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;;; gnus-util.el --- utility functions for Gnus
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;; Copyright (C) 1996, 1997, 1998, 1999, 2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004,
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;;   2005, 2006, 2007, 2008, 2009, 2010 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
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;; Author: Lars Magne Ingebrigtsen <larsi@gnus.org>
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;; Keywords: news

;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

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;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
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;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.
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;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
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;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
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;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
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;;; Commentary:

;; Nothing in this file depends on any other parts of Gnus -- all
;; functions and macros in this file are utility functions that are
;; used by Gnus and may be used by any other package without loading
;; Gnus first.

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;; [Unfortunately, it does depend on other parts of Gnus, e.g. the
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;; autoloads and defvars below...]
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;;; Code:

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;; For Emacs < 22.2.
(eval-and-compile
  (unless (fboundp 'declare-function) (defmacro declare-function (&rest r))))
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(eval-when-compile
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  (require 'cl))
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(eval-when-compile
  (unless (fboundp 'with-no-warnings)
    (defmacro with-no-warnings (&rest body)
      `(progn ,@body))))

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(defcustom gnus-completing-read-function 'gnus-emacs-completing-read
  "Function use to do completing read."
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  :version "24.1"
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  :group 'gnus-meta
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  :type '(radio (function-item
                 :doc "Use Emacs standard `completing-read' function."
                 gnus-emacs-completing-read)
                (function-item
                 :doc "Use `ido-completing-read' function."
                 gnus-ido-completing-read)
                (function-item
                 :doc "Use iswitchb based completing-read function."
                 gnus-iswitchb-completing-read)))
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(defcustom gnus-completion-styles
  (if (and (boundp 'completion-styles-alist)
           (boundp 'completion-styles))
      (append (when (and (assq 'substring completion-styles-alist)
                         (not (memq 'substring completion-styles)))
                (list 'substring))
              completion-styles)
    nil)
  "Value of `completion-styles' to use when completing."
  :version "24.1"
  :group 'gnus-meta
  :type 'list)

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;; Fixme: this should be a gnus variable, not nnmail-.
(defvar nnmail-pathname-coding-system)
(defvar nnmail-active-file-coding-system)

;; Inappropriate references to other parts of Gnus.
(defvar gnus-emphasize-whitespace-regexp)
(defvar gnus-original-article-buffer)
(defvar gnus-user-agent)

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(autoload 'gnus-get-buffer-window "gnus-win")
(autoload 'nnheader-narrow-to-headers "nnheader")
(autoload 'nnheader-replace-chars-in-string "nnheader")
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(autoload 'mail-header-remove-comments "mail-parse")
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(eval-and-compile
  (cond
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   ;; Prefer `replace-regexp-in-string' (present in Emacs, XEmacs 21.5,
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   ;; SXEmacs 22.1.4) over `replace-in-string'.  The latter leads to inf-loops
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   ;; on empty matches:
   ;;   (replace-in-string "foo" "/*$" "/")
   ;;   (replace-in-string "xe" "\\(x\\)?" "")
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   ((fboundp 'replace-regexp-in-string)
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    (defun gnus-replace-in-string  (string regexp newtext &optional literal)
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      "Replace all matches for REGEXP with NEWTEXT in STRING.
If LITERAL is non-nil, insert NEWTEXT literally.  Return a new
string containing the replacements.

This is a compatibility function for different Emacsen."
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      (replace-regexp-in-string regexp newtext string nil literal)))
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   ((fboundp 'replace-in-string)
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    (defalias 'gnus-replace-in-string 'replace-in-string))))
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(defun gnus-boundp (variable)
  "Return non-nil if VARIABLE is bound and non-nil."
  (and (boundp variable)
       (symbol-value variable)))

(defmacro gnus-eval-in-buffer-window (buffer &rest forms)
  "Pop to BUFFER, evaluate FORMS, and then return to the original window."
  (let ((tempvar (make-symbol "GnusStartBufferWindow"))
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	(w (make-symbol "w"))
	(buf (make-symbol "buf")))
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    `(let* ((,tempvar (selected-window))
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	    (,buf ,buffer)
	    (,w (gnus-get-buffer-window ,buf 'visible)))
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       (unwind-protect
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	   (progn
	     (if ,w
		 (progn
		   (select-window ,w)
		   (set-buffer (window-buffer ,w)))
	       (pop-to-buffer ,buf))
	     ,@forms)
	 (select-window ,tempvar)))))
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(put 'gnus-eval-in-buffer-window 'lisp-indent-function 1)
(put 'gnus-eval-in-buffer-window 'edebug-form-spec '(form body))

(defmacro gnus-intern-safe (string hashtable)
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  "Get hash value.  Arguments are STRING and HASHTABLE."
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  `(let ((symbol (intern ,string ,hashtable)))
     (or (boundp symbol)
	 (set symbol nil))
     symbol))

(defsubst gnus-goto-char (point)
  (and point (goto-char point)))

(defmacro gnus-buffer-exists-p (buffer)
  `(let ((buffer ,buffer))
     (when buffer
       (funcall (if (stringp buffer) 'get-buffer 'buffer-name)
		buffer))))

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;; The LOCAL arg to `add-hook' is interpreted differently in Emacs and
;; XEmacs.  In Emacs we don't need to call `make-local-hook' first.
;; It's harmless, though, so the main purpose of this alias is to shut
;; up the byte compiler.
(defalias 'gnus-make-local-hook
  (if (eq (get 'make-local-hook 'byte-compile)
	  'byte-compile-obsolete)
      'ignore				; Emacs
    'make-local-hook))			; XEmacs

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(defun gnus-delete-first (elt list)
  "Delete by side effect the first occurrence of ELT as a member of LIST."
  (if (equal (car list) elt)
      (cdr list)
    (let ((total list))
      (while (and (cdr list)
		  (not (equal (cadr list) elt)))
	(setq list (cdr list)))
      (when (cdr list)
	(setcdr list (cddr list)))
      total)))

;; Delete the current line (and the next N lines).
(defmacro gnus-delete-line (&optional n)
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  `(delete-region (point-at-bol)
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		  (progn (forward-line ,(or n 1)) (point))))

(defun gnus-byte-code (func)
  "Return a form that can be `eval'ed based on FUNC."
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  (let ((fval (indirect-function func)))
    (if (byte-code-function-p fval)
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	(let ((flist (append fval nil)))
	  (setcar flist 'byte-code)
	  flist)
      (cons 'progn (cddr fval)))))

(defun gnus-extract-address-components (from)
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  "Extract address components from a From header.
Given an RFC-822 address FROM, extract full name and canonical address.
Returns a list of the form (FULL-NAME CANONICAL-ADDRESS).  Much more simple
solution than `mail-extract-address-components', which works much better, but
is slower."
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  (let (name address)
    ;; First find the address - the thing with the @ in it.  This may
    ;; not be accurate in mail addresses, but does the trick most of
    ;; the time in news messages.
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    (cond (;; Check ``<foo@bar>'' first in order to handle the quite common
	   ;; form ``"abc@xyz" <foo@bar>'' (i.e. ``@'' as part of a comment)
	   ;; correctly.
	   (string-match "<\\([^@ \t<>]+[!@][^@ \t<>]+\\)>" from)
	   (setq address (substring from (match-beginning 1) (match-end 1))))
	  ((string-match "\\b[^@ \t<>]+[!@][^@ \t<>]+\\b" from)
	   (setq address (substring from (match-beginning 0) (match-end 0)))))
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    ;; Then we check whether the "name <address>" format is used.
    (and address
	 ;; Linear white space is not required.
	 (string-match (concat "[ \t]*<" (regexp-quote address) ">") from)
	 (and (setq name (substring from 0 (match-beginning 0)))
	      ;; Strip any quotes from the name.
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	      (string-match "^\".*\"$" name)
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	      (setq name (substring name 1 (1- (match-end 0))))))
    ;; If not, then "address (name)" is used.
    (or name
	(and (string-match "(.+)" from)
	     (setq name (substring from (1+ (match-beginning 0))
				   (1- (match-end 0)))))
	(and (string-match "()" from)
	     (setq name address))
	;; XOVER might not support folded From headers.
	(and (string-match "(.*" from)
	     (setq name (substring from (1+ (match-beginning 0))
				   (match-end 0)))))
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    (list (if (string= name "") nil name) (or address from))))

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(defun gnus-extract-address-component-name (from)
  "Extract name from a From header.
Uses `gnus-extract-address-components'."
  (nth 0 (gnus-extract-address-components from)))

(defun gnus-extract-address-component-email (from)
  "Extract e-mail address from a From header.
Uses `gnus-extract-address-components'."
  (nth 1 (gnus-extract-address-components from)))
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(declare-function message-fetch-field "message" (header &optional not-all))

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(defun gnus-fetch-field (field)
  "Return the value of the header FIELD of current article."
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  (require 'message)
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  (save-excursion
    (save-restriction
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      (let ((inhibit-point-motion-hooks t))
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	(nnheader-narrow-to-headers)
	(message-fetch-field field)))))

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(defun gnus-fetch-original-field (field)
  "Fetch FIELD from the original version of the current article."
  (with-current-buffer gnus-original-article-buffer
    (gnus-fetch-field field)))


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(defun gnus-goto-colon ()
  (beginning-of-line)
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  (let ((eol (point-at-eol)))
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    (goto-char (or (text-property-any (point) eol 'gnus-position t)
		   (search-forward ":" eol t)
		   (point)))))

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(declare-function gnus-find-method-for-group "gnus" (group &optional info))
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(declare-function gnus-group-name-decode "gnus-group" (string charset))
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(declare-function gnus-group-name-charset "gnus-group" (method group))
;; gnus-group requires gnus-int which requires message.
(declare-function message-tokenize-header "message"
                  (header &optional separator))

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(defun gnus-decode-newsgroups (newsgroups group &optional method)
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  (require 'gnus-group)
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  (let ((method (or method (gnus-find-method-for-group group))))
    (mapconcat (lambda (group)
		 (gnus-group-name-decode group (gnus-group-name-charset
						method group)))
	       (message-tokenize-header newsgroups)
	       ",")))
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(defun gnus-remove-text-with-property (prop)
  "Delete all text in the current buffer with text property PROP."
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  (let ((start (point-min))
	end)
    (unless (get-text-property start prop)
      (setq start (next-single-property-change start prop)))
    (while start
      (setq end (text-property-any start (point-max) prop nil))
      (delete-region start (or end (point-max)))
      (setq start (when end
		    (next-single-property-change start prop))))))
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(defun gnus-newsgroup-directory-form (newsgroup)
  "Make hierarchical directory name from NEWSGROUP name."
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  (let* ((newsgroup (gnus-newsgroup-savable-name newsgroup))
	 (idx (string-match ":" newsgroup)))
    (concat
     (if idx (substring newsgroup 0 idx))
     (if idx "/")
     (nnheader-replace-chars-in-string
      (if idx (substring newsgroup (1+ idx)) newsgroup)
      ?. ?/))))
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(defun gnus-newsgroup-savable-name (group)
  ;; Replace any slashes in a group name (eg. an ange-ftp nndoc group)
  ;; with dots.
  (nnheader-replace-chars-in-string group ?/ ?.))

(defun gnus-string> (s1 s2)
  (not (or (string< s1 s2)
	   (string= s1 s2))))

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(defun gnus-string< (s1 s2)
  "Return t if first arg string is less than second in lexicographic order.
Case is significant if and only if `case-fold-search' is nil.
Symbols are also allowed; their print names are used instead."
  (if case-fold-search
      (string-lessp (downcase (if (symbolp s1) (symbol-name s1) s1))
		    (downcase (if (symbolp s2) (symbol-name s2) s2)))
    (string-lessp s1 s2)))

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;;; Time functions.

(defun gnus-file-newer-than (file date)
  (let ((fdate (nth 5 (file-attributes file))))
    (or (> (car fdate) (car date))
	(and (= (car fdate) (car date))
	     (> (nth 1 fdate) (nth 1 date))))))

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(eval-and-compile
  (if (and (fboundp 'float-time)
	   (subrp (symbol-function 'float-time)))
      (defalias 'gnus-float-time 'float-time)
    (defun gnus-float-time (&optional time)
      "Convert time value TIME to a floating point number.
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TIME defaults to the current time."
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      (with-no-warnings (time-to-seconds (or time (current-time)))))))
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;;; Keymap macros.

(defmacro gnus-local-set-keys (&rest plist)
  "Set the keys in PLIST in the current keymap."
  `(gnus-define-keys-1 (current-local-map) ',plist))

(defmacro gnus-define-keys (keymap &rest plist)
  "Define all keys in PLIST in KEYMAP."
  `(gnus-define-keys-1 (quote ,keymap) (quote ,plist)))

(defmacro gnus-define-keys-safe (keymap &rest plist)
  "Define all keys in PLIST in KEYMAP without overwriting previous definitions."
  `(gnus-define-keys-1 (quote ,keymap) (quote ,plist) t))

(put 'gnus-define-keys 'lisp-indent-function 1)
(put 'gnus-define-keys-safe 'lisp-indent-function 1)
(put 'gnus-local-set-keys 'lisp-indent-function 1)

(defmacro gnus-define-keymap (keymap &rest plist)
  "Define all keys in PLIST in KEYMAP."
  `(gnus-define-keys-1 ,keymap (quote ,plist)))

(put 'gnus-define-keymap 'lisp-indent-function 1)

(defun gnus-define-keys-1 (keymap plist &optional safe)
  (when (null keymap)
    (error "Can't set keys in a null keymap"))
  (cond ((symbolp keymap)
	 (setq keymap (symbol-value keymap)))
	((keymapp keymap))
	((listp keymap)
	 (set (car keymap) nil)
	 (define-prefix-command (car keymap))
	 (define-key (symbol-value (caddr keymap)) (cadr keymap) (car keymap))
	 (setq keymap (symbol-value (car keymap)))))
  (let (key)
    (while plist
      (when (symbolp (setq key (pop plist)))
	(setq key (symbol-value key)))
      (if (or (not safe)
	      (eq (lookup-key keymap key) 'undefined))
	  (define-key keymap key (pop plist))
	(pop plist)))))

;; Two silly functions to ensure that all `y-or-n-p' questions clear
;; the echo area.
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;;
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;; Do we really need these functions?  Workarounds for bugs in the corresponding
;; Emacs functions?  Maybe these bugs are no longer present in any supported
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;; (X)Emacs version?  Alias them to the original functions and see if anyone
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;; reports a problem.  If not, replace with original functions.  --rsteib,
;; 2007-12-14
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;;
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;; All supported Emacsen clear the echo area after `yes-or-no-p', so we can
;; remove `yes-or-no-p'.  RMS says that not clearing after `y-or-n-p' is
;; intentional (see below), so we could remove `gnus-y-or-n-p' too.
;; Objections?  --rsteib, 2008-02-16
;;
;; ,----[ http://thread.gmane.org/gmane.emacs.gnus.general/65099/focus=66070 ]
;; | From: Richard Stallman
;; | Subject: Re: Do we need gnus-yes-or-no-p and gnus-y-or-n-p?
;; | To: Katsumi Yamaoka [...]
;; | Cc: emacs-devel@[...], xemacs-beta@[...], ding@[...]
;; | Date: Mon, 07 Jan 2008 12:16:05 -0500
;; | Message-ID: <E1JBva1-000528-VY@fencepost.gnu.org>
;; |
;; |     The behavior of `y-or-n-p' that it doesn't clear the question
;; |     and the answer is not serious of course, but I feel it is not
;; |     cool.
;; |
;; | It is intentional.
;; |
;; |     Currently, it is commented out in the trunk by Reiner Steib.  He
;; |     also wrote the benefit of leaving the question and the answer in
;; |     the echo area as follows:
;; |
;; |     (http://article.gmane.org/gmane.emacs.gnus.general/66061)
;; |     > In contrast to yes-or-no-p it is much easier to type y, n,
;; |     > SPC, DEL, etc accidentally, so it might be useful for the user
;; |     > to see what he has typed.
;; |
;; | Yes, that is the reason.
;; `----

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;; (defun gnus-y-or-n-p (prompt)
;;   (prog1
;;       (y-or-n-p prompt)
;;     (message "")))
;; (defun gnus-yes-or-no-p (prompt)
;;   (prog1
;;       (yes-or-no-p prompt)
;;     (message "")))

(defalias 'gnus-y-or-n-p 'y-or-n-p)
(defalias 'gnus-yes-or-no-p 'yes-or-no-p)
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;; By Frank Schmitt <ich@Frank-Schmitt.net>. Allows to have
;; age-depending date representations. (e.g. just the time if it's
;; from today, the day of the week if it's within the last 7 days and
;; the full date if it's older)

(defun gnus-seconds-today ()
  "Return the number of seconds passed today."
  (let ((now (decode-time (current-time))))
    (+ (car now) (* (car (cdr now)) 60) (* (car (nthcdr 2 now)) 3600))))

(defun gnus-seconds-month ()
  "Return the number of seconds passed this month."
  (let ((now (decode-time (current-time))))
    (+ (car now) (* (car (cdr now)) 60) (* (car (nthcdr 2 now)) 3600)
       (* (- (car (nthcdr 3 now)) 1) 3600 24))))

(defun gnus-seconds-year ()
  "Return the number of seconds passed this year."
  (let ((now (decode-time (current-time)))
	(days (format-time-string "%j" (current-time))))
    (+ (car now) (* (car (cdr now)) 60) (* (car (nthcdr 2 now)) 3600)
       (* (- (string-to-number days) 1) 3600 24))))

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(defmacro gnus-date-get-time (date)
  "Convert DATE string to Emacs time.
Cache the result as a text property stored in DATE."
  ;; Either return the cached value...
  `(let ((d ,date))
     (if (equal "" d)
	 '(0 0)
       (or (get-text-property 0 'gnus-time d)
	   ;; or compute the value...
	   (let ((time (safe-date-to-time d)))
	     ;; and store it back in the string.
	     (put-text-property 0 1 'gnus-time time d)
	     time)))))

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(defvar gnus-user-date-format-alist
  '(((gnus-seconds-today) . "%k:%M")
    (604800 . "%a %k:%M")                   ;;that's one week
    ((gnus-seconds-month) . "%a %d")
    ((gnus-seconds-year) . "%b %d")
    (t . "%b %d '%y"))                      ;;this one is used when no
					    ;;other does match
  "Specifies date format depending on age of article.
This is an alist of items (AGE . FORMAT).  AGE can be a number (of
seconds) or a Lisp expression evaluating to a number.  When the age of
the article is less than this number, then use `format-time-string'
with the corresponding FORMAT for displaying the date of the article.
If AGE is not a number or a Lisp expression evaluating to a
non-number, then the corresponding FORMAT is used as a default value.

Note that the list is processed from the beginning, so it should be
sorted by ascending AGE.  Also note that items following the first
non-number AGE will be ignored.

You can use the functions `gnus-seconds-today', `gnus-seconds-month'
and `gnus-seconds-year' in the AGE spec.  They return the number of
seconds passed since the start of today, of this month, of this year,
respectively.")

(defun gnus-user-date (messy-date)
  "Format the messy-date according to gnus-user-date-format-alist.
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Returns \"  ?  \" if there's bad input or if another error occurs.
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Input should look like this: \"Sun, 14 Oct 2001 13:34:39 +0200\"."
  (condition-case ()
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      (let* ((messy-date (gnus-float-time (gnus-date-get-time messy-date)))
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	     (now (gnus-float-time))
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	     ;;If we don't find something suitable we'll use this one
	     (my-format "%b %d '%y"))
	(let* ((difference (- now messy-date))
	       (templist gnus-user-date-format-alist)
	       (top (eval (caar templist))))
	  (while (if (numberp top) (< top difference) (not top))
	    (progn
	      (setq templist (cdr templist))
	      (setq top (eval (caar templist)))))
	  (if (stringp (cdr (car templist)))
	      (setq my-format (cdr (car templist)))))
	(format-time-string (eval my-format) (seconds-to-time messy-date)))
    (error "  ?   ")))

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(defun gnus-dd-mmm (messy-date)
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  "Return a string like DD-MMM from a big messy string."
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  (condition-case ()
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      (format-time-string "%d-%b" (gnus-date-get-time messy-date))
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    (error "  -   ")))
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(defsubst gnus-time-iso8601 (time)
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  "Return a string of TIME in YYYYMMDDTHHMMSS format."
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  (format-time-string "%Y%m%dT%H%M%S" time))

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(defun gnus-date-iso8601 (date)
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  "Convert the DATE to YYYYMMDDTHHMMSS."
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  (condition-case ()
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      (gnus-time-iso8601 (gnus-date-get-time date))
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    (error "")))

(defun gnus-mode-string-quote (string)
  "Quote all \"%\"'s in STRING."
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  (gnus-replace-in-string string "%" "%%"))
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;; Make a hash table (default and minimum size is 256).
;; Optional argument HASHSIZE specifies the table size.
(defun gnus-make-hashtable (&optional hashsize)
  (make-vector (if hashsize (max (gnus-create-hash-size hashsize) 256) 256) 0))

;; Make a number that is suitable for hashing; bigger than MIN and
;; equal to some 2^x.  Many machines (such as sparcs) do not have a
;; hardware modulo operation, so they implement it in software.  On
;; many sparcs over 50% of the time to intern is spent in the modulo.
;; Yes, it's slower than actually computing the hash from the string!
;; So we use powers of 2 so people can optimize the modulo to a mask.
(defun gnus-create-hash-size (min)
  (let ((i 1))
    (while (< i min)
      (setq i (* 2 i)))
    i))

(defcustom gnus-verbose 7
  "*Integer that says how verbose Gnus should be.
The higher the number, the more messages Gnus will flash to say what
it's doing.  At zero, Gnus will be totally mute; at five, Gnus will
display most important messages; and at ten, Gnus will keep on
jabbering all the time."
  :group 'gnus-start
  :type 'integer)

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(defcustom gnus-add-timestamp-to-message nil
  "Non-nil means add timestamps to messages that Gnus issues.
If it is `log', add timestamps to only the messages that go into the
\"*Messages*\" buffer (in XEmacs, it is the \" *Message-Log*\" buffer).
If it is neither nil nor `log', add timestamps not only to log messages
but also to the ones displayed in the echo area."
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  :version "23.1" ;; No Gnus
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  :group  'gnus-various
  :type '(choice :format "%{%t%}:\n %[Value Menu%] %v"
		 (const :tag "Logged messages only" log)
		 (sexp :tag "All messages"
		       :match (lambda (widget value) value)
		       :value t)
		 (const :tag "No timestamp" nil)))

(eval-when-compile
  (defmacro gnus-message-with-timestamp-1 (format-string args)
    (let ((timestamp '((format-time-string "%Y%m%dT%H%M%S" time)
		       "." (format "%03d" (/ (nth 2 time) 1000)) "> ")))
      (if (featurep 'xemacs)
	  `(let (str time)
	     (if (or (and (null ,format-string) (null ,args))
		     (progn
		       (setq str (apply 'format ,format-string ,args))
		       (zerop (length str))))
		 (prog1
		     (and ,format-string str)
		   (clear-message nil))
	       (cond ((eq gnus-add-timestamp-to-message 'log)
		      (setq time (current-time))
		      (display-message 'no-log str)
		      (log-message 'message (concat ,@timestamp str)))
		     (gnus-add-timestamp-to-message
		      (setq time (current-time))
		      (display-message 'message (concat ,@timestamp str)))
		     (t
		      (display-message 'message str))))
	     str)
	`(let (str time)
	   (cond ((eq gnus-add-timestamp-to-message 'log)
		  (setq str (let (message-log-max)
			      (apply 'message ,format-string ,args)))
		  (when (and message-log-max
			     (> message-log-max 0)
			     (/= (length str) 0))
		    (setq time (current-time))
		    (with-current-buffer (get-buffer-create "*Messages*")
		      (goto-char (point-max))
		      (insert ,@timestamp str "\n")
		      (forward-line (- message-log-max))
		      (delete-region (point-min) (point))
		      (goto-char (point-max))))
		  str)
		 (gnus-add-timestamp-to-message
		  (if (or (and (null ,format-string) (null ,args))
			  (progn
			    (setq str (apply 'format ,format-string ,args))
			    (zerop (length str))))
		      (prog1
			  (and ,format-string str)
			(message nil))
		    (setq time (current-time))
		    (message "%s" (concat ,@timestamp str))
		    str))
		 (t
		  (apply 'message ,format-string ,args))))))))

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(defvar gnus-action-message-log nil)

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(defun gnus-message-with-timestamp (format-string &rest args)
  "Display message with timestamp.  Arguments are the same as `message'.
The `gnus-add-timestamp-to-message' variable controls how to add
timestamp to message."
  (gnus-message-with-timestamp-1 format-string args))

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(defun gnus-message (level &rest args)
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  "If LEVEL is lower than `gnus-verbose' print ARGS using `message'.

Guideline for numbers:
1 - error messages, 3 - non-serious error messages, 5 - messages for things
that take a long time, 7 - not very important messages on stuff, 9 - messages
inside loops."
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  (if (<= level gnus-verbose)
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      (let ((message
	     (if gnus-add-timestamp-to-message
		 (apply 'gnus-message-with-timestamp args)
	       (apply 'message args))))
	(when (and (consp gnus-action-message-log)
		   (<= level 3))
	  (push message gnus-action-message-log))
	message)
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    ;; We have to do this format thingy here even if the result isn't
    ;; shown - the return value has to be the same as the return value
    ;; from `message'.
    (apply 'format args)))

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(defun gnus-final-warning ()
  (when (and (consp gnus-action-message-log)
	     (setq gnus-action-message-log
		   (delete nil gnus-action-message-log)))
    (message "Warning: %s"
	     (mapconcat #'identity gnus-action-message-log "; "))))

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(defun gnus-error (level &rest args)
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  "Beep an error if LEVEL is equal to or less than `gnus-verbose'.
ARGS are passed to `message'."
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  (when (<= (floor level) gnus-verbose)
    (apply 'message args)
    (ding)
    (let (duration)
      (when (and (floatp level)
		 (not (zerop (setq duration (* 10 (- level (floor level)))))))
	(sit-for duration))))
  nil)

(defun gnus-split-references (references)
  "Return a list of Message-IDs in REFERENCES."
  (let ((beg 0)
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	(references (mail-header-remove-comments (or references "")))
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	ids)
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    (while (string-match "<[^<]+[^< \t]" references beg)
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      (push (substring references (match-beginning 0) (setq beg (match-end 0)))
	    ids))
    (nreverse ids)))

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(defun gnus-extract-references (references)
  "Return a list of Message-IDs in REFERENCES (in In-Reply-To
  format), trimmed to only contain the Message-IDs."
  (let ((ids (gnus-split-references references))
	refs)
    (dolist (id ids)
      (when (string-match "<[^<>]+>" id)
	(push (match-string 0 id) refs)))
    refs))

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(defsubst gnus-parent-id (references &optional n)
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  "Return the last Message-ID in REFERENCES.
If N, return the Nth ancestor instead."
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  (when (and references
	     (not (zerop (length references))))
    (if n
	(let ((ids (inline (gnus-split-references references))))
	  (while (nthcdr n ids)
	    (setq ids (cdr ids)))
	  (car ids))
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      (let ((references (mail-header-remove-comments references)))
	(when (string-match "\\(<[^<]+>\\)[ \t]*\\'" references)
	  (match-string 1 references))))))
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(defun gnus-buffer-live-p (buffer)
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  "Say whether BUFFER is alive or not."
  (and buffer
       (get-buffer buffer)
       (buffer-name (get-buffer buffer))))

(defun gnus-horizontal-recenter ()
  "Recenter the current buffer horizontally."
  (if (< (current-column) (/ (window-width) 2))
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      (set-window-hscroll (gnus-get-buffer-window (current-buffer) t) 0)
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    (let* ((orig (point))
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	   (end (window-end (gnus-get-buffer-window (current-buffer) t)))
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	   (max 0))
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      (when end
	;; Find the longest line currently displayed in the window.
	(goto-char (window-start))
	(while (and (not (eobp))
		    (< (point) end))
	  (end-of-line)
	  (setq max (max max (current-column)))
	  (forward-line 1))
	(goto-char orig)
	;; Scroll horizontally to center (sort of) the point.
	(if (> max (window-width))
	    (set-window-hscroll
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	     (gnus-get-buffer-window (current-buffer) t)
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	     (min (- (current-column) (/ (window-width) 3))
		  (+ 2 (- max (window-width)))))
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	  (set-window-hscroll (gnus-get-buffer-window (current-buffer) t) 0))
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	max))))
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(defun gnus-read-event-char (&optional prompt)
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  "Get the next event."
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  (let ((event (read-event prompt)))
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    ;; should be gnus-characterp, but this can't be called in XEmacs anyway
    (cons (and (numberp event) event) event)))

(defun gnus-sortable-date (date)
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  "Make string suitable for sorting from DATE."
  (gnus-time-iso8601 (date-to-time date)))
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(defun gnus-copy-file (file &optional to)
  "Copy FILE to TO."
  (interactive
   (list (read-file-name "Copy file: " default-directory)
	 (read-file-name "Copy file to: " default-directory)))
  (unless to
    (setq to (read-file-name "Copy file to: " default-directory)))
  (when (file-directory-p to)
    (setq to (concat (file-name-as-directory to)
		     (file-name-nondirectory file))))
  (copy-file file to))

(defvar gnus-work-buffer " *gnus work*")

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(declare-function gnus-get-buffer-create "gnus" (name))
;; gnus.el requires mm-util.
(declare-function mm-enable-multibyte "mm-util")

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(defun gnus-set-work-buffer ()
  "Put point in the empty Gnus work buffer."
  (if (get-buffer gnus-work-buffer)
      (progn
	(set-buffer gnus-work-buffer)
	(erase-buffer))
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    (set-buffer (gnus-get-buffer-create gnus-work-buffer))
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    (kill-all-local-variables)
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    (mm-enable-multibyte)))
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(defmacro gnus-group-real-name (group)
  "Find the real name of a foreign newsgroup."
  `(let ((gname ,group))
     (if (string-match "^[^:]+:" gname)
	 (substring gname (match-end 0))
       gname)))

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(defmacro gnus-group-server (group)
  "Find the server name of a foreign newsgroup.
For example, (gnus-group-server \"nnimap+yxa:INBOX.foo\") would
yield \"nnimap:yxa\"."
  `(let ((gname ,group))
     (if (string-match "^\\([^:+]+\\)\\(?:\\+\\([^:]*\\)\\)?:" gname)
	 (format "%s:%s" (match-string 1 gname) (or
						 (match-string 2 gname)
						 ""))
       (format "%s:%s" (car gnus-select-method) (cadr gnus-select-method)))))

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(defun gnus-make-sort-function (funs)
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  "Return a composite sort condition based on the functions in FUNS."
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  (cond
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   ;; Just a simple function.
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   ((functionp funs) funs)
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   ;; No functions at all.
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   ((null funs) funs)
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   ;; A list of functions.
   ((or (cdr funs)
	(listp (car funs)))
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    (gnus-byte-compile
     `(lambda (t1 t2)
	,(gnus-make-sort-function-1 (reverse funs)))))
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   ;; A list containing just one function.
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   (t
    (car funs))))

(defun gnus-make-sort-function-1 (funs)
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  "Return a composite sort condition based on the functions in FUNS."
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  (let ((function (car funs))
	(first 't1)
	(last 't2))
    (when (consp function)
      (cond
       ;; Reversed spec.
       ((eq (car function) 'not)
	(setq function (cadr function)
	      first 't2
	      last 't1))
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       ((functionp function)
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	;; Do nothing.
	)
       (t
	(error "Invalid sort spec: %s" function))))
    (if (cdr funs)
	`(or (,function ,first ,last)
	     (and (not (,function ,last ,first))
		  ,(gnus-make-sort-function-1 (cdr funs))))
      `(,function ,first ,last))))
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(defun gnus-turn-off-edit-menu (type)
  "Turn off edit menu in `gnus-TYPE-mode-map'."
  (define-key (symbol-value (intern (format "gnus-%s-mode-map" type)))
    [menu-bar edit] 'undefined))

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(defmacro gnus-bind-print-variables (&rest forms)
  "Bind print-* variables and evaluate FORMS.
This macro is used with `prin1', `pp', etc. in order to ensure printed
Lisp objects are loadable.  Bind `print-quoted' and `print-readably'
to t, and `print-escape-multibyte', `print-escape-newlines',
`print-escape-nonascii', `print-length', `print-level' and
`print-string-length' to nil."
  `(let ((print-quoted t)
	 (print-readably t)
	 ;;print-circle
	 ;;print-continuous-numbering
	 print-escape-multibyte
	 print-escape-newlines
	 print-escape-nonascii
	 ;;print-gensym
	 print-length
	 print-level
	 print-string-length)
     ,@forms))

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(defun gnus-prin1 (form)
  "Use `prin1' on FORM in the current buffer.
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Bind `print-quoted' and `print-readably' to t, and `print-length' and
`print-level' to nil.  See also `gnus-bind-print-variables'."
  (gnus-bind-print-variables (prin1 form (current-buffer))))
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(defun gnus-prin1-to-string (form)
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  "The same as `prin1'.
Bind `print-quoted' and `print-readably' to t, and `print-length' and
`print-level' to nil.  See also `gnus-bind-print-variables'."
  (gnus-bind-print-variables (prin1-to-string form)))

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(defun gnus-pp (form &optional stream)
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  "Use `pp' on FORM in the current buffer.
Bind `print-quoted' and `print-readably' to t, and `print-length' and
`print-level' to nil.  See also `gnus-bind-print-variables'."
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  (gnus-bind-print-variables (pp form (or stream (current-buffer)))))
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(defun gnus-pp-to-string (form)
  "The same as `pp-to-string'.
Bind `print-quoted' and `print-readably' to t, and `print-length' and
`print-level' to nil.  See also `gnus-bind-print-variables'."
  (gnus-bind-print-variables (pp-to-string form)))
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(defun gnus-make-directory (directory)
  "Make DIRECTORY (and all its parents) if it doesn't exist."
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  (require 'nnmail)
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  (let ((file-name-coding-system nnmail-pathname-coding-system))
    (when (and directory
	       (not (file-exists-p directory)))
      (make-directory directory t)))
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  t)

(defun gnus-write-buffer (file)
  "Write the current buffer's contents to FILE."
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  (let ((file-name-coding-system nnmail-pathname-coding-system))
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    ;; Make sure the directory exists.
    (gnus-make-directory (file-name-directory file))
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    ;; Write the buffer.
    (write-region (point-min) (point-max) file nil 'quietly)))
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(defun gnus-delete-file (file)
  "Delete FILE if it exists."
  (when (file-exists-p file)
    (delete-file file)))

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(defun gnus-delete-directory (directory)
  "Delete files in DIRECTORY.  Subdirectories remain.
If there's no subdirectory, delete DIRECTORY as well."
  (when (file-directory-p directory)
    (let ((files (directory-files
		  directory t "^\\([^.]\\|\\.\\([^.]\\|\\..\\)\\).*"))
	  file dir)
      (while files
	(setq file (pop files))
	(if (eq t (car (file-attributes file)))
	    ;; `file' is a subdirectory.
	    (setq dir t)
	  ;; `file' is a file or a symlink.
	  (delete-file file)))
      (unless dir
	(delete-directory directory)))))

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;; The following two functions are used in gnus-registry.
;; They were contributed by Andreas Fuchs <asf@void.at>.
(defun gnus-alist-to-hashtable (alist)
  "Build a hashtable from the values in ALIST."
  (let ((ht (make-hash-table
	     :size 4096
	     :test 'equal)))
    (mapc
     (lambda (kv-pair)
       (puthash (car kv-pair) (cdr kv-pair) ht))
     alist)
     ht))

(defun gnus-hashtable-to-alist (hash)
  "Build an alist from the values in HASH."
  (let ((list nil))
    (maphash
     (lambda (key value)
       (setq list (cons (cons key value) list)))
     hash)
    list))

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(defun gnus-strip-whitespace (string)
  "Return STRING stripped of all whitespace."
  (while (string-match "[\r\n\t ]+" string)
    (setq string (replace-match "" t t string)))
  string)

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(declare-function gnus-put-text-property "gnus"
                  (start end property value &optional object))

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(defsubst gnus-put-text-property-excluding-newlines (beg end prop val)
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  "The same as `put-text-property', but don't put this prop on any newlines in the region."
  (save-match-data
    (save-excursion
      (save-restriction
	(goto-char beg)
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	(while (re-search-forward gnus-emphasize-whitespace-regexp end 'move)
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	  (gnus-put-text-property beg (match-beginning 0) prop val)
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	  (setq beg (point)))
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	(gnus-put-text-property beg (point) prop val)))))

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(declare-function gnus-overlay-put  "gnus" (overlay prop value))
(declare-function gnus-make-overlay "gnus"
                  (beg end &optional buffer front-advance rear-advance))

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(defsubst gnus-put-overlay-excluding-newlines (beg end prop val)
  "The same as `put-text-property', but don't put this prop on any newlines in the region."
  (save-match-data
    (save-excursion
      (save-restriction
	(goto-char beg)
	(while (re-search-forward gnus-emphasize-whitespace-regexp end 'move)
	  (gnus-overlay-put
	   (gnus-make-overlay beg (match-beginning 0))
	   prop val)
	  (setq beg (point)))
	(gnus-overlay-put (gnus-make-overlay beg (point)) prop val)))))

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(defun gnus-put-text-property-excluding-characters-with-faces (beg end
								   prop val)
  "The same as `put-text-property', but don't put props on characters with the `gnus-face' property."
  (let ((b beg))
    (while (/= b end)
      (when (get-text-property b 'gnus-face)
	(setq b (next-single-property-change b 'gnus-face nil end)))
      (when (/= b end)
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	(inline
	  (gnus-put-text-property
	   b (setq b (next-single-property-change b 'gnus-face nil end))
	   prop val))))))

(defmacro gnus-faces-at (position)
  "Return a list of faces at POSITION."
  (if (featurep 'xemacs)
      `(let ((pos ,position))
	 (mapcar-extents 'extent-face
			 nil (current-buffer) pos pos nil 'face))
    `(let ((pos ,position))
       (delq nil (cons (get-text-property pos 'face)
		       (mapcar
			(lambda (overlay)
			  (overlay-get overlay 'face))
			(overlays-at pos)))))))
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(if (fboundp 'invisible-p)
    (defalias 'gnus-invisible-p 'invisible-p)
  ;; for Emacs < 22.2, and XEmacs.
  (defun gnus-invisible-p (pos)
    "Return non-nil if the character after POS is currently invisible."
    (let ((prop (get-char-property pos 'invisible)))
      (if (eq buffer-invisibility-spec t)
	  prop
	(or (memq prop buffer-invisibility-spec)
	    (assq prop buffer-invisibility-spec))))))

;; Note: the optional 2nd argument has a different meaning between
;; Emacs and XEmacs.
;; (next-char-property-change POSITION &optional LIMIT)
;; (next-extent-change        POS      &optional OBJECT)
(defalias 'gnus-next-char-property-change
  (if (fboundp 'next-extent-change)
      'next-extent-change 'next-char-property-change))

(defalias 'gnus-previous-char-property-change
  (if (fboundp 'previous-extent-change)
      'previous-extent-change 'previous-char-property-change))

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;;; Protected and atomic operations.  dmoore@ucsd.edu 21.11.1996
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;; The primary idea here is to try to protect internal datastructures
;; from becoming corrupted when the user hits C-g, or if a hook or
;; similar blows up.  Often in Gnus multiple tables/lists need to be
;; updated at the same time, or information can be lost.
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(defvar gnus-atomic-be-safe t
  "If t, certain operations will be protected from interruption by C-g.")

(defmacro gnus-atomic-progn (&rest forms)
  "Evaluate FORMS atomically, which means to protect the evaluation
from being interrupted by the user.  An error from the forms themselves
will return without finishing the operation.  Since interrupts from
the user are disabled, it is recommended that only the most minimal
operations are performed by FORMS.  If you wish to assign many
complicated values atomically, compute the results into temporary
variables and then do only the assignment atomically."
  `(let ((inhibit-quit gnus-atomic-be-safe))
     ,@forms))

(put 'gnus-atomic-progn 'lisp-indent-function 0)

(defmacro gnus-atomic-progn-assign (protect &rest forms)
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  "Evaluate FORMS, but ensure that the variables listed in PROTECT
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are not changed if anything in FORMS signals an error or otherwise
non-locally exits.  The variables listed in PROTECT are updated atomically.
It is safe to use gnus-atomic-progn-assign with long computations.

Note that if any of the symbols in PROTECT were unbound, they will be
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set to nil on a successful assignment.  In case of an error or other
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non-local exit, it will still be unbound."
  (let* ((temp-sym-map (mapcar (lambda (x) (list (make-symbol
						  (concat (symbol-name x)
							  "-tmp"))
						 x))
			       protect))
	 (sym-temp-map (mapcar (lambda (x) (list (cadr x) (car x)))
			       temp-sym-map))
	 (temp-sym-let (mapcar (lambda (x) (list (car x)
						 `(and (boundp ',(cadr x))
						       ,(cadr x))))
			       temp-sym-map))
	 (sym-temp-let sym-temp-map)
	 (temp-sym-assign (apply 'append temp-sym-map))
	 (sym-temp-assign (apply 'append sym-temp-map))
	 (result (make-symbol "result-tmp")))
    `(let (,@temp-sym-let
	   ,result)
       (let ,sym-temp-let
	 (setq ,result (progn ,@forms))
	 (setq ,@temp-sym-assign))
       (let ((inhibit-quit gnus-atomic-be-safe))
	 (setq ,@sym-temp-assign))
       ,result)))

(put 'gnus-atomic-progn-assign 'lisp-indent-function 1)
;(put 'gnus-atomic-progn-assign 'edebug-form-spec '(sexp body))

(defmacro gnus-atomic-setq (&rest pairs)
  "Similar to setq, except that the real symbols are only assigned when
there are no errors.  And when the real symbols are assigned, they are
done so atomically.  If other variables might be changed via side-effect,
see gnus-atomic-progn-assign.  It is safe to use gnus-atomic-setq
with potentially long computations."
  (let ((tpairs pairs)
	syms)
    (while tpairs
      (push (car tpairs) syms)
      (setq tpairs (cddr tpairs)))
    `(gnus-atomic-progn-assign ,syms
       (setq ,@pairs))))

;(put 'gnus-atomic-setq 'edebug-form-spec '(body))


;;; Functions for saving to babyl/mail files.

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(eval-when-compile
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  (if (featurep 'xemacs)
      ;; Don't load tm and apel XEmacs packages that provide some
      ;; Emacs emulating functions and variables.
      (let ((features features))
	(provide 'tm-view)
	(unless (fboundp 'set-alist) (defalias 'set-alist 'ignore))
	(require 'rmail)) ;; It requires tm-view that loads apel.
    (require 'rmail))
  (autoload 'rmail-update-summary "rmailsum"))
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(defvar mm-text-coding-system)
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(declare-function mm-append-to-file "mm-util"
                  (start end filename &optional codesys inhibit))

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(defun gnus-output-to-rmail (filename &optional ask)
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  "Append the current article to an Rmail file named FILENAME.
In Emacs 22 this writes Babyl format; in Emacs 23 it writes mbox unless
FILENAME exists and is Babyl format."
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  (require 'rmail)
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  (require 'mm-util)
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  ;; Some of this codes is borrowed from rmailout.el.
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  (setq filename (expand-file-name filename))
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  ;; FIXME should we really be messing with this defcustom?
  ;; It is not needed for the operation of this function.
  (if (boundp 'rmail-default-rmail-file)
      (setq rmail-default-rmail-file filename) ; 22
    (setq rmail-default-file filename))        ; 23
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  (let ((artbuf (current-buffer))
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	(tmpbuf (get-buffer-create " *Gnus-output*"))
        ;; Babyl rmail.el defines this, mbox does not.
        (babyl (fboundp 'rmail-insert-rmail-file-header)))
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    (save-excursion
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      ;; Note that we ignore the possibility of visiting a Babyl
      ;; format buffer in Emacs 23, since Rmail no longer supports that.
     (or (get-file-buffer filename)
         (progn
           ;; In case someone wants to write to a Babyl file from Emacs 23.
           (when (file-exists-p filename)
             (setq babyl (mail-file-babyl-p filename))
             t))
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	  (if (or (not ask)
		  (gnus-yes-or-no-p
		   (concat "\"" filename "\" does not exist, create it? ")))
	      (let ((file-buffer (create-file-buffer filename)))
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		(with-current-buffer file-buffer
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                  (if (fboundp 'rmail-insert-rmail-file-header)
                      (rmail-insert-rmail-file-header))
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		  (let ((require-final-newline nil)
			(coding-system-for-write mm-text-coding-system))
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		    (gnus-write-buffer filename)))
		(kill-buffer file-buffer))
	    (error "Output file does not exist")))
      (set-buffer tmpbuf)
      (erase-buffer)
      (insert-buffer-substring artbuf)
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      (if babyl
          (gnus-convert-article-to-rmail)
        ;; Non-Babyl case copied from gnus-output-to-mail.
        (goto-char (point-min))
        (if (looking-at "From ")
            (forward-line 1)
          (insert "From nobody " (current-time-string) "\n"))
        (let (case-fold-search)
          (while (re-search-forward "^From " nil t)
            (beginning-of-line)
            (insert ">"))))
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      ;; Decide whether to append to a file or to an Emacs buffer.
      (let ((outbuf (get-file-buffer filename)))
	(if (not outbuf)
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            (progn
              (unless babyl             ; from gnus-output-to-mail
                (let ((buffer-read-only nil))
                  (goto-char (point-max))
                  (forward-char -2)
                  (unless (looking-at "\n\n")
                    (goto-char (point-max))
                    (unless (bolp)
                      (insert "\n"))
                    (insert "\n"))))
              (let ((file-name-coding-system nnmail-pathname-coding-system))
                (mm-append-to-file (point-min) (point-max) filename)))
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	  ;; File has been visited, in buffer OUTBUF.
	  (set-buffer outbuf)
	  (let ((buffer-read-only nil)
		(msg (and (boundp 'rmail-current-message)
			  (symbol-value 'rmail-current-message))))
	    ;; If MSG is non-nil, buffer is in RMAIL mode.
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            ;; Compare this with rmail-output-to-rmail-buffer in Emacs 23.
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	    (when msg
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              (unless babyl
                (rmail-swap-buffers-maybe)
                (rmail-maybe-set-message-counters))
              (widen)
              (narrow-to-region (point-max) (point-max)))
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	    (insert-buffer-substring tmpbuf)
	    (when msg
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              (when babyl
                (goto-char (point-min))
                (widen)
                (search-backward "\n\^_")
                (narrow-to-region (point) (point-max)))
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	      (rmail-count-new-messages t)
	      (when (rmail-summary-exists)
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		(rmail-select-summary
		 (rmail-update-summary)))
	      (rmail-show-message msg))
	    (save-buffer)))))
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    (kill-buffer tmpbuf)))

(defun gnus-output-to-mail (filename &optional ask)
  "Append the current article to a mail file named FILENAME."
  (setq filename (expand-file-name filename))
  (let ((artbuf (current-buffer))
	(tmpbuf (get-buffer-create " *Gnus-output*")))
    (save-excursion
      ;; Create the file, if it doesn't exist.
      (when (and (not (get-file-buffer filename))
		 (not (file-exists-p filename)))
	(if (or (not ask)
		(gnus-y-or-n-p
		 (concat "\"" filename "\" does not exist, create it? ")))
	    (let ((file-buffer (create-file-buffer filename)))
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	      (with-current-buffer file-buffer
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		(let ((require-final-newline nil)
		      (coding-system-for-write mm-text-coding-system))
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		  (gnus-write-buffer filename)))
	      (kill-buffer file-buffer))
	  (error "Output file does not exist")))
      (set-buffer tmpbuf)
      (erase-buffer)
      (insert-buffer-substring artbuf)
      (goto-char (point-min))
      (if (looking-at "From ")
	  (forward-line 1)
	(insert "From nobody " (current-time-string) "\n"))
      (let (case-fold-search)
	(while (re-search-forward "^From " nil t)
	  (beginning-of-line)
	  (insert ">")))
      ;; Decide whether to append to a file or to an Emacs buffer.
      (let ((outbuf (get-file-buffer filename)))
	(if (not outbuf)
	    (let ((buffer-read-only nil))
	      (save-excursion
		(goto-char (point-max))
		(forward-char -2)
		(unless (looking-at "\n\n")
		  (goto-char (point-max))
		  (unless (bolp)
		    (insert "\n"))
		  (insert "\n"))
		(goto-char (point-max))
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		(let ((file-name-coding-system nnmail-pathname-coding-system))
		  (mm-append-to-file (point-min) (point-max) filename))))
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	  ;; File has been visited, in buffer OUTBUF.
	  (set-buffer outbuf)
	  (let ((buffer-read-only nil))
	    (goto-char (point-max))
	    (unless (eobp)
	      (insert "\n"))
	    (insert "\n")
	    (insert-buffer-substring tmpbuf)))))
    (kill-buffer tmpbuf)))

(defun gnus-convert-article-to-rmail ()
  "Convert article in current buffer to Rmail message format."
  (let ((buffer-read-only nil))
    ;; Convert article directly into Babyl format.
    (goto-char (point-min))
    (insert "\^L\n0, unseen,,\n*** EOOH ***\n")
    (while (search-forward "\n\^_" nil t) ;single char
      (replace-match "\n^_" t t))	;2 chars: "^" and "_"
    (goto-char (point-max))
    (insert "\^_")))

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(defun gnus-map-function (funs arg)
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  "Apply the result of the first function in FUNS to the second, and so on.
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ARG is passed to the first function."
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  (while funs
    (setq arg (funcall (pop funs) arg)))
  arg)
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(defun gnus-run-hooks (&rest funcs)
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  "Does the same as `run-hooks', but saves the current buffer."
  (save-current-buffer
    (apply 'run-hooks funcs)))
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(defun gnus-run-mode-hooks (&rest funcs)
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  "Run `run-mode-hooks' if it is available, otherwise `run-hooks'.
This function saves the current buffer."
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  (if (fboundp 'run-mode-hooks)
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      (save-current-buffer (apply 'run-mode-hooks funcs))
    (save-current-buffer (apply 'run-hooks funcs))))
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;;; Various

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(defvar gnus-group-buffer)		; Compiler directive
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(defun gnus-alive-p ()
  "Say whether Gnus is running or not."
  (and (boundp 'gnus-group-buffer)
       (get-buffer gnus-group-buffer)
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       (with-current-buffer gnus-group-buffer
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	 (eq major-mode 'gnus-group-mode))))

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(defun gnus-remove-if (predicate list)
  "Return a copy of LIST with all items satisfying PREDICATE removed."
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  (let (out)
    (while list
      (unless (funcall predicate (car list))
	(push (car list) out))
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      (setq list (cdr list)))
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    (nreverse out)))

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(if (fboundp 'assq-delete-all)
    (defalias 'gnus-delete-alist 'assq-delete-all)
  (defun gnus-delete-alist (key alist)
    "Delete from ALIST all elements whose car is KEY.
Return the modified alist."
    (let (entry)
      (while (setq entry (assq key alist))
	(setq alist (delq entry alist)))
      alist)))
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(defun gnus-grep-in-list (word list)
  "Find if a WORD matches any regular expression in the given LIST."
  (when (and word list)
    (catch 'found
      (dolist (r list)
	(when (string-match r word)
	  (throw 'found r))))))

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(defmacro gnus-pull (key alist &optional assoc-p)
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  "Modify ALIST to be without KEY."
  (unless (symbolp alist)
    (error "Not a symbol: %s" alist))
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  (let ((fun (if assoc-p 'assoc 'assq)))
    `(setq ,alist (delq (,fun ,key ,alist) ,alist))))
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(defun gnus-globalify-regexp (re)
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  "Return a regexp that matches a whole line, if RE matches a part of it."
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  (concat (unless (string-match "^\\^" re) "^.*")
	  re
	  (unless (string-match "\\$$" re) ".*$")))

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(defun gnus-set-window-start (&optional point)
  "Set the window start to POINT, or (point) if nil."
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  (let ((win (gnus-get-buffer-window (current-buffer) t)))
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    (when win
      (set-window-start win (or point (point))))))

(defun gnus-annotation-in-region-p (b e)
  (if (= b e)
      (eq (cadr (memq 'gnus-undeletable (text-properties-at b))) t)
    (text-property-any b e 'gnus-undeletable t)))

(defun gnus-or (&rest elems)
  "Return non-nil if any of the elements are non-nil."
  (catch 'found
    (while elems
      (when (pop elems)
	(throw 'found t)))))

(defun gnus-and (&rest elems)
  "Return non-nil if all of the elements are non-nil."
  (catch 'found
    (while elems
      (unless (pop elems)
	(throw 'found nil)))
    t))

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;; gnus.el requires mm-util.
(declare-function mm-disable-multibyte "mm-util")

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(defun gnus-write-active-file (file hashtb &optional full-names)
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  ;; `coding-system-for-write' should be `raw-text' or equivalent.
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  (let ((coding-system-for-write nnmail-active-file-coding-system))
    (with-temp-file file
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      ;; The buffer should be in the unibyte mode because group names
      ;; are ASCII text or encoded non-ASCII text (i.e., unibyte).
      (mm-disable-multibyte)
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      (mapatoms
       (lambda (sym)
	 (when (and sym
		    (boundp sym)
		    (symbol-value sym))
	   (insert (format "%S %d %d y\n"
			   (if full-names
			       sym
			     (intern (gnus-group-real-name (symbol-name sym))))
			   (or (cdr (symbol-value sym))
			       (car (symbol-value sym)))
			   (car (symbol-value sym))))))
       hashtb)
      (goto-char (point-max))
      (while (search-backward "\\." nil t)
	(delete-char 1)))))

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;; Fixme: Why not use `with-output-to-temp-buffer'?
(defmacro gnus-with-output-to-file (file &rest body)
  (let ((buffer (make-symbol "output-buffer"))
        (size (make-symbol "output-buffer-size"))
        (leng (make-symbol "output-buffer-length"))
        (append (make-symbol "output-buffer-append")))
    `(let* ((,size 131072)
            (,buffer (make-string ,size 0))
            (,leng 0)
            (,append nil)
            (standard-output
	     (lambda (c)
               (aset ,buffer ,leng c)
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