigned as specified
by PROPERTIES.  PROPERTIES is a sequence of pairs PROPERTY VALUE, with
PROPERTY being the name of a text property and VALUE being the
specified value of that property.  Example:

  (propertize "foo" 'face 'bold 'read-only t)

** push and pop macros.

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Simple versions of the push and pop macros of Common Lisp
are now defined in Emacs Lisp.  These macros allow only symbols
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as the place that holds the list to be changed.

(push NEWELT LISTNAME)  add NEWELT to the front of LISTNAME's value.
(pop LISTNAME)          return first elt of LISTNAME, and remove it
			(thus altering the value of LISTNAME).

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** New dolist and dotimes macros.

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Simple versions of the dolist and dotimes macros of Common Lisp
are now defined in Emacs Lisp.
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(dolist (VAR LIST [RESULT]) BODY...)
      Execute body once for each element of LIST,
      using the variable VAR to hold the current element.
      Then return the value of RESULT, or nil if RESULT is omitted.

(dotimes (VAR COUNT [RESULT]) BODY...)
      Execute BODY with VAR bound to successive integers running from 0,
      inclusive, to COUNT, exclusive.
      Then return the value of RESULT, or nil if RESULT is omitted.

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** Regular expressions now support Posix character classes such
as [:alpha:], [:space:] and so on.

[:digit:]  matches 0 through 9
[:cntrl:]  matches ASCII control characters
[:xdigit:]  matches 0 through 9, a through f and A through F.
[:blank:]  matches space and tab only
[:graph:]  matches graphic characters--everything except ASCII control chars,
	   space, and DEL.
[:print:]  matches printing characters--everything except ASCII control chars
	   and DEL.
[:alnum:]  matches letters and digits.
	   (But at present, for multibyte characters,
	    it matches anything that has word syntax.)
[:alpha:]  matches letters.
	   (But at present, for multibyte characters,
	    it matches anything that has word syntax.)
[:ascii:]  matches ASCII (unibyte) characters.
[:nonascii:]  matches non-ASCII (multibyte) characters.
[:lower:]  matches anything lower-case.
[:punct:]  matches punctuation.
	   (But at present, for multibyte characters,
	    it matches anything that has non-word syntax.)
[:space:]  matches anything that has whitespace syntax.
[:upper:]  matches anything upper-case.
[:word:]   matches anything that has word syntax.

** Emacs now has built-in hash tables.

The following functions are defined for hash tables:

- Function: make-hash-table ARGS

The argument list ARGS consists of keyword/argument pairs.  All arguments
are optional.  The following arguments are defined:

:test TEST

TEST must be a symbol specifying how to compare keys.  Default is `eql'.
Predefined are `eq', `eql' and `equal'.  If TEST is not predefined,
it must have been defined with `define-hash-table-test'.

:size SIZE

SIZE must be an integer > 0 giving a hint to the implementation how
many elements will be put in the hash table.  Default size is 65.

:rehash-size REHASH-SIZE

REHASH-SIZE specifies by how much to grow a hash table once it becomes
full.  If REHASH-SIZE is an integer, add that to the hash table's old
size to get the new size.  Otherwise, REHASH-SIZE must be a float >
1.0, and the new size is computed by multiplying REHASH-SIZE with the
old size.  Default rehash size is 1.5.

:rehash-threshold THRESHOLD

THRESHOLD must be a float > 0 and <= 1.0 specifying when to resize the
hash table.  It is resized when the ratio of (number of entries) /
(size of hash table) is >= THRESHOLD.  Default threshold is 0.8.

:weakness WEAK

WEAK must be either nil, one of the symbols `key, `value', or t.
Entries are removed from weak tables during garbage collection if
their key and/or value are not referenced elsewhere outside of the
hash table.  Default are non-weak hash tables.

- Function: makehash &optional TEST

Similar to make-hash-table, but only TEST can be specified.

- Function: hash-table-p TABLE

Returns non-nil if TABLE is a hash table object.

- Function: copy-hash-table TABLE

Returns a copy of TABLE.  Only the table itself is copied, keys and
values are shared.

- Function: hash-table-count TABLE

Returns the number of entries in TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-size TABLE

Returns the rehash size of TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-threshold TABLE

Returns the rehash threshold of TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-size TABLE

Returns the size of TABLE.

- Function: hash-table-rehash-test TABLE

Returns the test TABLE uses to compare keys.

- Function: hash-table-weakness TABLE

Returns the weakness specified for TABLE.

- Function: clrhash TABLE

Clear TABLE.

- Function: gethash KEY TABLE &optional DEFAULT

Look up KEY in TABLE and return its associated VALUE or DEFAULT if
not found.

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- Function: puthash KEY VALUE TABLE
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Associate KEY with VALUE in TABLE.  If KEY is already associated with
another value, replace the old value with VALUE.

- Function: remhash KEY TABLE

Remove KEY from TABLE if it is there.

- Function: maphash FUNCTION TABLE

Call FUNCTION for all elements in TABLE.  FUNCTION must take two
arguments KEY and VALUE.

- Function: sxhash OBJ

Return a hash code for Lisp object OBJ.

- Function: define-hash-table-test NAME TEST-FN HASH-FN

Define a new hash table test named NAME.  If NAME is specified as
a test in `make-hash-table', the table created will use TEST-FN for
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comparing keys, and HASH-FN to compute hash codes for keys.  Test
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and hash function are stored as symbol property `hash-table-test'
of NAME with a value of (TEST-FN HASH-FN).

TEST-FN must take two arguments and return non-nil if they are the same.

HASH-FN must take one argument and return an integer that is the hash
code of the argument.  The function should use the whole range of
integer values for hash code computation, including negative integers.

Example: The following creates a hash table whose keys are supposed to
be strings that are compared case-insensitively.

  (defun case-fold-string= (a b)
    (compare-strings a nil nil b nil nil t))

  (defun case-fold-string-hash (a)
    (sxhash (upcase a)))

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  (define-hash-table-test 'case-fold 'case-fold-string=
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  (make-hash-table :test 'case-fold)

** The Lisp reader handles circular structure.

It now works to use the #N= and #N# constructs to represent
circular structures.  For example, #1=(a . #1#) represents
a cons cell which is its own cdr.

** The Lisp printer handles circular structure.

If you bind print-circle to a non-nil value, the Lisp printer outputs
#N= and #N# constructs to represent circular and shared structure.

** If the second argument to `move-to-column' is anything but nil or
t, that means replace a tab with spaces if necessary to reach the
specified column, but do not add spaces at the end of the line if it
is too short to reach that column.

** perform-replace has a new feature:  the REPLACEMENTS argument may
now be a cons cell (FUNCTION . DATA).  This means to call FUNCTION
after each match to get the replacement text.  FUNCTION is called with
two arguments: DATA, and the number of replacements already made.

If the FROM-STRING contains any upper-case letters,
perform-replace also turns off `case-fold-search' temporarily
and inserts the replacement text without altering case in it.

** The function buffer-size now accepts an optional argument
to specify which buffer to return the size of.

** The calendar motion commands now run the normal hook
calendar-move-hook after moving point.

** The new variable small-temporary-file-directory specifies a
directory to use for creating temporary files that are likely to be
small.  (Certain Emacs features use this directory.)  If
small-temporary-file-directory is nil, they use
temporary-file-directory instead.

** The variable `inhibit-modification-hooks', if non-nil, inhibits all
the hooks that track changes in the buffer.  This affects
`before-change-functions' and `after-change-functions', as well as
hooks attached to text properties and overlay properties.

** assoc-delete-all is a new function that deletes all the
elements of an alist which have a particular value as the car.

** make-temp-file provides a more reliable way to create a temporary file.

make-temp-file is used like make-temp-name, except that it actually
creates the file before it returns.  This prevents a timing error,
ensuring that no other job can use the same name for a temporary file.

** New exclusive-open feature in `write-region'

The optional seventh arg is now called MUSTBENEW.  If non-nil, it insists
on a check for an existing file with the same name.  If MUSTBENEW
is `excl', that means to get an error if the file already exists;
never overwrite. If MUSTBENEW is neither nil nor `excl', that means
ask for confirmation before overwriting, but do go ahead and
overwrite the file if the user gives confirmation.

If the MUSTBENEW argument in `write-region' is `excl',
that means to use a special feature in the `open' system call
to get an error if the file exists at that time.
The error reported is `file-already-exists'.

** Function `format' now handles text properties.

Text properties of the format string are applied to the result string.
If the result string is longer than the format string, text properties
ending at the end of the format string are extended to the end of the
result string.

Text properties from string arguments are applied to the result
string where arguments appear in the result string.


  (let ((s1 "hello, %s")
        (s2 "world"))
     (put-text-property 0 (length s1) 'face 'bold s1)
     (put-text-property 0 (length s2) 'face 'italic s2)
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     (format s1 s2))
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results in a bold-face string with an italic `world' at the end.

** Messages can now be displayed with text properties.

Text properties are handled as described above for function `format'.
The following example displays a bold-face message with an italic
argument in it.

  (let ((msg "hello, %s!")
        (arg "world"))
     (put-text-property 0 (length msg) 'face 'bold msg)
     (put-text-property 0 (length arg) 'face 'italic arg)
     (message msg arg))

** Sound support

Emacs supports playing sound files on GNU/Linux and the free BSDs
(Voxware driver and native BSD driver, aka as Luigi's driver).

Currently supported file formats are RIFF-WAVE (*.wav) and Sun Audio
(*.au).  You must configure Emacs with the option `--with-sound=yes'
to enable sound support.

Sound files can be played by calling (play-sound SOUND).  SOUND is a
list of the form `(sound PROPERTY...)'.  The function is only defined
when sound support is present for the system on which Emacs runs.  The
functions runs `play-sound-functions' with one argument which is the
sound to play, before playing the sound.

The following sound properties are supported:

- `:file FILE'

FILE is a file name.  If FILE isn't an absolute name, it will be
searched relative to `data-directory'.

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- `:data DATA'

DATA is a string containing sound data.  Either :file or :data
may be present, but not both.

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- `:volume VOLUME'

VOLUME must be an integer in the range 0..100 or a float in the range
0..1.  This property is optional.

Other properties are ignored.

** `multimedia' is a new Finder keyword and Custom group.
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** keywordp is a new predicate to test efficiently for an object being
a keyword symbol.
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** Changes to garbage collection

*** The function garbage-collect now additionally returns the number
of live and free strings.

*** There is a new variable `strings-consed' holding the number of
strings that have been consed so far.

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* New Lisp-level Display features in Emacs 21.1

Note that +++ before an item means the Lisp manual has been updated.
--- means that I have decided it does not need to be in the Lisp manual.
When you add a new item, please add it without either +++ or ---
so I will know I still need to look at it -- rms.

** New face implementation.

Emacs faces have been reimplemented from scratch.  They don't use XLFD
font names anymore and face merging now works as expected.

*** New faces.

Each face can specify the following display attributes:

   1. Font family or fontset alias name.
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   2. Relative proportionate width, aka character set width or set
   width (swidth), e.g. `semi-compressed'.
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   3. Font height in 1/10pt
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   4. Font weight, e.g. `bold'.
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   5. Font slant, e.g. `italic'.
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   6. Foreground color.
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   7. Background color.

   8. Whether or not characters should be underlined, and in what color.

   9. Whether or not characters should be displayed in inverse video.

   10. A background stipple, a bitmap.

   11. Whether or not characters should be overlined, and in what color.

   12. Whether or not characters should be strike-through, and in what

   13. Whether or not a box should be drawn around characters, its
   color, the width of the box lines, and 3D appearance.

Faces are frame-local by nature because Emacs allows to define the
same named face (face names are symbols) differently for different
frames.  Each frame has an alist of face definitions for all named
faces.  The value of a named face in such an alist is a Lisp vector
with the symbol `face' in slot 0, and a slot for each each of the face
attributes mentioned above.

There is also a global face alist `face-new-frame-defaults'.  Face
definitions from this list are used to initialize faces of newly
created frames.
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A face doesn't have to specify all attributes.  Those not specified
have a nil value.  Faces specifying all attributes are called

*** Face merging.

The display style of a given character in the text is determined by
combining several faces.  This process is called `face merging'.  Any
aspect of the display style that isn't specified by overlays or text
properties is taken from the `default' face.  Since it is made sure
that the default face is always fully-specified, face merging always
results in a fully-specified face.

*** Face realization.

After all face attributes for a character have been determined by
merging faces of that character, that face is `realized'.  The
realization process maps face attributes to what is physically
available on the system where Emacs runs.  The result is a `realized
face' in form of an internal structure which is stored in the face
cache of the frame on which it was realized.

Face realization is done in the context of the charset of the
character to display because different fonts and encodings are used
for different charsets.  In other words, for characters of different
charsets, different realized faces are needed to display them.

Except for composite characters, faces are always realized for a
specific character set and contain a specific font, even if the face
being realized specifies a fontset.  The reason is that the result of
the new font selection stage is better than what can be done with
statically defined font name patterns in fontsets.

In unibyte text, Emacs' charsets aren't applicable; function
`char-charset' reports ASCII for all characters, including those >
0x7f.  The X registry and encoding of fonts to use is determined from
the variable `face-default-registry' in this case.  The variable is
initialized at Emacs startup time from the font the user specified for

Currently all unibyte text, i.e. all buffers with
`enable-multibyte-characters' nil are displayed with fonts of the same
registry and encoding `face-default-registry'.  This is consistent
with the fact that languages can also be set globally, only.

**** Clearing face caches.

The Lisp function `clear-face-cache' can be called to clear face caches
on all frames.  If called with a non-nil argument, it will also unload
unused fonts.

*** Font selection.
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Font selection tries to find the best available matching font for a
given (charset, face) combination.  This is done slightly differently
for faces specifying a fontset, or a font family name.

If the face specifies a fontset name, that fontset determines a
pattern for fonts of the given charset.  If the face specifies a font
family, a font pattern is constructed.  Charset symbols have a
property `x-charset-registry' for that purpose that maps a charset to
an XLFD registry and encoding in the font pattern constructed.

Available fonts on the system on which Emacs runs are then matched
against the font pattern.  The result of font selection is the best
match for the given face attributes in this font list.

Font selection can be influenced by the user.

The user can specify the relative importance he gives the face
attributes width, height, weight, and slant by setting
face-font-selection-order (faces.el) to a list of face attribute
names.  The default is (:width :height :weight :slant), and means
that font selection first tries to find a good match for the font
width specified by a face, then---within fonts with that width---tries
to find a best match for the specified font height, etc.

Setting `face-alternative-font-family-alist' allows the user to
specify alternative font families to try if a family specified by a
face doesn't exist.

**** Scalable fonts

Emacs can make use of scalable fonts but doesn't do so by default,
since the use of too many or too big scalable fonts may crash XFree86

To enable scalable font use, set the variable
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`scalable-fonts-allowed'.  A value of nil, the default, means never use
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scalable fonts.  A value of t means any scalable font may be used.
Otherwise, the value must be a list of regular expressions.  A
scalable font may then be used if it matches a regular expression from
that list.  Example:

  (setq scalable-fonts-allowed '("muleindian-2$"))

allows the use of scalable fonts with registry `muleindian-2'.

*** Functions and variables related to font selection.

- Function: x-family-fonts &optional FAMILY FRAME

Return a list of available fonts of family FAMILY on FRAME.  If FAMILY
is omitted or nil, list all families.  Otherwise, FAMILY must be a
string, possibly containing wildcards `?' and `*'.

If FRAME is omitted or nil, use the selected frame.  Each element of
FULL REGISTRY-AND-ENCODING].  FAMILY is the font family name.
POINT-SIZE is the size of the font in 1/10 pt.  WIDTH, WEIGHT, and
SLANT are symbols describing the width, weight and slant of the font.
These symbols are the same as for face attributes.  FIXED-P is non-nil
if the font is fixed-pitch.  FULL is the full name of the font, and
REGISTRY-AND-ENCODING is a string giving the registry and encoding of
the font.  The result list is sorted according to the current setting
of the face font sort order.

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- Function: x-font-family-list
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