Commit 07ce2eb3 authored by Jay Belanger's avatar Jay Belanger
Browse files

Consistently capitalized all mode names.

(Answers to Exercises): Mention that an answer can be a fraction when
in Fraction mode.
parent aa1f38cd
......@@ -463,7 +463,7 @@ Algebraic manipulation features, including symbolic calculus.
Moving data to and from regular editing buffers.
 
@item
``Embedded mode'' for manipulating Calc formulas and data directly
Embedded mode for manipulating Calc formulas and data directly
inside any editing buffer.
 
@item
......@@ -766,7 +766,7 @@ To exit from Calc, press @kbd{q} or @kbd{M-# c} again.
@noindent
Calc has several user interfaces that are specialized for
different kinds of tasks. As well as Calc's standard interface,
there are Quick Mode, Keypad Mode, and Embedded Mode.
there are Quick mode, Keypad mode, and Embedded mode.
 
@menu
* Starting Calc::
......@@ -801,7 +801,7 @@ doesn't matter for @kbd{M-#}) that says which Calc interface you
want to use.
 
To get Calc's standard interface, type @kbd{M-# c}. To get
Keypad Mode, type @kbd{M-# k}. Type @kbd{M-# ?} to get a brief
Keypad mode, type @kbd{M-# k}. Type @kbd{M-# ?} to get a brief
list of the available options, and type a second @kbd{?} to get
a complete list.
 
......@@ -814,7 +814,7 @@ function key twice is just like hitting @kbd{M-# M-#}.)
 
If @kbd{M-#} doesn't work for you, you can always type explicit
commands like @kbd{M-x calc} (for the standard user interface) or
@w{@kbd{M-x calc-keypad}} (for Keypad Mode). First type @kbd{M-x}
@w{@kbd{M-x calc-keypad}} (for Keypad mode). First type @kbd{M-x}
(that's Meta with the letter @kbd{x}), then, at the prompt,
type the full command (like @kbd{calc-keypad}) and press Return.
 
......@@ -917,11 +917,11 @@ way to switch out of Calc momentarily to edit your file; type
@subsection Quick Mode (Overview)
 
@noindent
@dfn{Quick Mode} is a quick way to use Calc when you don't need the
@dfn{Quick mode} is a quick way to use Calc when you don't need the
full complexity of the stack and trail. To use it, type @kbd{M-# q}
(@code{quick-calc}) in any regular editing buffer.
 
Quick Mode is very simple: It prompts you to type any formula in
Quick mode is very simple: It prompts you to type any formula in
standard algebraic notation (like @samp{4 - 2/3}) and then displays
the result at the bottom of the Emacs screen (@mathit{3.33333333333}
in this case). You are then back in the same editing buffer you
......@@ -930,7 +930,7 @@ again to do another quick calculation. The result of the calculation
will also be in the Emacs ``kill ring'' so that a @kbd{C-y} command
at this point will yank the result into your editing buffer.
 
Calc mode settings affect Quick Mode, too, though you will have to
Calc mode settings affect Quick mode, too, though you will have to
go into regular Calc (with @kbd{M-# c}) to change the mode settings.
 
@c [fix-ref Quick Calculator mode]
......@@ -940,12 +940,12 @@ go into regular Calc (with @kbd{M-# c}) to change the mode settings.
@subsection Keypad Mode (Overview)
 
@noindent
@dfn{Keypad Mode} is a mouse-based interface to the Calculator.
@dfn{Keypad mode} is a mouse-based interface to the Calculator.
It is designed for use with terminals that support a mouse. If you
don't have a mouse, you will have to operate keypad mode with your
don't have a mouse, you will have to operate Keypad mode with your
arrow keys (which is probably more trouble than it's worth).
 
Type @kbd{M-# k} to turn Keypad Mode on or off. Once again you
Type @kbd{M-# k} to turn Keypad mode on or off. Once again you
get two new windows, this time on the righthand side of the screen
instead of at the bottom. The upper window is the familiar Calc
Stack; the lower window is a picture of a typical calculator keypad.
......@@ -981,12 +981,12 @@ Stack; the lower window is a picture of a typical calculator keypad.
|-----+-----+-----+-----+-----+
@end smallexample
 
Keypad Mode is much easier for beginners to learn, because there
Keypad mode is much easier for beginners to learn, because there
is no need to memorize lots of obscure key sequences. But not all
commands in regular Calc are available on the Keypad. You can
always switch the cursor into the Calc stack window to use
standard Calc commands if you need. Serious Calc users, though,
often find they prefer the standard interface over Keypad Mode.
often find they prefer the standard interface over Keypad mode.
 
To operate the Calculator, just click on the ``buttons'' of the
keypad using your left mouse button. To enter the two numbers
......@@ -999,13 +999,13 @@ keypad change to show other sets of commands, such as advanced
math functions, vector operations, and operations on binary
numbers.
 
Because Keypad Mode doesn't use the regular keyboard, Calc leaves
Because Keypad mode doesn't use the regular keyboard, Calc leaves
the cursor in your original editing buffer. You can type in
this buffer in the usual way while also clicking on the Calculator
keypad. One advantage of Keypad Mode is that you don't need an
keypad. One advantage of Keypad mode is that you don't need an
explicit command to switch between editing and calculating.
 
If you press @kbd{M-# b} first, you get a full-screen Keypad Mode
If you press @kbd{M-# b} first, you get a full-screen Keypad mode
(@code{full-calc-keypad}) with three windows: The keypad in the lower
left, the stack in the lower right, and the trail on top.
 
......@@ -1043,7 +1043,7 @@ itself.
@subsection Embedded Mode (Overview)
 
@noindent
@dfn{Embedded Mode} is a way to use Calc directly from inside an
@dfn{Embedded mode} is a way to use Calc directly from inside an
editing buffer. Suppose you have a formula written as part of a
document like this:
 
......@@ -1060,7 +1060,7 @@ is
@noindent
and you wish to have Calc compute and format the derivative for
you and store this derivative in the buffer automatically. To
do this with Embedded Mode, first copy the formula down to where
do this with Embedded mode, first copy the formula down to where
you want the result to be:
 
@smallexample
......@@ -1099,7 +1099,7 @@ is
@end smallexample
 
To make this look nicer, you might want to press @kbd{d =} to center
the formula, and even @kbd{d B} to use ``big'' display mode.
the formula, and even @kbd{d B} to use Big display mode.
 
@smallexample
@group
......@@ -1139,7 +1139,7 @@ righthand label: Type @kbd{d @} (1) @key{RET}}.
@end group
@end smallexample
 
To leave Embedded Mode, type @kbd{M-# e} again. The mode line
To leave Embedded mode, type @kbd{M-# e} again. The mode line
and keyboard will revert to the way they were before. (If you have
actually been trying this as you read along, you'll want to press
@kbd{M-# 0} [with the digit zero] now to reset the modes you changed.)
......@@ -1154,7 +1154,7 @@ A slope of one-third corresponds to an angle of 1 degrees.
@end smallexample
 
Place the cursor on the @samp{1}, then type @kbd{M-# w} to enable
Embedded Mode on that number. Now type @kbd{3 /} (to get one-third),
Embedded mode on that number. Now type @kbd{3 /} (to get one-third),
and @kbd{I T} (the Inverse Tangent converts a slope into an angle),
then @w{@kbd{M-# w}} again to exit Embedded mode.
 
......@@ -1221,7 +1221,7 @@ move it out of that window.
Control whether @kbd{M-# c} and @kbd{M-# k} use the full screen.
 
@item Q
Use Quick Mode for a single short calculation.
Use Quick mode for a single short calculation.
 
@item K
Turn Calc Keypad mode on or off.
......@@ -1270,7 +1270,7 @@ Yank a value from the Calculator into the current editing buffer.
@end iftex
 
@noindent
Commands for use with Embedded Mode:
Commands for use with Embedded mode:
 
@table @kbd
@item A
......@@ -1478,9 +1478,9 @@ to skip on to the rest of this manual.
 
@c [fix-ref Embedded Mode]
This tutorial describes the standard user interface of Calc only.
The ``Quick Mode'' and ``Keypad Mode'' interfaces are fairly
The Quick mode and Keypad mode interfaces are fairly
self-explanatory. @xref{Embedded Mode}, for a description of
the ``Embedded Mode'' interface.
the Embedded mode interface.
 
@ifinfo
The easiest way to read this tutorial on-line is to have two windows on
......@@ -1940,8 +1940,8 @@ entire stack.)
 
@noindent
If you are not used to RPN notation, you may prefer to operate the
Calculator in ``algebraic mode,'' which is closer to the way
non-RPN calculators work. In algebraic mode, you enter formulas
Calculator in Algebraic mode, which is closer to the way
non-RPN calculators work. In Algebraic mode, you enter formulas
in traditional @expr{2+3} notation.
 
You don't really need any special ``mode'' to enter algebraic formulas.
......@@ -2005,15 +2005,15 @@ that @samp{^} is evaluated from right to left. Thus, @samp{2-3-4} is
equivalent to @samp{(2-3)-4} or @mathit{-5}, whereas @samp{2^3^4} is equivalent
to @samp{2^(3^4)} (a very large integer; try it!).
 
If you tire of typing the apostrophe all the time, there is an
``algebraic mode'' you can select in which Calc automatically senses
If you tire of typing the apostrophe all the time, there is
Algebraic mode, where Calc automatically senses
when you are about to type an algebraic expression. To enter this
mode, press the two letters @w{@kbd{m a}}. (An @samp{Alg} indicator
should appear in the Calc window's mode line.)
 
Press @kbd{m a}, then @kbd{2+3+4} with no apostrophe, then @key{RET}.
 
In algebraic mode, when you press any key that would normally begin
In Algebraic mode, when you press any key that would normally begin
entering a number (such as a digit, a decimal point, or the @kbd{_}
key), or if you press @kbd{(} or @kbd{[}, Calc automatically begins
an algebraic entry.
......@@ -2028,7 +2028,7 @@ Press the apostrophe, then type @kbd{sqrt(5*2) - 3}. The result should
be @expr{0.16227766017}.
 
Note that if the formula begins with a function name, you need to use
the apostrophe even if you are in algebraic mode. If you type @kbd{arcsin}
the apostrophe even if you are in Algebraic mode. If you type @kbd{arcsin}
out of the blue, the @kbd{a r} will be taken as an Algebraic Rewrite
command, and the @kbd{csin} will be taken as the name of the rewrite
rule to use!
......@@ -2037,7 +2037,7 @@ Some people prefer to enter complex numbers and vectors in algebraic
form because they find RPN entry with incomplete objects to be too
distracting, even though they otherwise use Calc as an RPN calculator.
 
Still in algebraic mode, type:
Still in Algebraic mode, type:
 
@smallexample
@group
......@@ -2053,15 +2053,15 @@ Algebraic mode allows us to enter complex numbers without pressing
an apostrophe first, but it also means we need to press @key{RET}
after every entry, even for a simple number like @expr{1}.
 
(You can type @kbd{C-u m a} to enable a special ``incomplete algebraic
mode'' in which the @kbd{(} and @kbd{[} keys use algebraic entry even
(You can type @kbd{C-u m a} to enable a special Incomplete Algebraic
mode in which the @kbd{(} and @kbd{[} keys use algebraic entry even
though regular numeric keys still use RPN numeric entry. There is also
a ``total algebraic mode,'' started by typing @kbd{m t}, in which all
Total Algebraic mode, started by typing @kbd{m t}, in which all
normal keys begin algebraic entry. You must then use the @key{META} key
to type Calc commands: @kbd{M-m t} to get back out of total algebraic
to type Calc commands: @kbd{M-m t} to get back out of Total Algebraic
mode, @kbd{M-q} to quit, etc.)
 
If you're still in algebraic mode, press @kbd{m a} again to turn it off.
If you're still in Algebraic mode, press @kbd{m a} again to turn it off.
 
Actual non-RPN calculators use a mixture of algebraic and RPN styles.
In general, operators of two numbers (like @kbd{+} and @kbd{*})
......@@ -2376,7 +2376,7 @@ during entry of a number or algebraic formula.
@noindent
Calc has many types of @dfn{modes} that affect the way it interprets
your commands or the way it displays data. We have already seen one
mode, namely algebraic mode. There are many others, too; we'll
mode, namely Algebraic mode. There are many others, too; we'll
try some of the most common ones here.
 
Perhaps the most fundamental mode in Calc is the current @dfn{precision}.
......@@ -2795,7 +2795,7 @@ and vice-versa.
@end group
@end smallexample
 
Another interesting mode is @dfn{fraction mode}. Normally,
Another interesting mode is @dfn{Fraction mode}. Normally,
dividing two integers produces a floating-point result if the
quotient can't be expressed as an exact integer. Fraction mode
causes integer division to produce a fraction, i.e., a rational
......@@ -2819,7 +2819,7 @@ You can enter a fraction at any time using @kbd{:} notation.
(Calc uses @kbd{:} instead of @kbd{/} as the fraction separator
because @kbd{/} is already used to divide the top two stack
elements.) Calculations involving fractions will always
produce exact fractional results; fraction mode only says
produce exact fractional results; Fraction mode only says
what to do when dividing two integers.
 
@cindex Fractions vs. floats
......@@ -2830,7 +2830,7 @@ why would you ever use floating-point numbers instead?
 
Typing @kbd{m f} doesn't change any existing values in the stack.
In the above example, we had to Undo the division and do it over
again when we changed to fraction mode. But if you use the
again when we changed to Fraction mode. But if you use the
evaluates-to operator you can get commands like @kbd{m f} to
recompute for you.
 
......@@ -2846,7 +2846,7 @@ recompute for you.
@noindent
In this example, the righthand side of the @samp{=>} operator
on the stack is recomputed when we change the precision, then
again when we change to fraction mode. All @samp{=>} expressions
again when we change to Fraction mode. All @samp{=>} expressions
on the stack are recomputed every time you change any mode that
might affect their values.
 
......@@ -4530,7 +4530,7 @@ with the symbol @code{nan} (for Not A Number).
 
Dividing by zero is normally treated as an error, but you can get
Calc to write an answer in terms of infinity by pressing @kbd{m i}
to turn on ``infinite mode.''
to turn on Infinite mode.
 
@smallexample
@group
......@@ -4960,7 +4960,7 @@ formulas.
@subsection Basic Algebra
 
@noindent
If you enter a formula in algebraic mode that refers to variables,
If you enter a formula in Algebraic mode that refers to variables,
the formula itself is pushed onto the stack. You can manipulate
formulas as regular data objects.
 
......@@ -5181,7 +5181,7 @@ polynomial? (The answer will be unique to within a constant
multiple; choose the solution where the leading coefficient is one.)
@xref{Algebra Answer 2, 2}. (@bullet{})
 
The @kbd{m s} command enables ``symbolic mode,'' in which formulas
The @kbd{m s} command enables Symbolic mode, in which formulas
like @samp{sqrt(5)} that can't be evaluated exactly are left in
symbolic form rather than giving a floating-point approximate answer.
Fraction mode (@kbd{m f}) is also useful when doing algebra.
......@@ -5196,7 +5196,7 @@ Fraction mode (@kbd{m f}) is also useful when doing algebra.
@end group
@end smallexample
 
One more mode that makes reading formulas easier is ``Big mode.''
One more mode that makes reading formulas easier is Big mode.
 
@smallexample
@group
......@@ -5344,7 +5344,7 @@ also have used plain @kbd{v x} as follows: @kbd{v x 10 @key{RET} 9 + .1 *}.)
 
@noindent
(If you got wildly different results, did you remember to switch
to radians mode?)
to Radians mode?)
 
Here we have divided the curve into ten segments of equal width;
approximating these segments as rectangular boxes (i.e., assuming
......@@ -5600,7 +5600,7 @@ only once and stores the compiled form along with the variable. That's
another good reason to store your rules in variables rather than
entering them on the fly.
 
(@bullet{}) @strong{Exercise 1.} Type @kbd{m s} to get symbolic
(@bullet{}) @strong{Exercise 1.} Type @kbd{m s} to get Symbolic
mode, then enter the formula @samp{@w{(2 + sqrt(2))} / @w{(1 + sqrt(2))}}.
Using a rewrite rule, simplify this formula by multiplying both
sides by the conjugate @w{@samp{1 - sqrt(2)}}. The result will have
......@@ -5859,11 +5859,11 @@ so that @expr{2 - 3 (x + y) + x y} is a sum of three terms.)
@xref{Rewrites Answer 5, 5}. (@bullet{})
 
(@bullet{}) @strong{Exercise 6.} Calc considers the form @expr{0^0}
to be ``indeterminate,'' and leaves it unevaluated (assuming infinite
to be ``indeterminate,'' and leaves it unevaluated (assuming Infinite
mode is not enabled). Some people prefer to define @expr{0^0 = 1},
so that the identity @expr{x^0 = 1} can safely be used for all @expr{x}.
Find a way to make Calc follow this convention. What happens if you
now type @kbd{m i} to turn on infinite mode?
now type @kbd{m i} to turn on Infinite mode?
@xref{Rewrites Answer 6, 6}. (@bullet{})
 
(@bullet{}) @strong{Exercise 7.} A Taylor series for a function is an
......@@ -6838,7 +6838,7 @@ the result will be zero because Calc uses the general rule that ``zero
times anything is zero.''
 
@c [fix-ref Infinities]
The @kbd{m i} command enables an @dfn{infinite mode} in which @expr{1 / 0}
The @kbd{m i} command enables an @dfn{Infinite mode} in which @expr{1 / 0}
results in a special symbol that represents ``infinity.'' If you
multiply infinity by zero, Calc uses another special new symbol to
show that the answer is ``indeterminate.'' @xref{Infinities}, for
......@@ -7002,7 +7002,7 @@ The result, when converted to an integer, will be off by 106.
 
Here are two solutions: Raise the precision enough that the
floating-point round-off error is strictly to the right of the
decimal point. Or, convert to fraction mode so that @expr{123456789 / 2}
decimal point. Or, convert to Fraction mode so that @expr{123456789 / 2}
produces the exact fraction @expr{123456789:2}, which can be rounded
down by the @kbd{F} command without ever switching to floating-point
format.
......@@ -7015,9 +7015,9 @@ format.
does a floating-point calculation instead and produces @expr{1.5}.
 
Calc will find an exact result for a logarithm if the result is an integer
or the reciprocal of an integer. But there is no efficient way to search
the space of all possible rational numbers for an exact answer, so Calc
doesn't try.
or (when in Fraction mode) the reciprocal of an integer. But there is
no efficient way to search the space of all possible rational numbers
for an exact answer, so Calc doesn't try.
 
@node Vector Answer 1, Vector Answer 2, Arithmetic Answer 2, Answers to Exercises
@subsection Vector Tutorial Exercise 1
......@@ -7089,7 +7089,7 @@ matrix as usual.
@end group
@end smallexample
 
This can be made more readable using @kbd{d B} to enable ``big'' display
This can be made more readable using @kbd{d B} to enable Big display
mode:
 
@smallexample
......@@ -7100,7 +7100,7 @@ mode:
@end group
@end smallexample
 
Type @kbd{d N} to return to ``normal'' display mode afterwards.
Type @kbd{d N} to return to Normal display mode afterwards.
 
@node Matrix Answer 3, List Answer 1, Matrix Answer 2, Answers to Exercises
@subsection Matrix Tutorial Exercise 3
......@@ -8247,7 +8247,7 @@ so it settles for the conservative answer @code{uinf}.
 
@samp{ln(0) = -inf}. Here we have an infinite answer to a finite
input. As in the @expr{1 / 0} case, Calc will only use infinities
here if you have turned on ``infinite'' mode. Otherwise, it will
here if you have turned on Infinite mode. Otherwise, it will
treat @samp{ln(0)} as an error.
 
@node Types Answer 3, Types Answer 4, Types Answer 2, Answers to Exercises
......@@ -8461,7 +8461,7 @@ Calc normally treats division by zero as an error, so that the formula
@w{@samp{1 / [0 .. 10]}}, also (potentially) divides by zero because zero
is now a member of the interval. So Calc leaves this one unevaluated, too.
 
If you turn on ``infinite'' mode by pressing @kbd{m i}, you will
If you turn on Infinite mode by pressing @kbd{m i}, you will
instead get the answer @samp{[0.1 .. inf]}, which includes infinity
as a possible value.
 
......@@ -9124,7 +9124,7 @@ But then:
@end group
@end smallexample
 
Perhaps more surprisingly, this rule still works with infinite mode
Perhaps more surprisingly, this rule still works with Infinite mode
turned on. Calc tries @code{EvalRules} before any built-in rules for
a function. This allows you to override the default behavior of any
Calc feature: Even though Calc now wants to evaluate @expr{0^0} to
......@@ -9889,10 +9889,10 @@ By default this creates a pair of small windows, @samp{*Calculator*}
and @samp{*Calc Trail*}. The former displays the contents of the
Calculator stack and is manipulated exclusively through Calc commands.
It is possible (though not usually necessary) to create several Calc
Mode buffers each of which has an independent stack, undo list, and
mode buffers each of which has an independent stack, undo list, and
mode settings. There is exactly one Calc Trail buffer; it records a
list of the results of all calculations that have been done. The
Calc Trail buffer uses a variant of Calc Mode, so Calculator commands
Calc Trail buffer uses a variant of Calc mode, so Calculator commands
still work when the trail buffer's window is selected. It is possible
to turn the trail window off, but the @samp{*Calc Trail*} buffer itself
still exists and is updated silently. @xref{Trail Commands}.
......@@ -9906,7 +9906,7 @@ still exists and is updated silently. @xref{Trail Commands}.
In most installations, the @kbd{M-# c} key sequence is a more
convenient way to start the Calculator. Also, @kbd{M-# M-#} and
@kbd{M-# #} are synonyms for @kbd{M-# c} unless you last used Calc
in its ``keypad'' mode.
in its Keypad mode.
 
@kindex x
@kindex M-x
......@@ -9978,7 +9978,7 @@ the keys with the mouse to operate the calculator. @xref{Keypad Mode}.
@pindex calc-quit
@cindex Quitting the Calculator
@cindex Exiting the Calculator
The @kbd{q} key (@code{calc-quit}) exits Calc Mode and closes the
The @kbd{q} key (@code{calc-quit}) exits Calc mode and closes the
Calculator's window(s). It does not delete the Calculator buffers.
If you type @kbd{M-x calc} again, the Calculator will reappear with the
contents of the stack intact. Typing @kbd{M-# c} or @kbd{M-# M-#}
......@@ -10278,7 +10278,7 @@ expressions in this way. You may want to use @key{DEL} every so often to
clear previous results off the stack.
 
You can press the apostrophe key during normal numeric entry to switch
the half-entered number into algebraic entry mode. One reason to do this
the half-entered number into Algebraic entry mode. One reason to do this
would be to use the full Emacs cursor motion and editing keys, which are
available during algebraic entry but not during numeric entry.
 
......@@ -10289,7 +10289,7 @@ you complete your half-finished entry in a separate buffer.
 
@kindex m a
@pindex calc-algebraic-mode
@cindex Algebraic mode
@cindex Algebraic Mode
If you prefer algebraic entry, you can use the command @kbd{m a}
(@code{calc-algebraic-mode}) to set Algebraic mode. In this mode,
digits and other keys that would normally start numeric entry instead
......@@ -10300,7 +10300,7 @@ but you will have to press @key{RET} to terminate every number:
@kbd{2 @key{RET} 3 @key{RET} * 4 @key{RET} +} would accomplish the same
thing as @kbd{2*3+4 @key{RET}}.
 
@cindex Incomplete algebraic mode
@cindex Incomplete Algebraic Mode
If you give a numeric prefix argument like @kbd{C-u} to the @kbd{m a}
command, it enables Incomplete Algebraic mode; this is like regular
Algebraic mode except that it applies to the @kbd{(} and @kbd{[} keys
......@@ -10308,15 +10308,15 @@ only. Numeric keys still begin a numeric entry in this mode.
 
@kindex m t
@pindex calc-total-algebraic-mode
@cindex Total algebraic mode
@cindex Total Algebraic Mode
The @kbd{m t} (@code{calc-total-algebraic-mode}) gives you an even
stronger algebraic-entry mode, in which @emph{all} regular letter and
punctuation keys begin algebraic entry. Use this if you prefer typing
@w{@kbd{sqrt( )}} instead of @kbd{Q}, @w{@kbd{factor( )}} instead of
@kbd{a f}, and so on. To type regular Calc commands when you are in
``total'' algebraic mode, hold down the @key{META} key. Thus @kbd{M-q}
Total Algebraic mode, hold down the @key{META} key. Thus @kbd{M-q}
is the command to quit Calc, @kbd{M-p} sets the precision, and
@kbd{M-m t} (or @kbd{M-m M-t}, if you prefer) turns total algebraic
@kbd{M-m t} (or @kbd{M-m M-t}, if you prefer) turns Total Algebraic
mode back off again. Meta keys also terminate algebraic entry, so
that @kbd{2+3 M-S} is equivalent to @kbd{2+3 @key{RET} M-S}. The symbol
@samp{Alg*} will appear in the mode line whenever you are in this mode.
......@@ -10577,7 +10577,7 @@ that you must always press @kbd{w} yourself to see the messages).
 
@noindent
@pindex another-calc
It is possible to have any number of Calc Mode buffers at once.
It is possible to have any number of Calc mode buffers at once.
Usually this is done by executing @kbd{M-x another-calc}, which
is similar to @kbd{M-# c} except that if a @samp{*Calculator*}
buffer already exists, a new, independent one with a name of the
......@@ -10792,7 +10792,7 @@ The Calculator stores integers to arbitrary precision. Addition,
subtraction, and multiplication of integers always yields an exact
integer result. (If the result of a division or exponentiation of
integers is not an integer, it is expressed in fractional or
floating-point form according to the current Fraction Mode.
floating-point form according to the current Fraction mode.
@xref{Fraction Mode}.)
 
A decimal integer is represented as an optional sign followed by a
......@@ -10818,7 +10818,7 @@ A @dfn{fraction} is a ratio of two integers. Fractions are traditionally
written ``2/3'' but Calc uses the notation @samp{2:3}. (The @kbd{/} key
performs RPN division; the following two sequences push the number
@samp{2:3} on the stack: @kbd{2 :@: 3 @key{RET}}, or @kbd{2 @key{RET} 3 /}
assuming Fraction Mode has been enabled.)
assuming Fraction mode has been enabled.)
When the Calculator produces a fractional result it always reduces it to
simplest form, which may in fact be an integer.
 
......@@ -10932,7 +10932,7 @@ Complex numbers are entered in stages using incomplete objects.
Operations on rectangular complex numbers yield rectangular complex
results, and similarly for polar complex numbers. Where the two types
are mixed, or where new complex numbers arise (as for the square root of
a negative real), the current @dfn{Polar Mode} is used to determine the
a negative real), the current @dfn{Polar mode} is used to determine the
type. @xref{Polar Mode}.
 
A complex result in which the imaginary part is zero (or the phase angle
......@@ -11020,7 +11020,7 @@ infinity, it's just that @emph{which} number it stands for
cannot be determined.) In Calc's notation, @samp{0 * inf = nan}
and @samp{inf / inf = nan}. A few other common indeterminate
expressions are @samp{inf - inf} and @samp{inf ^ 0}. Also,
@samp{0 / 0 = nan} if you have turned on ``infinite mode''
@samp{0 / 0 = nan} if you have turned on Infinite mode
(as described above).
 
Infinities are especially useful as parts of @dfn{intervals}.
......@@ -11586,10 +11586,10 @@ rather than @samp{1 ..@: 0.1e2}. Add spaces or zeros if you want to
get the other interpretation. If you omit the lower or upper limit,
a default of @samp{-inf} or @samp{inf} (respectively) is furnished.
 
``Infinite mode'' also affects operations on intervals
Infinite mode also affects operations on intervals
(@pxref{Infinities}). Calc will always introduce an open infinity,
as in @samp{1 / (0 .. 2] = [0.5 .. inf)}. But closed infinities,
@w{@samp{1 / [0 .. 2] = [0.5 .. inf]}}, arise only in infinite mode;
@w{@samp{1 / [0 .. 2] = [0.5 .. inf]}}, arise only in Infinite mode;
otherwise they are left unevaluated. Note that the ``direction'' of
a zero is not an issue in this case since the zero is always assumed
to be continuous with the rest of the interval. For intervals that
......@@ -11904,7 +11904,7 @@ Commands that interpret (``parse'') text as algebraic formulas include
algebraic entry (@kbd{'}), editing commands like @kbd{`} which parse
the contents of the editing buffer when you finish, the @kbd{M-# g}
and @w{@kbd{M-# r}} commands, the @kbd{C-y} command, the X window system
``paste'' mouse operation, and Embedded Mode. All of these operations
``paste'' mouse operation, and Embedded mode. All of these operations
use the same rules for parsing formulas; in particular, language modes
(@pxref{Language Modes}) affect them all in the same way.
 
......@@ -12313,7 +12313,7 @@ Otherwise, the new mode information is appended to the end of the file.
@pindex calc-mode-record-mode
The @kbd{m R} (@code{calc-mode-record-mode}) command tells Calc to
record the new mode settings (as if by pressing @kbd{m m}) every
time a mode setting changes. If Embedded Mode is enabled, other
time a mode setting changes. If Embedded mode is enabled, other
options are available; @pxref{Mode Settings in Embedded Mode}.
 
@kindex m F
......@@ -12494,7 +12494,7 @@ Functions that compute angles produce a number in radians, a number in
degrees, or an HMS form depending on the current angular mode. If the
result is a complex number and the current mode is HMS, the number is
instead expressed in degrees. (Complex-number calculations would
normally be done in radians mode, though. Complex numbers are converted
normally be done in Radians mode, though. Complex numbers are converted
to degrees by calculating the complex result in radians and then
multiplying by 180 over @cpi{}.)
 
......@@ -12507,7 +12507,7 @@ multiplying by 180 over @cpi{}.)
The @kbd{m r} (@code{calc-radians-mode}), @kbd{m d} (@code{calc-degrees-mode}),
and @kbd{m h} (@code{calc-hms-mode}) commands control the angular mode.
The current angular mode is displayed on the Emacs mode line.
The default angular mode is degrees.
The default angular mode is Degrees.
 
@node Polar Mode, Fraction Mode, Angular Modes, Calculation Modes
@subsection Polar Mode
......@@ -12523,7 +12523,7 @@ number, or by entering @kbd{( 2 @key{SPC} 3 )}.
@kindex m p
@pindex calc-polar-mode
The @kbd{m p} (@code{calc-polar-mode}) command toggles complex-number
preference between rectangular and polar forms. In polar mode, all
preference between rectangular and polar forms. In Polar mode, all
of the above example situations would produce polar complex numbers.
 
@node Fraction Mode, Infinite Mode, Polar Mode, Calculation Modes
......@@ -12543,8 +12543,8 @@ even though @kbd{6 @key{RET} 4 /} produces @expr{1.5}.
To set the Calculator to produce fractional results for normal integer
divisions, use the @kbd{m f} (@code{calc-frac-mode}) command.
For example, @expr{8/4} produces @expr{2} in either mode,
but @expr{6/4} produces @expr{3:2} in Fraction Mode, @expr{1.5} in
Float Mode.
but @expr{6/4} produces @expr{3:2} in Fraction mode, @expr{1.5} in
Float mode.
 
At any time you can use @kbd{c f} (@code{calc-float}) to convert a
fraction to a float, or @kbd{c F} (@code{calc-fraction}) to convert a
......@@ -12567,25 +12567,25 @@ on and off. When the mode is off, infinities do not arise except
in calculations that already had infinities as inputs. (One exception
is that infinite open intervals like @samp{[0 .. inf)} can be
generated; however, intervals closed at infinity (@samp{[0 .. inf]})
will not be generated when infinite mode is off.)
will not be generated when Infinite mode is off.)
 
With infinite mode turned on, @samp{1 / 0} will generate @code{uinf},
With Infinite mode turned on, @samp{1 / 0} will generate @code{uinf},
an undirected infinity. @xref{Infinities}, for a discussion of the
difference between @code{inf} and @code{uinf}. Also, @expr{0 / 0}
evaluates to @code{nan}, the ``indeterminate'' symbol. Various other
functions can also return infinities in this mode; for example,
@samp{ln(0) = -inf}, and @samp{gamma(-7) = uinf}. Once again,
note that @samp{exp(inf) = inf} regardless of infinite mode because
note that @samp{exp(inf) = inf} regardless of Infinite mode because
this calculation has infinity as an input.
 
@cindex Positive infinite mode
@cindex Positive Infinite mode
The @kbd{m i} command with a numeric prefix argument of zero,
i.e., @kbd{C-u 0 m i}, turns on a ``positive infinite mode'' in
i.e., @kbd{C-u 0 m i}, turns on a Positive Infinite mode in
which zero is treated as positive instead of being directionless.
Thus, @samp{1 / 0 = inf} and @samp{-1 / 0 = -inf} in this mode.
Note that zero never actually has a sign in Calc; there are no
separate representations for @mathit{+0} and @mathit{-0}. Positive
infinite mode merely changes the interpretation given to the
Infinite mode merely changes the interpretation given to the
single symbol, @samp{0}. One consequence of this is that, while
you might expect @samp{1 / -0 = -inf}, actually @samp{1 / -0}
is equivalent to @samp{1 / 0}, which is equal to positive @code{inf}.
......@@ -12604,7 +12604,7 @@ number or a symbolic expression if the argument is an expression:
 
@kindex m s
@pindex calc-symbolic-mode
In @dfn{symbolic mode}, controlled by the @kbd{m s} (@code{calc-symbolic-mode})
In @dfn{Symbolic mode}, controlled by the @kbd{m s} (@code{calc-symbolic-mode})
command, functions which would produce inexact, irrational results are
left in symbolic form. Thus @kbd{16 Q} pushes 4, but @kbd{2 Q} pushes
@samp{sqrt(2)}.
......@@ -12631,12 +12631,12 @@ variables.)
@cindex Scalar mode
Calc sometimes makes assumptions during algebraic manipulation that
are awkward or incorrect when vectors and matrices are involved.
Calc has two modes, @dfn{matrix mode} and @dfn{scalar mode}, which
Calc has two modes, @dfn{Matrix mode} and @dfn{Scalar mode}, which
modify its behavior around vectors in useful ways.
 
@kindex m v
@pindex calc-matrix-mode
Press @kbd{m v} (@code{calc-matrix-mode}) once to enter matrix mode.
Press @kbd{m v} (@code{calc-matrix-mode}) once to enter Matrix mode.
In this mode, all objects are assumed to be matrices unless provably
otherwise. One major effect is that Calc will no longer consider
multiplication to be commutative. (Recall that in matrix arithmetic,
......@@ -12655,18 +12655,18 @@ a true identity matrix of the appropriate size. On the other hand,
if it is combined with a scalar (as in @samp{idn(1) + 2}), Calc
will assume it really was a scalar after all and produce, e.g., 3.
 
Press @kbd{m v} a second time to get scalar mode. Here, objects are
Press @kbd{m v} a second time to get Scalar mode. Here, objects are
assumed @emph{not} to be vectors or matrices unless provably so.
For example, normally adding a variable to a vector, as in
@samp{[x, y, z] + a}, will leave the sum in symbolic form because
as far as Calc knows, @samp{a} could represent either a number or
another 3-vector. In scalar mode, @samp{a} is assumed to be a
another 3-vector. In Scalar mode, @samp{a} is assumed to be a
non-vector, and the addition is evaluated to @samp{[x+a, y+a, z+a]}.
 
Press @kbd{m v} a third time to return to the normal mode of operation.
 
If you press @kbd{m v} with a numeric prefix argument @var{n}, you
get a special ``dimensioned matrix mode'' in which matrices of
get a special ``dimensioned'' Matrix mode in which matrices of
unknown size are assumed to be @var{n}x@var{n} square matrices.
Then, the function call @samp{idn(1)} will expand into an actual
matrix rather than representing a ``generic'' matrix.
......@@ -12687,11 +12687,11 @@ for @samp{[x, y, z] + [1, 2, 3]}, but that's because you have broken
your earlier promise to Calc that @samp{a} would be scalar.
 
Another way to mix scalars and matrices is to use selections
(@pxref{Selecting Subformulas}). Use matrix mode when operating on