text.texi 88.2 KB
 Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1 @c This is part of the Emacs manual.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 2 3 @c Copyright (C) 1985, 86, 87, 93, 94, 95, 97, 2000 @c Free Software Foundation, Inc.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 @c See file emacs.texi for copying conditions. @node Text, Programs, Indentation, Top @chapter Commands for Human Languages @cindex text @cindex manipulating text The term @dfn{text} has two widespread meanings in our area of the computer field. One is data that is a sequence of characters. Any file that you edit with Emacs is text, in this sense of the word. The other meaning is more restrictive: a sequence of characters in a human language for humans to read (possibly after processing by a text formatter), as opposed to a program or commands for a program. Human languages have syntactic/stylistic conventions that can be supported or used to advantage by editor commands: conventions involving words, sentences, paragraphs, and capital letters. This chapter describes Emacs commands for all of these things. There are also commands for @dfn{filling}, which means rearranging the lines of a paragraph to be approximately equal in length. The commands for moving over and killing words, sentences and paragraphs, while intended primarily for editing text, are also often useful for editing programs. Emacs has several major modes for editing human-language text. If the file contains text pure and simple, use Text mode, which customizes Emacs in small ways for the syntactic conventions of text. Outline mode provides special commands for operating on text with an outline structure. @iftex @xref{Outline Mode}. @end iftex For text which contains embedded commands for text formatters, Emacs has other major modes, each for a particular text formatter. Thus, for input to @TeX{}, you would use @TeX{} @iftex mode (@pxref{TeX Mode}). @end iftex @ifinfo mode. @end ifinfo For input to nroff, use Nroff mode. Instead of using a text formatter, you can edit formatted text in WYSIWYG style (what you see is what you get''), with Enriched mode. Then the formatting appears on the screen in Emacs while you edit. @iftex @xref{Formatted Text}. @end iftex  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 53  The automatic typing'' features may be useful when writing text.  Richard M. Stallman committed Jun 20, 2001 54 @xref{Top,, Autotyping, autotype, Features for Automatic Typing}.  Dave Love committed Jan 05, 2000 55   Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 78 79 80 81 82 83 84 85 86 87 88 89 90 91 92 93 94 95 96 97 98 99 100 101 102 103 104 105 106 107 108 109 110 111 112 113 114 115 116 117 118 119 120 121 122 123 124 125 126 127 128 129 130 131 132 @menu * Words:: Moving over and killing words. * Sentences:: Moving over and killing sentences. * Paragraphs:: Moving over paragraphs. * Pages:: Moving over pages. * Filling:: Filling or justifying text. * Case:: Changing the case of text. * Text Mode:: The major modes for editing text files. * Outline Mode:: Editing outlines. * TeX Mode:: Editing input to the formatter TeX. * Nroff Mode:: Editing input to the formatter nroff. * Formatted Text:: Editing formatted text directly in WYSIWYG fashion. @end menu @node Words @section Words @cindex words @cindex Meta commands and words Emacs has commands for moving over or operating on words. By convention, the keys for them are all Meta characters. @c widecommands @table @kbd @item M-f Move forward over a word (@code{forward-word}). @item M-b Move backward over a word (@code{backward-word}). @item M-d Kill up to the end of a word (@code{kill-word}). @item M-@key{DEL} Kill back to the beginning of a word (@code{backward-kill-word}). @item M-@@ Mark the end of the next word (@code{mark-word}). @item M-t Transpose two words or drag a word across other words (@code{transpose-words}). @end table Notice how these keys form a series that parallels the character-based @kbd{C-f}, @kbd{C-b}, @kbd{C-d}, @key{DEL} and @kbd{C-t}. @kbd{M-@@} is cognate to @kbd{C-@@}, which is an alias for @kbd{C-@key{SPC}}. @kindex M-f @kindex M-b @findex forward-word @findex backward-word The commands @kbd{M-f} (@code{forward-word}) and @kbd{M-b} (@code{backward-word}) move forward and backward over words. These Meta characters are thus analogous to the corresponding control characters, @kbd{C-f} and @kbd{C-b}, which move over single characters in the text. The analogy extends to numeric arguments, which serve as repeat counts. @kbd{M-f} with a negative argument moves backward, and @kbd{M-b} with a negative argument moves forward. Forward motion stops right after the last letter of the word, while backward motion stops right before the first letter.@refill @kindex M-d @findex kill-word @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) kills the word after point. To be precise, it kills everything from point to the place @kbd{M-f} would move to. Thus, if point is in the middle of a word, @kbd{M-d} kills just the part after point. If some punctuation comes between point and the next word, it is killed along with the word. (If you wish to kill only the next word but not the punctuation before it, simply do @kbd{M-f} to get the end, and kill the word backwards with @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.) @kbd{M-d} takes arguments just like @kbd{M-f}. @findex backward-kill-word @kindex M-DEL @kbd{M-@key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-word}) kills the word before point. It kills everything from point back to where @kbd{M-b} would move to. If point is after the space in @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}}, then @w{@samp{FOO, }} is killed. (If you wish to kill just @samp{FOO}, and not the comma and the space, use @kbd{M-b M-d} instead of @kbd{M-@key{DEL}}.)  Eli Zaretskii committed Feb 21, 2001 133 134 135 136 @c Don't index M-t and transpose-words here, they are indexed in @c fixit.texi, in the node "Transpose". @c @kindex M-t @c @findex transpose-words  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 137 138 139 140 141 142 143 144 145 146 147 148 149 150 151 152 153 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 162 163 164 165 166 167 168 169 170 171 172 173 174 175 176 177 178 179 180 181 182 183 184 185 186 187 188 189 190 191 192 193 194 195 196 197 198 199 200 201 202 203 204 205 206 207 208 209 210 211 212 213 214 215 216 217 218 219  @kbd{M-t} (@code{transpose-words}) exchanges the word before or containing point with the following word. The delimiter characters between the words do not move. For example, @w{@samp{FOO, BAR}} transposes into @w{@samp{BAR, FOO}} rather than @samp{@w{BAR FOO,}}. @xref{Transpose}, for more on transposition and on arguments to transposition commands. @kindex M-@@ @findex mark-word To operate on the next @var{n} words with an operation which applies between point and mark, you can either set the mark at point and then move over the words, or you can use the command @kbd{M-@@} (@code{mark-word}) which does not move point, but sets the mark where @kbd{M-f} would move to. @kbd{M-@@} accepts a numeric argument that says how many words to scan for the place to put the mark. In Transient Mark mode, this command activates the mark. The word commands' understanding of syntax is completely controlled by the syntax table. Any character can, for example, be declared to be a word delimiter. @xref{Syntax}. @node Sentences @section Sentences @cindex sentences @cindex manipulating sentences The Emacs commands for manipulating sentences and paragraphs are mostly on Meta keys, so as to be like the word-handling commands. @table @kbd @item M-a Move back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-sentence}). @item M-e Move forward to the end of the sentence (@code{forward-sentence}). @item M-k Kill forward to the end of the sentence (@code{kill-sentence}). @item C-x @key{DEL} Kill back to the beginning of the sentence (@code{backward-kill-sentence}). @end table @kindex M-a @kindex M-e @findex backward-sentence @findex forward-sentence The commands @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} (@code{backward-sentence} and @code{forward-sentence}) move to the beginning and end of the current sentence, respectively. They were chosen to resemble @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e}, which move to the beginning and end of a line. Unlike them, @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} if repeated or given numeric arguments move over successive sentences. Moving backward over a sentence places point just before the first character of the sentence; moving forward places point right after the punctuation that ends the sentence. Neither one moves over the whitespace at the sentence boundary. @kindex M-k @kindex C-x DEL @findex kill-sentence @findex backward-kill-sentence Just as @kbd{C-a} and @kbd{C-e} have a kill command, @kbd{C-k}, to go with them, so @kbd{M-a} and @kbd{M-e} have a corresponding kill command @kbd{M-k} (@code{kill-sentence}) which kills from point to the end of the sentence. With minus one as an argument it kills back to the beginning of the sentence. Larger arguments serve as a repeat count. There is also a command, @kbd{C-x @key{DEL}} (@code{backward-kill-sentence}), for killing back to the beginning of a sentence. This command is useful when you change your mind in the middle of composing text.@refill The sentence commands assume that you follow the American typist's convention of putting two spaces at the end of a sentence; they consider a sentence to end wherever there is a @samp{.}, @samp{?} or @samp{!} followed by the end of a line or two spaces, with any number of @samp{)}, @samp{]}, @samp{'}, or @samp{"} characters allowed in between. A sentence also begins or ends wherever a paragraph begins or ends. @vindex sentence-end The variable @code{sentence-end} controls recognition of the end of a sentence. It is a regexp that matches the last few characters of a sentence, together with the whitespace following the sentence. Its normal value is @example  Richard M. Stallman committed Apr 01, 2001 220 "[.?!][]\"')]*\$$\\| \\|\t\\| \$$[ \t\n]*"  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 221 222 223 224 225 226 227 228 229 230 231 232 233 234 235 236 237 238 239 240 241 242 243 244 245 246 247 248 249 250 251 252 253 254 255 256 257 258 259 260 261 262 263 264 265 266 267 268 269 270 271 272 273 274 275 276 277 278 279 280 281 282 283 284 285 286 287 288 289 290 291 292 293 294 295 296 297 298 299 300 301 302 303 304 305 306 307 308 309 310 311 312 313 314 315 316 317 318 319 320 321 322 323 324 325 326 327 328 329 330 331 332 333 334 335 336 337 338 339 340 341 342 343 344 345 346 347 348 349 350 351 352 353 354 355 356 357 358 359 360 361 362 363 364 365 366 367 368 369 370 371 372 373 374 375 376 377 378 379 380 381 382 383 384 385 386 387 388 389 390 391 392 @end example @noindent This example is explained in the section on regexps. @xref{Regexps}. If you want to use just one space between sentences, you should set @code{sentence-end} to this value: @example "[.?!][]\"')]*\$$\\|\t\\| \$$[ \t\n]*" @end example @noindent You should also set the variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} to @code{nil} so that the fill commands expect and leave just one space at the end of a sentence. Note that this makes it impossible to distinguish between periods that end sentences and those that indicate abbreviations. @node Paragraphs @section Paragraphs @cindex paragraphs @cindex manipulating paragraphs @kindex M-@{ @kindex M-@} @findex backward-paragraph @findex forward-paragraph The Emacs commands for manipulating paragraphs are also Meta keys. @table @kbd @item M-@{ Move back to previous paragraph beginning (@code{backward-paragraph}). @item M-@} Move forward to next paragraph end (@code{forward-paragraph}). @item M-h Put point and mark around this or next paragraph (@code{mark-paragraph}). @end table @kbd{M-@{} moves to the beginning of the current or previous paragraph, while @kbd{M-@}} moves to the end of the current or next paragraph. Blank lines and text-formatter command lines separate paragraphs and are not considered part of any paragraph. In Fundamental mode, but not in Text mode, an indented line also starts a new paragraph. (If a paragraph is preceded by a blank line, these commands treat that blank line as the beginning of the paragraph.) In major modes for programs, paragraphs begin and end only at blank lines. This makes the paragraph commands continue to be useful even though there are no paragraphs per se. When there is a fill prefix, then paragraphs are delimited by all lines which don't start with the fill prefix. @xref{Filling}. @kindex M-h @findex mark-paragraph When you wish to operate on a paragraph, you can use the command @kbd{M-h} (@code{mark-paragraph}) to set the region around it. Thus, for example, @kbd{M-h C-w} kills the paragraph around or after point. The @kbd{M-h} command puts point at the beginning and mark at the end of the paragraph point was in. In Transient Mark mode, it activates the mark. If point is between paragraphs (in a run of blank lines, or at a boundary), the paragraph following point is surrounded by point and mark. If there are blank lines preceding the first line of the paragraph, one of these blank lines is included in the region. @vindex paragraph-start @vindex paragraph-separate The precise definition of a paragraph boundary is controlled by the variables @code{paragraph-separate} and @code{paragraph-start}. The value of @code{paragraph-start} is a regexp that should match any line that either starts or separates paragraphs. The value of @code{paragraph-separate} is another regexp that should match only lines that separate paragraphs without being part of any paragraph (for example, blank lines). Lines that start a new paragraph and are contained in it must match only @code{paragraph-start}, not @code{paragraph-separate}. For example, in Fundamental mode, @code{paragraph-start} is @code{"[ @t{\}t@t{\}n@t{\}f]"} and @code{paragraph-separate} is @code{"[ @t{\}t@t{\}f]*$"}.@refill Normally it is desirable for page boundaries to separate paragraphs. The default values of these variables recognize the usual separator for pages. @node Pages @section Pages @cindex pages @cindex formfeed Files are often thought of as divided into @dfn{pages} by the @dfn{formfeed} character (ASCII control-L, octal code 014). When you print hardcopy for a file, this character forces a page break; thus, each page of the file goes on a separate page on paper. Most Emacs commands treat the page-separator character just like any other character: you can insert it with @kbd{C-q C-l}, and delete it with @key{DEL}. Thus, you are free to paginate your file or not. However, since pages are often meaningful divisions of the file, Emacs provides commands to move over them and operate on them. @c WideCommands @table @kbd @item C-x [ Move point to previous page boundary (@code{backward-page}). @item C-x ] Move point to next page boundary (@code{forward-page}). @item C-x C-p Put point and mark around this page (or another page) (@code{mark-page}). @item C-x l Count the lines in this page (@code{count-lines-page}). @end table @kindex C-x [ @kindex C-x ] @findex forward-page @findex backward-page The @kbd{C-x [} (@code{backward-page}) command moves point to immediately after the previous page delimiter. If point is already right after a page delimiter, it skips that one and stops at the previous one. A numeric argument serves as a repeat count. The @kbd{C-x ]} (@code{forward-page}) command moves forward past the next page delimiter. @kindex C-x C-p @findex mark-page The @kbd{C-x C-p} command (@code{mark-page}) puts point at the beginning of the current page and the mark at the end. The page delimiter at the end is included (the mark follows it). The page delimiter at the front is excluded (point follows it). @kbd{C-x C-p C-w} is a handy way to kill a page to move it elsewhere. If you move to another page delimiter with @kbd{C-x [} and @kbd{C-x ]}, then yank the killed page, all the pages will be properly delimited once again. The reason @kbd{C-x C-p} includes only the following page delimiter in the region is to ensure that. A numeric argument to @kbd{C-x C-p} is used to specify which page to go to, relative to the current one. Zero means the current page. One means the next page, and @minus{}1 means the previous one. @kindex C-x l @findex count-lines-page The @kbd{C-x l} command (@code{count-lines-page}) is good for deciding where to break a page in two. It prints in the echo area the total number of lines in the current page, and then divides it up into those preceding the current line and those following, as in @example Page has 96 (72+25) lines @end example @noindent Notice that the sum is off by one; this is correct if point is not at the beginning of a line. @vindex page-delimiter The variable @code{page-delimiter} controls where pages begin. Its value is a regexp that matches the beginning of a line that separates pages. The normal value of this variable is @code{"^@t{\}f"}, which matches a formfeed character at the beginning of a line. @node Filling @section Filling Text @cindex filling text @dfn{Filling} text means breaking it up into lines that fit a specified width. Emacs does filling in two ways. In Auto Fill mode, inserting text with self-inserting characters also automatically fills it. There are also explicit fill commands that you can use when editing text leaves it unfilled. When you edit formatted text, you can specify a style of filling for each portion of the text (@pxref{Formatted Text}). @menu * Auto Fill:: Auto Fill mode breaks long lines automatically.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 393 * Refill:: Keeping paragraphs filled.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 394 395 396 397 398 399 400 401 402 403 404 405 406 407 408 409 410 411 412 413 414 415 416 417 418 419 420 421 422 423 424 425 426 427 428 429 430 431 432 433 434 435 436 437 438 439 440 441 442 443 444 445 446 447 448 449 450 451 452 453 454 455 456 457 * Fill Commands:: Commands to refill paragraphs and center lines. * Fill Prefix:: Filling paragraphs that are indented or in a comment, etc. * Adaptive Fill:: How Emacs can determine the fill prefix automatically. @end menu @node Auto Fill @subsection Auto Fill Mode @cindex Auto Fill mode @cindex mode, Auto Fill @cindex word wrap @dfn{Auto Fill} mode is a minor mode in which lines are broken automatically when they become too wide. Breaking happens only when you type a @key{SPC} or @key{RET}. @table @kbd @item M-x auto-fill-mode Enable or disable Auto Fill mode. @item @key{SPC} @itemx @key{RET} In Auto Fill mode, break lines when appropriate. @end table @findex auto-fill-mode @kbd{M-x auto-fill-mode} turns Auto Fill mode on if it was off, or off if it was on. With a positive numeric argument it always turns Auto Fill mode on, and with a negative argument always turns it off. You can see when Auto Fill mode is in effect by the presence of the word @samp{Fill} in the mode line, inside the parentheses. Auto Fill mode is a minor mode which is enabled or disabled for each buffer individually. @xref{Minor Modes}. In Auto Fill mode, lines are broken automatically at spaces when they get longer than the desired width. Line breaking and rearrangement takes place only when you type @key{SPC} or @key{RET}. If you wish to insert a space or newline without permitting line-breaking, type @kbd{C-q @key{SPC}} or @kbd{C-q C-j} (recall that a newline is really a control-J). Also, @kbd{C-o} inserts a newline without line breaking. Auto Fill mode works well with programming-language modes, because it indents new lines with @key{TAB}. If a line ending in a comment gets too long, the text of the comment is split into two comment lines. Optionally, new comment delimiters are inserted at the end of the first line and the beginning of the second so that each line is a separate comment; the variable @code{comment-multi-line} controls the choice (@pxref{Comments}). Adaptive filling (see the following section) works for Auto Filling as well as for explicit fill commands. It takes a fill prefix automatically from the second or first line of a paragraph. Auto Fill mode does not refill entire paragraphs; it can break lines but cannot merge lines. So editing in the middle of a paragraph can result in a paragraph that is not correctly filled. The easiest way to make the paragraph properly filled again is usually with the explicit fill commands. @ifinfo @xref{Fill Commands}. @end ifinfo Many users like Auto Fill mode and want to use it in all text files. The section on init files says how to arrange this permanently for yourself. @xref{Init File}.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 458 459 460 461 462 463 464 465 @node Refill @subsection Refill Mode @cindex refilling text, word processor style @cindex modes, Refill @cindex Refill minor mode Refill minor mode provides support for keeping paragraphs filled as you type or modify them in other ways. It provides an effect similar  Eli Zaretskii committed Jun 11, 2001 466 to typical word processor behavior. This works by running a  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 467 468 469 470 471 472 473 474 475 476 paragraph-filling command at suitable times. When you are typing text, only characters which normally trigger auto filling, like the space character, will trigger refilling. This is to avoid making it too slow. Apart from self-inserting characters, other commands which modify the text cause refilling. The current implementation is preliminary and probably not robust. We expect to improve on it.  Gerd Moellmann committed Feb 22, 2001 477  To toggle the use of Refill mode in the current buffer, type  Gerd Moellmann committed Feb 22, 2001 478 479 @kbd{M-x refill-mode}.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 480 481 482 483 484 485 486 487 488 489 490 491 492 493 494 495 496 497 498 499 500 501 502 503 504 505 506 507 508 509 510 511 512 513 514 515 516 517 518 519 520 521 522 523 524 525 526 527 528 529 530 531 532 533 534 535 536 537 538 539 540 541 542 543 544 545 546 547 548 549 550 551 552 553 554 555 556 557 558 559 @node Fill Commands @subsection Explicit Fill Commands @table @kbd @item M-q Fill current paragraph (@code{fill-paragraph}). @item C-x f Set the fill column (@code{set-fill-column}). @item M-x fill-region Fill each paragraph in the region (@code{fill-region}). @item M-x fill-region-as-paragraph Fill the region, considering it as one paragraph. @item M-s Center a line. @end table @kindex M-q @findex fill-paragraph To refill a paragraph, use the command @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph}). This operates on the paragraph that point is inside, or the one after point if point is between paragraphs. Refilling works by removing all the line-breaks, then inserting new ones where necessary. @findex fill-region To refill many paragraphs, use @kbd{M-x fill-region}, which divides the region into paragraphs and fills each of them. @findex fill-region-as-paragraph @kbd{M-q} and @code{fill-region} use the same criteria as @kbd{M-h} for finding paragraph boundaries (@pxref{Paragraphs}). For more control, you can use @kbd{M-x fill-region-as-paragraph}, which refills everything between point and mark. This command deletes any blank lines within the region, so separate blocks of text end up combined into one block.@refill @cindex justification A numeric argument to @kbd{M-q} causes it to @dfn{justify} the text as well as filling it. This means that extra spaces are inserted to make the right margin line up exactly at the fill column. To remove the extra spaces, use @kbd{M-q} with no argument. (Likewise for @code{fill-region}.) Another way to control justification, and choose other styles of filling, is with the @code{justification} text property; see @ref{Format Justification}. @kindex M-s @r{(Text mode)} @cindex centering @findex center-line The command @kbd{M-s} (@code{center-line}) centers the current line within the current fill column. With an argument @var{n}, it centers @var{n} lines individually and moves past them. @vindex fill-column @kindex C-x f @findex set-fill-column The maximum line width for filling is in the variable @code{fill-column}. Altering the value of @code{fill-column} makes it local to the current buffer; until that time, the default value is in effect. The default is initially 70. @xref{Locals}. The easiest way to set @code{fill-column} is to use the command @kbd{C-x f} (@code{set-fill-column}). With a numeric argument, it uses that as the new fill column. With just @kbd{C-u} as argument, it sets @code{fill-column} to the current horizontal position of point. Emacs commands normally consider a period followed by two spaces or by a newline as the end of a sentence; a period followed by just one space indicates an abbreviation and not the end of a sentence. To preserve the distinction between these two ways of using a period, the fill commands do not break a line after a period followed by just one space. @vindex sentence-end-double-space If the variable @code{sentence-end-double-space} is @code{nil}, the fill commands expect and leave just one space at the end of a sentence. Ordinarily this variable is @code{t}, so the fill commands insist on two spaces for the end of a sentence, as explained above. @xref{Sentences}. @vindex colon-double-space If the variable @code{colon-double-space} is non-@code{nil}, the fill commands put two spaces after a colon.  Dave Love committed Sep 28, 2000 560 @vindex sentence-end-without-period  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 561 562 563 564  Some languages do not use period to indicate end of sentence. For example, a sentence in Thai text ends with double space but without a period. Set the variable @code{sentence-end-without-period} to @code{t} to tell the sentence commands that a period is not necessary.  Dave Love committed Sep 28, 2000 565   Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 566 567 568 569 570 571 572 573 574 575 576 577 578 579 580 581 582 583 584 585 586 587 588 589 590 591 592 593 594 595 596 597 598 599 600 601 602 603 604 605 606 607 608 609 610 611 612 613 614 615 616 617 618 619 620 621 622 623 624 625 626 627 628 629 630 631 632 633 634 635 636 637 638 639 640 641 642 643 644 645 646 647 648 649 650 651 652 653 654 655 656 657 658 659 660 661 662 663 664 665 666 667 668 669 670 671 672 673 674 675 676 677 678 679 680 681 682 683 684 685 686 687 688 689 690 691 692 693 694 695 696 697 698 699 700 701 702 703 704 705 706 707 708 709 710 711 712 713 714 715 716 717 718 719 720 721 722 723 724 725 726 727 728 729 730 731 732 733 734 735 736 737 738 739 740 741 742 743 744 745 746 747 748 749 750 751 752 753 754 755 756 757 758 759 760 761 762 763 764 765 766 767 768 769 770 771 772 773 774 775 776 777 778 779 780 781 782 783 784 785 786 787 788 789 790 791 792 793 794 795 796 797 798 799 800 801 802 803 804 805 806 807 808 809 810 811 812 813 814 815 816 817 818 819 820 821 822 @node Fill Prefix @subsection The Fill Prefix @cindex fill prefix To fill a paragraph in which each line starts with a special marker (which might be a few spaces, giving an indented paragraph), you can use the @dfn{fill prefix} feature. The fill prefix is a string that Emacs expects every line to start with, and which is not included in filling. You can specify a fill prefix explicitly; Emacs can also deduce the fill prefix automatically (@pxref{Adaptive Fill}). @table @kbd @item C-x . Set the fill prefix (@code{set-fill-prefix}). @item M-q Fill a paragraph using current fill prefix (@code{fill-paragraph}). @item M-x fill-individual-paragraphs Fill the region, considering each change of indentation as starting a new paragraph. @item M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs Fill the region, considering only paragraph-separator lines as starting a new paragraph. @end table @kindex C-x . @findex set-fill-prefix To specify a fill prefix, move to a line that starts with the desired prefix, put point at the end of the prefix, and give the command @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: (@code{set-fill-prefix}). That's a period after the @kbd{C-x}. To turn off the fill prefix, specify an empty prefix: type @w{@kbd{C-x .}}@: with point at the beginning of a line.@refill When a fill prefix is in effect, the fill commands remove the fill prefix from each line before filling and insert it on each line after filling. Auto Fill mode also inserts the fill prefix automatically when it makes a new line. The @kbd{C-o} command inserts the fill prefix on new lines it creates, when you use it at the beginning of a line (@pxref{Blank Lines}). Conversely, the command @kbd{M-^} deletes the prefix (if it occurs) after the newline that it deletes (@pxref{Indentation}). For example, if @code{fill-column} is 40 and you set the fill prefix to @samp{;; }, then @kbd{M-q} in the following text @example ;; This is an ;; example of a paragraph ;; inside a Lisp-style comment. @end example @noindent produces this: @example ;; This is an example of a paragraph ;; inside a Lisp-style comment. @end example Lines that do not start with the fill prefix are considered to start paragraphs, both in @kbd{M-q} and the paragraph commands; this gives good results for paragraphs with hanging indentation (every line indented except the first one). Lines which are blank or indented once the prefix is removed also separate or start paragraphs; this is what you want if you are writing multi-paragraph comments with a comment delimiter on each line. @findex fill-individual-paragraphs You can use @kbd{M-x fill-individual-paragraphs} to set the fill prefix for each paragraph automatically. This command divides the region into paragraphs, treating every change in the amount of indentation as the start of a new paragraph, and fills each of these paragraphs. Thus, all the lines in one paragraph'' have the same amount of indentation. That indentation serves as the fill prefix for that paragraph. @findex fill-nonuniform-paragraphs @kbd{M-x fill-nonuniform-paragraphs} is a similar command that divides the region into paragraphs in a different way. It considers only paragraph-separating lines (as defined by @code{paragraph-separate}) as starting a new paragraph. Since this means that the lines of one paragraph may have different amounts of indentation, the fill prefix used is the smallest amount of indentation of any of the lines of the paragraph. This gives good results with styles that indent a paragraph's first line more or less that the rest of the paragraph. @vindex fill-prefix The fill prefix is stored in the variable @code{fill-prefix}. Its value is a string, or @code{nil} when there is no fill prefix. This is a per-buffer variable; altering the variable affects only the current buffer, but there is a default value which you can change as well. @xref{Locals}. The @code{indentation} text property provides another way to control the amount of indentation paragraphs receive. @xref{Format Indentation}. @node Adaptive Fill @subsection Adaptive Filling @cindex adaptive filling The fill commands can deduce the proper fill prefix for a paragraph automatically in certain cases: either whitespace or certain punctuation characters at the beginning of a line are propagated to all lines of the paragraph. If the paragraph has two or more lines, the fill prefix is taken from the paragraph's second line, but only if it appears on the first line as well. If a paragraph has just one line, fill commands @emph{may} take a prefix from that line. The decision is complicated because there are three reasonable things to do in such a case: @itemize @bullet @item Use the first line's prefix on all the lines of the paragraph. @item Indent subsequent lines with whitespace, so that they line up under the text that follows the prefix on the first line, but don't actually copy the prefix from the first line. @item Don't do anything special with the second and following lines. @end itemize All three of these styles of formatting are commonly used. So the fill commands try to determine what you would like, based on the prefix that appears and on the major mode. Here is how. @vindex adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp If the prefix found on the first line matches @code{adaptive-fill-first-line-regexp}, or if it appears to be a comment-starting sequence (this depends on the major mode), then the prefix found is used for filling the paragraph, provided it would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines. Otherwise, the prefix found is converted to an equivalent number of spaces, and those spaces are used as the fill prefix for the rest of the lines, provided they would not act as a paragraph starter on subsequent lines. In Text mode, and other modes where only blank lines and page delimiters separate paragraphs, the prefix chosen by adaptive filling never acts as a paragraph starter, so it can always be used for filling. @vindex adaptive-fill-mode @vindex adaptive-fill-regexp The variable @code{adaptive-fill-regexp} determines what kinds of line beginnings can serve as a fill prefix: any characters at the start of the line that match this regular expression are used. If you set the variable @code{adaptive-fill-mode} to @code{nil}, the fill prefix is never chosen automatically. @vindex adaptive-fill-function You can specify more complex ways of choosing a fill prefix automatically by setting the variable @code{adaptive-fill-function} to a function. This function is called with point after the left margin of a line, and it should return the appropriate fill prefix based on that line. If it returns @code{nil}, that means it sees no fill prefix in that line. @node Case @section Case Conversion Commands @cindex case conversion Emacs has commands for converting either a single word or any arbitrary range of text to upper case or to lower case. @c WideCommands @table @kbd @item M-l Convert following word to lower case (@code{downcase-word}). @item M-u Convert following word to upper case (@code{upcase-word}). @item M-c Capitalize the following word (@code{capitalize-word}). @item C-x C-l Convert region to lower case (@code{downcase-region}). @item C-x C-u Convert region to upper case (@code{upcase-region}). @end table @kindex M-l @kindex M-u @kindex M-c @cindex words, case conversion @cindex converting text to upper or lower case @cindex capitalizing words @findex downcase-word @findex upcase-word @findex capitalize-word The word conversion commands are the most useful. @kbd{M-l} (@code{downcase-word}) converts the word after point to lower case, moving past it. Thus, repeating @kbd{M-l} converts successive words. @kbd{M-u} (@code{upcase-word}) converts to all capitals instead, while @kbd{M-c} (@code{capitalize-word}) puts the first letter of the word into upper case and the rest into lower case. All these commands convert several words at once if given an argument. They are especially convenient for converting a large amount of text from all upper case to mixed case, because you can move through the text using @kbd{M-l}, @kbd{M-u} or @kbd{M-c} on each word as appropriate, occasionally using @kbd{M-f} instead to skip a word. When given a negative argument, the word case conversion commands apply to the appropriate number of words before point, but do not move point. This is convenient when you have just typed a word in the wrong case: you can give the case conversion command and continue typing. If a word case conversion command is given in the middle of a word, it applies only to the part of the word which follows point. This is just like what @kbd{M-d} (@code{kill-word}) does. With a negative argument, case conversion applies only to the part of the word before point. @kindex C-x C-l @kindex C-x C-u @findex downcase-region @findex upcase-region The other case conversion commands are @kbd{C-x C-u} (@code{upcase-region}) and @kbd{C-x C-l} (@code{downcase-region}), which convert everything between point and mark to the specified case. Point and mark do not move. The region case conversion commands @code{upcase-region} and @code{downcase-region} are normally disabled. This means that they ask for confirmation if you try to use them. When you confirm, you may enable the command, which means it will not ask for confirmation again. @xref{Disabling}. @node Text Mode @section Text Mode @cindex Text mode @cindex mode, Text @findex text-mode When you edit files of text in a human language, it's more convenient to use Text mode rather than Fundamental mode. To enter Text mode, type @kbd{M-x text-mode}. In Text mode, only blank lines and page delimiters separate paragraphs. As a result, paragraphs can be indented, and adaptive filling determines what indentation to use when filling a paragraph. @xref{Adaptive Fill}. @kindex TAB @r{(Text mode)} Text mode defines @key{TAB} to run @code{indent-relative} (@pxref{Indentation}), so that you can conveniently indent a line like the previous line. When the previous line is not indented, @code{indent-relative} runs @code{tab-to-tab-stop}, which uses Emacs tab stops that you can set (@pxref{Tab Stops}). Text mode turns off the features concerned with comments except when you explicitly invoke them. It changes the syntax table so that periods are not considered part of a word, while apostrophes, backspaces and underlines are considered part of words. @cindex Paragraph-Indent Text mode @cindex mode, Paragraph-Indent Text @findex paragraph-indent-text-mode  Dave Love committed Jan 05, 2000 823 @findex paragraph-indent-minor-mode  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 824 825 826 827 828  If you indent the first lines of paragraphs, then you should use Paragraph-Indent Text mode rather than Text mode. In this mode, you do not need to have blank lines between paragraphs, because the first-line indentation is sufficient to start a paragraph; however paragraphs in which every line is indented are not supported. Use @kbd{M-x  Dave Love committed Jan 05, 2000 829 830 831 paragraph-indent-text-mode} to enter this mode. Use @kbd{M-x paragraph-indent-minor-mode} to enter an equivalent minor mode, for instance during mail composition.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 832 833 834 835 836 837 838 839 840 841 842 843 844 845 846 847 848 849 850 851 852 853 854 855 856 857 858 859 860 861 862 863 864 865 866 867 868 869 870 871 872 873 874 875 876 877 878 879 880 881 882 883 884 885 886 887 888 889 890 891 892 893 894 895 896 897 898 899 900 901 902 903 904 905 906 907 908 909  @kindex M-TAB @r{(Text mode)} Text mode, and all the modes based on it, define @kbd{M-@key{TAB}} as the command @code{ispell-complete-word}, which performs completion of the partial word in the buffer before point, using the spelling dictionary as the space of possible words. @xref{Spelling}. @vindex text-mode-hook Entering Text mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook}. Other major modes related to Text mode also run this hook, followed by hooks of their own; this includes Paragraph-Indent Text mode, Nroff mode, @TeX{} mode, Outline mode, and Mail mode. Hook functions on @code{text-mode-hook} can look at the value of @code{major-mode} to see which of these modes is actually being entered. @xref{Hooks}. @ifinfo Emacs provides two other modes for editing text that is to be passed through a text formatter to produce fancy formatted printed output. @xref{Nroff Mode}, for editing input to the formatter nroff. @xref{TeX Mode}, for editing input to the formatter TeX. Another mode is used for editing outlines. It allows you to view the text at various levels of detail. You can view either the outline headings alone or both headings and text; you can also hide some of the headings at lower levels from view to make the high level structure more visible. @xref{Outline Mode}. @end ifinfo @node Outline Mode @section Outline Mode @cindex Outline mode @cindex mode, Outline @cindex invisible lines @findex outline-mode @findex outline-minor-mode @vindex outline-minor-mode-prefix Outline mode is a major mode much like Text mode but intended for editing outlines. It allows you to make parts of the text temporarily invisible so that you can see the outline structure. Type @kbd{M-x outline-mode} to switch to Outline mode as the major mode of the current buffer. When Outline mode makes a line invisible, the line does not appear on the screen. The screen appears exactly as if the invisible line were deleted, except that an ellipsis (three periods in a row) appears at the end of the previous visible line (only one ellipsis no matter how many invisible lines follow). Editing commands that operate on lines, such as @kbd{C-n} and @kbd{C-p}, treat the text of the invisible line as part of the previous visible line. Killing an entire visible line, including its terminating newline, really kills all the following invisible lines along with it. Outline minor mode provides the same commands as the major mode, Outline mode, but you can use it in conjunction with other major modes. Type @kbd{M-x outline-minor-mode} to enable the Outline minor mode in the current buffer. You can also specify this in the text of a file, with a file local variable of the form @samp{mode: outline-minor} (@pxref{File Variables}). @kindex C-c @@ @r{(Outline minor mode)} The major mode, Outline mode, provides special key bindings on the @kbd{C-c} prefix. Outline minor mode provides similar bindings with @kbd{C-c @@} as the prefix; this is to reduce the conflicts with the major mode's special commands. (The variable @code{outline-minor-mode-prefix} controls the prefix used.) @vindex outline-mode-hook Entering Outline mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook} followed by the hook @code{outline-mode-hook} (@pxref{Hooks}). @menu * Format: Outline Format. What the text of an outline looks like. * Motion: Outline Motion. Special commands for moving through outlines. * Visibility: Outline Visibility. Commands to control what is visible. * Views: Outline Views. Outlines and multiple views.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 910 * Foldout:: Folding editing.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 911 912 913 914 915 916 917 918 919 920 921 922 923 924 925 926 927 928 929 930 931 932 933 934 935 936 937 938 939 940 941 942 943 944 945 946 947 948 949 950 951 952 953 954 955 956 957 958 959 960 961 962 963 964 965 966 967 968 @end menu @node Outline Format @subsection Format of Outlines @cindex heading lines (Outline mode) @cindex body lines (Outline mode) Outline mode assumes that the lines in the buffer are of two types: @dfn{heading lines} and @dfn{body lines}. A heading line represents a topic in the outline. Heading lines start with one or more stars; the number of stars determines the depth of the heading in the outline structure. Thus, a heading line with one star is a major topic; all the heading lines with two stars between it and the next one-star heading are its subtopics; and so on. Any line that is not a heading line is a body line. Body lines belong with the preceding heading line. Here is an example: @example * Food This is the body, which says something about the topic of food. ** Delicious Food This is the body of the second-level header. ** Distasteful Food This could have a body too, with several lines. *** Dormitory Food * Shelter Another first-level topic with its header line. @end example A heading line together with all following body lines is called collectively an @dfn{entry}. A heading line together with all following deeper heading lines and their body lines is called a @dfn{subtree}. @vindex outline-regexp You can customize the criterion for distinguishing heading lines by setting the variable @code{outline-regexp}. Any line whose beginning has a match for this regexp is considered a heading line. Matches that start within a line (not at the left margin) do not count. The length of the matching text determines the level of the heading; longer matches make a more deeply nested level. Thus, for example, if a text formatter has commands @samp{@@chapter}, @samp{@@section} and @samp{@@subsection} to divide the document into chapters and sections, you could make those lines count as heading lines by setting @code{outline-regexp} to @samp{"@@chap\\|@@\$$sub\$$*section"}. Note the trick: the two words @samp{chapter} and @samp{section} are equally long, but by defining the regexp to match only @samp{chap} we ensure that the length of the text matched on a chapter heading is shorter, so that Outline mode will know that sections are contained in chapters. This works as long as no other command starts with @samp{@@chap}. @vindex outline-level  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 969 970  You can change the rule for calculating the level of a heading line by setting the variable @code{outline-level}. The value of  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 971 972 @code{outline-level} should be a function that takes no arguments and returns the level of the current heading. Some major modes such as C,  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 973 974 Nroff, and Emacs Lisp mode set this variable and @code{outline-regexp} in order to work with Outline minor mode.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 975 976 977 978 979 980 981 982 983 984 985 986 987 988 989 990 991 992 993 994 995 996 997 998 999 1000 1001 1002 1003 1004 1005 1006 1007 1008 1009 1010 1011 1012 1013 1014 1015 1016 1017 1018 1019 1020 1021 1022 1023 1024 1025 1026 1027 1028 1029 1030 1031 1032 1033 1034 1035 1036 1037 1038 1039 1040 1041 1042 1043 1044 1045 1046 1047 1048 1049 1050 1051 1052 1053 1054 1055 1056 1057 1058 1059 1060 1061 1062 1063 1064 1065 1066 1067 1068 1069 1070 1071 1072 1073 1074 1075 1076 1077 1078 1079 1080 1081 1082 1083 1084 1085 1086 1087 1088 1089 1090 1091 1092 1093 1094 1095 1096 1097 1098 1099 1100 1101 1102 1103 1104 1105 1106 1107 1108 1109 1110 1111 1112 1113 1114 1115 1116 1117 1118 1119 1120 1121 1122 1123 1124 1125 1126 1127 1128 1129 1130 1131 1132 1133 1134 1135 1136 1137 1138 1139 1140 1141 1142 1143 1144 1145 1146 1147 1148 1149 1150 1151 1152 1153 1154  @node Outline Motion @subsection Outline Motion Commands Outline mode provides special motion commands that move backward and forward to heading lines. @table @kbd @item C-c C-n Move point to the next visible heading line (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}). @item C-c C-p Move point to the previous visible heading line (@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}). @item C-c C-f Move point to the next visible heading line at the same level as the one point is on (@code{outline-forward-same-level}). @item C-c C-b Move point to the previous visible heading line at the same level (@code{outline-backward-same-level}). @item C-c C-u Move point up to a lower-level (more inclusive) visible heading line (@code{outline-up-heading}). @end table @findex outline-next-visible-heading @findex outline-previous-visible-heading @kindex C-c C-n @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-p @r{(Outline mode)} @kbd{C-c C-n} (@code{outline-next-visible-heading}) moves down to the next heading line. @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{outline-previous-visible-heading}) moves similarly backward. Both accept numeric arguments as repeat counts. The names emphasize that invisible headings are skipped, but this is not really a special feature. All editing commands that look for lines ignore the invisible lines automatically.@refill @findex outline-up-heading @findex outline-forward-same-level @findex outline-backward-same-level @kindex C-c C-f @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-b @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-u @r{(Outline mode)} More powerful motion commands understand the level structure of headings. @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{outline-forward-same-level}) and @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{outline-backward-same-level}) move from one heading line to another visible heading at the same depth in the outline. @kbd{C-c C-u} (@code{outline-up-heading}) moves backward to another heading that is less deeply nested. @node Outline Visibility @subsection Outline Visibility Commands The other special commands of outline mode are used to make lines visible or invisible. Their names all start with @code{hide} or @code{show}. Most of them fall into pairs of opposites. They are not undoable; instead, you can undo right past them. Making lines visible or invisible is simply not recorded by the undo mechanism. @table @kbd @item C-c C-t Make all body lines in the buffer invisible (@code{hide-body}). @item C-c C-a Make all lines in the buffer visible (@code{show-all}). @item C-c C-d Make everything under this heading invisible, not including this heading itself (@code{hide-subtree}). @item C-c C-s Make everything under this heading visible, including body, subheadings, and their bodies (@code{show-subtree}). @item C-c C-l Make the body of this heading line, and of all its subheadings, invisible (@code{hide-leaves}). @item C-c C-k Make all subheadings of this heading line, at all levels, visible (@code{show-branches}). @item C-c C-i Make immediate subheadings (one level down) of this heading line visible (@code{show-children}). @item C-c C-c Make this heading line's body invisible (@code{hide-entry}). @item C-c C-e Make this heading line's body visible (@code{show-entry}). @item C-c C-q Hide everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines (@code{hide-sublevels}). @item C-c C-o Hide everything except for the heading or body that point is in, plus the headings leading up from there to the top level of the outline (@code{hide-other}). @end table @findex hide-entry @findex show-entry @kindex C-c C-c @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-e @r{(Outline mode)} Two commands that are exact opposites are @kbd{C-c C-c} (@code{hide-entry}) and @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{show-entry}). They are used with point on a heading line, and apply only to the body lines of that heading. Subheadings and their bodies are not affected. @findex hide-subtree @findex show-subtree @kindex C-c C-s @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-d @r{(Outline mode)} @cindex subtree (Outline mode) Two more powerful opposites are @kbd{C-c C-d} (@code{hide-subtree}) and @kbd{C-c C-s} (@code{show-subtree}). Both expect to be used when point is on a heading line, and both apply to all the lines of that heading's @dfn{subtree}: its body, all its subheadings, both direct and indirect, and all of their bodies. In other words, the subtree contains everything following this heading line, up to and not including the next heading of the same or higher rank.@refill @findex hide-leaves @findex show-branches @kindex C-c C-l @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-k @r{(Outline mode)} Intermediate between a visible subtree and an invisible one is having all the subheadings visible but none of the body. There are two commands for doing this, depending on whether you want to hide the bodies or make the subheadings visible. They are @kbd{C-c C-l} (@code{hide-leaves}) and @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{show-branches}). @kindex C-c C-i @r{(Outline mode)} @findex show-children A little weaker than @code{show-branches} is @kbd{C-c C-i} (@code{show-children}). It makes just the direct subheadings visible---those one level down. Deeper subheadings remain invisible, if they were invisible.@refill @findex hide-body @findex show-all @kindex C-c C-t @r{(Outline mode)} @kindex C-c C-a @r{(Outline mode)} Two commands have a blanket effect on the whole file. @kbd{C-c C-t} (@code{hide-body}) makes all body lines invisible, so that you see just the outline structure. @kbd{C-c C-a} (@code{show-all}) makes all lines visible. These commands can be thought of as a pair of opposites even though @kbd{C-c C-a} applies to more than just body lines. @findex hide-sublevels @kindex C-c C-q @r{(Outline mode)} The command @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{hide-sublevels}) hides all but the top level headings. With a numeric argument @var{n}, it hides everything except the top @var{n} levels of heading lines. @findex hide-other @kindex C-c C-o @r{(Outline mode)} The command @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{hide-other}) hides everything except the heading or body text that point is in, plus its parents (the headers leading up from there to top level in the outline). You can turn off the use of ellipses at the ends of visible lines by setting @code{selective-display-ellipses} to @code{nil}. Then there is no visible indication of the presence of invisible lines. When incremental search finds text that is hidden by Outline mode, it makes that part of the buffer visible. If you exit the search at that position, the text remains visible. @node Outline Views @subsection Viewing One Outline in Multiple Views @cindex multiple views of outline @cindex views of an outline @cindex outline with multiple views @cindex indirect buffers and outlines You can display two views of a single outline at the same time, in different windows. To do this, you must create an indirect buffer using @kbd{M-x make-indirect-buffer}. The first argument of this command is the existing outline buffer name, and its second argument is the name to use for the new indirect buffer. @xref{Indirect Buffers}. Once the indirect buffer exists, you can display it in a window in the normal fashion, with @kbd{C-x 4 b} or other Emacs commands. The Outline mode commands to show and hide parts of the text operate on each buffer independently; as a result, each buffer can have its own view. If you want more than two views on the same outline, create additional indirect buffers.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1155 @node Foldout  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1156 @subsection Folding Editing  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1157 1158  @cindex folding editing  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1159 1160 1161 1162  The Foldout package extends Outline mode and Outline minor mode with folding'' commands. The idea of folding is that you zoom in on a nested portion of the outline, while hiding its relatives at higher levels.  Dave Love committed Aug 16, 2000 1163   Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1164  Consider an Outline mode buffer all the text and subheadings under  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1165 level-1 headings hidden. To look at what is hidden under one of these  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1166 1167 headings, you could use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@kbd{M-x show-entry}) to expose the body, or @kbd{C-c C-i} to expose the child (level-2) headings.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1168 1169 1170  @kindex C-c C-z @findex foldout-zoom-subtree  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1171 1172  With Foldout, you use @kbd{C-c C-z} (@kbd{M-x foldout-zoom-subtree}). This exposes the body and child subheadings, and narrows the buffer so  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1173 1174 1175 1176 1177 1178 1179 that only the level-1 heading, the body and the level-2 headings are visible. Now to look under one of the level-2 headings, position the cursor on it and use @kbd{C-c C-z} again. This exposes the level-2 body and its level-3 child subheadings and narrows the buffer again. Zooming in on successive subheadings can be done as much as you like. A string in the modeline shows how deep you've gone.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1180  When zooming in on a heading, to see only the child subheadings specify  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1181 1182 1183 1184 1185 1186 1187 a numeric argument: @kbd{C-u C-c C-z}. The number of levels of children can be specified too (compare @kbd{M-x show-children}), e.g.@: @kbd{M-2 C-c C-z} exposes two levels of child subheadings. Alternatively, the body can be spcified with a negative argument: @kbd{M-- C-c C-z}. The whole subtree can be expanded, similarly to @kbd{C-c C-s} (@kbd{M-x show-subtree}), by specifying a zero argument: @kbd{M-0 C-c C-z}.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1188  While you're zoomed in, you can still use Outline mode's exposure and  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1189 hiding functions without disturbing Foldout. Also, since the buffer is  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1190 narrowed, global'' editing actions will only affect text under the  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1191 1192 1193 1194 1195 zoomed-in heading. This is useful for restricting changes to a particular chapter or section of your document. @kindex C-c C-x @findex foldout-exit-fold  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1196  To unzoom (exit) a fold, use @kbd{C-c C-x} (@kbd{M-x foldout-exit-fold}).  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1197 1198 This hides all the text and subheadings under the top-level heading and returns you to the previous view of the buffer. Specifying a numeric  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1199 argument exits that many levels of folds. Specifying a zero argument exits all  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1200 1201 folds.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1202 1203 1204 1205 1206 1207  To cancel the narrowing of a fold without hiding the text and subheadings, specify a negative argument. For example, @kbd{M--2 C-c C-x} exits two folds and leaves the text and subheadings exposed. Foldout mode also provides mouse commands for entering and exiting folds, and for showing and hiding text:  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1208 1209  @table @asis  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1210 @item @kbd{M-C-Mouse-1} zooms in on the heading clicked on  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1211 1212 @table @asis @item single click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1213 expose body.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1214 @item double click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1215 expose subheadings.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1216 @item triple click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1217 expose body and subheadings.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1218 @item quad click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1219 expose entire subtree.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1220 @end table  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1221 @item @kbd{M-C-Mouse-2} exposes text under the heading clicked on  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1222 1223 @table @r @item single click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1224 expose body.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1225 @item double click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1226 expose subheadings.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1227 @item triple click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1228 expose body and subheadings.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1229 @item quad click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1230 expose entire subtree.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1231 @end table  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1232 @item @kbd{M-C-Mouse-3} hides text under the heading clicked on or exits fold  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1233 1234 @table @r @item single click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1235 hide subtree.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1236 @item double click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1237 exit fold and hide text.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1238 @item triple click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1239 exit fold without hiding text.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1240 @item quad click  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1241 exit all folds and hide text.  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1242 1243 1244 1245 @end table @end table @vindex foldout-mouse-modifiers  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1246 1247 1248 1249 1250 1251 1252 1253 1254 1255 1256 1257  You can specify different modifier keys (instead of @kbd{Control-Meta-}) by setting @code{foldout-mouse-modifiers}; but if you have already loaded the @file{foldout.el} library, you must reload it in order for this to take effect. To use the Foldout package, you can type @kbd{M-x load-library @key{RET} foldout @key{RET}}; or you can arrange for to do that automatically by putting this in your @file{.emacs} file: @example (eval-after-load "outline" '(require 'foldout)) @end example  Dave Love committed Mar 26, 2000 1258 1259  @node TeX Mode, Nroff Mode, Outline Mode, Text  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1260 1261 1262 1263 1264 1265 1266 1267 1268 1269 1270 1271 1272 1273 1274 @section @TeX{} Mode @cindex @TeX{} mode @cindex La@TeX{} mode @cindex Sli@TeX{} mode @cindex mode, @TeX{} @cindex mode, La@TeX{} @cindex mode, Sli@TeX{} @findex tex-mode @findex plain-tex-mode @findex latex-mode @findex slitex-mode @TeX{} is a powerful text formatter written by Donald Knuth; it is also free, like GNU Emacs. La@TeX{} is a simplified input format for @TeX{}, implemented by @TeX{} macros; it comes with @TeX{}. Sli@TeX{} is a special  Dave Love committed Aug 16, 2000 1275 1276 form of La@TeX{}.@footnote{Sli@TeX{} is obsoleted by the @samp{slides} document class in recent La@TeX{} versions.}  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1277 1278 1279 1280 1281 1282 1283 1284 1285 1286 1287 1288 1289 1290 1291 1292 1293 1294 1295 1296 1297 1298 1299 1300 1301  Emacs has a special @TeX{} mode for editing @TeX{} input files. It provides facilities for checking the balance of delimiters and for invoking @TeX{} on all or part of the file. @vindex tex-default-mode @TeX{} mode has three variants, Plain @TeX{} mode, La@TeX{} mode, and Sli@TeX{} mode (these three distinct major modes differ only slightly). They are designed for editing the three different formats. The command @kbd{M-x tex-mode} looks at the contents of the buffer to determine whether the contents appear to be either La@TeX{} input or Sli@TeX{} input; if so, it selects the appropriate mode. If the file contents do not appear to be La@TeX{} or Sli@TeX{}, it selects Plain @TeX{} mode. If the contents are insufficient to determine this, the variable @code{tex-default-mode} controls which mode is used. When @kbd{M-x tex-mode} does not guess right, you can use the commands @kbd{M-x plain-tex-mode}, @kbd{M-x latex-mode}, and @kbd{M-x slitex-mode} to select explicitly the particular variants of @TeX{} mode. @menu * Editing: TeX Editing. Special commands for editing in TeX mode. * LaTeX: LaTeX Editing. Additional commands for LaTeX input files. * Printing: TeX Print. Commands for printing part of a file with TeX.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1302 * Misc: TeX Misc. Customization of TeX mode, and related features.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1303 1304 1305 1306 1307 1308 1309 1310 1311 1312 1313 1314 1315 1316 1317 1318 1319 1320 1321 1322 1323 1324 1325 1326 1327 1328 1329 1330 1331 1332 1333 1334 1335 1336 1337 1338 1339 1340 1341 1342 1343 1344 1345 1346 1347 1348 1349 1350 1351 1352 1353 1354 1355 1356 1357 1358 1359 1360 1361 1362 1363 1364 1365 1366 1367 1368 1369 1370 1371 1372 1373 1374 1375 1376 1377 1378 1379 1380 1381 1382 1383 1384 1385 1386 1387 1388 1389 1390 1391 1392 1393 1394 1395 1396 1397 1398 1399 1400 1401 1402 1403 1404 1405 1406 1407 1408 1409 1410 1411 1412 1413 1414 1415 1416 1417 1418 1419 1420 1421 1422 1423 1424 1425 1426 1427 1428 1429 1430 1431 1432 1433 1434 1435 1436 1437 1438 1439 1440 1441 1442 1443 1444 1445 1446 1447 1448 1449 1450 1451 1452 1453 1454 1455 1456 1457 1458 1459 1460 1461 1462 1463 1464 1465 1466 1467 1468 1469 1470 1471 @end menu @node TeX Editing @subsection @TeX{} Editing Commands Here are the special commands provided in @TeX{} mode for editing the text of the file. @table @kbd @item " Insert, according to context, either @samp{} or @samp{"} or @samp{''} (@code{tex-insert-quote}). @item C-j Insert a paragraph break (two newlines) and check the previous paragraph for unbalanced braces or dollar signs (@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}). @item M-x tex-validate-region Check each paragraph in the region for unbalanced braces or dollar signs. @item C-c @{ Insert @samp{@{@}} and position point between them (@code{tex-insert-braces}). @item C-c @} Move forward past the next unmatched close brace (@code{up-list}). @end table @findex tex-insert-quote @kindex " @r{(@TeX{} mode)} In @TeX{}, the character @samp{"} is not normally used; we use @samp{} to start a quotation and @samp{''} to end one. To make editing easier under this formatting convention, @TeX{} mode overrides the normal meaning of the key @kbd{"} with a command that inserts a pair of single-quotes or backquotes (@code{tex-insert-quote}). To be precise, this command inserts @samp{} after whitespace or an open brace, @samp{"} after a backslash, and @samp{''} after any other character. If you need the character @samp{"} itself in unusual contexts, use @kbd{C-q} to insert it. Also, @kbd{"} with a numeric argument always inserts that number of @samp{"} characters. You can turn off the feature of @kbd{"} expansion by eliminating that binding in the local map (@pxref{Key Bindings}). In @TeX{} mode, @samp{$} has a special syntax code which attempts to understand the way @TeX{} math mode delimiters match. When you insert a @samp{$} that is meant to exit math mode, the position of the matching @samp{$} that entered math mode is displayed for a second. This is the same feature that displays the open brace that matches a close brace that is inserted. However, there is no way to tell whether a @samp{$} enters math mode or leaves it; so when you insert a @samp{$} that enters math mode, the previous @samp{\$} position is shown as if it were a match, even though they are actually unrelated. @findex tex-insert-braces @kindex C-c @{ @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex up-list @kindex C-c @} @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @TeX{} uses braces as delimiters that must match. Some users prefer to keep braces balanced at all times, rather than inserting them singly. Use @kbd{C-c @{} (@code{tex-insert-braces}) to insert a pair of braces. It leaves point between the two braces so you can insert the text that belongs inside. Afterward, use the command @kbd{C-c @}} (@code{up-list}) to move forward past the close brace. @findex tex-validate-region @findex tex-terminate-paragraph @kindex C-j @r{(@TeX{} mode)} There are two commands for checking the matching of braces. @kbd{C-j} (@code{tex-terminate-paragraph}) checks the paragraph before point, and inserts two newlines to start a new paragraph. It prints a message in the echo area if any mismatch is found. @kbd{M-x tex-validate-region} checks a region, paragraph by paragraph. The errors are listed in the @samp{*Occur*} buffer, and you can use @kbd{C-c C-c} or @kbd{Mouse-2} in that buffer to go to a particular mismatch. Note that Emacs commands count square brackets and parentheses in @TeX{} mode, not just braces. This is not strictly correct for the purpose of checking @TeX{} syntax. However, parentheses and square brackets are likely to be used in text as matching delimiters and it is useful for the various motion commands and automatic match display to work with them. @node LaTeX Editing @subsection La@TeX{} Editing Commands La@TeX{} mode, and its variant, Sli@TeX{} mode, provide a few extra features not applicable to plain @TeX{}. @table @kbd @item C-c C-o Insert @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} for La@TeX{} block and position point on a line between them (@code{tex-latex-block}). @item C-c C-e Close the innermost La@TeX{} block not yet closed (@code{tex-close-latex-block}). @end table @findex tex-latex-block @kindex C-c C-o @r{(La@TeX{} mode)} @vindex latex-block-names In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} commands are used to group blocks of text. To insert a @samp{\begin} and a matching @samp{\end} (on a new line following the @samp{\begin}), use @kbd{C-c C-o} (@code{tex-latex-block}). A blank line is inserted between the two, and point is left there. You can use completion when you enter the block type; to specify additional block type names beyond the standard list, set the variable @code{latex-block-names}. For example, here's how to add @samp{theorem}, @samp{corollary}, and @samp{proof}: @example (setq latex-block-names '("theorem" "corollary" "proof")) @end example @findex tex-close-latex-block @kindex C-c C-e @r{(La@TeX{} mode)} In La@TeX{} input, @samp{\begin} and @samp{\end} commands must balance. You can use @kbd{C-c C-e} (@code{tex-close-latex-block}) to insert automatically a matching @samp{\end} to match the last unmatched @samp{\begin}. It indents the @samp{\end} to match the corresponding @samp{\begin}. It inserts a newline after @samp{\end} if point is at the beginning of a line. @node TeX Print @subsection @TeX{} Printing Commands You can invoke @TeX{} as an inferior of Emacs on either the entire contents of the buffer or just a region at a time. Running @TeX{} in this way on just one chapter is a good way to see what your changes look like without taking the time to format the entire file. @table @kbd @item C-c C-r Invoke @TeX{} on the current region, together with the buffer's header (@code{tex-region}). @item C-c C-b Invoke @TeX{} on the entire current buffer (@code{tex-buffer}). @item C-c @key{TAB} Invoke Bib@TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-bibtex-file}). @item C-c C-f Invoke @TeX{} on the current file (@code{tex-file}). @item C-c C-l Recenter the window showing output from the inferior @TeX{} so that the last line can be seen (@code{tex-recenter-output-buffer}). @item C-c C-k Kill the @TeX{} subprocess (@code{tex-kill-job}). @item C-c C-p Print the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c C-f} command (@code{tex-print}). @item C-c C-v Preview the output from the last @kbd{C-c C-r}, @kbd{C-c C-b}, or @kbd{C-c C-f} command (@code{tex-view}). @item C-c C-q Show the printer queue (@code{tex-show-print-queue}). @end table @findex tex-buffer @kindex C-c C-b @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-print @kindex C-c C-p @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-view @kindex C-c C-v @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-show-print-queue @kindex C-c C-q @r{(@TeX{} mode)} You can pass the current buffer through an inferior @TeX{} by means of @kbd{C-c C-b} (@code{tex-buffer}). The formatted output appears in a temporary file; to print it, type @kbd{C-c C-p} (@code{tex-print}). Afterward, you can use @kbd{C-c C-q} (@code{tex-show-print-queue}) to view the progress of your output towards being printed. If your terminal has the ability to display @TeX{} output files, you can preview the output on the terminal with @kbd{C-c C-v} (@code{tex-view}).  Gerd Moellmann committed May 23, 2000 1472 @cindex @env{TEXINPUTS} environment variable  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1473 1474 1475 @vindex tex-directory You can specify the directory to use for running @TeX{} by setting the variable @code{tex-directory}. @code{"."} is the default value. If  Gerd Moellmann committed May 23, 2000 1476 your environment variable @env{TEXINPUTS} contains relative directory  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1477 1478 1479 1480 1481 1482 1483 1484 1485 1486 1487 1488 1489 1490 1491 1492 1493 1494 1495 1496 1497 1498 1499 1500 1501 1502 1503 1504 1505 1506 1507 1508 1509 1510 1511 1512 1513 1514 1515 1516 1517 1518 1519 1520 1521 1522 1523 1524 1525 1526 1527 1528 1529 1530 1531 1532 1533 1534 1535 1536 1537 1538 1539 1540 1541 1542 1543 1544 1545 1546 1547 1548 1549 1550 1551 1552 1553 1554 1555 1556 1557 1558 1559 1560 1561 1562 1563 1564 1565 1566 1567 1568 1569 1570 1571 1572 1573 1574 1575 1576 1577 1578 1579 1580 1581 1582 1583 1584 1585 1586 1587 1588 1589 1590 1591 1592 names, or if your files contains @samp{\input} commands with relative file names, then @code{tex-directory} @emph{must} be @code{"."} or you will get the wrong results. Otherwise, it is safe to specify some other directory, such as @code{"/tmp"}. @vindex tex-run-command @vindex latex-run-command @vindex slitex-run-command @vindex tex-dvi-print-command @vindex tex-dvi-view-command @vindex tex-show-queue-command If you want to specify which shell commands are used in the inferior @TeX{}, you can do so by setting the values of the variables @code{tex-run-command}, @code{latex-run-command}, @code{slitex-run-command}, @code{tex-dvi-print-command}, @code{tex-dvi-view-command}, and @code{tex-show-queue-command}. You @emph{must} set the value of @code{tex-dvi-view-command} for your particular terminal; this variable has no default value. The other variables have default values that may (or may not) be appropriate for your system. Normally, the file name given to these commands comes at the end of the command string; for example, @samp{latex @var{filename}}. In some cases, however, the file name needs to be embedded in the command; an example is when you need to provide the file name as an argument to one command whose output is piped to another. You can specify where to put the file name with @samp{*} in the command string. For example, @example (setq tex-dvi-print-command "dvips -f * | lpr") @end example @findex tex-kill-job @kindex C-c C-k @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @findex tex-recenter-output-buffer @kindex C-c C-l @r{(@TeX{} mode)} The terminal output from @TeX{}, including any error messages, appears in a buffer called @samp{*tex-shell*}. If @TeX{} gets an error, you can switch to this buffer and feed it input (this works as in Shell mode; @pxref{Interactive Shell}). Without switching to this buffer you can scroll it so that its last line is visible by typing @kbd{C-c C-l}. Type @kbd{C-c C-k} (@code{tex-kill-job}) to kill the @TeX{} process if you see that its output is no longer useful. Using @kbd{C-c C-b} or @kbd{C-c C-r} also kills any @TeX{} process still running.@refill @findex tex-region @kindex C-c C-r @r{(@TeX{} mode)} You can also pass an arbitrary region through an inferior @TeX{} by typing @kbd{C-c C-r} (@code{tex-region}). This is tricky, however, because most files of @TeX{} input contain commands at the beginning to set parameters and define macros, without which no later part of the file will format correctly. To solve this problem, @kbd{C-c C-r} allows you to designate a part of the file as containing essential commands; it is included before the specified region as part of the input to @TeX{}. The designated part of the file is called the @dfn{header}. @cindex header (@TeX{} mode) To indicate the bounds of the header in Plain @TeX{} mode, you insert two special strings in the file. Insert @samp{%**start of header} before the header, and @samp{%**end of header} after it. Each string must appear entirely on one line, but there may be other text on the line before or after. The lines containing the two strings are included in the header. If @samp{%**start of header} does not appear within the first 100 lines of the buffer, @kbd{C-c C-r} assumes that there is no header. In La@TeX{} mode, the header begins with @samp{\documentclass} or @samp{\documentstyle} and ends with @samp{\begin@{document@}}. These are commands that La@TeX{} requires you to use in any case, so nothing special needs to be done to identify the header. @findex tex-file @kindex C-c C-f @r{(@TeX{} mode)} The commands (@code{tex-buffer}) and (@code{tex-region}) do all of their work in a temporary directory, and do not have available any of the auxiliary files needed by @TeX{} for cross-references; these commands are generally not suitable for running the final copy in which all of the cross-references need to be correct. When you want the auxiliary files for cross references, use @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{tex-file}) which runs @TeX{} on the current buffer's file, in that file's directory. Before running @TeX{}, it offers to save any modified buffers. Generally, you need to use (@code{tex-file}) twice to get the cross-references right. @vindex tex-start-options-string The value of the variable @code{tex-start-options-string} specifies options for the @TeX{} run. The default value causes @TeX{} to run in nonstopmode. To run @TeX{} interactively, set the variable to @code{""}. @vindex tex-main-file Large @TeX{} documents are often split into several files---one main file, plus subfiles. Running @TeX{} on a subfile typically does not work; you have to run it on the main file. In order to make @code{tex-file} useful when you are editing a subfile, you can set the variable @code{tex-main-file} to the name of the main file. Then @code{tex-file} runs @TeX{} on that file. The most convenient way to use @code{tex-main-file} is to specify it in a local variable list in each of the subfiles. @xref{File Variables}. @findex tex-bibtex-file @kindex C-c TAB @r{(@TeX{} mode)} @vindex tex-bibtex-command For La@TeX{} files, you can use Bib@TeX{} to process the auxiliary file for the current buffer's file. Bib@TeX{} looks up bibliographic citations in a data base and prepares the cited references for the bibliography section. The command @kbd{C-c TAB} (@code{tex-bibtex-file}) runs the shell command (@code{tex-bibtex-command}) to produce a @samp{.bbl} file for the current buffer's file. Generally, you need to do @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{tex-file}) once to generate the @samp{.aux} file, then do @kbd{C-c TAB} (@code{tex-bibtex-file}), and then repeat @kbd{C-c C-f} (@code{tex-file}) twice more to get the cross-references correct.  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1593 1594 1595 1596 1597 1598 1599 1600 1601 1602 1603 1604 1605 1606 1607 1608 1609 1610 1611 1612 1613 1614 1615 1616 1617 1618 1619 1620 1621 1622 1623 1624 1625 1626 1627 1628 1629 1630 1631 1632 1633 1634 1635 1636 1637 1638 1639 1640 1641 @node TeX Misc @subsection @TeX{} Mode Miscellany @vindex tex-shell-hook @vindex tex-mode-hook @vindex latex-mode-hook @vindex slitex-mode-hook @vindex plain-tex-mode-hook Entering any variant of @TeX{} mode runs the hooks @code{text-mode-hook} and @code{tex-mode-hook}. Then it runs either @code{plain-tex-mode-hook}, @code{latex-mode-hook}, or @code{slitex-mode-hook}, whichever is appropriate. Starting the @TeX{} shell runs the hook @code{tex-shell-hook}. @xref{Hooks}. @findex iso-iso2tex @findex iso-tex2iso @findex iso-iso2gtex @findex iso-gtex2iso @cindex Latin-1 @TeX{} encoding @TeX{} encoding The commands @kbd{M-x iso-iso2tex}, @kbd{M-x iso-tex2iso}, @kbd{M-x iso-iso2gtex} and @kbd{M-x iso-gtex2iso} can be used to convert between Latin-1 encoded files and @TeX{}-encoded equivalents. @ignore @c Too cryptic to be useful, too cryptic for me to make it better -- rms. They are included by default in the @code{format-alist} variable, so they can be used with @kbd{M-x format-find-file}, for instance. @end ignore @ignore @c Not worth documenting if it is only for Czech -- rms. @findex tildify-buffer @findex tildify-region @cindex ties, @TeX{}, inserting @cindex hard spaces, @TeX{}, inserting @cindex SGML @cindex HTML The commands @kbd{M-x tildify-buffer} and @kbd{M-x tildify-region} insert @samp{~} (@dfn{tie}) characters where they are conventionally required. This is set up for Czech---customize the group @samp{tildify} for other languages or for other sorts of markup. @end ignore @cindex Ref@TeX{} package @cindex references, La@TeX{} @cindex La@TeX{} references For managing all kinds of references for La@TeX{}, you can use Ref@TeX{}. @xref{Top, , RefTeX, reftex}.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1642 1643 1644 1645 1646 1647 1648 1649 1650 1651 1652 1653 1654 1655 1656 1657 1658 1659 1660 1661 1662 1663 1664 1665 1666 1667 1668 1669 1670 1671 1672 1673 1674 1675 1676 1677 1678 1679 1680 1681 1682 1683 1684 1685 1686 1687 1688 1689 1690 1691 1692 1693 1694 1695 1696 1697 1698 1699 1700 1701 1702 1703 1704 1705 1706 1707 1708 1709 @node Nroff Mode @section Nroff Mode @cindex nroff @findex nroff-mode Nroff mode is a mode like Text mode but modified to handle nroff commands present in the text. Invoke @kbd{M-x nroff-mode} to enter this mode. It differs from Text mode in only a few ways. All nroff command lines are considered paragraph separators, so that filling will never garble the nroff commands. Pages are separated by @samp{.bp} commands. Comments start with backslash-doublequote. Also, three special commands are provided that are not in Text mode: @findex forward-text-line @findex backward-text-line @findex count-text-lines @kindex M-n @r{(Nroff mode)} @kindex M-p @r{(Nroff mode)} @kindex M-? @r{(Nroff mode)} @table @kbd @item M-n Move to the beginning of the next line that isn't an nroff command (@code{forward-text-line}). An argument is a repeat count. @item M-p Like @kbd{M-n} but move up (@code{backward-text-line}). @item M-? Prints in the echo area the number of text lines (lines that are not nroff commands) in the region (@code{count-text-lines}). @end table @findex electric-nroff-mode The other feature of Nroff mode is that you can turn on Electric Nroff mode. This is a minor mode that you can turn on or off with @kbd{M-x electric-nroff-mode} (@pxref{Minor Modes}). When the mode is on, each time you use @key{RET} to end a line that contains an nroff command that opens a kind of grouping, the matching nroff command to close that grouping is automatically inserted on the following line. For example, if you are at the beginning of a line and type @kbd{.@: ( b @key{RET}}, this inserts the matching command @samp{.)b} on a new line following point. If you use Outline minor mode with Nroff mode (@pxref{Outline Mode}), heading lines are lines of the form @samp{.H} followed by a number (the header level). @vindex nroff-mode-hook Entering Nroff mode runs the hook @code{text-mode-hook}, followed by the hook @code{nroff-mode-hook} (@pxref{Hooks}). @node Formatted Text @section Editing Formatted Text @cindex Enriched mode @cindex mode, Enriched @cindex formatted text @cindex WYSIWYG @cindex word processing @dfn{Enriched mode} is a minor mode for editing files that contain formatted text in WYSIWYG fashion, as in a word processor. Currently, formatted text in Enriched mode can specify fonts, colors, underlining, margins, and types of filling and justification. In the future, we plan to implement other formatting features as well. Enriched mode is a minor mode (@pxref{Minor Modes}). Typically it is used in conjunction with Text mode (@pxref{Text Mode}). However, you can also use it with other major modes such as Outline mode and Paragraph-Indent Text mode.  Dave Love committed Aug 16, 2000 1710 @cindex text/enriched MIME format  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1711 1712 1713 1714 1715 1716 1717 1718 1719 1720 1721 1722 1723 1724 1725 1726 1727 1728 1729 1730 1731 1732 1733 1734 1735 1736 1737 1738 1739 1740 1741 1742 1743 1744 1745 1746 1747 1748 1749 1750 1751 1752 1753 1754 1755 1756 1757 1758 1759 1760 1761 1762 1763 1764 1765 1766 1767 1768 1769 1770 1771 1772 1773 1774 1775 1776 1777 1778 1779 1780 1781 1782 1783 1784 1785 1786 1787 1788 1789 1790 1791 1792 1793 1794 1795 1796 1797 1798 1799 1800 1801 1802 1803 1804 1805 1806 1807 1808 1809 1810 1811 1812 1813 1814 1815 1816  Potentially, Emacs can store formatted text files in various file formats. Currently, only one format is implemented: @dfn{text/enriched} format, which is defined by the MIME protocol. @xref{Format Conversion,, Format Conversion, elisp, the Emacs Lisp Reference Manual}, for details of how Emacs recognizes and converts file formats. The Emacs distribution contains a formatted text file that can serve as an example. Its name is @file{etc/enriched.doc}. It contains samples illustrating all the features described in this section. It also contains a list of ideas for future enhancements. @menu * Requesting Formatted Text:: Entering and exiting Enriched mode. * Hard and Soft Newlines:: There are two different kinds of newlines. * Editing Format Info:: How to edit text properties. * Faces: Format Faces. Bold, italic, underline, etc. * Color: Format Colors. Changing the color of text. * Indent: Format Indentation. Changing the left and right margins. * Justification: Format Justification. Centering, setting text flush with the left or right margin, etc. * Other: Format Properties. The "special" text properties submenu. * Forcing Enriched Mode:: How to force use of Enriched mode. @end menu @node Requesting Formatted Text @subsection Requesting to Edit Formatted Text Whenever you visit a file that Emacs saved in the text/enriched format, Emacs automatically converts the formatting information in the file into Emacs's own internal format (text properties), and turns on Enriched mode. @findex enriched-mode To create a new file of formatted text, first visit the nonexistent file, then type @kbd{M-x enriched-mode} before you start inserting text. This command turns on Enriched mode. Do this before you begin inserting text, to ensure that the text you insert is handled properly. More generally, the command @code{enriched-mode} turns Enriched mode on if it was off, and off if it was on. With a prefix argument, this command turns Enriched mode on if the argument is positive, and turns the mode off otherwise. When you save a buffer while Enriched mode is enabled in it, Emacs automatically converts the text to text/enriched format while writing it into the file. When you visit the file again, Emacs will automatically recognize the format, reconvert the text, and turn on Enriched mode again. @vindex enriched-fill-after-visiting Normally, after visiting a file in text/enriched format, Emacs refills each paragraph to fit the specified right margin. You can turn off this refilling, to save time, by setting the variable @code{enriched-fill-after-visiting} to @code{nil} or to @code{ask}. However, when visiting a file that was saved from Enriched mode, there is no need for refilling, because Emacs saves the right margin settings along with the text. @vindex enriched-translations You can add annotations for saving additional text properties, which Emacs normally does not save, by adding to @code{enriched-translations}. Note that the text/enriched standard requires any non-standard annotations to have names starting with @samp{x-}, as in @samp{x-read-only}. This ensures that they will not conflict with standard annotations that may be added later. @node Hard and Soft Newlines @subsection Hard and Soft Newlines @cindex hard newline @cindex soft newline @cindex newlines, hard and soft In formatted text, Emacs distinguishes between two different kinds of newlines, @dfn{hard} newlines and @dfn{soft} newlines. Hard newlines are used to separate paragraphs, or items in a list, or anywhere that there should always be a line break regardless of the margins. The @key{RET} command (@code{newline}) and @kbd{C-o} (@code{open-line}) insert hard newlines. Soft newlines are used to make text fit between the margins. All the fill commands, including Auto Fill, insert soft newlines---and they delete only soft newlines. Although hard and soft newlines look the same, it is important to bear the difference in mind. Do not use @key{RET} to break lines in the middle of filled paragraphs, or else you will get hard newlines that are barriers to further filling. Instead, let Auto Fill mode break lines, so that if the text or the margins change, Emacs can refill the lines properly. @xref{Auto Fill}. On the other hand, in tables and lists, where the lines should always remain as you type them, you can use @key{RET} to end lines. For these lines, you may also want to set the justification style to @code{unfilled}. @xref{Format Justification}. @node Editing Format Info @subsection Editing Format Information There are two ways to alter the formatting information for a formatted text file: with keyboard commands, and with the mouse. The easiest way to add properties to your document is by using the Text Properties menu. You can get to this menu in two ways: from the Edit  Richard M. Stallman committed Feb 19, 2001 1817 menu in the menu bar, or with @kbd{C-Mouse-2} (hold the @key{CTRL} key  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1818 1819 1820 1821 1822 1823 1824 1825 1826 1827 1828 1829 1830 1831 1832 1833 1834 1835 1836 1837 1838 1839 1840 1841 1842 1843 1844 1845 1846 1847 1848 1849 1850 1851 1852 1853 1854 1855 1856 1857 1858 1859 1860 1861 1862 1863 1864 1865 1866 1867 1868 1869 1870 1871 1872 1873 1874 1875 1876 1877 1878 1879 1880 1881 1882 1883 1884 1885 1886 1887 1888 1889 1890 1891 1892 1893 1894 1895 1896 1897 1898 1899 and press the middle mouse button). Most of the items in the Text Properties menu lead to other submenus. These are described in the sections that follow. Some items run commands directly: @table @code @findex facemenu-remove-props @item Remove Properties Delete from the region all the text properties that the Text Properties menu works with (@code{facemenu-remove-props}). @findex facemenu-remove-all @item Remove All Delete @emph{all} text properties from the region (@code{facemenu-remove-all}). @findex list-text-properties-at @item List Properties List all the text properties of the character following point (@code{list-text-properties-at}). @item Display Faces Display a list of all the defined faces. @item Display Colors Display a list of all the defined colors. @end table @node Format Faces @subsection Faces in Formatted Text The Faces submenu lists various Emacs faces including @code{bold}, @code{italic}, and @code{underline}. Selecting one of these adds the chosen face to the region. @xref{Faces}. You can also specify a face with these keyboard commands: @table @kbd @kindex M-g d @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-default @item M-g d Set the region, or the next inserted character, to the @code{default} face (@code{facemenu-set-default}). @kindex M-g b @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-bold @item M-g b Set the region, or the next inserted character, to the @code{bold} face (@code{facemenu-set-bold}). @kindex M-g i @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-italic @item M-g i Set the region, or the next inserted character, to the @code{italic} face (@code{facemenu-set-italic}). @kindex M-g l @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-bold-italic @item M-g l Set the region, or the next inserted character, to the @code{bold-italic} face (@code{facemenu-set-bold-italic}). @kindex M-g u @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-underline @item M-g u Set the region, or the next inserted character, to the @code{underline} face (@code{facemenu-set-underline}). @kindex M-g o @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex facemenu-set-face @item M-g o @var{face} @key{RET} Set the region, or the next inserted character, to the face @var{face} (@code{facemenu-set-face}). @end table If you use these commands with a prefix argument---or, in Transient Mark mode, if the region is not active---then these commands specify a face to use for your next self-inserting input. @xref{Transient Mark}. This applies to both the keyboard commands and the menu commands. Enriched mode defines two additional faces: @code{excerpt} and @code{fixed}. These correspond to codes used in the text/enriched file format. The @code{excerpt} face is intended for quotations. This face is the same as @code{italic} unless you customize it (@pxref{Face Customization}).  Richard M. Stallman committed Mar 14, 2001 1900 1901 1902 1903 1904 1905 1906 1907 1908  The @code{fixed} face means, Use a fixed-width font for this part of the text.'' This makes a visible difference only if you have specified a variable-width font in the default face; however, even if the default font is fixed-width, applying the @code{fixed} face to a part of the text will cause that part of the text to appear in a fixed-width font, if the file is ever displayed with a variable-width default font. This applies to Emacs and to other systems that display text/enriched format. So if you specifically want a certain part of the text to use a fixed-width font, you should specify the  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1909 1910 @code{fixed} face for that part.  Richard M. Stallman committed Mar 14, 2001 1911 1912 1913 1914  The @code{fixed} face is normally set up to use a different font from the default, even if the default face is also fixed-width. Different systems have different fonts installed, so you may need to customize this. @xref{Face Customization}.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1915   Richard M. Stallman committed Mar 14, 2001 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920  If your terminal cannot display different faces, you will not be able to see them, but you can still edit documents containing faces, and even add faces and colors to documents. The faces you specify will be visible when the file is viewed on a terminal that can display them.  Dave Love committed Sep 29, 1999 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 1927 1928 1929 1930 1931 1932 1933 1934 1935 1936 1937 1938 1939 1940 1941 1942 1943 1944 1945 1946 1947 1948 1949 1950 1951 1952 1953 1954 1955 1956 1957 1958 1959 1960 1961 1962 1963 1964 1965 1966 1967 1968 1969 1970 1971 1972 1973 1974 1975 1976 1977 1978 1979 1980 1981 1982 1983 1984 1985 1986 1987 1988 1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998 1999 2000 2001 2002 2003 2004 2005 2006 2007 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 2020 2021 2022 2023 2024 2025 2026 2027 2028 2029 2030 2031 2032 2033 2034 2035 2036 2037 2038 2039 2040 2041 2042 2043 2044 2045 2046 2047 2048 2049 2050 2051 2052 2053 2054 2055 2056 2057 2058 2059 2060 2061 2062 2063 2064 2065 2066 2067 2068 2069 2070 2071 2072 2073 2074 2075 2076 2077 2078 2079 2080 2081 2082 2083 2084 2085 2086 2087 2088 2089 2090 2091 2092 2093 2094 2095 2096 2097 2098 2099 2100 2101 2102 2103 2104 2105 2106 2107 2108 2109 2110 2111 2112 2113 2114 2115 2116 2117 2118 2119 2120 2121 2122 2123 2124 2125 2126 2127 2128 2129 2130 2131 2132 2133 2134 2135 2136 2137 2138 2139 2140 2141 2142 2143 2144 2145 2146 2147 2148  @node Format Colors @subsection Colors in Formatted Text You can specify foreground and background colors for portions of the text. There is a menu for specifying the foreground color and a menu for specifying the background color. Each color menu lists all the colors that you have used in Enriched mode in the current Emacs session. If you specify a color with a prefix argument---or, in Transient Mark mode, if the region is not active---then it applies to your next self-inserting input. @xref{Transient Mark}. Otherwise, the command applies to the region. Each color menu contains one additional item: @samp{Other}. You can use this item to specify a color that is not listed in the menu; it reads the color name with the minibuffer. To display list of available colors and their names, use the @samp{Display Colors} menu item in the Text Properties menu (@pxref{Editing Format Info}). Any color that you specify in this way, or that is mentioned in a formatted text file that you read in, is added to both color menus for the duration of the Emacs session. @findex facemenu-set-foreground @findex facemenu-set-background There are no key bindings for specifying colors, but you can do so with the extended commands @kbd{M-x facemenu-set-foreground} and @kbd{M-x facemenu-set-background}. Both of these commands read the name of the color with the minibuffer. @node Format Indentation @subsection Indentation in Formatted Text When editing formatted text, you can specify different amounts of indentation for the right or left margin of an entire paragraph or a part of a paragraph. The margins you specify automatically affect the Emacs fill commands (@pxref{Filling}) and line-breaking commands. The Indentation submenu provides a convenient interface for specifying these properties. The submenu contains four items: @table @code @kindex C-x TAB @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex increase-left-margin @item Indent More Indent the region by 4 columns (@code{increase-left-margin}). In Enriched mode, this command is also available on @kbd{C-x @key{TAB}}; if you supply a numeric argument, that says how many columns to add to the margin (a negative argument reduces the number of columns). @item Indent Less Remove 4 columns of indentation from the region. @item Indent Right More Make the text narrower by indenting 4 columns at the right margin. @item Indent Right Less Remove 4 columns of indentation from the right margin. @end table You can use these commands repeatedly to increase or decrease the indentation. The most common way to use these commands is to change the indentation of an entire paragraph. However, that is not the only use. You can change the margins at any point; the new values take effect at the end of the line (for right margins) or the beginning of the next line (for left margins). This makes it possible to format paragraphs with @dfn{hanging indents}, which means that the first line is indented less than subsequent lines. To set up a hanging indent, increase the indentation of the region starting after the first word of the paragraph and running until the end of the paragraph. Indenting the first line of a paragraph is easier. Set the margin for the whole paragraph where you want it to be for the body of the paragraph, then indent the first line by inserting extra spaces or tabs. Sometimes, as a result of editing, the filling of a paragraph becomes messed up---parts of the paragraph may extend past the left or right margins. When this happens, use @kbd{M-q} (@code{fill-paragraph}) to refill the paragraph. @vindex standard-indent The variable @code{standard-indent} specifies how many columns these commands should add to or subtract from the indentation. The default value is 4. The overall default right margin for Enriched mode is controlled by the variable @code{fill-column}, as usual. The fill prefix, if any, works in addition to the specified paragraph indentation: @kbd{C-x .} does not include the specified indentation's whitespace in the new value for the fill prefix, and the fill commands look for the fill prefix after the indentation on each line. @xref{Fill Prefix}. @node Format Justification @subsection Justification in Formatted Text When editing formatted text, you can specify various styles of justification for a paragraph. The style you specify automatically affects the Emacs fill commands. The Justification submenu provides a convenient interface for specifying the style. The submenu contains five items: @table @code @item Flush Left This is the most common style of justification (at least for English). Lines are aligned at the left margin but left uneven at the right. @item Flush Right This aligns each line with the right margin. Spaces and tabs are added on the left, if necessary, to make lines line up on the right. @item Full This justifies the text, aligning both edges of each line. Justified text looks very nice in a printed book, where the spaces can all be adjusted equally, but it does not look as nice with a fixed-width font on the screen. Perhaps a future version of Emacs will be able to adjust the width of spaces in a line to achieve elegant justification. @item Center This centers every line between the current margins. @item None This turns off filling entirely. Each line will remain as you wrote it; the fill and auto-fill functions will have no effect on text which has this setting. You can, however, still indent the left margin. In unfilled regions, all newlines are treated as hard newlines (@pxref{Hard and Soft Newlines}) . @end table In Enriched mode, you can also specify justification from the keyboard using the @kbd{M-j} prefix character: @table @kbd @kindex M-j l @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex set-justification-left @item M-j l Make the region left-filled (@code{set-justification-left}). @kindex M-j r @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex set-justification-right @item M-j r Make the region right-filled (@code{set-justification-right}). @kindex M-j f @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex set-justification-full @item M-j f Make the region fully-justified (@code{set-justification-full}). @kindex M-j c @r{(Enriched mode)} @kindex M-S @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex set-justification-center @item M-j c @itemx M-S Make the region centered (@code{set-justification-center}). @kindex M-j u @r{(Enriched mode)} @findex set-justification-none @item M-j u Make the region unfilled (@code{set-justification-none}). @end table Justification styles apply to entire paragraphs. All the justification-changing commands operate on the paragraph containing point, or, if the region is active, on all paragraphs which overlap the region. @vindex default-justification The default justification style is specified by the variable @code{default-justification}. Its value should be one of the symbols @code{left}, @code{right}, @code{full}, @code{center}, or @code{none}. @node Format Properties @subsection Setting Other Text Properties The Other Properties menu lets you add or remove three other useful text properties: @code{read-only}, @code{invisible} and @code{intangible}. The @code{intangible} property disallows moving point within the text, the @code{invisible} text property hides text from display, and the @code{read-only} property disallows alteration of the text. Each of these special properties has a menu item to add it to the region. The last menu item, @samp{Remove Special}, removes all of these special properties from the text in the region. Currently, the @code{invisible} and @code{intangible} properties are @emph{not} saved in the text/enriched format. The @code{read-only} property is saved, but it is not a standard part of the text/enriched format, so other editors may not respect it. @node Forcing Enriched Mode @subsection Forcing Enriched Mode Normally, Emacs knows when you are editing formatted text because it recognizes the special annotations used in the file that you visited. However, there are situations in which you must take special actions to convert file contents or turn on Enriched mode: @itemize @bullet @item When you visit a file that was created with some other editor, Emacs may not recognize the file as being in the text/enriched format. In this case, when you visit the file you will see the formatting commands rather than the formatted text. Type @kbd{M-x format-decode-buffer} to translate it. @item When you @emph{insert} a file into a buffer, rather than visiting it. Emacs does the necessary conversions on the text which you insert, but it does not enable Enriched mode. If you wish to do that, type @kbd{M-x enriched-mode}. @end itemize The command @code{format-decode-buffer} translates text in various formats into Emacs's internal format. It asks you to specify the format to translate from; however, normally you can type just @key{RET}, which tells Emacs to guess the format. @findex format-find-file If you wish to look at text/enriched file in its raw form, as a sequence of characters rather than as formatted text, use the @kbd{M-x find-file-literally} command. This visits a file, like @code{find-file}, but does not do format conversion. It also inhibits character code conversion (@pxref{Coding Systems}) and automatic uncompression (@pxref{Compressed Files}). To disable format conversion but allow character code conversion and/or automatic uncompression if appropriate, use @code{format-find-file} with suitable arguments.