Commit 029b2a44 authored by Jay Belanger's avatar Jay Belanger
Browse files

(Simplifying Formulas, Rewrite Rules): Change description of

top and bottom of fraction.

(Modulo Forms): Move description of how to create modulo forms to
earlier in the section.

(Fraction Mode): Suggest using : to get a fraction by dividing.

(Basic Arithmetic): Adjust placement of command name.

(Truncating the Stack): Emphasize that "hidden" entries are still
visible.

(Installation): Move discussion of printing manual to "About This
Manual".

(About This Manual): Mention how to print the manual.

(Reporting Bugs): Remove first person.

(Building Vectors): Add algebraic version of append.

(Manipulating Vectors): Fix algebraic version of calc-reverse-vector.

(Grouping Digits): Fix typo.
parent f4931aac
......@@ -546,8 +546,35 @@ you can also go to the part of the manual describing any Calc key,
function, or variable using @w{@kbd{h k}}, @kbd{h f}, or @kbd{h v},
respectively. @xref{Help Commands}.
 
Printed copies of this manual are also available from the Free Software
Foundation.
The Calc manual can be printed, but because the manual is so large, you
should only make a printed copy if you really need it. To print the
manual, you will need the @TeX{} typesetting program (this is a free
program by Donald Knuth at Stanford University) as well as the
@file{texindex} program and @file{texinfo.tex} file, both of which can
be obtained from the FSF as part of the @code{texinfo} package.
To print the Calc manual in one huge tome, you will need the
source code to this manual, @file{calc.texi}, available as part of the
Emacs source. Once you have this file, type @kbd{texi2dvi calc.texi}.
Alternatively, change to the @file{man} subdirectory of the Emacs
source distribution, and type @kbd{make calc.dvi}. (Don't worry if you
get some ``overfull box'' warnings while @TeX{} runs.)
The result will be a device-independent output file called
@file{calc.dvi}, which you must print in whatever way is right
for your system. On many systems, the command is
@example
lpr -d calc.dvi
@end example
@noindent
or
@example
dvips calc.dvi
@end example
@c Printed copies of this manual are also available from the Free Software
@c Foundation.
 
@node Notations Used in This Manual, Demonstration of Calc, About This Manual, Getting Started
@section Notations Used in This Manual
......@@ -1501,8 +1528,8 @@ general areas.
 
@ifinfo
You may wish to print out a copy of the Calc Summary and keep notes on
it as you learn Calc. @xref{Installation}, to see how to make a printed
summary. @xref{Summary}.
it as you learn Calc. @xref{About This Manual}, to see how to make a
printed summary. @xref{Summary}.
@end ifinfo
@iftex
The Calc Summary at the end of the reference manual includes some blank
......@@ -5599,8 +5626,8 @@ entering them on the fly.
 
(@bullet{}) @strong{Exercise 1.} Type @kbd{m s} to get Symbolic
mode, then enter the formula @samp{@w{(2 + sqrt(2))} / @w{(1 + sqrt(2))}}.
Using a rewrite rule, simplify this formula by multiplying both
sides by the conjugate @w{@samp{1 - sqrt(2)}}. The result will have
Using a rewrite rule, simplify this formula by multiplying the top and
bottom by the conjugate @w{@samp{1 - sqrt(2)}}. The result will have
to be expanded by the distributive law; do this with another
rewrite. @xref{Rewrites Answer 1, 1}. (@bullet{})
 
......@@ -11292,6 +11319,21 @@ where @var{a} and @var{M} are real numbers or HMS forms, and
In many applications @expr{a} and @expr{M} will be
integers but this is not required.
 
@ignore
@mindex M
@end ignore
@kindex M (modulo forms)
@ignore
@mindex mod
@end ignore
@tindex mod (operator)
To create a modulo form during numeric entry, press the shift-@kbd{M}
key to enter the word @samp{mod}. As a special convenience, pressing
shift-@kbd{M} a second time automatically enters the value of @expr{M}
that was most recently used before. During algebraic entry, either
type @samp{mod} by hand or press @kbd{M-m} (that's @kbd{@key{META}-m}).
Once again, pressing this a second time enters the current modulo.
Modulo forms are not to be confused with the modulo operator @samp{%}.
The expression @samp{27 % 10} means to compute 27 modulo 10 to produce
the result 7. Further computations treat this 7 as just a regular integer.
......@@ -11324,24 +11366,6 @@ in the sense of reducing
modulo @expr{M}, this is not a useful definition from the
number-theoretical point of view.)
 
@ignore
@mindex M
@end ignore
@kindex M (modulo forms)
@ignore
@mindex mod
@end ignore
@tindex mod (operator)
To create a modulo form during numeric entry, press the shift-@kbd{M}
key to enter the word @samp{mod}. As a special convenience, pressing
shift-@kbd{M} a second time automatically enters the value of @expr{M}
that was most recently used before. During algebraic entry, either
type @samp{mod} by hand or press @kbd{M-m} (that's @kbd{@key{META}-m}).
Once again, pressing this a second time enters the current modulo.
You can also use @kbd{v p} and @kbd{%} to modify modulo forms.
@xref{Building Vectors}. @xref{Basic Arithmetic}.
It is possible to mix HMS forms and modulo forms. For example, an
HMS form modulo 24 could be used to manipulate clock times; an HMS
form modulo 360 would be suitable for angles. Making the modulo @expr{M}
......@@ -11354,6 +11378,9 @@ Modulo forms cannot have variables or formulas for components. If you
enter the formula @samp{(x + 2) mod 5}, Calc propagates the modulus
to each of the coefficients: @samp{(1 mod 5) x + (2 mod 5)}.
 
You can use @kbd{v p} and @kbd{%} to modify modulo forms.
@xref{Packing and Unpacking}. @xref{Basic Arithmetic}.
@ignore
@starindex
@end ignore
......@@ -12487,8 +12514,10 @@ of the above example situations would produce polar complex numbers.
Division of two integers normally yields a floating-point number if the
result cannot be expressed as an integer. In some cases you would
rather get an exact fractional answer. One way to accomplish this is
to multiply fractions instead: @kbd{6 @key{RET} 1:4 *} produces @expr{3:2}
even though @kbd{6 @key{RET} 4 /} produces @expr{1.5}.
to use the @kbd{:} (@code{calc-fdiv}) [@code{fdiv}] command, which
divides the two integers on the top of the stack to produce a fraction:
@kbd{6 @key{RET} 4 :} produces @expr{3:2} even though
@kbd{6 @key{RET} 4 /} produces @expr{1.5}.
 
@kindex m f
@pindex calc-frac-mode
......@@ -13293,7 +13322,7 @@ are displayed in clumps of 3 or 4 (depending on the current radix)
separated by commas.
 
The @kbd{d g} command toggles grouping on and off.
With a numerix prefix of 0, this command displays the current state of
With a numeric prefix of 0, this command displays the current state of
the grouping flag; with an argument of minus one it disables grouping;
with a positive argument @expr{N} it enables grouping on every @expr{N}
digits. For floating-point numbers, grouping normally occurs only
......@@ -13799,11 +13828,12 @@ The @kbd{d t} (@code{calc-truncate-stack}) command moves the @samp{.}@:
line that marks the top-of-stack up or down in the Calculator buffer.
The number right above that line is considered to the be at the top of
the stack. Any numbers below that line are ``hidden'' from all stack
operations. This is similar to the Emacs ``narrowing'' feature, except
that the values below the @samp{.} are @emph{visible}, just temporarily
frozen. This feature allows you to keep several independent calculations
running at once in different parts of the stack, or to apply a certain
command to an element buried deep in the stack.
operations (although still visible to the user). This is similar to the
Emacs ``narrowing'' feature, except that the values below the @samp{.}
are @emph{visible}, just temporarily frozen. This feature allows you to
keep several independent calculations running at once in different parts
of the stack, or to apply a certain command to an element buried deep in
the stack.
 
Pressing @kbd{d t} by itself moves the @samp{.} to the line the cursor
is on. Thus, this line and all those below it become hidden. To un-hide
......@@ -16242,7 +16272,7 @@ must be positive real number.
@kindex :
@pindex calc-fdiv
@tindex fdiv
The @kbd{:} (@code{calc-fdiv}) command [@code{fdiv} function in a formula]
The @kbd{:} (@code{calc-fdiv}) [@code{fdiv}] command
divides the two integers on the top of the stack to produce a fractional
result. This is a convenient shorthand for enabling Fraction mode (with
@kbd{m f}) temporarily and using @samp{/}. Note that during numeric entry
......@@ -19622,7 +19652,7 @@ subtracted, multiplied, and divided; @pxref{Basic Arithmetic}.
@mindex @null
@end ignore
@tindex |
The @kbd{|} (@code{calc-concat}) command ``concatenates'' two vectors
The @kbd{|} (@code{calc-concat}) [@code{vconcat}] command ``concatenates'' two vectors
into one. For example, after @kbd{@w{[ 1 , 2 ]} [ 3 , 4 ] |}, the stack
will contain the single vector @samp{[1, 2, 3, 4]}. If the arguments
are matrices, the rows of the first matrix are concatenated with the
......@@ -20023,7 +20053,7 @@ a one-column matrix.
@kindex v v
@pindex calc-reverse-vector
@tindex rev
The @kbd{v v} (@code{calc-reverse-vector}) [@code{vec}] command reverses
The @kbd{v v} (@code{calc-reverse-vector}) [@code{rev}] command reverses
a vector end-for-end. Given a matrix, it reverses the order of the rows.
(To reverse the columns instead, just use @kbd{v t v v v t}. The same
principle can be used to apply other vector commands to the columns of
......@@ -22672,7 +22702,7 @@ on while doing algebra; @pxref{Fraction Mode}.
Quotients are simplified by comparing all terms in the numerator
with all terms in the denominator for possible cancellation using
the distributive law. For example, @expr{a x^2 b / c x^3 d} will
cancel @expr{x^2} from both sides to get @expr{a b / c x d}.
cancel @expr{x^2} from the top and bottom to get @expr{a b / c x d}.
(The terms in the denominator will then be rearranged to @expr{c d x}
as described above.) If there is any common integer or fractional
factor in the numerator and denominator, it is cancelled out;
......@@ -34603,48 +34633,6 @@ plots.
 
@end example
@end ifinfo
@appendixsec Printed Documentation
@noindent
Because the Calc manual is so large, you should only make a printed
copy if you really need it. To print the manual, you will need the
@TeX{} typesetting program (this is a free program by Donald Knuth
at Stanford University) as well as the @file{texindex} program and
@file{texinfo.tex} file, both of which can be obtained from the FSF
as part of the @code{texinfo} package.
To print the Calc manual in one huge 470 page tome, you will need the
source code to this manual, @file{calc.texi}, available as part of the
Emacs source. Once you have this file, type @kbd{texi2dvi calc.texi}.
Alternatively, change to the @file{man} subdirectory of the Emacs
source distribution, and type @kbd{make calc.dvi}. (Don't worry if you
get some ``overfull box'' warnings while @TeX{} runs.)
The result will be a device-independent output file called
@file{calc.dvi}, which you must print in whatever way is right
for your system. On many systems, the command is
@example
lpr -d calc.dvi
@end example
@noindent
or
@example
dvips calc.dvi
@end example
@c the bumpoddpages macro was deleted
@ignore
@cindex Marginal notes, adjusting
Marginal notes for each function and key sequence normally alternate
between the left and right sides of the page, which is correct if the
manual is going to be bound as double-sided pages. Near the top of
the file @file{calc.texi} you will find alternate definitions of
the @code{\bumpoddpages} macro that put the marginal notes always on
the same side, best if you plan to be binding single-sided pages.
@end ignore
 
@appendixsec Settings File
 
......@@ -34696,15 +34684,6 @@ belanger@@truman.edu
@end example
 
@noindent
(In the following text, ``I'' refers to the original Calc author, Dave
Gillespie).
While I cannot guarantee that I will have time to work on your bug,
I do try to fix bugs quickly whenever I can.
The latest version of Calc is available from Savannah, in the Emacs
CVS tree. See @uref{http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/emacs}.
There is an automatic command @kbd{M-x report-calc-bug} which helps
you to report bugs. This command prompts you for a brief subject
line, then leaves you in a mail editing buffer. Type @kbd{C-c C-c} to
......@@ -34712,18 +34691,18 @@ send your mail. Make sure your subject line indicates that you are
reporting a Calc bug; this command sends mail to the maintainer's
regular mailbox.
 
If you have suggestions for additional features for Calc, I would
love to hear them. Some have dared to suggest that Calc is already
top-heavy with features; I really don't see what they're talking
about, so, if you have ideas, send them right in. (I may even have
time to implement them!)
If you have suggestions for additional features for Calc, please send
them. Some have dared to suggest that Calc is already top-heavy with
features; this obviously cannot be the case, so if you have ideas, send
them right in.
 
At the front of the source file, @file{calc.el}, is a list of ideas for
future work which I have not had time to do. If any enthusiastic souls
wish to take it upon themselves to work on these, I would be delighted.
Please let me know if you plan to contribute to Calc so I can coordinate
your efforts with mine and those of others. I will do my best to help
you in whatever way I can.
future work. If any enthusiastic souls wish to take it upon themselves
to work on these, please send a message (using @kbd{M-x report-calc-bug})
so any efforts can be coordinated.
The latest version of Calc is available from Savannah, in the Emacs
CVS tree. See @uref{http://savannah.gnu.org/projects/emacs}.
 
@c [summary]
@node Summary, Key Index, Reporting Bugs, Top
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