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;;; hexl.el --- edit a file in a hex dump format using the hexl filter -*- lexical-binding: t -*-
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;; Copyright (C) 1989, 1994, 1998, 2001-2020 Free Software Foundation,
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;; Inc.
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;; Author: Keith Gabryelski <ag@wheaties.ai.mit.edu>
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;; Maintainer: emacs-devel@gnu.org
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;; Keywords: data
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;; This file is part of GNU Emacs.

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;; GNU Emacs is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
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;; it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
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;; the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
;; (at your option) any later version.
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;; GNU Emacs is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
;; but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
;; MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE.  See the
;; GNU General Public License for more details.

;; You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
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;; along with GNU Emacs.  If not, see <https://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
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;;; Commentary:

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;; This package implements a major mode for editing binary files.  It uses
;; a program called hexl, supplied with the GNU Emacs distribution, that
;; can filter a binary into an editable format or from the format back into
;; binary.  For full instructions, invoke `hexl-mode' on an empty buffer and
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;; do M-x `describe-mode'.
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;;
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;; NOTE: Remember to change `hexl-program' or `hexl-options' if needed.
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;;
;; Currently hexl only supports big endian hex output with 16 bit
;; grouping.
;;
;; -iso in `hexl-options' will allow iso characters to display in the
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;; ASCII region of the screen (if your Emacs supports this) instead of
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;; changing them to dots.

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;;; Code:

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(require 'eldoc)
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(eval-when-compile (require 'cl-lib))
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;;
;; vars here
;;

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(defgroup hexl nil
  "Edit a file in a hex dump format using the hexl filter."
  :group 'data)

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(defcustom hexl-bits 16
  "The bit grouping that hexl will use."
  :type '(choice (const 8 )
                 (const 16)
                 (const 32)
                 (const 64))
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  :version "24.3")
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(defcustom hexl-program "hexl"
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  "The program that will hexlify and dehexlify its stdin.
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`hexl-program' will always be concatenated with `hexl-options'
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and \"-de\" when dehexlifying a buffer."
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  :type 'string)
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(defcustom hexl-iso ""
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  "If your Emacs can handle ISO characters, this should be set to
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\"-iso\" otherwise it should be \"\"."
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  :type 'string)
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(defcustom hexl-options (format "-hex %s" hexl-iso)
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  "Space separated options to `hexl-program' that suit your needs.
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Quoting cannot be used, so the arguments cannot themselves contain spaces.
If you wish to set the `-group-by-X-bits' options, set `hexl-bits' instead,
as that will override any bit grouping options set here."
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  :type 'string)
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(defcustom hexl-follow-ascii t
  "If non-nil then highlight the ASCII character corresponding to point."
  :type 'boolean
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  :version "20.3")
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(defcustom hexl-mode-hook '(hexl-follow-line hexl-activate-ruler)
  "Normal hook run when entering Hexl mode."
  :type 'hook
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  :options '(hexl-follow-line hexl-activate-ruler eldoc-mode))
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(defface hexl-address-region
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  '((t (:inherit header-line)))
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  "Face used in address area of Hexl mode buffer.")
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(defface hexl-ascii-region
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  ;; Copied from `header-line`.  We used to inherit from it, but that
  ;; looks awful when the headerline is given a variable-pitch font or
  ;; (even worse) a 3D look.
  '((((class color grayscale) (background light))
     :background "grey90" :foreground "grey20"
     :box nil)
    (((class color grayscale) (background dark))
     :background "grey20" :foreground "grey90"
     :box nil))
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  "Face used in ASCII area of Hexl mode buffer.")
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(defvar-local hexl-max-address 0
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  "Maximum offset into hexl buffer.")

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(defvar hexl-mode-map
  (let ((map (make-keymap)))
    ;; Make all self-inserting keys go through hexl-self-insert-command,
    ;; because we need to convert them to unibyte characters before
    ;; inserting them into the buffer.
    (define-key map [remap self-insert-command] 'hexl-self-insert-command)

    (define-key map "\C-m" 'hexl-self-insert-command)
    (define-key map [left] 'hexl-backward-char)
    (define-key map [right] 'hexl-forward-char)
    (define-key map [up] 'hexl-previous-line)
    (define-key map [down] 'hexl-next-line)
    (define-key map [M-left] 'hexl-backward-short)
    (define-key map [?\e left] 'hexl-backward-short)
    (define-key map [M-right] 'hexl-forward-short)
    (define-key map [?\e right] 'hexl-forward-short)
    (define-key map [next] 'hexl-scroll-up)
    (define-key map [prior] 'hexl-scroll-down)
    (define-key map [home] 'hexl-beginning-of-line)
    (define-key map [end] 'hexl-end-of-line)
    (define-key map [C-home] 'hexl-beginning-of-buffer)
    (define-key map [C-end] 'hexl-end-of-buffer)
    (define-key map [deletechar] 'undefined)
    (define-key map [deleteline] 'undefined)
    (define-key map [insertline] 'undefined)
    (define-key map [S-delete] 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\177" 'undefined)

    (define-key map "\C-a" 'hexl-beginning-of-line)
    (define-key map "\C-b" 'hexl-backward-char)
    (define-key map "\C-d" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\C-e" 'hexl-end-of-line)
    (define-key map "\C-f" 'hexl-forward-char)

    (if (not (memq (key-binding (char-to-string help-char))
		   '(help-command ehelp-command)))
	(define-key map (char-to-string help-char) 'undefined))

    (define-key map "\C-k" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\C-n" 'hexl-next-line)
    (define-key map "\C-o" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\C-p" 'hexl-previous-line)
    (define-key map "\C-q" 'hexl-quoted-insert)
    (define-key map "\C-t" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\C-v" 'hexl-scroll-up)
    (define-key map "\C-w" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\C-y" 'undefined)

    (fset 'hexl-ESC-prefix (copy-keymap 'ESC-prefix))
    (define-key map "\e" 'hexl-ESC-prefix)
    (define-key map "\e\C-a" 'hexl-beginning-of-512b-page)
    (define-key map "\e\C-b" 'hexl-backward-short)
    (define-key map "\e\C-d" 'hexl-insert-decimal-char)
    (define-key map "\e\C-e" 'hexl-end-of-512b-page)
    (define-key map "\e\C-f" 'hexl-forward-short)
    (define-key map "\e\C-i" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\e\C-j" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\e\C-k" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\e\C-o" 'hexl-insert-octal-char)
    (define-key map "\e\C-q" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\e\C-t" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\e\C-x" 'hexl-insert-hex-char)
    (define-key map "\eb" 'hexl-backward-word)
    (define-key map "\ec" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\ed" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\ef" 'hexl-forward-word)
    (define-key map "\eg" 'hexl-goto-hex-address)
    (define-key map "\ei" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\ej" 'hexl-goto-address)
    (define-key map "\ek" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\el" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\eq" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\es" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\et" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\eu" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\ev" 'hexl-scroll-down)
    (define-key map "\ey" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\ez" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\e<" 'hexl-beginning-of-buffer)
    (define-key map "\e>" 'hexl-end-of-buffer)

    (fset 'hexl-C-c-prefix (copy-keymap mode-specific-map))
    (define-key map "\C-c" 'hexl-C-c-prefix)
    (define-key map "\C-c\C-c" 'hexl-mode-exit)

    (fset 'hexl-C-x-prefix (copy-keymap 'Control-X-prefix))
    (define-key map "\C-x" 'hexl-C-x-prefix)
    (define-key map "\C-x[" 'hexl-beginning-of-1k-page)
    (define-key map "\C-x]" 'hexl-end-of-1k-page)
    (define-key map "\C-x\C-p" 'undefined)
    (define-key map "\C-x\C-s" 'hexl-save-buffer)
    (define-key map "\C-x\C-t" 'undefined)
    map))
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;; Variable declarations for suppressing warnings from the byte-compiler.
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(defvar ruler-mode)
(defvar ruler-mode-ruler-function)
(defvar hl-line-mode)
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(defvar hl-line-range-function)
(defvar hl-line-face)
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;; Variables where the original values are stored to.
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(defvar hexl-mode--old-var-vals ())
(make-variable-buffer-local 'hexl-mode--old-var-vals)
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(defvar hexl-ascii-overlay nil
  "Overlay used to highlight ASCII element corresponding to current point.")
(make-variable-buffer-local 'hexl-ascii-overlay)

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(defvar hexl-font-lock-keywords
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  '(("^\\([0-9a-f]+:\\)\\( \\).\\{39\\}\\(  \\)\\(.+$\\)"
     ;; "^\\([0-9a-f]+:\\).+  \\(.+$\\)"v
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     (1 'hexl-address-region t t)
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     ;; If `hexl-address-region' is using a variable-pitch font, the
     ;; rest of the line isn't naturally aligned, so align them by hand.
     (2 '(face nil display (space :align-to 10)))
     (3 '(face nil display (space :align-to 51)))
     (4 'hexl-ascii-region t t)))
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  "Font lock keywords used in `hexl-mode'.")

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(defun hexl-rulerize (string bits)
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  (let ((size (/ bits 4)) (strlen (length string)) (pos 0) (ruler ""))
    (while (< pos strlen)
      (setq ruler (concat ruler " " (substring string pos (+ pos size))))
      (setq pos (+ pos size)))
    (substring ruler 1) ))

(defvar hexl-rulers
  (mapcar
   (lambda (bits)
     (cons bits
           (concat " 87654321  "
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                   (hexl-rulerize "00112233445566778899aabbccddeeff" bits)
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                   "  0123456789abcdef")))
   '(8 16 32 64)))
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;; routines

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(put 'hexl-mode 'mode-class 'special)

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;; 10 chars for the "address: "
;; 32 chars for the hexlified bytes
;; 1 char for the space
;; 16 chars for the character display
;; X chars for the spaces (128 bits divided by the hexl-bits)
;; 1 char for the newline.
(defun hexl-line-displen ()
  "The length of a hexl display line (varies with `hexl-bits')."
  (+ 60 (/ 128 (or hexl-bits 16))))
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;;;###autoload
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(defun hexl-mode (&optional arg)
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  "\\<hexl-mode-map>A mode for editing binary files in hex dump format.
This is not an ordinary major mode; it alters some aspects
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of the current mode's behavior, but not all; also, you can exit
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Hexl mode and return to the previous mode using `hexl-mode-exit'.
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This function automatically converts a buffer into the hexl format
using the function `hexlify-buffer'.

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Each line in the buffer has an \"address\" (displayed in hexadecimal)
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representing the offset into the file that the characters on this line
are at and 16 characters from the file (displayed as hexadecimal
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values grouped every `hexl-bits' bits, and as their ASCII values).
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If any of the characters (displayed as ASCII characters) are
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unprintable (control or meta characters) they will be replaced by
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periods.

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If `hexl-mode' is invoked with an argument the buffer is assumed to be
in hexl format.
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A sample format:

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  HEX ADDR: 0011 2233 4455 6677 8899 aabb ccdd eeff     ASCII-TEXT
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  --------  ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ---- ----  ----------------
  00000000: 5468 6973 2069 7320 6865 786c 2d6d 6f64  This is hexl-mod
  00000010: 652e 2020 4561 6368 206c 696e 6520 7265  e.  Each line re
  00000020: 7072 6573 656e 7473 2031 3620 6279 7465  presents 16 byte
  00000030: 7320 6173 2068 6578 6164 6563 696d 616c  s as hexadecimal
  00000040: 2041 5343 4949 0a61 6e64 2070 7269 6e74   ASCII.and print
  00000050: 6162 6c65 2041 5343 4949 2063 6861 7261  able ASCII chara
  00000060: 6374 6572 732e 2020 416e 7920 636f 6e74  cters.  Any cont
  00000070: 726f 6c20 6f72 206e 6f6e 2d41 5343 4949  rol or non-ASCII
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  00000080: 2063 6861 7261 6374 6572 730a 6172 6520   characters.are
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  00000090: 6469 7370 6c61 7965 6420 6173 2070 6572  displayed as per
  000000a0: 696f 6473 2069 6e20 7468 6520 7072 696e  iods in the prin
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  000000b0: 7461 626c 6520 6368 6172 6163 7465 7220  table character
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  000000c0: 7265 6769 6f6e 2e0a                      region..

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Movement is as simple as movement in a normal Emacs text buffer.
Most cursor movement bindings are the same: use \\[hexl-backward-char], \\[hexl-forward-char], \\[hexl-next-line], and \\[hexl-previous-line]
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to move the cursor left, right, down, and up.
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Advanced cursor movement commands (ala \\[hexl-beginning-of-line], \\[hexl-end-of-line], \\[hexl-beginning-of-buffer], and \\[hexl-end-of-buffer]) are
also supported.

There are several ways to change text in hexl mode:

ASCII characters (character between space (0x20) and tilde (0x7E)) are
bound to self-insert so you can simply type the character and it will
insert itself (actually overstrike) into the buffer.

\\[hexl-quoted-insert] followed by another keystroke allows you to insert the key even if
it isn't bound to self-insert.  An octal number can be supplied in place
of another key to insert the octal number's ASCII representation.

\\[hexl-insert-hex-char] will insert a given hexadecimal value (if it is between 0 and 0xFF)
into the buffer at the current point.

\\[hexl-insert-octal-char] will insert a given octal value (if it is between 0 and 0377)
into the buffer at the current point.

\\[hexl-insert-decimal-char] will insert a given decimal value (if it is between 0 and 255)
into the buffer at the current point.

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\\[hexl-mode-exit] will exit `hexl-mode'.
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Note: saving the file with any of the usual Emacs commands
will actually convert it back to binary format while saving.
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You can use \\[hexl-find-file] to visit a file in Hexl mode.
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\\[describe-bindings] for advanced commands."
  (interactive "p")
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  (unless (eq major-mode 'hexl-mode)
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    (let ((modified (buffer-modified-p))
	  (inhibit-read-only t)
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	  (original-point (- (point) (point-min))))
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      (and (eobp) (not (bobp))
	   (setq original-point (1- original-point)))
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      ;; If `hexl-mode' is invoked with an argument the buffer is assumed to
      ;; be in hexl format.
      (when (memq arg '(1 nil))
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	;; If the buffer's EOL type is -dos, we need to account for
	;; extra CR characters added when hexlify-buffer writes the
	;; buffer to a file.
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        ;; FIXME: This doesn't take into account multibyte coding systems.
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	(when (eq (coding-system-eol-type buffer-file-coding-system) 1)
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          (setq original-point (+ (count-lines (point-min) (point))
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				  original-point))
	  (or (bolp) (setq original-point (1- original-point))))
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        (hexlify-buffer)
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        (restore-buffer-modified-p modified))
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      (setq hexl-max-address
            (+ (* (/ (1- (buffer-size)) (hexl-line-displen)) 16) 15))
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      (condition-case nil
	  (hexl-goto-address original-point)
	(error nil)))
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    (let ((max-address hexl-max-address))
      (major-mode-suspend)
      (setq hexl-max-address max-address))
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    (use-local-map hexl-mode-map)
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    (setq-local mode-name "Hexl")
    (setq-local isearch-search-fun-function #'hexl-isearch-search-function)
    (setq-local major-mode 'hexl-mode)
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    ;; (set-syntax-table (standard-syntax-table))
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    (add-hook 'write-contents-functions #'hexl-save-buffer nil t)
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    (setq-local require-final-newline nil)
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    (setq-local font-lock-defaults '(hexl-font-lock-keywords t))
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    (setq-local font-lock-extra-managed-props '(display))
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    (setq-local revert-buffer-function #'hexl-revert-buffer-function)
    (add-hook 'change-major-mode-hook #'hexl-maybe-dehexlify-buffer nil t)
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    ;; Set a callback function for eldoc.
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    (add-hook 'eldoc-documentation-functions
              #'hexl-print-current-point-info nil t)
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    (eldoc-add-command-completions "hexl-")
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    (eldoc-remove-command "hexl-save-buffer"
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			  "hexl-current-address")

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    (if hexl-follow-ascii (hexl-follow-ascii-mode 1)))
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  (run-mode-hooks 'hexl-mode-hook))
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(defun hexl-isearch-search-function ()
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  (if (and (not isearch-regexp) (not isearch-regexp-function))
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      (lambda (string &optional bound noerror count)
	(funcall
	 (if isearch-forward 're-search-forward 're-search-backward)
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         (let ((textre
                (if (> (length string) 80)
                    (regexp-quote string)
                  (mapconcat (lambda (c) (regexp-quote (string c))) string
                             "\\(?:\n\\(?:[:a-f0-9]+ \\)+ \\)?"))))
           (if (string-match "\\` ?\\([a-f0-9]+ \\)*[a-f0-9]+ ?\\'" string)
               (concat textre "\\|"
                       (mapconcat 'regexp-quote (split-string string " ")
                                  " \\(?: .+\n[a-f0-9]+: \\)?"))
             textre))
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	 bound noerror count))
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    (isearch-search-fun-default)))
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(defvar hexl-in-save-buffer nil)

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(defun hexl-save-buffer ()
  "Save a hexl format buffer as binary in visited file if modified."
  (interactive)
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  (if hexl-in-save-buffer nil
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    (restore-buffer-modified-p
     (if (buffer-modified-p)
         (let ((buf (generate-new-buffer " hexl"))
               (name (buffer-name))
               (start (point-min))
               (end (point-max))
               modified)
           (with-current-buffer buf
             (insert-buffer-substring name start end)
             (set-buffer name)
             (dehexlify-buffer)
             ;; Prevent infinite recursion.
             (let ((hexl-in-save-buffer t))
               (save-buffer))
             (setq modified (buffer-modified-p))
             (delete-region (point-min) (point-max))
             (insert-buffer-substring buf start end)
             (kill-buffer buf)
             modified))
       (message "(No changes need to be saved)")
       nil))
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    ;; Return t to indicate we have saved t
    t))
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;;;###autoload
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(defun hexl-find-file (filename)
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  "Edit file FILENAME as a binary file in hex dump format.
Switch to a buffer visiting file FILENAME, creating one if none exists,
and edit the file in `hexl-mode'."
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  (interactive
   (list
    (let ((completion-ignored-extensions nil))
      (read-file-name "Filename: " nil nil 'ret-must-match))))
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  ;; Ignore the user's setting of default major-mode.
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  (cl-letf (((default-value 'major-mode) 'fundamental-mode))
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    (find-file-literally filename))
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  (if (not (eq major-mode 'hexl-mode))
      (hexl-mode)))

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(defun hexl-revert-buffer-function (_ignore-auto _noconfirm)
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  ;; FIXME: We don't obey revert-buffer-preserve-modes!
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  (let ((coding-system-for-read 'no-conversion)
	revert-buffer-function)
    ;; Call the original `revert-buffer' without code conversion; also
    ;; prevent it from changing the major mode to normal-mode, which
    ;; calls `set-auto-mode'.
    (revert-buffer nil nil t)
    ;; A couple of hacks are necessary here:
    ;; 1. change the major-mode to one other than hexl-mode since the
    ;; function `hexl-mode' does nothing if the current major-mode is
    ;; already hexl-mode.
    ;; 2. reset change-major-mode-hook in case that `hexl-mode'
    ;; previously added hexl-maybe-dehexlify-buffer to it.
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    (remove-hook 'change-major-mode-hook #'hexl-maybe-dehexlify-buffer t)
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    (remove-hook 'eldoc-documentation-functions
                 #'hexl-print-current-point-info t)
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    (setq major-mode 'fundamental-mode)
    (hexl-mode)))

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(defun hexl-mode-exit (&optional arg)
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  "Exit Hexl mode, returning to previous mode.
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With arg, don't unhexlify buffer."
  (interactive "p")
  (if (or (eq arg 1) (not arg))
      (let ((modified (buffer-modified-p))
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	    (inhibit-read-only t)
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	    (original-point (1+ (hexl-current-address))))
	(dehexlify-buffer)
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	(remove-hook 'write-contents-functions #'hexl-save-buffer t)
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	(restore-buffer-modified-p modified)
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	(goto-char original-point)
	;; Maybe adjust point for the removed CR characters.
	(when (eq (coding-system-eol-type buffer-file-coding-system) 1)
	  (setq original-point (- original-point
				  (count-lines (point-min) (point))))
	  (or (bobp) (setq original-point (1+ original-point))))
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	(goto-char original-point)))
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  (remove-hook 'change-major-mode-hook #'hexl-maybe-dehexlify-buffer t)
  (major-mode-restore))
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(defun hexl-maybe-dehexlify-buffer ()
  "Convert a hexl format buffer to binary.
Ask the user for confirmation."
  (if (y-or-n-p "Convert contents back to binary format? ")
      (let ((modified (buffer-modified-p))
	    (inhibit-read-only t)
	    (original-point (1+ (hexl-current-address))))
	(dehexlify-buffer)
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	(remove-hook 'write-contents-functions #'hexl-save-buffer t)
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	(restore-buffer-modified-p modified)
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	(goto-char original-point))))
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(defun hexl-current-address (&optional validate)
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  "Return current hexl-address."
  (interactive)
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  (let ((current-column
         (- (% (- (point) (point-min) -1) (hexl-line-displen)) 11))
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	(hexl-address 0))
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    (if (< current-column 0)
	(if validate
	    (error "Point is not on a character in the file")
	  (setq current-column 0)))
    (setq hexl-address
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          (+ (* (/ (- (point) (point-min) -1)
                   (hexl-line-displen)) 16)
	     (if (>= current-column (- (hexl-ascii-start-column) 10))
		 (- current-column (- (hexl-ascii-start-column) 10))
               (/ (- current-column
                     (/ current-column (1+ (/ hexl-bits 4)))) 2))))
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    (when (called-interactively-p 'interactive)
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      (message "Current address is %d/0x%08x" hexl-address hexl-address))
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    hexl-address))

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(defun hexl-print-current-point-info (&rest _ignored)
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  "Return current hexl-address in string.
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This function is intended to be used as eldoc callback."
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  (let ((addr (hexl-current-address)))
    (format "Current address is %d/0x%08x" addr addr)))

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(defun hexl-ascii-start-column ()
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  "Column at which the ASCII portion of the hexl display starts."
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  (+ 43 (/ 128 hexl-bits)))

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(defun hexl-address-to-marker (address)
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  "Return buffer position for ADDRESS."
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  (interactive "nAddress: ")
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  (let ((N (* (% address 16) 2)))
    (+ (* (/ address 16) (hexl-line-displen)) ; hexl line no * display length
       10                      ; 10 chars for the "address: " prefix
       (point-min)             ; base offset (point usually starts at 1, not 0)
       (+ N (/ N (/ hexl-bits 4))) )) ) ; char offset into hexl display line
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(defun hexl-goto-address (address)
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  "Go to hexl-mode (decimal) address ADDRESS.
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Signal error if ADDRESS is out of range."
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  (interactive "nAddress: ")
  (if (or (< address 0) (> address hexl-max-address))
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      (error "Out of hexl region"))
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  (goto-char (hexl-address-to-marker address)))

(defun hexl-goto-hex-address (hex-address)
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  "Go to Hexl mode address (hex string) HEX-ADDRESS.
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Signal error if HEX-ADDRESS is out of range."
  (interactive "sHex Address: ")
  (hexl-goto-address (hexl-hex-string-to-integer hex-address)))

(defun hexl-hex-string-to-integer (hex-string)
  "Return decimal integer for HEX-STRING."
  (interactive "sHex number: ")
  (let ((hex-num 0))
    (while (not (equal hex-string ""))
      (setq hex-num (+ (* hex-num 16)
		       (hexl-hex-char-to-integer (string-to-char hex-string))))
      (setq hex-string (substring hex-string 1)))
    hex-num))

(defun hexl-octal-string-to-integer (octal-string)
  "Return decimal integer for OCTAL-STRING."
  (interactive "sOctal number: ")
  (let ((oct-num 0))
    (while (not (equal octal-string ""))
      (setq oct-num (+ (* oct-num 8)
		       (hexl-oct-char-to-integer
			(string-to-char octal-string))))
      (setq octal-string (substring octal-string 1)))
    oct-num))

;; move point functions

(defun hexl-backward-char (arg)
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  "Move to left ARG bytes (right if ARG negative) in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-goto-address (- (hexl-current-address) arg)))

(defun hexl-forward-char (arg)
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  "Move to right ARG bytes (left if ARG negative) in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-goto-address (+ (hexl-current-address) arg)))

(defun hexl-backward-short (arg)
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  "Move to left ARG shorts (right if ARG negative) in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-goto-address (let ((address (hexl-current-address)))
		       (if (< arg 0)
			   (progn
			     (setq arg (- arg))
			     (while (> arg 0)
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                               (setq address
                                     (if (> address hexl-max-address)
                                         (progn
                                           (message "End of buffer.")
                                           hexl-max-address)
                                       (if (equal address (logior address 3))
                                           (+ address 4)
                                         (logior address 3))))
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			       (setq arg (1- arg)))
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                             (setq address
                                   (if (> address hexl-max-address)
                                       (progn
                                         (message "End of buffer.")
                                         hexl-max-address)
                                     (logior address 3))))
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			 (while (> arg 0)
			   (if (not (equal address (logand address -4)))
			       (setq address (logand address -4))
			     (if (not (equal address 0))
				 (setq address (- address 4))
			       (message "Beginning of buffer.")))
			   (setq arg (1- arg))))
		       address)))

(defun hexl-forward-short (arg)
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  "Move to right ARG shorts (left if ARG negative) in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-backward-short (- arg)))

(defun hexl-backward-word (arg)
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  "Move to left ARG words (right if ARG negative) in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-goto-address (let ((address (hexl-current-address)))
		       (if (< arg 0)
			   (progn
			     (setq arg (- arg))
			     (while (> arg 0)
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                               (setq address
                                     (if (> address hexl-max-address)
                                         (progn
                                           (message "End of buffer.")
                                           hexl-max-address)
                                       (if (equal address (logior address 7))
                                           (+ address 8)
                                         (logior address 7))))
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			       (setq arg (1- arg)))
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                             (setq address
                                   (if (> address hexl-max-address)
                                       (progn
                                         (message "End of buffer.")
                                         hexl-max-address)
                                     (logior address 7))))
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			 (while (> arg 0)
			   (if (not (equal address (logand address -8)))
			       (setq address (logand address -8))
			     (if (not (equal address 0))
				 (setq address (- address 8))
			       (message "Beginning of buffer.")))
			   (setq arg (1- arg))))
		       address)))

(defun hexl-forward-word (arg)
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  "Move to right ARG words (left if ARG negative) in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-backward-word (- arg)))

(defun hexl-previous-line (arg)
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  "Move vertically up ARG lines [16 bytes] (down if ARG negative) in Hexl mode.
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If there is no byte at the target address move to the last byte in that line."
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  (interactive "p")
  (hexl-next-line (- arg)))

(defun hexl-next-line (arg)
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  "Move vertically down ARG lines [16 bytes] (up if ARG negative) in Hexl mode.
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If there is no byte at the target address move to the last byte in that line."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (hexl-goto-address (let ((address (+ (hexl-current-address) (* arg 16))))
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		       (if (and (< arg 0) (< address 0))
				(progn (message "Out of hexl region.")
				       (setq address
					     (% (hexl-current-address) 16)))
			 (if (and (> address hexl-max-address)
				  (< (% hexl-max-address 16) (% address 16)))
			     (setq address hexl-max-address)
			   (if (> address hexl-max-address)
			       (progn (message "Out of hexl region.")
				      (setq
				       address
				       (+ (logand hexl-max-address -16)
					  (% (hexl-current-address) 16)))))))
		       address)))

(defun hexl-beginning-of-buffer (arg)
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  "Move to the beginning of the hexl buffer.
Leaves `hexl-mark' at previous position.
With prefix arg N, puts point N bytes of the way from the true beginning."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (push-mark)
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  (hexl-goto-address (+ 0 (1- arg))))

(defun hexl-end-of-buffer (arg)
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  "Go to `hexl-max-address' minus ARG."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (push-mark)
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  (hexl-goto-address (- hexl-max-address (1- arg))))

(defun hexl-beginning-of-line ()
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  "Goto beginning of line in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive)
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  (goto-char (+ (* (/ (point) (hexl-line-displen)) (hexl-line-displen)) 11)))
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(defun hexl-end-of-line ()
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  "Goto end of line in Hexl mode."
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  (interactive)
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  (hexl-goto-address (min hexl-max-address (logior (hexl-current-address) 15))))
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(defun hexl-scroll-down (arg)
  "Scroll hexl buffer window upward ARG lines; or near full window if no ARG."
  (interactive "P")
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  (setq arg (if (null arg)
                (1- (window-height))
              (prefix-numeric-value arg)))
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  (hexl-scroll-up (- arg)))

(defun hexl-scroll-up (arg)
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  "Scroll hexl buffer window upward ARG lines; or near full window if no ARG.
If there's no byte at the target address, move to the first or last line."
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  (interactive "P")
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  (setq arg (if (null arg)
                (1- (window-height))
              (prefix-numeric-value arg)))
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  (let* ((movement (* arg 16))
	 (address (hexl-current-address))
	 (dest (+ address movement)))
    (cond
     ;; If possible, try to stay at the same offset from the beginning
     ;; of the 16-byte group, even if we move to the first or last
     ;; group.
     ((and (> dest hexl-max-address)
	   (>= (% hexl-max-address 16) (% address 16)))
      (setq dest (+ (logand hexl-max-address -16) (% address 16))))
     ((> dest hexl-max-address)
      (setq dest hexl-max-address))
     ((< dest 0)
      (setq dest (% address 16))))
    (if (/= dest (+ address movement))
	(message "Out of hexl region."))
    (hexl-goto-address dest)
    (recenter 0)))
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(defun hexl-beginning-of-1k-page ()
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  "Go to beginning of 1KB boundary."
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  (interactive)
  (hexl-goto-address (logand (hexl-current-address) -1024)))

(defun hexl-end-of-1k-page ()
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  "Go to end of 1KB boundary."
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  (interactive)
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  (hexl-goto-address
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   (min hexl-max-address (logior (hexl-current-address) 1023))))
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(defun hexl-beginning-of-512b-page ()
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  "Go to beginning of 512 byte boundary."
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  (interactive)
  (hexl-goto-address (logand (hexl-current-address) -512)))

(defun hexl-end-of-512b-page ()
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  "Go to end of 512 byte boundary."
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  (interactive)
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  (hexl-goto-address
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   (min hexl-max-address (logior (hexl-current-address) 511))))
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(defun hexl-quoted-insert (arg)
  "Read next input character and insert it.
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Useful for inserting control characters and non-ASCII characters given their
numerical code.
You may also type octal digits, to insert a character with that code."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (hexl-insert-multibyte-char (read-quoted-char) arg))
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;00000000: 0011 2233 4455 6677 8899 aabb ccdd eeff  0123456789ABCDEF

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(defun hexl-options (&optional test)
  "Combine `hexl-bits' with `hexl-options', altering `hexl-options' as needed
to produce the command line options to pass to the hexl command."
  (let ((opts (or test hexl-options)))
    (when (memq hexl-bits '(8 16 32 64))
      (when (string-match "\\(.*\\)-group-by-[0-9]+-bits\\(.*\\)" opts)
        (setq opts (concat (match-string 1 opts)
                           (match-string 2 opts))))
      (setq opts (format "%s -group-by-%d-bits " opts hexl-bits)) )
    opts))

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;;;###autoload
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(defun hexlify-buffer ()
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  "Convert a binary buffer to hexl format.
This discards the buffer's undo information."
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  (interactive)
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  (and (consp buffer-undo-list)
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       (or (y-or-n-p "Converting to hexl format discards undo info; ok? ")
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	   (error "Aborted"))
       (setq buffer-undo-list nil))
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  ;; Don't decode text in the ASCII part of `hexl' program output.
  (let ((coding-system-for-read 'raw-text)
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	(coding-system-for-write buffer-file-coding-system)
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	(buffer-undo-list t))
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    (apply 'call-process-region (point-min) (point-max)
	   (expand-file-name hexl-program exec-directory)
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	   t t nil
           ;; Manually encode the args, otherwise they're encoded using
           ;; coding-system-for-write (i.e. buffer-file-coding-system) which
           ;; may not be what we want (e.g. utf-16 on a non-utf-16 system).
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           (mapcar (lambda (s)
                     (if (not (multibyte-string-p s)) s
                       (encode-coding-string s locale-coding-system)))
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                   (split-string (hexl-options))))
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    (if (> (point) (hexl-address-to-marker hexl-max-address))
	(hexl-goto-address hexl-max-address))))
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(defun dehexlify-buffer ()
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  "Convert a hexl format buffer to binary.
This discards the buffer's undo information."
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  (interactive)
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  (and (consp buffer-undo-list)
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       (or (y-or-n-p "Converting from hexl format discards undo info; ok? ")
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	   (error "Aborted"))
       (setq buffer-undo-list nil))
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  (let ((coding-system-for-write 'raw-text)
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	(coding-system-for-read buffer-file-coding-system)
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	(buffer-undo-list t))
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    (apply 'call-process-region (point-min) (point-max)
	   (expand-file-name hexl-program exec-directory)
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	   t t nil "-de" (split-string (hexl-options)))))
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(defun hexl-char-after-point ()
  "Return char for ASCII hex digits at point."
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  (hexl-htoi (char-after (point))
	     (char-after (1+ (point)))))
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(defun hexl-htoi (lh rh)
  "Hex (char) LH (char) RH to integer."
    (+ (* (hexl-hex-char-to-integer lh) 16)
       (hexl-hex-char-to-integer rh)))

(defun hexl-hex-char-to-integer (character)
  "Take a char and return its value as if it was a hex digit."
  (if (and (>= character ?0) (<= character ?9))
      (- character ?0)
    (let ((ch (logior character 32)))
      (if (and (>= ch ?a) (<= ch ?f))
	  (- ch (- ?a 10))
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	(error "Invalid hex digit `%c'" ch)))))
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(defun hexl-oct-char-to-integer (character)
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  "Take a char and return its value as if it was an octal digit."
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  (if (and (>= character ?0) (<= character ?7))
      (- character ?0)
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    (error "Invalid octal digit `%c'" character)))
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(defun hexl-printable-character (ch)
  "Return a displayable string for character CH."
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  (format "%c" (if (equal hexl-iso "")
		   (if (or (< ch 32) (>= ch 127))
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		       46
		     ch)
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		 (if (or (< ch 32) (and (>= ch 127) (< ch 160)))
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		     46
		   ch))))

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(defun hexl-insert-multibyte-char (ch num)
  "Insert a possibly multibyte character CH NUM times.

Non-ASCII characters are first encoded with `buffer-file-coding-system',
and their encoded form is inserted byte by byte."
  (let ((charset (char-charset ch))
	(coding (if (or (null buffer-file-coding-system)
			;; coding-system-type equals t means undecided.
			(eq (coding-system-type buffer-file-coding-system) t))
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		    (default-value 'buffer-file-coding-system)
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		  buffer-file-coding-system)))
    (cond ((and (> ch 0) (< ch 256))
	   (hexl-insert-char ch num))
	  ((eq charset 'unknown)
	   (error
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	    "0x%x -- invalid character code; use \\[hexl-insert-hex-string]"
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	    ch))
	  (t
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           (let ((encoded (encode-coding-char ch coding))
	         (internal (char-to-string ch))
	         internal-hex)
             ;; If encode-coding-char returns nil, it means our character
             ;; cannot be safely encoded with buffer-file-coding-system.
             ;; In that case, we offer to insert the internal representation
             ;; of that character, byte by byte.
             (when (null encoded)
	       (setq internal (encode-coding-string internal 'utf-8-emacs)
	             internal-hex
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                     (mapconcat (lambda (c) (format "%x" c))
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			        internal " "))
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	       (if (yes-or-no-p
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		    (format-message
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		     "Insert char 0x%x's internal representation \"%s\"? "
		     ch internal-hex))
		   (setq encoded internal)
		 (error
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		  "Can't encode `0x%x' with this buffer's coding system; %s"
		  ch
		  (substitute-command-keys "try \\[hexl-insert-hex-string]"))))
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	     (while (> num 0)
	       (mapc
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                (lambda (c) (hexl-insert-char c 1)) encoded)
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	       (setq num (1- num))))))))

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(defun hexl-self-insert-command (arg)
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  "Insert this character.
Interactively, with a numeric argument, insert this character that many times.

Non-ASCII characters are first encoded with `buffer-file-coding-system',
and their encoded form is inserted byte by byte."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (hexl-insert-multibyte-char last-command-event arg))
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(defun hexl-insert-char (ch num)
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  "Insert the character CH NUM times in a hexl buffer.

CH must be a unibyte character whose value is between 0 and 255."
  (if (or (< ch 0) (> ch 255))
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      (error "Invalid character 0x%x -- must be in the range [0..255]" ch))
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  (let ((address (hexl-current-address t)))
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    (while (> num 0)
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      (let ((hex-position (hexl-address-to-marker address))
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	    (ascii-position
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	     (+ (* (/ address 16) (hexl-line-displen))
                (hexl-ascii-start-column)
                (point-min)
                (% address 16)))
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	    at-ascii-position)
	(if (= (point) ascii-position)
	    (setq at-ascii-position t))
	(goto-char hex-position)
	(delete-char 2)
	(insert (format "%02x" ch))
	(goto-char ascii-position)
	(delete-char 1)
	(insert (hexl-printable-character ch))
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	(or (= address hexl-max-address)
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	    (setq address (1+ address)))
	(hexl-goto-address address)
	(if at-ascii-position
	    (progn
	      (beginning-of-line)
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	      (forward-char (hexl-ascii-start-column))
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	      (forward-char (% address 16)))))
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      (setq num (1- num)))))

;; hex conversion

(defun hexl-insert-hex-char (arg)
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  "Insert a character given by its hexadecimal code ARG times at point."
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  (interactive "p")
  (let ((num (hexl-hex-string-to-integer (read-string "Hex number: "))))
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    (if (< num 0)
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	(error "Hex number out of range")
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      (hexl-insert-multibyte-char num arg))))
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(defun hexl-insert-hex-string (str arg)
  "Insert hexadecimal string STR at point ARG times.
Embedded whitespace, dashes, and periods in the string are ignored."
  (interactive "sHex string: \np")
  (setq str (replace-regexp-in-string "[- \t.]" "" str))
  (let ((chars '()))
    (let ((len (length str))
	  (idx 0))
      (if (eq (logand len 1) 1)
	  (let ((num (hexl-hex-string-to-integer (substring str 0 1))))
	    (setq chars (cons num chars))
	    (setq idx 1)))
      (while (< idx len)
	(let* ((nidx (+ idx 2))
	       (num (hexl-hex-string-to-integer (substring str idx nidx))))
	  (setq chars (cons num chars))
	  (setq idx nidx))))
    (setq chars (nreverse chars))
    (while (> arg 0)
      (let ((chars chars))
	(while chars
	  (hexl-insert-char (car chars) 1)
	  (setq chars (cdr chars))))
      (setq arg (- arg 1)))))

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(defun hexl-insert-decimal-char (arg)
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  "Insert a character given by its decimal code ARG times at point."
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  (interactive "p")
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  (let ((num (string-to-number (read-string "Decimal Number: "))))
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    (if (< num 0)
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	(error "Decimal number out of range")
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      (hexl-insert-multibyte-char num arg))))
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(defun hexl-insert-octal-char (arg)
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  "Insert a character given by its octal code ARG times at point."
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  (interactive "p")
  (let ((num (hexl-octal-string-to-integer (read-string "Octal Number: "))))
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    (if (< num 0)
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	(error "Decimal number out of range")
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      (hexl-insert-multibyte-char num arg))))
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(define-minor-mode hexl-follow-ascii-mode
  "Minor mode to follow ASCII in current Hexl buffer.
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When following is enabled, the ASCII character corresponding to the
element under the point is highlighted.