TUTORIAL 45.6 KB
Newer Older
1
Emacs tutorial.  See end for copying conditions.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
2

Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
3 4
Emacs commands generally involve the CONTROL key (sometimes labeled
CTRL or CTL) or the META key (sometimes labeled EDIT or ALT).  Rather than
5
write that in full each time, we'll use the following abbreviations:
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
6 7 8

 C-<chr>  means hold the CONTROL key while typing the character <chr>
	  Thus, C-f would be: hold the CONTROL key and type f.
9
 M-<chr>  means hold the META or EDIT or ALT key down while typing <chr>.
10 11
	  If there is no META, EDIT or ALT key, instead press and release the
	  ESC key and then type <chr>.  We write <ESC> for the ESC key.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
12 13

Important note: to end the Emacs session, type C-x C-c.  (Two characters.)
14
To quit a partially entered command, type C-g.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
15 16
The characters ">>" at the left margin indicate directions for you to
try using a command.  For instance:
17 18
<<Blank lines inserted around following line by help-with-tutorial>>
[Middle of page left blank for didactic purposes.   Text continues below]
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
19
>>  Now type C-v (View next screen) to move to the next screen.
20
	(go ahead, do it by holding down the CONTROL key while typing v).
21
	From now on, you should do this again whenever you finish
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
22 23
	reading the screen.

24 25 26
Note that there is an overlap of two lines when you move from screen
to screen; this provides some continuity so you can continue reading
the text.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
27

28 29 30
The first thing that you need to know is how to move around from place
to place in the text.  You already know how to move forward one screen,
with C-v.  To move backwards one screen, type M-v (hold down the META key
31
and type v, or type <ESC>v if you do not have a META, EDIT, or ALT key).
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
32

33
>>  Try typing M-v and then C-v, a few times.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
34 35


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
36 37
* SUMMARY
---------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
38 39 40 41 42

The following commands are useful for viewing screenfuls:

	C-v	Move forward one screenful
	M-v	Move backward one screenful
43 44 45
	C-l	Clear screen and redisplay all the text,
		 moving the text around the cursor
		 to the center of the screen.
46
		 (That's CONTROL-L, not CONTROL-1.)
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
47

48 49 50 51
>> Find the cursor, and note what text is near it.
   Then type C-l.
   Find the cursor again and notice that the same text
   is near the cursor now.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
52

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
53 54 55
You can also use the PageUp and PageDn keys to move by screenfuls, if
your terminal has them, but you can edit more efficiently if you use
C-v and M-v.
56

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
57

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
58 59
* BASIC CURSOR CONTROL
----------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
60

61 62 63
Moving from screenful to screenful is useful, but how do you
move to a specific place within the text on the screen?

64 65 66 67
There are several ways you can do this.  You can use the arrow keys,
but it's more efficient to keep your hands in the standard position
and use the commands C-p, C-b, C-f, and C-n.  These characters
are equivalent to the four arrow keys, like this:
68

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
69 70 71 72 73 74
			  Previous line, C-p
				  :
				  :
   Backward, C-b .... Current cursor position .... Forward, C-f
				  :
				  :
75
			    Next line, C-n
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
76 77

>> Move the cursor to the line in the middle of that diagram
78 79
   using C-n or C-p.  Then type C-l to see the whole diagram
   centered in the screen.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
80

81 82 83
You'll find it easy to remember these letters by words they stand for:
P for previous, N for next, B for backward and F for forward.  You
will be using these basic cursor positioning commands all the time.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
84 85 86 87 88 89

>> Do a few C-n's to bring the cursor down to this line.

>> Move into the line with C-f's and then up with C-p's.
   See what C-p does when the cursor is in the middle of the line.

90 91 92 93
Each line of text ends with a Newline character, which serves to
separate it from the following line.  The last line in your file ought
to have a Newline at the end (but Emacs does not require it to have
one).
94 95 96 97

>> Try to C-b at the beginning of a line.  It should move to
   the end of the previous line.  This is because it moves back
   across the Newline character.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
98

99
C-f can move across a Newline just like C-b.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
100

101 102 103
>> Do a few more C-b's, so you get a feel for where the cursor is.
   Then do C-f's to return to the end of the line.
   Then do one more C-f to move to the following line.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
104

105 106 107 108 109 110
When you move past the top or bottom of the screen, the text beyond
the edge shifts onto the screen.  This is called "scrolling".  It
enables Emacs to move the cursor to the specified place in the text
without moving it off the screen.

>> Try to move the cursor off the bottom of the screen with C-n, and
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
111 112 113
   see what happens.

If moving by characters is too slow, you can move by words.  M-f
114
(META-f) moves forward a word and M-b moves back a word.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
115

116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124
>> Type a few M-f's and M-b's.

When you are in the middle of a word, M-f moves to the end of the word.
When you are in whitespace between words, M-f moves to the end of the
following word.  M-b works likewise in the opposite direction.

>> Type M-f and M-b a few times, interspersed with C-f's and C-b's
   so that you can observe the action of M-f and M-b from various
   places inside and between words.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
125 126 127

Notice the parallel between C-f and C-b on the one hand, and M-f and
M-b on the other hand.  Very often Meta characters are used for
128 129 130 131 132 133 134
operations related to the units defined by language (words, sentences,
paragraphs), while Control characters operate on basic units that are
independent of what you are editing (characters, lines, etc).

This parallel applies between lines and sentences: C-a and C-e move to
the beginning or end of a line, and M-a and M-e move to the beginning
or end of a sentence.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
135 136 137 138

>> Try a couple of C-a's, and then a couple of C-e's.
   Try a couple of M-a's, and then a couple of M-e's.

139 140 141
See how repeated C-a's do nothing, but repeated M-a's keep moving one
more sentence.  Although these are not quite analogous, each one seems
natural.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
142 143 144 145 146

The location of the cursor in the text is also called "point".  To
paraphrase, the cursor shows on the screen where point is located in
the text.

147 148
Here is a summary of simple cursor-moving operations, including the
word and sentence moving commands:
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165

	C-f	Move forward a character
	C-b	Move backward a character

	M-f	Move forward a word
	M-b	Move backward a word

	C-n	Move to next line
	C-p	Move to previous line

	C-a	Move to beginning of line
	C-e	Move to end of line

	M-a	Move back to beginning of sentence
	M-e	Move forward to end of sentence

>> Try all of these commands now a few times for practice.
166 167
   These are the most often used commands.

168 169
Two other important cursor motion commands are M-< (META Less-than),
which moves to the beginning of the whole text, and M-> (META
170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184
Greater-than), which moves to the end of the whole text.

On most terminals, the "<" is above the comma, so you must use the
shift key to type it.  On these terminals you must use the shift key
to type M-< also; without the shift key, you would be typing M-comma.

>> Try M-< now, to move to the beginning of the tutorial.
   Then use C-v repeatedly to move back here.

>> Try M-> now, to move to the end of the tutorial.
   Then use M-v repeatedly to move back here.

You can also move the cursor with the arrow keys, if your terminal has
arrow keys.  We recommend learning C-b, C-f, C-n and C-p for three
reasons.  First, they work on all kinds of terminals.  Second, once
185
you gain practice at using Emacs, you will find that typing these Control
186 187
characters is faster than typing the arrow keys (because you do not
have to move your hands away from touch-typing position).  Third, once
188
you form the habit of using these Control character commands, you can
189 190 191 192 193
easily learn to use other advanced cursor motion commands as well.

Most Emacs commands accept a numeric argument; for most commands, this
serves as a repeat-count.  The way you give a command a repeat count
is by typing C-u and then the digits before you type the command.  If
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
194
you have a META (or EDIT or ALT) key, there is another, alternative way
195 196
to enter a numeric argument: type the digits while holding down the
META key.  We recommend learning the C-u method because it works on
197 198
any terminal.  The numeric argument is also called a "prefix argument",
because you type the argument before the command it applies to.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
199 200

For instance, C-u 8 C-f moves forward eight characters.
201

202 203
>> Try using C-n or C-p with a numeric argument, to move the cursor
   to a line near this one with just one command.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
204

205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213
Most commands use the numeric argument as a repeat count, but some
commands use it in some other way.  Several commands (but none of
those you have learned so far) use it as a flag--the presence of a
prefix argument, regardless of its value, makes the command do
something different.

C-v and M-v are another kind of exception.  When given an argument,
they scroll the screen up or down by that many lines, rather than by a
screenful.  For example, C-u 8 C-v scrolls the screen by 8 lines.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
214 215 216

>> Try typing C-u 8 C-v now.

217 218
This should have scrolled the screen up by 8 lines.  If you would like
to scroll it down again, you can give an argument to M-v.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
219

220
If you are using a windowed display, such as X11 or MS-Windows, there
221
should be a tall rectangular area called a scroll bar at the
222 223
side of the Emacs window.  You can scroll the text by clicking the
mouse in the scroll bar.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
224 225

>> Try pressing the middle button at the top of the highlighted area
226 227
   within the scroll bar.  This should scroll the text to a position
   determined by how high or low you click.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
228

229 230 231
>> Try moving the mouse up and down, while holding the middle button
   pressed down.  You'll see that the text scrolls up and down as
   you move the mouse.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
232

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
233

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
234 235
* WHEN EMACS IS HUNG
--------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
236

237 238 239 240
If Emacs stops responding to your commands, you can stop it safely by
typing C-g.  You can use C-g to stop a command which is taking too
long to execute.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
241
You can also use C-g to discard a numeric argument or the beginning of
242
a command that you do not want to finish.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
243 244

>> Type C-u 100 to make a numeric arg of 100, then type C-g.
245 246
   Now type C-f.  It should move just one character,
   because you canceled the argument with C-g.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
247

248 249
If you have typed an <ESC> by mistake, you can get rid of it
with a C-g.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
250

251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261

* DISABLED COMMANDS
-------------------

Some Emacs commands are "disabled" so that beginning users cannot use
them by accident.

If you type one of the disabled commands, Emacs displays a message
saying what the command was, and asking you whether you want to go
ahead and execute the command.

262 263 264
If you really want to try the command, type <SPC> (the Space bar) in
answer to the question.  Normally, if you do not want to execute the
disabled command, answer the question with "n".
265

266
>> Type C-x C-l (which is a disabled command),
267
   then type n to answer the question.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
268 269


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
270 271
* WINDOWS
---------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
272

273 274 275 276
Emacs can have several windows, each displaying its own text.  We will
explain later on how to use multiple windows.  Right now we want to
explain how to get rid of extra windows and go back to basic
one-window editing.  It is simple:
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
277 278 279

	C-x 1	One window (i.e., kill all other windows).

280
That is CONTROL-x followed by the digit 1.  C-x 1 expands the window
281 282
which contains the cursor, to occupy the full screen.  It deletes all
other windows.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
283 284

>> Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l.
285
>> Type CONTROL-h k CONTROL-f.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
286
   See how this window shrinks, while a new one appears
287
   to display documentation on the CONTROL-f command.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
288 289 290

>> Type C-x 1 and see the documentation listing window disappear.

291
This command is unlike the other commands you have learned in that it
292 293
consists of two characters.  It starts with the character CONTROL-x.
There is a whole series of commands that start with CONTROL-x; many of
294 295 296
them have to do with windows, files, buffers, and related things.
These commands are two, three or four characters long.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
297

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
298 299
* INSERTING AND DELETING
------------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
300

301 302
If you want to insert text, just type the text.  Characters which you
can see, such as A, 7, *, etc. are taken by Emacs as text and inserted
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
303 304 305
immediately.  Type <Return> (the carriage-return key) to insert a
Newline character.

306 307 308 309 310
You can delete the last character you typed by typing <Delback>.
<Delback> is a key on the keyboard--the same one you normally use,
outside Emacs, for deleting the last character you typed.  It is
normally a large key a couple of lines up from the <Return> key, and
it is usually labeled "Delete", "Del" or "Backspace".
311

312 313 314 315 316
If the large key there is labeled "Backspace", then that's the one you
use for <Delback>.  There may also be another key labeled "Delete"
somewhere else, but that's not <Delback>.

More generally, <Delback> deletes the character immediately before the
317
current cursor position.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
318

319
>> Do this now--type a few characters, then delete them
320
   by typing <Delback> a few times.  Don't worry about this file
321 322 323 324 325
   being changed; you will not alter the master tutorial.  This is
   your personal copy of it.

When a line of text gets too big for one line on the screen, the line
of text is "continued" onto a second screen line.  A backslash ("\")
326 327
(or, if you're using a windowed display, a little curved arrow) at the
right margin indicates a line which has been continued.
328 329 330 331

>> Insert text until you reach the right margin, and keep on inserting.
   You'll see a continuation line appear.

332
>> Use <Delback>s to delete the text until the line fits on one screen
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
333 334
   line again.  The continuation line goes away.

335 336 337 338 339
You can delete a Newline character just like any other character.
Deleting the Newline character between two lines merges them into
one line.  If the resulting combined line is too long to fit in the
screen width, it will be displayed with a continuation line.

340
>> Move the cursor to the beginning of a line and type <Delback>.  This
341 342
   merges that line with the previous line.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
343 344 345
>> Type <Return> to reinsert the Newline you deleted.

Remember that most Emacs commands can be given a repeat count;
346 347
this includes text characters.  Repeating a text character inserts
it several times.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
348

349
>>  Try that now -- type C-u 8 * to insert ********.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
350 351 352 353 354

You've now learned the most basic way of typing something in
Emacs and correcting errors.  You can delete by words or lines
as well.  Here is a summary of the delete operations:

355 356
	<Delback>    Delete the character just before the cursor
	C-d   	     Delete the next character after the cursor
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
357

358 359
	M-<Delback>  Kill the word immediately before the cursor
	M-d	     Kill the next word after the cursor
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
360

361 362
	C-k	     Kill from the cursor position to end of line
	M-k	     Kill to the end of the current sentence
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
363

364 365
Notice that <Delback> and C-d vs M-<Delback> and M-d extend the parallel
started by C-f and M-f (well, <Delback> is not really a control
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
366 367 368
character, but let's not worry about that).  C-k and M-k are like C-e
and M-e, sort of, in that lines are opposite sentences.

369 370 371 372
You can also kill any part of the text with one uniform method.  Move
to one end of that part, and type C-@ or C-<SPC> (either one).  (<SPC>
is the Space bar.)  Move to the other end of that part, and type C-w.
That kills all the text between the two positions.
Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
373 374

>> Move the cursor to the Y at the start of the previous paragraph.
375
>> Type C-<SPC>.  Emacs should display a message "Mark set"
Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
376 377 378 379 380 381
   at the bottom of the screen.
>> Move the cursor to the n in "end", on the second line of the
   paragraph.
>> Type C-w.  This will kill the text starting from the Y,
   and ending just before the n.

382 383 384 385 386
The difference between "killing" and "deleting" is that "killed" text
can be reinserted, whereas "deleted" things cannot be reinserted.
Reinsertion of killed text is called "yanking".  Generally, the
commands that can remove a lot of text kill the text (they set up so
that you can yank the text), while the commands that remove just one
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
387
character, or only remove blank lines and spaces, do deletion (so you
388 389
cannot yank that text).  <Delback> and C-d  do deletion in the simplest
case, with no argument.  When given an argument, they kill instead.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
390

391 392 393 394
>> Move the cursor to the  beginning of a line which is not empty.
   Then type C-k to kill the text on that line.
>> Type C-k a second time.  You'll see that it kills the Newline
   which follows that line.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
395 396

Note that a single C-k kills the contents of the line, and a second
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
397
C-k kills the line itself, and makes all the other lines move up.  C-k
398 399 400
treats a numeric argument specially: it kills that many lines AND
their contents.  This is not mere repetition.  C-u 2 C-k kills two
lines and their newlines; typing C-k twice would not do that.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
401

402 403 404
Bringing back killed text is called "yanking".  (Think of it as
yanking back, or pulling back, some text that was taken away.)  You
can yank the killed text either at the same place where it was killed,
405 406 407
or at some other place in the text you are editing, or even in a
different file.  You can yank the same text several times; that makes
multiple copies of it.
408 409 410

The command for yanking is C-y.  It reinserts the last killed text,
at the current cursor position.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
411 412 413

>> Try it; type C-y to yank the text back.

414 415
If you do several C-k's in a row, all of the killed text is saved
together, so that one C-y will yank all of the lines at once.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427

>> Do this now, type C-k several times.

Now to retrieve that killed text:

>> Type C-y.  Then move the cursor down a few lines and type C-y
   again.  You now see how to copy some text.

What do you do if you have some text you want to yank back, and then
you kill something else?  C-y would yank the more recent kill.  But
the previous text is not lost.  You can get back to it using the M-y
command.  After you have done C-y to get the most recent kill, typing
428
M-y replaces that yanked text with the previous kill.  Typing M-y
429 430 431 432 433 434 435
again and again brings in earlier and earlier kills.  When you have
reached the text you are looking for, you do not have to do anything to
keep it.  Just go on with your editing, leaving the yanked text where
it is.

If you M-y enough times, you come back to the starting point (the most
recent kill).
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445

>> Kill a line, move around, kill another line.
   Then do C-y to get back the second killed line.
   Then do M-y and it will be replaced by the first killed line.
   Do more M-y's and see what you get.  Keep doing them until
   the second kill line comes back, and then a few more.
   If you like, you can try giving M-y positive and negative
   arguments.


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
446 447
* UNDO
------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
448

449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 458 459 460
If you make a change to the text, and then decide that it was a
mistake, you can undo the change with the undo command, C-x u.

Normally, C-x u undoes the changes made by one command; if you repeat
the C-x u several times in a row, each repetition undoes one
additional command.

But there are two exceptions: commands that do not change the text do
not count (this includes cursor motion commands and scrolling
command), and self-inserting characters are usually handled in groups
of up to 20.  (This is to reduce the number of C-x u's you have to
type to undo insertion of text.)
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
461 462 463

>> Kill this line with C-k, then type C-x u and it should reappear.

464 465 466 467
C-_ is an alternative undo command; it works just the same as C-x u,
but it is easier to type several times in a row.  The disadvantage of
C-_ is that on some keyboards it is not obvious how to type it.  That
is why we provide C-x u as well.  On some terminals, you can type C-_
468
by typing / while holding down CONTROL.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
469

470
A numeric argument to C-_ or C-x u acts as a repeat count.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
471

472 473 474 475
You can undo deletion of text just as you can undo killing of text.
The distinction between killing something and deleting it affects
whether you can yank it with C-y; it makes no difference for undo.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
476

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
477 478
* FILES
-------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
479 480 481

In order to make the text you edit permanent, you must put it in a
file.  Otherwise, it will go away when your invocation of Emacs goes
482 483
away.  In order to put your text in a file, you must "find" the file
before you enter the text.  (This is also called "visiting" the file.)
484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491

Finding a file means that you see the contents of the file within
Emacs.  In many ways, it is as if you were editing the file itself.
However, the changes you make using Emacs do not become permanent
until you "save" the file.  This is so you can avoid leaving a
half-changed file on the system when you do not want to.  Even when
you save, Emacs leaves the original file under a changed name in case
you later decide that your changes were a mistake.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
492 493

If you look near the bottom of the screen you will see a line that
494 495 496 497 498 499
begins and ends with dashes, and starts with "--:-- TUTORIAL" or
something like that.  This part of the screen normally shows the name
of the file that you are visiting.  Right now, you are visiting a file
called "TUTORIAL" which is your personal scratch copy of the Emacs
tutorial.  When you find a file with Emacs, that file's name will
appear in that precise spot.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
500

501 502 503 504
One special thing about the command for finding a file is that you
have to say what file name you want.  We say the command "reads an
argument from the terminal" (in this case, the argument is the name of
the file).  After you type the command
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
505 506 507

	C-x C-f   Find a file

508 509 510 511 512 513 514
Emacs asks you to type the file name.  The file name you type appears
on the bottom line of the screen.  The bottom line is called the
minibuffer when it is used for this sort of input.  You can use
ordinary Emacs editing commands to edit the file name.

While you are entering the file name (or any minibuffer input),
you can cancel the command with C-g.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
515 516 517 518 519

>> Type C-x C-f, then type C-g.  This cancels the minibuffer,
   and also cancels the C-x C-f command that was using the
   minibuffer.  So you do not find any file.

520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527
When you have finished entering the file name, type <Return> to
terminate it.  Then C-x C-f command goes to work, and finds the file
you chose.  The minibuffer disappears when the C-x C-f command is
finished.

In a little while the file contents appear on the screen, and you can
edit the contents.  When you wish to make your changes permanent,
type the command
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
528 529 530

	C-x C-s   Save the file

531 532 533 534
This copies the text within Emacs into the file.  The first time you
do this, Emacs renames the original file to a new name so that it is
not lost.  The new name is made by adding "~" to the end of the
original file's name.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
535

536
When saving is finished, Emacs displays the name of the file written.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
537 538 539 540
You should save fairly often, so that you will not lose very much
work if the system should crash.

>> Type C-x C-s, saving your copy of the tutorial.
541
   This should show "Wrote ...TUTORIAL" at the bottom of the screen.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
542

543 544 545 546 547 548 549
You can find an existing file, to view it or edit it.  You can also
find a file which does not already exist.  This is the way to create a
file with Emacs: find the file, which will start out empty, and then
begin inserting the text for the file.  When you ask to "save" the
file, Emacs will really create the file with the text that you have
inserted.  From then on, you can consider yourself to be editing an
already existing file.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
550 551


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
552 553
* BUFFERS
---------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
554 555 556 557 558

If you find a second file with C-x C-f, the first file remains
inside Emacs.  You can switch back to it by finding it again with
C-x C-f.  This way you can get quite a number of files inside Emacs.

559 560 561 562 563
>> Create a file named "foo" by typing  C-x C-f foo <Return>.
   Then insert some text, edit it, and save "foo" by typing  C-x C-s.
   Finally, type C-x C-f TUTORIAL <Return>
   to come back to the tutorial.

Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
564
Emacs stores each file's text inside an object called a "buffer".
565
Finding a file makes a new buffer inside Emacs.  To see a list of the
Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
566
buffers that currently exist in your Emacs job, type
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
567 568 569 570 571

	C-x C-b   List buffers

>> Try C-x C-b now.

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
572 573
See how each buffer has a name, and it may also have a file name for
the file whose contents it holds.  ANY text you see in an Emacs window
574
is always part of some buffer.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
575 576 577

>> Type C-x 1 to get rid of the buffer list.

Juanma Barranquero's avatar
Juanma Barranquero committed
578
When you have several buffers, only one of them is "current" at any
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602
time.  That buffer is the one you edit.  If you want to edit another
buffer, you need to "switch" to it.  If you want to switch to a buffer
that corresponds to a file, you can do it by visiting the file again
with C-x C-f.  But there is an easier way: use the C-x b command.
In that command, you have to type the buffer's name.

>> Type C-x b foo <Return> to go back to the buffer "foo" which holds
   the text of the file "foo".  Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return>
   to come back to this tutorial.

Most of the time, the buffer's name is the same as the file name
(without the file directory part).  However, this is not always true.
The buffer list you make with C-x C-b always shows you the name of
every buffer.

ANY text you see in an Emacs window is always part of some buffer.
Some buffers do not correspond to files.  For example, the buffer
named "*Buffer List*" does not have any file.  It is the buffer which
contains the buffer list that you made with C-x C-b.  The buffer named
"*Messages*" also does not correspond to any file; it contains the
messages that have appeared on the bottom line during your Emacs
session.

>> Type C-x b *Messages* <Return> to look at the buffer of messages.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
603
   Then type C-x b TUTORIAL <Return> to come back to this tutorial.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
604

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614
If you make changes to the text of one file, then find another file,
this does not save the first file.  Its changes remain inside Emacs,
in that file's buffer.  The creation or editing of the second file's
buffer has no effect on the first file's buffer.  This is very useful,
but it also means that you need a convenient way to save the first
file's buffer.  It would be a nuisance to have to switch back to
it with C-x C-f in order to save it with C-x C-s.  So we have

	C-x s     Save some buffers

615 616 617
C-x s asks you about each buffer which contains changes that you have
not saved.  It asks you, for each such buffer, whether to save the
buffer.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
618

619 620 621
>> Insert a line of text, then type C-x s.
   It should ask you whether to save the buffer named TUTORIAL.
   Answer yes to the question by typing "y".
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
622

Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
623

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
624 625
* EXTENDING THE COMMAND SET
---------------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634

There are many, many more Emacs commands than could possibly be put
on all the control and meta characters.  Emacs gets around this with
the X (eXtend) command.  This comes in two flavors:

	C-x	Character eXtend.  Followed by one character.
	M-x	Named command eXtend.  Followed by a long name.

These are commands that are generally useful but used less than the
635 636 637 638 639 640
commands you have already learned about.  You have already seen a few
of them: the file commands C-x C-f to Find and C-x C-s to Save, for
example.  Another example is the command to end the Emacs
session--this is the command C-x C-c.  (Do not worry about losing
changes you have made; C-x C-c offers to save each changed file before
it kills the Emacs.)
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
641

642 643 644 645 646 647
If you are using a graphical display that supports multiple
applications in parallel, you don't need any special command to move
from Emacs to another application.  You can do this with the mouse or
with window manager commands.  However, if you're using a text
terminal which can only show one application at a time, you need to
"suspend" Emacs to move to any other program.
648

649 650 651 652 653
C-z is the command to exit Emacs *temporarily*--so that you can go
back to the same Emacs session afterward.  When Emacs is running on a
text terminal, C-z "suspends" Emacs; that is, it returns to the shell
but does not destroy the Emacs.  In the most common shells, you can
resume Emacs with the `fg' command or with `%emacs'.
654 655 656

The time to use C-x C-c is when you are about to log out.  It's also
the right thing to use to exit an Emacs invoked under mail handling
657 658 659 660
programs and other miscellaneous utilities, since they may not know
how to cope with suspension of Emacs.  In ordinary circumstances,
though, if you are not about to log out, it is better to suspend Emacs
with C-z instead of exiting Emacs.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
661

662
There are many C-x commands.  Here is a list of the ones you have learned:
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
663

664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671
	C-x C-f		Find file
	C-x C-s		Save file
	C-x s		Save some buffers
	C-x C-b		List buffers
	C-x b		Switch buffer
	C-x C-c		Quit Emacs
	C-x 1		Delete all but one window
	C-x u		Undo
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
672 673

Named eXtended commands are commands which are used even less
674 675 676 677 678
frequently, or commands which are used only in certain modes.  An
example is the command replace-string, which globally replaces one
string with another.  When you type M-x, Emacs prompts you at the
bottom of the screen with M-x and you should type the name of the
command; in this case, "replace-string".  Just type "repl s<TAB>" and
679
Emacs will complete the name.  (<TAB> is the Tab key, usually found
Eli Zaretskii's avatar
Eli Zaretskii committed
680
above the CapsLock or Shift key near the left edge of the keyboard.)
681
End the command name with <Return>.
682 683 684 685

The replace-string command requires two arguments--the string to be
replaced, and the string to replace it with.  You must end each
argument with <Return>.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
686 687 688 689 690

>> Move the cursor to the blank line two lines below this one.
   Then type M-x repl s<Return>changed<Return>altered<Return>.

   Notice how this line has changed: you've replaced
691 692
   the word c-h-a-n-g-e-d with "altered" wherever it occurred,
   after the initial position of the cursor.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
693 694


Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
695 696 697 698 699
* AUTO SAVE
-----------

When you have made changes in a file, but you have not saved them yet,
they could be lost if your computer crashes.  To protect you from
700 701 702 703 704
this, Emacs periodically writes an "auto save" file for each file that
you are editing.  The auto save file name has a # at the beginning and
the end; for example, if your file is named "hello.c", its auto save
file's name is "#hello.c#".  When you save the file in the normal way,
Emacs deletes its auto save file.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
705 706 707

If the computer crashes, you can recover your auto-saved editing by
finding the file normally (the file you were editing, not the auto
Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
708 709
save file) and then typing M-x recover file<Return>.  When it asks for
confirmation, type yes<Return> to go ahead and recover the auto-save
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
710 711 712
data.


713
* ECHO AREA
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
714
-----------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
715

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
716 717 718
If Emacs sees that you are typing multicharacter commands slowly, it
shows them to you at the bottom of the screen in an area called the
"echo area".  The echo area contains the bottom line of the screen.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
719 720


721 722 723
* MODE LINE
-----------

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
724
The line immediately above the echo area is called the "mode line".
725 726
The mode line says something like this:

727
--:**  TUTORIAL       63% L749    (Fundamental)-----------------------
728 729 730

This line gives useful information about the status of Emacs and
the text you are editing.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
731 732

You already know what the filename means--it is the file you have
733 734 735 736 737 738
found.  NN% indicates your current position in the text; it means that
NN percent of the text is above the top of the screen.  If the top of
the file is on the screen, it will say "Top" instead of " 0%".  If the
bottom of the text is on the screen, it will say "Bot".  If you are
looking at text so small that all of it fits on the screen, the mode
line says "All".
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
739

Gerd Moellmann's avatar
Gerd Moellmann committed
740 741 742
The L and digits indicate position in another way: they give the
current line number of point.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
743
The stars near the front mean that you have made changes to the text.
744 745
Right after you visit or save a file, that part of the mode line shows
no stars, just dashes.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
746 747

The part of the mode line inside the parentheses is to tell you what
748
editing modes you are in.  The default mode is Fundamental which is
749
what you are using now.  It is an example of a "major mode".
750 751

Emacs has many different major modes.  Some of them are meant for
752
editing different languages and/or kinds of text, such as Lisp mode,
753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761
Text mode, etc.  At any time one and only one major mode is active,
and its name can always be found in the mode line just where
"Fundamental" is now.

Each major mode makes a few commands behave differently.  For example,
there are commands for creating comments in a program, and since each
programming language has a different idea of what a comment should
look like, each major mode has to insert comments differently.  Each
major mode is the name of an extended command, which is how you can
762
switch to that mode.  For example, M-x fundamental-mode is a command to
763
switch to Fundamental mode.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
764

765
If you are going to be editing human-language text, such as this file, you
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
766
should probably use Text Mode.
767

Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
768
>> Type M-x text mode<Return>.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
769

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
770
Don't worry, none of the  Emacs commands you have learned changes in
771 772 773
any great way.  But you can observe that M-f and M-b now treat
apostrophes as part of words.  Previously, in Fundamental mode,
M-f and M-b treated apostrophes as word-separators.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
774

775 776 777 778 779
Major modes usually make subtle changes like that one: most commands
do "the same job" in each major mode, but they work a little bit
differently.

To view documentation on your current major mode, type C-h m.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
780 781 782 783 784 785

>> Use C-u C-v once or more to bring this line near the top of screen.
>> Type C-h m, to see how Text mode differs from Fundamental mode.
>> Type C-x 1 to remove the documentation from the screen.

Major modes are called major because there are also minor modes.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
786
Minor modes are not alternatives to the major modes, just minor
787 788 789 790
modifications of them.  Each minor mode can be turned on or off by
itself, independent of all other minor modes, and independent of your
major mode.  So you can use no minor modes, or one minor mode, or any
combination of several minor modes.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
791

792 793 794 795
One minor mode which is very useful, especially for editing
human-language text, is Auto Fill mode.  When this mode is on, Emacs
breaks the line in between words automatically whenever you insert
text and make a line that is too wide.
796

797
You can turn Auto Fill mode on by doing M-x auto fill mode<Return>.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
798
When the mode is on, you can turn it off again by doing M-x
799
auto fill mode<Return>.  If the mode is off, this command turns it on,
800 801
and if the mode is on, this command turns it off.  We say that the
command "toggles the mode".
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
802

803
>> Type M-x auto fill mode<Return> now.  Then insert a line of "asdf "
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815
   over again until you see it divide into two lines.  You must put in
   spaces between them because Auto Fill breaks lines only at spaces.

The margin is usually set at 70 characters, but you can change it
with the C-x f command.  You should give the margin setting you want
as a numeric argument.

>> Type C-x f with an argument of 20.  (C-u 2 0 C-x f).
   Then type in some text and see Emacs fill lines of 20
   characters with it.  Then set the margin back to 70 using
   C-x f again.

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
816
If you make changes in the middle of a paragraph, Auto Fill mode
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
817
does not re-fill it for you.
818
To re-fill the paragraph, type M-q (META-q) with the cursor inside
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
819 820 821 822
that paragraph.

>> Move the cursor into the previous paragraph and type M-q.

Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
823

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
824 825
* SEARCHING
-----------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
826 827

Emacs can do searches for strings (these are groups of contiguous
828 829 830 831 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841
characters or words) either forward through the text or backward
through it.  Searching for a string is a cursor motion command;
it moves the cursor to the next place where that string appears.

The Emacs search command is different from the search commands
of most editors, in that it is "incremental".  This means that the
search happens while you type in the string to search for.

The command to initiate a search is C-s for forward search, and C-r
for reverse search.  BUT WAIT!  Don't try them now.

When you type C-s you'll notice that the string "I-search" appears as
a prompt in the echo area.  This tells you that Emacs is in what is
called an incremental search waiting for you to type the thing that
842
you want to search for.  <Return> terminates a search.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
843 844 845 846

>> Now type C-s to start a search.  SLOWLY, one letter at a time,
   type the word 'cursor', pausing after you type each
   character to notice what happens to the cursor.
847 848
   Now you have searched for "cursor", once.
>> Type C-s again, to search for the next occurrence of "cursor".
849
>> Now type <Delback> four times and see how the cursor moves.
850
>> Type <Return> to terminate the search.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
851 852

Did you see what happened?  Emacs, in an incremental search, tries to
853 854
go to the occurrence of the string that you've typed out so far.  To
go to the next occurrence of 'cursor' just type C-s again.  If no such
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
855 856
occurrence exists, Emacs beeps and tells you the search is currently
"failing".  C-g would also terminate the search.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
857

858 859 860 861 862 863 864
NOTE: On some systems, typing C-s will freeze the screen and you will
see no further output from Emacs.  This indicates that an operating
system "feature" called "flow control" is intercepting the C-s and not
letting it get through to Emacs.  To unfreeze the screen, type C-q.
Then see the section "Spontaneous Entry to Incremental Search" in the
Emacs manual for advice on dealing with this "feature".

865
If you are in the middle of an incremental search and type <Delback>,
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
866 867
you'll notice that the last character in the search string is erased
and the search backs up to the last place of the search.  For
868 869
instance, suppose you have typed "c", to search for the first
occurrence of "c".  Now if you type "u", the cursor will move
870
to the first occurrence of "cu".  Now type <Delback>.  This erases
871 872
the "u" from the search string, and the cursor moves back to
the first occurrence of "c".
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
873

874 875 876
If you are in the middle of a search and type a control or meta
character (with a few exceptions--characters that are special in
a search, such as C-s and C-r), the search is terminated.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
877 878

The C-s starts a search that looks for any occurrence of the search
879 880 881 882
string AFTER the current cursor position.  If you want to search for
something earlier in the text, type C-r instead.  Everything that we
have said about C-s also applies to C-r, except that the direction of
the search is reversed.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
883 884


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
885 886
* MULTIPLE WINDOWS
------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
887 888 889 890

One of the nice features of Emacs is that you can display more than one
window on the screen at the same time.

891 892
>> Move the cursor to this line and type C-u 0 C-l (that's CONTROL-L, not
   CONTROL-1).
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
893 894 895 896 897

>> Now type C-x 2 which splits the screen into two windows.
   Both windows display this tutorial.  The cursor stays in the top window.

>> Type C-M-v to scroll the bottom window.
898
   (If you do not have a real META key, type <ESC> C-v.)
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
899 900 901 902 903 904

>> Type C-x o ("o" for "other") to move the cursor to the bottom window.
>> Use C-v and M-v in the bottom window to scroll it.
   Keep reading these directions in the top window.

>> Type C-x o again to move the cursor back to the top window.
905
   The cursor in the top window is just where it was before.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
906 907 908 909

You can keep using C-x o to switch between the windows.  Each
window has its own cursor position, but only one window actually
shows the cursor.  All the ordinary editing commands apply to the
910
window that the cursor is in.  We call this the "selected window".
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
911 912 913

The command C-M-v is very useful when you are editing text in one
window and using the other window just for reference.  You can keep
914 915
the cursor always in the window where you are editing, and advance
through the other window sequentially with C-M-v.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
916

917
C-M-v is an example of a CONTROL-META character.  If you have a real
918 919
META key, you can type C-M-v by holding down both CONTROL and META while
typing v.  It does not matter whether CONTROL or META "comes first,"
920
because both of these keys act by modifying the characters you type.
921

922 923 924 925
If you do not have a real META key, and you use <ESC> instead, the
order does matter: you must type <ESC> followed by CONTROL-v, because
CONTROL-<ESC> v will not work.  This is because <ESC> is a character
in its own right, not a modifier key.
926

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
927 928 929 930 931 932
>> Type C-x 1 (in the top window) to get rid of the bottom window.

(If you had typed C-x 1 in the bottom window, that would get rid
of the top one.  Think of this command as "Keep just one
window--the window I am already in.")

933 934 935
You do not have to display the same buffer in both windows.  If you
use C-x C-f to find a file in one window, the other window does not
change.  You can find a file in each window independently.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
936 937 938 939 940

Here is another way to use two windows to display two different
things:

>> Type C-x 4 C-f followed by the name of one of your files.
941
   End with <Return>.  See the specified file appear in the bottom
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
942 943 944 945 946 947
   window.  The cursor goes there, too.

>> Type C-x o to go back to the top window, and C-x 1 to delete
   the bottom window.


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
948 949
* RECURSIVE EDITING LEVELS
--------------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
950 951 952 953 954 955

Sometimes you will get into what is called a "recursive editing
level".  This is indicated by square brackets in the mode line,
surrounding the parentheses around the major mode name.  For
example, you might see [(Fundamental)] instead of (Fundamental).

956 957 958
To get out of the recursive editing level, type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC>.
That is an all-purpose "get out" command.  You can also use it for
eliminating extra windows, and getting out of the minibuffer.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
959

960 961
>> Type M-x to get into a minibuffer; then type <ESC> <ESC> <ESC> to
   get out.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
962

963 964 965
You cannot use C-g to get out of a recursive editing level.  This is
because C-g is used for canceling commands and arguments WITHIN the
recursive editing level.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
966 967


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
968 969
* GETTING MORE HELP
-------------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
970 971 972 973

In this tutorial we have tried to supply just enough information to
get you started using Emacs.  There is so much available in Emacs that
it would be impossible to explain it all here.  However, you may want
974 975 976
to learn more about Emacs since it has many other useful features.
Emacs provides commands for reading documentation about Emacs
commands.  These "help" commands all start with the character
977
CONTROL-h, which is called "the Help character".
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
978

979
To use the Help features, type the C-h character, and then a
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
980 981
character saying what kind of help you want.  If you are REALLY lost,
type C-h ? and Emacs will tell you what kinds of help it can give.
982
If you have typed C-h and decide you do not want any help, just
983
type C-g to cancel it.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
984

Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
985 986 987 988
(Some sites change the meaning of the character C-h.  They really
should not do this as a blanket measure for all users, so you have
grounds to complain to the system administrator.  Meanwhile, if C-h
does not display a message about help at the bottom of the screen, try
989
typing the F1 key or M-x help <Return> instead.)
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
990 991 992

The most basic HELP feature is C-h c.  Type C-h, the character c, and
a command character or sequence; then Emacs displays a very brief
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
993 994
description of the command.

Gerd Moellmann's avatar
Gerd Moellmann committed
995
>> Type C-h c C-p.
Richard M. Stallman's avatar
Richard M. Stallman committed
996 997

The message should be something like this:
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
998 999 1000

	C-p runs the command previous-line

1001 1002 1003 1004 1005
This tells you the "name of the function".  Function names are used
mainly for customizing and extending Emacs.  But since function names
are chosen to indicate what the command does, they can serve also as
very brief documentation--sufficient to remind you of commands you
have already learned.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1006 1007

Multi-character commands such as C-x C-s and (if you have no META or
1008
EDIT or ALT key) <ESC>v are also allowed after C-h c.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1009

1010
To get more information about a command, use C-h k instead of C-h c.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1011

Gerd Moellmann's avatar
Gerd Moellmann committed
1012
>> Type C-h k C-p.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1013

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1014 1015 1016 1017
This displays the documentation of the function, as well as its
name, in an Emacs window.  When you are finished reading the
output, type C-x 1 to get rid of the help text.  You do not have
to do this right away.  You can do some editing while referring
1018
to the help text, and then type C-x 1.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025

Here are some other useful C-h options:

   C-h f	Describe a function.  You type in the name of the
		function.

>> Try typing C-h f previous-line<Return>.
1026
   This displays all the information Emacs has about the
1027
   function which implements the C-p command.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1028

1029
A similar command C-h v displays the documentation of variables whose
1030 1031 1032
values you can set to customize Emacs behavior.  You need to type in
the name of the variable when Emacs prompts for it.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1033 1034
   C-h a	Command Apropos.  Type in a keyword and Emacs will list
		all the commands whose names contain that keyword.
1035
		These commands can all be invoked with META-x.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1036
		For some commands, Command Apropos will also list a one
1037
		or two character sequence which runs the same command.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1038

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1039 1040
>> Type C-h a file<Return>.

1041 1042 1043
This displays in another window a list of all M-x commands with "file"
in their names.  You will see character-commands like C-x C-f listed
beside the corresponding command names such as find-file.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1044 1045 1046 1047

>> Type C-M-v to scroll the help window.  Do this a few times.

>> Type C-x 1 to delete the help window.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1048

1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058
   C-h i	Read On-line Manuals (a.k.a. Info).  This command puts
		you into a special buffer called `*info*' where you
		can read on-line manuals for the packages installed on
		your system.  Type m emacs <Return> to read the Emacs
		manual.  If you have never before used Info, type ?
		and Emacs will take you on a guided tour of Info mode
		facilities.  Once you are through with this tutorial,
		you should consult the Emacs Info manual as your
		primary documentation.

Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1059

1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081
* MORE FEATURES
---------------

You can learn more about Emacs by reading its manual, either as a book
or on-line in Info (use the Help menu or type F10 h r).  Two features
that you may like especially are completion, which saves typing, and
dired, which simplifies file handling.

Completion is a way to avoid unnecessary typing.  For instance, if you
want to switch to the *Messages* buffer, you can type C-x b *M<Tab>
and Emacs will fill in the rest of the buffer name as far as it can
determine from what you have already typed.  Completion is described
in Info in the Emacs manual in the node called "Completion".

Dired enables you to list files in a directory (and optionally its
subdirectories), move around that list, visit, rename, delete and
otherwise operate on the files.  Dired is described in Info in the
Emacs manual in the node called "Dired".

The manual also describes many other Emacs features.


Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1082 1083
* CONCLUSION
------------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1084 1085

Remember, to exit Emacs permanently use C-x C-c.  To exit to a shell
1086
temporarily, so that you can come back to Emacs afterward, use C-z.
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1087 1088 1089 1090 1091

This tutorial is meant to be understandable to all new users, so if
you found something unclear, don't sit and blame yourself - complain!


Karl Heuer's avatar
Karl Heuer committed
1092 1093
* COPYING
---------
Jim Blandy's avatar
Jim Blandy committed
1094 1095 1096 1097

This tutorial descends from a long line of Emacs tutorials
starting with the one written by Stuart Cracraft for the original Emacs.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1098 1099 1100
This version of the tutorial is a part of GNU Emacs.  It is copyrighted
and comes with permission to distribute copies on certain conditions:

1101
  Copyright (C) 1985, 1996, 1998, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006,
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1102
    2007, 2008, 2009 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1103 1104

  This file is part of GNU Emacs.
1105 1106

  GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1107
  it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
1108 1109 1110
  the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
  (at your option) any later version.

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1111 1112 1113 1114
  GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
  but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
  MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
  GNU General Public License for more details.
1115

Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1116
  You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
1117
  along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
Glenn Morris's avatar
Glenn Morris committed
1118 1119 1120 1121

Please read the file COPYING and then do give copies of GNU Emacs to
your friends.  Help stamp out software obstructionism ("ownership") by
using, writing, and sharing free software!
Miles Bader's avatar
Miles Bader committed
1122 1123

;;; arch-tag: a0f84628-777f-4238-8865-451a73167f55